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Dairy Barn

 Farm structures involve the study of the
erection of buildings for man, animals, crops
and farm equipment.
 The design and construction of farm
structures is one of the major technical
services agricultural engineers render to
 Dairy farming is a class of agriculture for
long-term production of milk, which is 
processed (either on the farm or at a dairy
plant, either of which may be called a dairy)
for eventual sale of a dairy product.


According to entire farm size of barn decided.

Prevailing of winds, road, and drainage and landscaping.

Requirement of dairy cows and calves should be consider.


Fodder and feed storage structure should be consider in the dairy

Milk staining, weighing, cooling and cleaning.

Future expansion should be considered.

Size of herd should be consider on the basis of availability of fodder.

Economical fodder produce in our own farm and concentrate buy from

It should be good approach from highways and farm house.

Milk house should be located in well drained land and separated from
dairy barn up to 6 metre paved passage.

It should be face the road and be provided with door with wire mesh to
keep away the flies.

In India barn should be designed facing in east-west direction.
There are three types of dairy barn –

The stanchion barn
2. The loose housing barn
3. The open air barn

The stanchion barn –

The cows are house and milk in the same building.

It is also called general purpose barn.

2. The loose housing barn –

The cows are house in covered or partially covered yard but they are
milk in batches in a special milking house is called as milking parlor.

It is also called milking house system.

3. The open air barn –

The cows are milk, live and feed in the feed.

It is also called as loafing barn.


Flooring – Finishing of the flooring should not be slippery.

2. Roof – Roof should not be left rough surface in that

water accumulated.

3. Drainage – Sufficient slope may be provided to allow

drainage water into gutter.

4. Manger – It should have width of 75 to 90 cm. Back of

the manger is about 60 cm. The length of stall equal to
width of manger for individual animals (12.5 cm high from
5. Feed alley –

Passage between outer wall and manger along which the
push cart full of silage may be moved.

Feed alley having width of 1.2 m.

6. Walls and ceiling –

The height of the walls running along the barn should be 2.4 m.

If gabble roof is provided the width is maintained up to 5 to 5.5
m and length is up to 10 to 11 m.

Walls should be free from crack.

7. Doors and windows –

Double range collapsible door is 2.4 to 2.7 m.

Adequate light facility is provided for that windows area is
about 0.37 m2 per individual is required.
Head to head bran
Tail to tail (face out)

Water bowls –

It is desirable to provide an automatic supply system of drinking
water to the cow stalls.

Bowls are placed in the manger at about 60 cm above the floor

Good quality of bowls are now easily available in India.

2. Reservoir tank –

Reservoir may have a water holding capacity of 100-125 litres.

These reservoirs may be filled from the water pipeline passing
near the reservoir.

Occasionally these reservoirs should be cleaned.

3. Stanchions –

Stanchions are used to tying the animals in the barn.

Angle iron stanchions are usually provided with a wooden lining.

It permits to move animals freely and to allow simple and
economical construction of the feeding and shelter places.

Except small portion which is used for manger made up of
cement concrete and remaining are unpaved.

The size of cows house depends upon

-Climatic condition

- Inside and outside feeding arrangement

- Average production of herd

Feed manger is about 70 to 75 cm.

Milking parlor are type of arrangement in which cows are
milk but not house.

It is important and essential part of loose housing barn
through also associate with stanchion barn.

Provision made for cows to pass easily from feed area to
milking parlor.

Milking house system consist of compressor room, cold
room, wash room and loading platform.

Location is generally 2.4 m away from barn.
. The open air barn

It is a structures used for sheltering and restricting dairy

It is also known as isolation chamber.

Size of pen barn is 11-17 m2 and width is about 3 m.

Additional arrangements for calving, calf rearing and housing of
sick animal.


There are growing trends to house cows and buffaloes under one
shelter and getting roughage, concentrate and drinking water.

Arranged by government or co-operative organization, such place is
known as milking colony.

Milking colony attached with dairy.

Owner has to care and feed the animal and collect milk, than sell it
into dairy.

Poultry houses

It is depending upon the material used in the

construction of the floors. The poultry houses can be
broadly classified as –

Wire floored poultry house

Cage house

Deep litter poultry house

Either of these may be a buying house for hens of a

brooder house for chicks.

That make use of 12 to 14 gauge expanded metal or
welded wire mesh for making their floors.

The floor is placed about 45 cm above the ground level
having a rising slope of 15%.

The floor of nest may be made of either woven or hard
cloth with 12 to 15 % slope towards the central service
alley of the house.

Feed and watering trough are suitable located to
facilitate the work.

In this system the birds are kept inside the house all the

The birds live on the floor, which is covered with a suitable
litter of about 15 to 20 cm depth.

Litter material usually consist of chopped paddy straw, rice
husk or dry leaves, materials like wheat or barely straw, dry
grass or dry stalks of maize or bajra also make good litter.
These save s labour involved in frequent clean of the
floor. v Usually the entire litter gets well decompose by
the one year is removed as use as a good quality manure.

The birds keeps in excellent health and grow and later
lay well.

Provision should be made for plenty of ventilation, but
the same time protection against sun and rains.

A floor area of 0.36 m2 per bird is usually provide, thus
the 2.4×2.4 m small shed can be accommodate about 16

Cage house are generally built in warm regions where birds needs no
protection cold winds.

There may be one to four rows of these cage in a house, depending
upon its width

Cages are made of welded steel wires and are provided with a slopping
floor and egg retainer firm where the eggs can be collected.

The dimensions of the cage house may be 0.6×0.2×0.45 m.

Usually the feeding and watering trough are placed outside of the cage
so that the operator can easily supply the materials.

Droppings are allow to fall on the earth or concrete floor.

Some of the important equipment’s which are in regular use in or around

the poultry house are feed troughs, watering troughs, trap nest, perches
and roosts.

FEED TROUGH: For average conditions, 100 gram of feed mixture per hen
is required daily. A minimum of 5 cm length of feed hopper is adequate
for each birds.

2. WATERING TROUGH: Water consumption varies with season but not

more than 30 liters/day/100 birds will be required.

3. TRAP NEST: Hens are trap nested to determine the total no. of eggs laid
by each birds during the year. Trap nests are usually built in single or
double tiers of four nest per tier. One trap nest can serve 3 or 4 hens.
4. PERCHES:- It is for the birds sit on whenever they wish. They are made of
5×5 cm or 5×4 wooden pipes with top corners rounded off and are placed
37.5 cm apart.

5. ROOSTS:- Act as a perch. They are required in the laying house to serve as
a perch for hens to rest upon it. They should be rigid and firm, and all fixed
at the same level.


Low protected roosts are called dropping pits.

The pits is best made up of 1.5×2.1 m size so that it be moved easily and
will bit between posts.

Brooder house are essential in rising and managing chicks. There
are generally of two types - Stationery - Portable.

The average size of house is 3.75×3 m.

A concrete or earth floor is desirable for a stationery house, while
a wooden or close mesh floor is best for a portable house.

Portable house should be constructed on skits and should be light
in weight, strong and durable.

The walls should be well ventilated and strong.

They should be made water-proof using metal and have a
sufficient overhang.

Stationery brooder house Portable brooder house.


Grain is generally stored either in bags or

in bulk.
A combined system of bag-cum-bulk
storage is also practiced in some parts of
the country.
In villages the bulk storage system is
more common than the storage in bags.
it is considered to be a practicable
method· of storing grain in the
government godowns as well as in trade.
Types of storage
There main following three types of
storage structures for storage of grains.

 Traditionalstorage structures
 Improved storage structures
 Modern storage structures
 Farm Silos
Improved Storage
 Improved storage structures are the
storage structures for storage of food
 In this type of storage structures there
are some improvements made in
traditional storage structures.
 This type of storage structures having a
higher storage capacity and long term
storage of food grains than traditional
storage structures.
 Improved type of storage structures
having capacities is generally 1.5 to
The storage of grain is generally
done in one of the following
storage structures in the different
rural and urban regions of India in
bulk, bag as well as bag and bulk
 Pusa bin
 Brick and cement bin
 Bunker Storage
 'CAP' Storage structures
Pusa bin

 Pusa bin is like other traditional

storage structures made of mud. To
make the storage structure  moisture
proof a plastic film is used in all the
inner sides of the bin.
 On the top, an open space of about 50×50
cm is left for loading of grains.
 It is made up of burnt and unburnt bricks.
 On this platform a sheet of 700 (Φ) gauge
plastic is spread in such a way that it
overlaps the platform on all side by at least 6
 On the plastic sheet a layer of 7 cm thick
kaccha brick is laid.
 Walls are made up of kaccha bricks and
these are sealed with mud plaster.
Material requirement for two
tonne capacities of pusa bin is
given below –
 BASE : 140×100 cm
 HEIGHT : 160 cm
 PLASTIC SHEET : 180 cm width, 8.5 m
 KACCHA BRICKS: 1550 nos.
 BURNT BRICKS: 100 nos.
 STEEL PIPE : 0.5 inch
Bunker Storage
 These type of storage structure is
used for long term storage and a 
larger volume of grains storage.
 This is used for long term storage of
a large volume of grains.
 A typical bunker type storage has
proved successful as a means of
storing grain safely and economically.
 By controlling insects and moisture
'CAP' Storage structures
 The word 'CAP' is used for cover and
plinth, plinth from the bottom and
cover from the top.
 This type of open storage is
considered as transit storage and
serves the purpose of storage of food
grains in bags for short period.
 The cover is rectangular in shape
having four sides made from polythene
film of 1000 (Φ) gauge, leaving the
bottom side open.
 The covers having a dimension of
9.4×6.4×5.5 m normally weight is 52
 Normally the stack is built over a
space of 9.11×6.1 m.
 Cover is also known as ‘veranda
 The stacks are built to a height up to 7
bags having average capacity of 24
Modern Storage Structures
 In India, for larger volume of food grains are to be
stored in bulk is 'silo' and conventional godowns
(Shed) designed for bagged storage.
 The godowns side walls are of brick or stone
masonry and Corrugated Galvanized Iron (CGI)
sheets over steel trusses.
 Silos are constructed from steel or reinforced
 The modern permanent storage system should be
selected for the safe keeping of stored grains and
other products.
There are following types of
modern storage structures -
 Silo type of storage structures
 Shallow bins
 Deep bins
 Shed
 Farm Silos
 Tower silos
 Horizontal silos
 Pit Silos
 Trench Silos
Traditional Storage
 In this types of storage structures the
grain is generally stored in bulk.
 This types of storage structures having
generally capacities between 1 to 50
 The storage of grain is generally done in
one of the following storage structures in
the different rural and urban regions of
India in bulk as well as in bag storage.
Types of traditional storage
 Morai type storage structures
 Bukhari type storage structures
 Kothar type storage structure
 Mud Kothi type storage structure
 Muda type storage structure
 Kanaj type storage structure
 Kuthla type storage structure
 Metal/ Steel bin type storage structure
 Bag type storage structure
Morai type storage structure

 Morai type of structure is used for the

storage of paddy, maize and sorghum
(jawar) in the rural areas of eastern and
southern regions of India.
 Its capacity varies from 3·5 to 18 tonnes.
 These structures are very similar to the
shape of an inverted cone.
 They are placed on a raised platform
supported on wooden or masonry pillars.
 The height of the bamboo splits is equal
to the total height of the structure.
 Keeping the bamboo splits in position,
the grain is  poured in up to the height of
the metal cylinder. By then the bamboo
splits are held erect in position.
 Now the winding of the rope as well as
the pouring in of grain are done
 This process continues tiIl the required
height is attained.
 The top most ring of the rope is secured
in position by tying to the lower four
Bukhari type storage
 Bukhari type storage structures are
cylindrical in shape and are used for
storage of sorghum, wheat, paddy,
Bengalgram, maize etc.
 Bukhari structures generally have
capacities between 3.5 to 18 tonnes,
however, smaller capacity structures also
 This may be made by mud alone or by
mud and bamboo.
Bukhari type storage
Kothar type storage
 These are used to store paddy, maize,
sorghum, wheat etc.
 Their capacity varies between 9 to 35
 The storage structure is box like made of
wood and raised on pillars.
 Both the floor and walls are made of
wooden planks whereas the thatched or
tiled roof is placed over it to protect the
grains from the sun or rain.
Kothar type storage
Mud Kothi (Mud bin)

 These storage structures are quite common in

rural areas for storage of grains and other
 The capacity of such storage structures varies
from 1 to 50 tonnes.
 These are made from mud mixed with dung
and straw.
 These Kothies are generally rectangular in
 but, cylindrical Kothi is also common in some
 There are many sizes and dimensions of Kothi
Bag Storage Structure

 These structures are generally used for the

storage of 25 to 500 tonnes of grain.
 The length of the structure is about twice the
width or greater than that.
 A  typical floor plan of such a structure large
enough to store about 6000 bags (500 tonnes) of
 Bags of different capacities (35, 50, 75 and 100
kg) with or without inside plastic lining are used.
 The standard size of a 100 kg bag is 100 cm
x 60 cm x 30 cm i.e. length of bag is 100
cm, width of bag is 60 cm and height of
filled bag is 30 cm.
 This bag can store 93 Kg of Wheat and 75
Kg of Paddy.
Horizontal silos
These silos are readily and cheaper made at any time and
they can be easily filled and unloaded without any
They are successful in areas having a deep water tale.
Chopped silage should be spread, leveled and packed.
They are filled, till the silage reaches the above G.L. They
should be covers with dry paddy straw or plastic covers.
Pit silos
It is a circular deep well which is lined all along the side and bottom to prevent
the water entering it.
They can be made of bricks or stores or concrete with either lime or cement.
Up to a depth of 15m a 22.5m wall is provided with plastering the entire inner
A simple roof over the silo can be provided to protect the silage from sun and
Generally a cow is feed about 1.4kg of silage per 45kg of her body weight per
day. i.e. 1.4 kg/45 kg /day or 3 kg/100 kg of body weight.
Horizontal silos Pit silos
Design criteria
Rate of removal - 10 cm/day

Silage fed per day - 3 kg/100kg of body weight

Maximum diameter - 6m
Depth - 2-3 times diameter
1m3 of silage - 650 kg
Shallow bins
A bin whose relative dimensions are such that
the plane of rupture meets the grain surface
before it strikes the opposite side as shown in
Figure is called 'shallow bin‘.
L and h be the breadth and depth of the storage
structure, then the structure can be taken to be
shallow if:
Deep bins
Design of silos
Shed (Warehouses)
In India, for larger volume of food grains is to be
stored in bulk is 'silo' and conventional godowns
(shed) designed for bagged storage.
Side walls of a go-down are made of brick or stone
masonry and sloped roofing in asbestos or
Corrugated Galvanized Iron (CGI) sheets over steel
Mostly, silos are constructed either from steel or
reinforced concrete. There are a cluster of
adjoining silos in any modern large / capacity
processing plant.
Shed (Warehouses)