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Auhtors/Institutions Corporate social responsibility definition

Bowen (1953) the obligations of businessmen to pursue those policies, to make those decisions, or to follow those lines of action
which are desirable in terms of the objectives and values of our society
McGuire (1963) the corporation has not only economic and legal obligations, but also certain responsibilities to society which extend
beyond these obligations
Friedman (1970) to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the
game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud
Davis (1973) the firm’s consideration of, and response to, issues beyond the narrow economic, technical, and legal requirements
of the firm (…) to accomplish social benefits along with the traditional economic gains which the firm seeks
Carroll (1979) The social responsibility of business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical and discretionary expectations that
society has of organisations at a given point in time
Sethi (1975) implies bringing corporate behavior up to a level where it is congruent with the prevailing social norms, values, and
expectations of performance
Davis and Blomstrom the managerial obligation to take actions which protect and improve the welfare of society as a whole along with
(1975) their own interest
Jones (1980) the notion that corporations have an obligation to constituent groups in society other than stockholders and beyond
that prescribed by law and union contract, indicating that a stake may go beyond mere ownership
Drucker (1984) to tame the dragon, that is to turn a social problem into economic opportunity and economic benefit, into productive
capacity, into human competence, into well-paid jobs, and into wealth

Maclagan (1998) may be viewed as a process in which managers take responsibility for identifying and accommodating the interests
of those affected by the organization’s actions

World Businesss Council The commitment of business to contribute to sustainable economic development, working with employees, their
for Sustainable families, the local community, and society at large to improve their quality of life
Development (1999)
Khoury et al. is the overall relationship of the corporation with all of its stakeholders. These include customers, employees,
communities, owners/investors, government, suppliers and competitors. Elements of social responsibility include
investment in community outreach, employee relations, creation and maintenance of employment, environmental
stewardship and financial performance
Business for social Operating a business in a manner that meets or exceeds the ethical, legal, commercial and public expectations that
responsibility society has of business
Marsden Is about the core behavior of companies and the responsibility for their total impact on the societies in which they
operate. CSR is not an optional add-on nor is it an act of philanthropy. A socially responsible corporation is one that
runs a profitable business that takes into account of all the positive and negative environmental, social and economic
effects it has on society
European Commission a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their
interactions with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis
McWilliams and Siegel actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by law
CSR Europe the way in which a company manages and improves its social and environmental impact to generate value for both
its shareholders and its stakeholders by innovating its strategy, organization and operations

Kotler and Lee a commitment to improve community well-being through discretionary business practices and contributions of
corporate resources

Barnett (2007) a discretionary allocation of corporate resources to improving social welfare that serves as a means of enhancing
relationships with key stakeholders
ISO 26000 (2010) Is the responsibility of an organization for the impacts of its decisions and activities on society and the environment,
through transparent and ethical behaviour that:
- contributes to sustainable development, including health and the welfare of society;
- takes into account the expectations of stakeholders;
- is in compliance with applicable law and consistent with international norms of behaviour; and
- is integrated throughout the organization and practiced in its relationships
European Commission is the responsibility of enterprises for their impacts on society. Respect for applicable legislation, and for collective
agreements between social partners, is a prerequisite for meeting that responsibility. To fully meet their corporate
social responsibility, enterprises should have in place a process to integrate social, environmental, ethical, human
rights and consumer concerns into their business operations and core strategy in close collaboration with their
Aguinis (2011) context-specific organizational actions and policies that account for stakeholders’ expectations and the triple bottom
line of economic, social, and environmental performance
Scherer and Palazzo In a nutshell, political CSR suggests an extended model of governance with business firms contributing to global
(2011) regulation and providing public goods. It goes beyond the instrumental view on politics in order to develop a new
understanding of global politics where private actors such as corporations and civil society organizations play an
active role in the democratic regulation and control of market transactions.