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RENR6136

July 2002

Systems Operation
Testing and Adjusting
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
1AM1-Up (Machine)
1FM1-Up (Machine)
i01658146

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpil-
lar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, phys-
ical dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-


ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
3
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Systems Operation Section
Introduction
General Information ................................................ 4
General Safety Notes .............................................. 6

Heater Operation
Before Starting the Heater ...................................... 6
Heater Start-up ....................................................... 6
Heater Operation .................................................... 7
Operating Switches ................................................. 7
Heater Function Monitor ......................................... 9
Operational Flow Chart ......................................... 10
Heater System Electrical Schematic ..................... 11

Testing and Adjusting Section


Troubleshooting
Machine Preparation for Troubleshooting ............. 12
Visual Inspection ................................................... 14
Fault Code Retrieval Device ................................. 15
Troubleshooting Diagnostic Codes ....................... 16

Testing and Adjusting


Fuel Quality - Test ................................................. 18

Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 20
4
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Systems Operation Section

Systems Operation Section Table 1


Specifications
Output of heat 3.7 ± 1.3 kW
Introduction (12600 ± 4400 BTU/hr)
Current draw 1.51 ± 0.56 amperes
i01762398 Fuel consumption 0.45 ± 0.17 L/hr
(.12 ± .05 US gal/hr)
General Information
Operating voltage range 20.4 volts minimum
SMCS Code: 1383; 7304 32.0 volts maximum
Working pressure 245 kPa (36 psi)
The machine preheater will preheat the engine and
the cab prior to machine operation. This system will Ambient operating −40C to 80C (−40F to
warm the engine and the cab by heating the coolant temperature 176F)
to the engine and to the heater before engine Overheat temperature 105 ± 5C (220 ± 10F)
start-up. Warming a cold engine before start-up shutdown
extends the service life of the engine. Since the
machine preheater operates on diesel fuel and 24 Weight 2.9 kg (6.4 lb)
volt power the unit is able to operate independently
from the engine. The preheater system will warm up
the coolant to approximately 50 C (122 F) before
the blower fan for the cab heater activates. This
helps to prevent premature drainage of the battery.
The unit will regulate the coolant temperature
between 65 C (150 F) and 80 C (175 F) by
automatically cycling the heater.

Use the on/off switch or the timer in order to activate


the machine preheater.

Reference: For additional information on setting


the timer, refer to System Operation, “Operating
Switches”.

The machine preheater is equipped with following


safety devices:

• flame sensor
• temperature sensor
• overheat sensor
5
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Systems Operation Section

g00901878
Illustration 1
(1) Combustion air blower wheel (11) Flame sensor
(2) Main fuse (12) Combustion air tube
(3) Glow pin (13) Fuel-metering pump
(4) Temperature sensor (14) Exhaust tube
(5) Combustion chamber (A) Water outlet
(6) Coolant pump (B) Water inlet
(7) Electric motor (C) Water outlet
(8) Overheat sensor (D) Water inlet
(9) Control unit (E) Combustion air inlet
(10) Heat exchanger (F) Exhaust outlet
6
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Systems Operation Section

i01761593 Heater Operation


General Safety Notes
i01764107
SMCS Code: 1383-WXX; 7304-WXX; 7405
Before Starting the Heater
SMCS Code: 1383; 7304
At operating temperature, the engine coolant is
hot and under pressure. Perform the following procedures upon completion
of installation of the machine preheater:
Steam can cause personal injury.
Reference: For additional information on performing
Check the coolant level only after the engine has the following procedures, refer to Operation and
been stopped and the fill cap is cool enough to Maintenance Manual, SEBU7197.
touch with your bare hand.
• Check all fuel lines, electrical connections, and
Remove the fill cap slowly to relieve pressure. coolant hoses.

Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Avoid • Refill the engine coolant.
contact with the skin and eyes to prevent personal
injury. • Purge the air from the coolant system by
loosening the purge screw of top of the heater.

NOTICE • Start the engine. Loosen the radiator cap in order


Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained to purge the air from the coolant system.
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to • Check the coolant level.
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo- i01765054
nent containing fluids.
Heater Start-up
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Tools and Shop Products Guide” for tools and supplies SMCS Code: 1383; 7304
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products. The following sequence will occur after the machine
preheater is activated:
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates. • The control unit will perform a system check.
A proper mixture of water and antifreeze is required • The water pump will begin circulating coolant.
in order to prevent coolant from freezing or slushing.
The coolant pump cannot move slushy or frozen • The combustion air blower will activate.
coolant. This will cause a blockage of the coolant
system. Once this occurs, pressure will build up • Glow plug begins to preheat for 0-50 seconds.
in the heater and the coolant hose will burst.
This situation could cause engine damage and/or • The fuel-metering pump activates.
personal injury. Extreme care should be taken in
order to ensure a proper mixture of water and • Combustion air blower increases speed.
antifreeze is used in the coolant system.
• After the ignition of the machine preheater, the
Reference: For additional information about the flame sensor will alert the control unit. The control
coolant system, refer to Operation and Maintenance unit will then deactivate the glow plug. (Ignition
Manual, SEBU7197. time: 1.5 - 2 minutes)

The machine preheater must be in the OFF position


during refueling procedures.
7
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Systems Operation Section

i01765152 i01764052

Heater Operation Operating Switches


SMCS Code: 1383; 7304 SMCS Code: 1383-ZS; 7304-ZS

The following operations will take place after a The control panel for the preheat system is capable
successful ignition: of setting one start time within seven days. The
control panel will also display the time of day and
• The machine preheater will operate in high heat any fault codes for the machine preheater. The
mode. The temperature is monitored at the heat display is automatically illuminated while the heater
exchanger. is operating.

• The machine preheater will automatically switch The operator presets the time for the activation
to low heat mode if the coolant temperature of the preheat system. The system will operate
exceeds 85 C (185 F). automatically at the selected start time until the start
time is changed by the operator.
• If the coolant temperature falls below 75 C
(167 F) the machine preheater will automatically The default operating duration is set at 30 minutes.
switch back to high heat mode. The operating duration can be regulated by the
operator. Due to drainage of the battery, the
• If the coolant temperature rises to 86 C (187 F) maximum operating duration is between 1 hour and
the machine preheater will automatically switch 1 1/2 hours.
off.
Note: The system will operate if the secondary
• The coolant pump will continue to circulate disconnect switch is in the ON position or in the
coolant in order to allow the machine preheater OFF position. If the battery disconnect switch is
to monitor engine temperature. turned off, the preheat system will not operate and
the settings for the preheat system will be erased.
• The machine preheater will automatically restart

The settings must be programmed again.
once the coolant temperature reaches 75 C
(167 F). Reference: For additional information about the
usage of the battery disconnect switches, refer to
• The machine preheater continues to operate Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU7197.
until switched off manually, by a timer, or by a
malfunction shutdown.

Note: If the machine preheater should shut down


due to flame out while in operation mode, the
machine preheater will automatically attempt one
restart. If successful, the machine preheater will
continue to operate. If not successful, the machine
preheater will shut down completely with a cool
down cycle.

Note: During operation, the machine preheater will


continually sense the input voltage from the battery.
If the input voltage falls to 10 volts or rises above
16 volts the machine preheater will automatically
g00908216
shut down with a cool down cycle. Illustration 2

The control panel for the preheat system is located


Switching Off on the right side of the cab. Use the control panel
to program the preheat system.
When the machine preheater is switched off,
manually or automatically, the machine preheater
begins a controlled cool down cycle. The
fuel-metering pump stops delivering fuel and the
flame is extinguished. The combustion air blower
and coolant pump continue to operate for 130
seconds in order to cool down.
8
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Systems Operation Section

Press on/off key (8) again in order to shut off the


preheat system. The preheat system will enter an
automatic cool down mode for five minutes after the
system is shut off.

Manually Starting the Preheat System


with the Engine Start Switch in the ON
Position
Press on/off key (8) in order to start the preheat
system. The preheat system will remain on until the
engine start switch is turned to the OFF position.

After the engine start switch is turned to the OFF


g00908223
Illustration 3 position, the preheat system will remain active for
(1) Display. (2) Memory display. (3) Day of the week. (4) Time. (5) five minutes. This time period can be increased by
Operating display. (6) Select key (time and day). (7) Select key pressing arrow key (9). The maximum time period is
(system settings). (8) On/Off key. (9) Arrow key (decrease). (10) four hours.
Arrow key (increase).

Press on/off key (8) again in order to shut off the


Operating the Preheat System preheat system. The preheat system will enter an
automatic cool down mode for five minutes after the
Note: Before you activate the system, turn the system is shut off.
temperature variable control to the MAXIMUM
position and turn the fan control to the LOW position. Programming the Preselected Start
Times and Days
Setting the Time of Day and the Day of
the Week Three different start times within a 24 hour period
can be programmed into the preheat system. The
The time of day and the day of the week are preheat system can also be programmed to start
displayed continuously when the engine start switch once in seven days. The operator must select the
is in the ON position. Press select key (6) briefly in setting for the desired start time in order to change
order to display the time of day when the engine the start time. Press select key (7) until the desired
start switch is in the OFF position. The values will setting is displayed. Only one start time can be
be displayed for ten seconds. selected at any given time.

To set the time of day, hold down select key (6) for Start Heating within 24 Hours
three seconds. Then, press arrow keys (9) and (10)
until the correct time of day is shown on display (1). The preselected day is automatically obtained.
The time is stored when the display stops flashing.
The day of the week will then flash. Press arrow key To set a preselected time press select key (7) until
(9) or (10) in order to set the day of the week. The the required memory display (1, 2, or 3) flashes
day of the week is stored when the display stops on the display. Briefly press arrow key (9) or (10)
flashing. The display is retained with the ignition in and release. The preset time will now flash on the
the ON position. The display is turned off after ten display. Use arrow keys (9) or (10) in order to set
seconds with the ignition in the OFF position. the preselected time for heating. The setting can
only be changed when the preselected time flashes
Manually Starting the Preheat System on the display. When the settings are complete
press select key (7).
with the Engine Start Switch in the OFF
Position Start Heating Later than 24 Hours
Press on/off key (8) in order to start the preheat To set a preselected time and day press select key
system at any time. The remaining preheat time and (7) until the required memory display (1, 2 , or 3)
the symbol are shown on display (1). The preheat flashes on the display. Briefly press arrow key (9)
time can be changed by pressing arrow keys (9) or (10) and release. The preset time flashes on the
or (10). display. Use arrow keys (9) and (10) in order to set
the preselected time for heating.
9
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Systems Operation Section

The preselected day will start to flash approximately The control unit ensures that the electrical circuits
five seconds after the preselected time has been are complete prior to starting the machine preheater.
set. Use arrow keys (9) and (10) in order to set the If the machine preheater fails to ignite within 90
preselected day for heating. seconds of the fuel-metering pump activation, the
starting procedure will be repeated. If the machine
The preselected time and the preselected day are preheater again fails to ignite after 90 seconds of
stored in memory when the time display disappears fuel delivery, a no-start safety shutdown follows.
or when the display is changed over to indicate the
time. The memory display indicates the activated If the machine preheater flames out during
memory. A on/off key (8) additionally indicates an operation, the machine preheater automatically
activated memory. attempts to restart. If the machine preheater fails to
ignite within 10 seconds of fuel delivery, or ignites
Checking the Activated Memory but flames out again within 3 minutes, a flame-out
shutdown follows. After troubleshooting the problem
The preselected time on memory display (2) is the machine preheater can be started again by
shown for approximately five seconds. This is then switching the machine preheater off and then back
either turned off or the current time is displayed. on again.
The display of the preselected time and day can be
viewed by pressing select key (7) once. Overheating due to lack of coolant, a restriction,
or a poorly purged coolant system results in the
overheat shutdown. Fuel delivery will cease and
i01765247 an overheat shutdown follows. If the machine
preheater overheats 3 consecutive times, a lockout
Heater Function Monitor on the control unit will occur. Use the proper
troubleshooting procedures In order to unlock the
SMCS Code: 1383; 7304 control unit.

If at any time during operation the voltage drops


below 10.2 volts, or rises above 15.9 volts, a
Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam high/low voltage shutdown follows after a 20 second
and alkali. delay period.

At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot


and under pressure. The radiator and all lines
to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

Remove filler cap slowly to relieve pressure only


when engine is stopped and radiator cap is cool
enough to touch with your bare hand.

Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid


contact with skin and eyes.

Note: Only operate the machine preheater in


ventilated areas.

Note: When you perform extensive repairs on


the machine preheater, a complete removal is
suggested. After repairs are made to the machine
preheater fill the coolant system to the correct level.

The control unit, temperature sensor, overheat


sensor, and flame sensor continually monitor
machine preheater functions and will shut down the
machine preheater in the event of a malfunction.
10
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Systems Operation Section

i01765269

Operational Flow Chart


SMCS Code: 1383; 7304
Table 2
RUN
STARTING PHASE SHUT DOWN PHASE
PHASE
Preheat Ignition
System Ignition Controlled After Cool Off or
Operating Mode Preheat 2nd 2nd
Check Attempt Heating Glow Down Standby
Attempt Attempt
OFF
Coolant Pump OFF ON ON ON ON ON ON ON (ON in
Standby)
Combustion Air ON
ON ON OFF ON ON ON ON OFF
Blower Momentary
Glow Plug OFF ON ON ON ON OFF ON OFF OFF
Fuel-Metering
OFF OFF ON OFF ON ON OFF OFF OFF
Pump
<90 <90
Time 1-3 sec. 80 sec. 80 sec. 20 sec. 2.5 min.
sec. sec.

Note: If the coolant temperature exceeds 86 C


(187 F) during the controlled heating cycle the
machine preheater will shutdown. The machine
preheater will automatically restart in the high heat
mode once the coolant temperature reaches 75 C
(167 F).
11
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Systems Operation Section

i01765303

Heater System Electrical


Schematic
SMCS Code: 1383; 7304

g00903134
Illustration 4
(1) Flame Sensor (A) Circuit for the Backlight
(2) Water Pump (B) Battery Power
(3) Temperature Sensor (C) Blower Fan Motor
(4) Overheat Sensor (D) Disconnect Switch
(5) Glow Pin (E) Disconnect Switch
(6) Blower Motor
12
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Testing and Adjusting Section

Testing and Adjusting


NOTICE
Section Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
Troubleshooting ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.
i01765887
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Machine Preparation for Tools and Shop Products Guide” for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
Troubleshooting products.
SMCS Code: 1383-035; 7304-035 Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
When you are analyzing a system for poor
performance, remember that the correct fluid level
and correct fluid pressure are necessary for correct 1. Permit only one operator on the machine. Keep
operation. Fluid flow increases with increased pump other personnel away from the machine.
output. A restriction to the flow of fluid increases
the pressure.

Before any tests are performed, visually inspect


the complete system for leaks and for damaged
parts. Also, visually inspect the wiring connectors
and wiring harnesses for damage, corrosion, and
contact.

Refer to the following warnings and notice for all


inspections and tests of the machine.

g00492735
Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam Illustration 5
and alkali. TROUBLESHOOTING Position

At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot 2. Park the machine on a smooth, level surface.
and under pressure. The radiator and all lines Move away from other operating machines and
to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or away from personnel.
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.

Remove filler cap slowly to relieve pressure only


when engine is stopped and radiator cap is cool
enough to touch with your bare hand.

Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid


contact with skin and eyes.

Escaping fluid under pressure, even a pinhole size


leak, can penetrate body tissue, causing serious
injury, and possible death. If fluid is injected into
your skin, it must be treated immediately by a doc- g00800993
Illustration 6
tor familiar with this type of injury. Bogie Float Switches are located on the Right Side of the Cab.

Always use a board or cardboard when checking


for a leak.
13
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Testing and Adjusting Section

3. Ensure that all wheels are in contact with the


ground. Place the bogie float switches in the
FLOAT position.

4. Retract the extendable stick. Lower the grapple


onto the bed.

g00658192
Illustration 9
Parking Brake Switch

7. Place the parking brake switch in the ON


position. The ladder will lower.
g00800981
Illustration 7
Operating Mode Switch on the Right Hand Control Unit

5. Press the operating mode switch so that the


machine is in the ROADING MODE position. The
boom will not operate.

g00908825
Illustration 10
Steering Frame Lock (LOCKED Position)

8. Install the steering frame lock with the two pins.


Place blocks in front of the wheels and behind
the wheels.
g00811128
Illustration 8 9. Stop the engine by turning the engine start switch
Direction Selector Switch on the Left Hand Control Unit key to the OFF position. Turn the secondary
disconnect switch and the battery disconnect
6. Place the direction selector switch in the switch to the OFF position.
NEUTRAL position.
10. Make sure that all oil pressure is released in the
system before you begin any work on the system.

Troubleshooting can be complex. A list of some of


the possible problems and corrections are on the
following pages.

This list of possible problems and possible


corrections will only provide an indication of
the location of a problem and the repairs that
are required. Remember that a problem is not
necessarily caused by one part, but by the relation
of one part with other parts. This list can not provide
all possible problems and corrections. Service
personnel must find the problem and the source of
the problem. Then, complete the necessary repairs.
14
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Testing and Adjusting Section

Perform a visual inspection first. If the visual


checks are completed but the problem has not
been identified, perform operational checks. If the
Personal injury or death can result from escaping
problem is not understood, perform instrument tests.
fluid under pressure.

i01765943 Escaping fluid under pressure, even a very small


pin-hole size leak, can penetrate body tissue and
Visual Inspection cause serious injury and possible death. If fluid is
injected into your skin, it must be treated immedi-
SMCS Code: 1383-035; 7304-035 ately by a doctor familiar with this type of injury.

Always use a board or cardboard when checking


for a leak.
Sudden movement or accidental starting of the
machine can cause personal injury or death to per- NOTICE
sons on or near the machine. Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
To prevent personal injury or death, perform the ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
following: collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
Park the machine on a smooth level surface. nent containing fluids.
Lower the bucket and or attachments to the Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
ground. Tools and Shop Products Guide” for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
Stop the engine and engage the parking brake. products.
Block the wheels and install the steering frame Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
lock. mandates.
Turn the battery disconnect switch to the OFF po-
sition and remove the key. Operate the machine preheater at least one day
per month for a minimum of 15 minutes in order to
Place a Special Instruction, SEHS7332, “Do Not ensure proper operation.
Operate” tag at the battery disconnect switch lo-
cation to inform personnel that the machine is be- Perform visual checks first when you are
ing worked on. troubleshooting a problem. Before you make these
checks, stop the engine. Shift the operating mode
switch to the NEUTRAL position.

Reference: For additional information about


Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam performing the following procedures, refer to
and alkali. Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU7197.

At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot • Check for interference in the combustion air
and under pressure. The radiator and all lines passage and in the exhaust passage.
to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns. • Check for fuel in the tank. Ensure that the fuel is
suitable for the climate.
Remove filler cap slowly to relieve pressure only
when engine is stopped and radiator cap is cool • Check the battery voltage.
enough to touch with your bare hand.
• Check for coolant around the machine preheater
Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali. Avoid and on the ground under the machine.
contact with skin and eyes.
• Check all lines, all hoses, and all connections for
damage and for leaks.

• Check the coolant level.


15
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Testing and Adjusting Section

• Ensure that the machine preheater has been 5. Check for contacts that are dirty or corroded.
properly purged after service.
• Clean the contacts with a cotton swab or with
• Check all fuel lines for leaks. a soft brush.

• Check the fuel filter. If necessary, replace the fuel 6. Check each connector pin and each connector
filter. receptacle.

• Check the glow plug for damage. If necessary, • Use a new connector pin and a new connector
replace the glow plug. receptacle to check each connector contact
for a snug fit. The new contact should stay
connected if the connector is held with the
Electrical System contacts facing downward.
Intermittent electrical problems are often caused by
poor connections. Use the following checks as a i01766266
guideline for inspecting connectors:
Fault Code Retrieval Device
1. Check the mating fit of the connectors.
SMCS Code: 1383; 7304
• Ensure that the locking rings lock in place.
• Ensure that locking clips are used on Sure-Seal
connectors.

• Ensure that the screw in the center of the


harness connector is tight.

• Ensure that the connector pins and the


connector receptacles are aligned correctly.

2. Check the wires at the connectors.

• Ensure that the wires do not enter the back of


the connector at an angle. g00908391
Illustration 11
• Ensure that each wire is properly crimped into (1) Display. (2) Select key (time and day). (3) Select key (system
the proper connector contact. settings). (4) On/Off key. (5) Arrow key (decrease). (6) Arrow key
(increase).

• Ensure that each connector contact is properly The machine preheater is equipped with a
locked into the connector body. When the
connector contact is locked properly, the diagnostic tool. Diagnostic fault codes will be
contact or the wire cannot be pulled out of the displayed on the control panel. Use arrow keys (5)
connector body without excessive force. and (6) to scroll through the fault codes. In order to
remove a fault code, repair the machine preheater
3. Check each wire for nicks and for signs of and restart the machine preheater. This process
abrasion in the insulation. must be followed in order to remove each fault
code.
4. Check for moisture at the connector. The
following conditions are possible causes of Reference: For additional information about
moisture: troubleshooting fault codes, refer to Systems
Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Troubleshooting
Diagnostic Codes”.
• Connector seals are damaged or missing.
• Plugs for the wire holes are loose or missing.
• Wires do not enter the back of the connector
straight. If the wires enter the connector at an
angle, there may not be a good seal between
the connector and the wire insulation.

• Moisture from other connectors with poor seals


may have travelled inside the wire insulation.
16
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Testing and Adjusting Section

i01766366

Troubleshooting Diagnostic
Codes
SMCS Code: 1383-038; 7304-038
Table 3
Fault Code Fault Description Causes/ Repair
000 Normal Operation None
Check voltage between pins 1 and 2 at connector B1. This must
be less than 16 volts.
010 Overvoltage
Check battery, all electrical leads, and machine charging
system.
Check voltage between pins 1 and 2 at connector B1. This must
be greater than 10.2 volts.
011 Under voltage shut down
Check battery, all electrical leads, and machine charging
system.
Check for possible causes of overheat.
Check overheat switch resistance values. Temperature at the
012 Overheating
temperature sensor or the overheat sensor is greater than
125 C (260 F).
Difference of measured values at temperature sensor <15 C
(60 F) (minimum 70 C (160 F) coolant temperature and
014 Possible overheating detected metering pump in operation).
Check temperature sensor and overheating sensor, replace
if necessary.
015 Excess overheats Remove cause of overheat.
Temperature at temperature sensor or overheat sensor ≥130 C
(265 F), emergency OFF if fault code 012 or 014 are not
017 Overheating detected applicable.
Check the coolant circuit, the temperature sensor, and the
overheat sensor; replace if necessary.
Check the glow plug and electrical leads for continuity, replace
020 Open circuit - glow plug
if necessary.
Check the glow plug and electrical leads for continuity, replace
021 Short circuit - glow plug
if necessary.
Blower impeller or electric motor may be obstructed. Fix the jam
030 Combustion air blower motor
and replace the electric motor if necessary.
Check the lead to the combustion air motor for continuity.
031 Combustion air blower motor
Replace the motor if necessary.
Check the combustion air blower motor (electric motor), replace
Combustion air blower motor
032 if necessary.
short-circuit
Check electrical connections.
Check the electrical lead to the relay, repair or replace if
038 Machine fan relay control break
necessary.
Check the electrical lead to the relay, repair or replace if
039 Machine fan relay control short circuit
necessary.
Check the supply lead to coolant pump for continuity, repair
041 Coolant pump break
or replace if necessary.
Check the supply lead to coolant pump for short circuit.
042 Coolant pump short-circuit
Check the condition of the coolant pump, replace if necessary.
(continued)
17
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Testing and Adjusting Section

(Table 3, contd)
Check all wires for short circuits to the fuel metering pump. Test
047 Short circuit - fuel metering pump
the fuel-metering pump. Replace if necessary.
Check the supply lead to the fuel metering pump for continuity,
048 Open circuit - fuel metering pump
repair and replace if necessary.

Safety time counter exceeded. Reset the control unit by turning


050 Too many no start attempts
the power off.

At start, if the flame sensor is above 70 C (158 F) in less that


051 Faulty flame recognition 240 seconds check the exhaust gas and combustion air supply
and the flame sensor, replace if necessary.
No flame detected on start attempt. Check the fuel delivery and
052 No start safety time exceeded fuel supply.
Check the exhaust gas and combustion air supply.
The machine preheater started successfully but the flame
extinguished.
053 Flame cutout in boost mode Check the fuel supply. Check the combustion air and exhaust
flow. Check the flame sensor resistance value. Replace the
flame sensor if necessary.
The machine preheater has started successfully. Check the fuel
054 Flame cutout in high mode
supply. Check the combustion air and exhaust flow.
056 Flame cutout in low mode Check the flame sensor resistance value.
Temperature sensor detects a value beyond range.
Check connections. Check sensor resistance values between
060 Open circuit - temperature sensor
pins 11 and 12 at connector B2. The reading should be below
2M ohms (if open circuit).
Check connections. Measure the resistance value between pins
Short circuit - external temperature
061 11 and 12 at connector B2. The reading should be below 50
sensor
ohms (if short circuit).
Sensor is sensing values outside of the range.
Check connection leads. Measure the resistance value between
064 Open circuit - flame sensor
pins 13 and 14 at connector B2. The reading should be less
than 3040 ohms (if open circuit).
Check connection leads. Measure the resistance value between
065 Short circuit - flame sensor pins 13 and 14 at connector B2. The reading should be less
than 780 ohms (if short circuit).
Check connection leads. Measure the resistance value between
071 Open circuit - overheat sensor pins 9 and 10 at connector B2. The reading should be less than
2M ohms (if open circuit).
Check connection leads. Measure the resistance value between
072 Short circuit - overheat sensor pins 9 and 10 at connector B2. The reading should be less than
50M ohms (if short circuit).
Control unit malfunction due to interference voltage from vehicle
090 Control unit faulty (internal fault) electrical system; possible causes low battery, charge, other
092 Control unit faulty (ROM error) sources of interference, eliminate interference voltages.
093 Control unit faulty (RAM error) Internal faults detected in microprocessor/ memory detected.
Replace control unit.
097 Control unit faulty (power failure) Internal failure. Replace control unit.
18
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Testing and Adjusting Section

Testing and Adjusting Preparation

i01766814

Fuel Quality - Test


SMCS Code: 1280-081

Personal injury or death can result if two persons


are not used in the following procedure.

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec-


trical components can cause a fire. Clean up fuel
spills immediately.

g00908358
Illustration 12

Unexpected machine movement can cause injury 1. Pull the fuel line off the combustion chamber.
or death. Activate the parking brake if an adjust-
ment must be made with the engine running. 2. Insert the fuel line into a graduated measuring
glass.
Allow only approved personnel on the machine.
Keep other personnel off the machine and in clear 3. Start the machine preheater and run the machine
view of the service personnel. preheater for 40 seconds. Turn off the machine
preheater.
Perform the fuel quality test if the machine preheater
has difficulty starting or maintaining a flame. 4. Empty the graduated measuring glass.

Note: Measure the fuel quality when the battery 5. Insert the fuel line in the graduated measuring
is sufficiently charged. When performing the fuel glass.
quality test, the applied voltage at the control unit
must be at least 11 volts and at most 13 volts. Measurement
1. Start the machine preheater. Fuel delivery will
automatically begin approximately 40 seconds
after switching on the machine preheater.

2. Hold the graduated measuring glass at the glow


pin height during measurement.

3. The machine preheater will automatically shut off


after 90 seconds of fuel delivery.

4. Turn off the machine preheater.

5. Read the quantity of fuel delivery in the


graduated measuring glass.
19
Machine Preheaters for Forwarders
Testing and Adjusting Section

Evaluation
Table 4
Nominal Value
8.6 cm3/90 seconds
7.5 cm3/90 seconds

If the measured quantity of fuel is over or under


the nominal value, the fuel metering pump must be
replaced or the fuel restriction must be eliminated.
Index
B Troubleshooting Diagnostic Codes ........................ 16

Before Starting the Heater....................................... 6


V

F Visual Inspection ................................................... 14


Electrical System ............................................... 15
Fault Code Retrieval Device .................................. 15
Fuel Quality - Test.................................................. 18
Evaluation .......................................................... 19
Measurement ..................................................... 18
Preparation ........................................................ 18

General Information................................................. 4
General Safety Notes .............................................. 6

Heater Function Monitor .......................................... 9


Heater Operation ................................................. 6–7
Switching Off........................................................ 7
Heater Start-up........................................................ 6
Heater System Electrical Schematic ..................... 11

Important Safety Information ................................... 2


Introduction.............................................................. 4

Machine Preparation for Troubleshooting .............. 12

Operating Switches ................................................. 7


Operating the Preheat System............................. 8
Operational Flow Chart ......................................... 10

Systems Operation Section ..................................... 4

Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Testing and Adjusting ............................................ 18
Testing and Adjusting Section ............................... 12
Troubleshooting ..................................................... 12
©2002 Caterpillar
All Rights Reserved Printed in U.S.A.

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