Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

Running head: DATA BRIEF 1

Data Brief
Healthy Relationships
Brittny Bol BS, MPH (c), Shikha Kakkar, BDS, MHA, MPH(c), Maria Lira BS, MPH (c),
Stephanie Okolo, BS, MPH(c), & Alejandra Sanchez, BS, MPH (c)
California State University San Bernardino
Health Science 612: Public Health Statistics
Keywords: Healthy, Unhealthy, Relationships, Undergraduate, Students
DATA BRIEF 2

Table of Contents
Abstract ...........................................................................................................................................3
Objective ......................................................................................................................................3
Methods ........................................................................................................................................3
Results ..........................................................................................................................................3
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................3
Background ....................................................................................................................................4
Topic.............................................................................................................................................4
Purpose Statement ........................................................................................................................4
Methods ...........................................................................................................................................5
Data Source ..................................................................................................................................5
Variables.......................................................................................................................................5
Data Analyses ...............................................................................................................................5
Results .............................................................................................................................................6
Descriptive Data ...........................................................................................................................6
Bivariate .......................................................................................................................................6
Survey Validation .........................................................................................................................6
Discussion........................................................................................................................................7
Data Interpretation ........................................................................................................................7
Limitations ...................................................................................................................................7
Implications ..................................................................................................................................8
Lay Audience Summary ................................................................................................................8
References .......................................................................................................................................9
Appendix .......................................................................................................................................10
Tables .........................................................................................................................................10
Figures ........................................................................................................................................11
Data Dictionary ..........................................................................................................................17
DATA BRIEF 3

Abstract

Objective: To understand the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and practice and how

they influence California State University, San Bernardino (CSUSB) Undergraduate students to

identify an abusive relationship.

Method: The purpose of this program is to promote the principles of a healthy dating

relationship and reduce rates of dating abuse among undergraduate students at CSUSB. To

provide knowledge and information to the students about identifying an abusive relationship, the

Public Service Announcement (PSA) as an educational video was created. Based on the video,

we developed a pre-survey and post-survey question under HSCI 617 course. The pre-and post-

survey were disseminated to 25 undergraduate students that were enrolled in the Health Science

315 course (Statistics for the Health Sciences), for fall 2018. It assesses their knowledge,

attitude, and practice about an unhealthy relationship. The data collected from the pre- and post-

surveys was further analyzed on SPSS version 24; running descriptive analysis for questions #10,

11 and 15. Using a Chi-square analysis we found the P-value to be .059, meaning the data was

not significant.

Results: 92% of students reported that they feel confident enough to leave an abusive

relationship and more than half of the students reported not feeling confident enough to identify

dating abuse. Hence, there are gaps in the study, which may be due to small sample size and/or

pre- and post- questions are not similar enough to run effective analysis.

Conclusion: The results of this study reflect the relationships that exist between knowledge,

attitude and practice. Furthermore, larger scale studies are needed to confirm the results and

improve such health education initiatives for imperative need.


DATA BRIEF 4

Background:

Identifying dating abuse may be a challenge for young adults, especially for college

students. Students can be inexperienced in the realm of dating and thus unable to identify if their

intimate relationships exhibit any unhealthy traits. According to Break the Cycle, fifty-seven

percent of college students reported being in an abusive relationship while in college, fifty-eight

percent of college students say that they did not know what to do to help someone who is a

victim of dating abuse, and fifty-seven percent said that it is difficult to identify dating abuse

(Break the Cycle, 2014). A literature review was previously conducted for this topic and found

the following: A cross-sectional study conducted on university level students garnered their

beliefs and attitudes regarding dating abuse and sought to determine if they could self-identify

themselves as recipients or perpetrators of abuse (Miller, 2011). The study hypothesized that a

majority of students would fail to realize if they were recipients or perpetrators within an abusive

dating relationship. The study concluded that the initial speculation was correct and that 1 in 4

college students were involved in a physically abusive dating relationship but 85% of them failed

to self-identify as such (Miller, 2011). The literature review concluded that college students have

skewed perceptions and beliefs as to what constitutes a healthy versus an unhealthy relationship.

To analyze the data the research question established was: How does knowledge, attitude, and

practice influence California State University undergraduate students to identify an abusive

relationship? The overall purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between

knowledge, attitude, and practice and how they influence California State University, San

Bernardino (CSUSB) Undergraduate students to identify an abusive relationship.


DATA BRIEF 5

Methods:

A, B) Data source and variables

Students were provided a Public Service Announcement (PSA) as an educational video which

highlighted and clarified what a healthy relationship looks like compared to a non-healthy

relationship. Students were given a pre-survey before the video, and a post-survey after the video

to assess their knowledge and attitude about unhealthy relationships, and whether it had

increased after the video. The pre-survey and post-survey were created in the Health Science 617

course. The purpose of these surveys was to assess the students’ knowledge, attitude, and

practice about unhealthy relationships. In the pre-survey, out of the twenty questions surveyed,

five questions were in relation to knowledge, seven were in relation to attitude, and two were in

relation to practice. In the post-survey, out of eight questions two were in relation to knowledge,

and six were in relation to attitude. The pre -and post- survey were disseminated to 25 California

State University, San Bernardino undergraduate students that were enrolled in the Health Science

315- Statistics for the Health Sciences course during the Fall 2018 quarter to collect data for this

intervention.

C) Data analyses

The first step in data analysis for this intervention was to run descriptive statistics through

the statistical program SPSS 24, where frequencies of each variable in pre- and post-tests were

ran. The frequencies for this data were analyzed through the use of crosstabs. Bar charts were

used to depict the knowledge and attitude of the participants towards how confident and

knowledgeable they are about dating abuse. The next step was to conduct a chi-square test to
DATA BRIEF 6

determine whether the row and column marginal frequencies are equal among the responses of

the participants. All missing variables were excluded from the study.

Results:

A. Descriptive Data

Demographic information resulted in 76% females and 24% males (See Figure 1).

For marital status, we found that 75% of the students reported being single, 8.33% reported

being married, and 16.67% reported being in a committed relationship (See Figure 2).

B. Bivariate Data

i. Descriptive Statistics: Knowledge (See Figure 3)

We asked students, “How knowledgeable are you about dating abuse?” and

found that 84% percent of students reported not at all knowledgeable or somewhat

knowledgeable about dating abuse before watching our PSA. When running a

Chi-square analysis, we found that the p-value was .059, meaning no significance.

ii. Descriptive Statistics: Attitude (See Figure 5)

We asked students, “I feel confident that I can identify different forms of

dating abuse?” We found from our pre-survey 60% of students reported not at all

confident or somewhat confident that they can identify the various forms of dating

abuse. After showing our PSA and running descriptive analysis we found that

92% of participants reported feeling very confident that they can identify various

forms of dating abuse.

iii. Descriptive Statistics: Practice (See Figure 6)

We asked students, “Do you feel confident enough to leave an abusive

relationship?” We found that 92% of participants reported yes.


DATA BRIEF 7

C. Survey Validation

We were not able to conduct survey validation due to our pre- and post- survey

not matching in the questions that were asked.

Discussion:

A. Data Interpretation

After running analysis, we found that 84% of students that were surveyed at

California State University, San Bernardino said that they were not at all knowledgeable

or somewhat knowledge about dating abuse. We also found that 60% of students felt not

at all confident or somewhat confident to identify the various forms of dating abuse. We

also found that 92% of students reported that they feel confident enough to leave an

abusive relationship. It was interesting to find that more than half of the students reported

not feeling confident enough to identify dating abuse, yet 92% of the students reported

that they confident enough to leave an abusive relationship. Students need to have the

knowledge and attitude in order to go through with a behavior.

B. Limitations

One study limitation that was identified was our small sample size. The total

number of participants was 25 undergraduate health science students. Our study exhibited

a convenience bias as the participants were selected due to how easily accessible they

were. The participants were not wholly representative of the student population as

California State University, San Bernardino. Another limitation that was identified was

the inconsistency of our pre- and post- surveys. The questions asked on each test were not

similar enough to run a complete analysis or to find any significance in student

knowledge after watching our PSA.


DATA BRIEF 8

C. Implications and Future Directions

Implications for the future include creating a program that educates students about

dating abuse and how students can feel confident enough to identify the forms of dating

abuse in order to leave one if they do find themselves in an unhealthy and abusive

relationship. Further studies should be conducted on a larger scale throughout the

California State University, San Bernardino campus and across different majors to better

determine how well undergraduate students understand the relationship between

knowledge, attitude, and practice in regard to dating abuse.

Lay Audience Summary:

College students may not be fully able to recognize the warning signs of an abusive relationship.

Studies have provided evidence that most students do not know how to identify or help someone

who is a victim of dating abuse. After watching a Public Service Announcement (PSA) that

highlighted the difference between a healthy and an unhealthy relationship, students at California

State University, San Bernardino (CSUSB) were given a survey to determine what their attitude,

knowledge, as well as practice were about dating abuse. Due to some study limitations, we could

not determine a significant increase in student knowledge, however, our survey did find some

differences between what students claimed to know about dating abuse and the actions they

would take when confronted with it. Additional studies are needed to establish where student

knowledge is lacking, and further intervention programs may need to be established to fill in

those knowledge gaps.


DATA BRIEF 9

References:
Break the Cycle. (2014, June 20). Retrieved March 22, 2018, from

https://www.breakthecycle.org/dating-violence-research/college-dating-violence-and-

abuse-poll

Miller, L. M. (2011). Physical Abuse in a College Setting: A Study of Perceptions and

Participation in Abusive Dating Relationships. Journal of Family Violence, 26(1), 71–80.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-010-9344-2
DATA BRIEF 10

Appendix:
a. Tables
Table 1
DATA BRIEF 11

b. Figures with legends


DATA BRIEF 12
DATA BRIEF 13
DATA BRIEF 14
DATA BRIEF 15
DATA BRIEF 16
DATA BRIEF 17

c. Data dictionary

Assessing How Healthy Your Relationship is 2019

Adult Questionnaire

January 22, 2019

Adult Respondents Age 18 and Older

Contact:

Department of Natural Sciences


Bol B., Kakkar S., Lira M., Okolo S., Sanchez A.
5500 University Parkway
San Bernardino, CA. 92407
Telephone: (909) 537-5000
Web: https://www.csusb.edu/
DATA BRIEF 18

Table of Contents:
SECTION A - DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
PREQ1 ..................................................................................................................................................... 17
PREQ2...................................................................................................................................................... 17
PREQ3...................................................................................................................................................... 17
PREQ4...................................................................................................................................................... 17
PREQ5...................................................................................................................................................... 17
PREQ6...................................................................................................................................................... 18
SECTION B - KNOWLEDGE
PREQ10.................................................................................................................................................... 18
PREQ12.................................................................................................................................................... 18
PREQ16.................................................................................................................................................... 18
PREQ17.................................................................................................................................................... 18
PREQ18.................................................................................................................................................... 19
POSTQ6 ................................................................................................................................................... 19
POSTQ7 ................................................................................................................................................... 19
SECTION C – ATTITUDE
PREQ7...................................................................................................................................................... 19
PREQ8...................................................................................................................................................... 19
PREQ9...................................................................................................................................................... 20
PREQ11.................................................................................................................................................... 20
PREQ14.................................................................................................................................................... 20
PREQ19.................................................................................................................................................... 20
PREQ20.................................................................................................................................................... 20
POSTQ1 ................................................................................................................................................... 21
POSTQ2 ................................................................................................................................................... 21
POSTQ3 ................................................................................................................................................... 21
POST4 ...................................................................................................................................................... 21
POSTQ5 ................................................................................................................................................... 21
POSTQ8 ................................................................................................................................................... 21
SECTION D - PRACTICE
PREQ13.................................................................................................................................................... 22
PREQ15.................................................................................................................................................... 22
DATA BRIEF 19

SECTION A - DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION, PART I


PREQ1: What is your age?

Age [Range: 1-4]

1. Under 18= 1
2. 18-24= 2
3. 25-34= 3
4. 35-44= 4

PREQ2: What best describes your race/ethnicity?

Race/Ethnicity [Range: 1-6]

1. Caucasian= 1
2. African American= 2
3. Hispanic or Latino= 3
4. Native American or American Indian= 4
5. Asian/Pacific Islander= 5
6. Other (Please Specify) = 6

PREQ3: What is your biological sex?

Biological Sex {Range 1-2}

1. Male= 1
2. Female= 2

PREQ4: What is your academic standing?

Academic Standing [Range: 1-5]

1. First year= 1
2. Second year= 2
3. Third year= 3
4. Fourth year= 4
5. Fifth year, += 5

PREQ5: What is your sexual orientation?

Sexual Orientation [Range: 1-6]

1. Straight/Heterosexual= 1
2. Gay/Lesbian=2
3. Bisexual= 3
4. Pansexual= 4
5. Asexual= 5
6. I prefer not to answer= 6
DATA BRIEF 20

PREQ6: What is your marital status?

Marital Status [Range: 1-5]

1. Single= 1
2. Married= 2
3. Divorced= 3
4. Separated= 4
5. Widowed= 5
6. Committed relationship= 6

SECTION B – KNOWLEDGE
PREQ10: How knowledgeable are you about dating abuse?

Knowledge [Range: 1-3]

1. Not all knowledgeable= 1


2. Somewhat knowledgeable= 2
3. Very confident= 3

PREQ12: Your partner attempting to control and/or monitor who you spend time with is a form
of dating abuse?

Knowledge [Range: 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3

PREQ16: Do you know how to help someone who is a victim of dating abuse?

Knowledge [Range: 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3

PREQ17: Do you know at least 2 resources for dating abuse that are available through the CSUSB
Health Center?

Knowledge [Range: 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3
DATA BRIEF 21

PREQ18: Do you know at least 2 resources available for dating abuse outside CSUSB Health
Center?

Knowledge [Range: 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3

POSTQ6: From the video, what are two services for domestic violence available through the
CSUSB Health Center?

Knowledge [Range: 1-3]

1. No answer= 1
2. 1 resource= 1
3. 2 resources

POSTQ7: From the video, what are two resources available for domestic violence outside CSUSB
Health Center?

Knowledge [Range: 1-3]

1. No answer= 1
2. 1 resource= 1
3. 2 resources

SECTION C - ATTITUDE
PREQ7: In your opinion, what is ONE important factor in a healthy relationship?

Attitude [Range 1-6}

1. Respect= 1
2. Jealously= 2
3. Equality= 3
4. Communication= 4
5. Honesty= 5
6. Submission= 6

PREQ8: In your opinion, which of the following has the MOST influence on attitudes in dating
relationships?

Attitude [Range 1-6}

1. Social Media= 1
2. Family= 2
3. Friends= 3
4. Religion= 4
5. Gender Roles= 5
6. Culture= 6
DATA BRIEF 22

PreQ9: In your opinion, which of the following has the LEAST influence on attitudes in dating
relationships?

Attitude [Range 1-6}

1. Social Media= 1
2. Family= 2
3. Friends= 3
4. Religion= 4
5. Gender Roles= 5
6. Culture= 6

PREQ11: I feel confident that I can identify the various forms of dating abuse?

Attitude [Range 1-3}

1. Not all knowledgeable= 1


2. Somewhat knowledgeable= 2
3. Very confident= 3

PREQ14: Do you consider your partner restricting your time with friends and family as a form of
dating abuse?

Attitude [Range 1-3}

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3

PREQ19: Should you and your partner have the same values and attitudes about healthy
relationships?

Attitude [Range 1-3}

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3

PREQ20: Should dating abuse be considered a public health issue?

Attitude [Range 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3
DATA BRIEF 23

POSTQ1: From the video, do you consider dating abuse as a public health issue?

Attitude [Range 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3

POSTQ2: From the video, do you feel confident to identify the various forms of dating abuse?

Attitude [Range 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3

POSTQ3: From the video, do you feel confident enough to leave an abusive relationship?

Attitude [Range 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3

POSTQ4: From the video, do you feel confident enough to report an abusive relationship if you
see one?

Attitude [Range 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3

POSTQ5: From the video, do you feel this video helped you assess if you have a healthy
relationship?

Attitude [Range 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3

POSTQ8: Please provide any feedback to improve material on this presentation:

Attitude [Range 1-5]

1. No answer= 1
2. Slow down/too fast=2
3. Video too long= 3
4. Resources= 4
5. Enjoyed presentation= 5
DATA BRIEF 24

SECTION D – PRACTICE
PREQ13: Have you ever felt uncomfortable/ pressured to perform a sexual act with your partner?

Practice [Range 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3

PREQ15: Do you feel confident enough to leave an abusive relationship?

Practice [Range 1-3]

1. Yes= 1
2. No= 2
3. Not sure= 3