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Inside Listening and Speaking 2


Unit 1 Solving a Mystery


LISTENING SKILL: Cause and Effect Relationships

Listen 1 (Audio)

M1: Good afternoon. Today I want to talk to you about the crash of Air France Flight
447 and what we can learn from this accident. In the summer of 2009, Flight 447
was flying above the ocean off the coast of Brazil. It was going to Paris, France…
However, the plane suddenly disappeared from air traffic control computer screens.
Now this was a modern airplane, an Airbus 330, which was considered very safe and
was equipped with excellent technology. But at the time, no one knew what had
happened to it.

So how did we solve this mystery? Well, investigators started to look for the plane in
the ocean. Five days later, they recovered parts that revealed that the plane had
crashed into the ocean at a very high speed. But still, no one knew the cause of the

So next, experts looked at the plane’s air traffic control records for answers. These
records showed the plane’s flight path. It appeared that Flight 447 had flown into a
large storm. But, planes can handle strong winds and even lightning strikes, so
investigators decided that the storm was not the cause of the accident.

Investigators then decided to look at the plane’s automated systems, which can
control and fly the plane without a lot of guidance from the pilot. This is what
investigators realized. On the outside of the plane, the speed sensors had frozen
because the plane had travelled through an area with large amounts of super-cooled
water. This extremely cold water froze the plane’s external speed sensors. Now this
is the key point here. Speed data is needed for the plane’s automated systems to
work properly… BUT, the speed sensors were frozen, so the plane’s automated
systems were not getting the necessary speed data. As a result, the automated
systems stopped working and started to fail one by one… And because these
automated systems weren’t working, the pilots decided to fly the plane themselves
by taking manual control of the plane.

But, even after taking manual control of the plane, the pilots had difficulty flying it.
Since the external speed sensors were still frozen, the pilots didn’t know the speed
of the plane. And by mistake, the pilots slowed the plane too much, too quickly. As a
result, the plane fell dramatically and crashed into the ocean.

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Now, as engineers, we have to learn from accidents like these so that we can help
prevent them in the future. The Flight 447 accident revealed a need for design
improvements on our speed sensors to protect them from freezing. With almost 2.9
billion people traveling every year, we must be committed to improving the safety of
our planes. Thank you for giving me the opportunity to speak here today.

SPEAKING SKILL: Facilitating Group Discussions

Listen 2 (Audio)

Dr. Wang: Okay, should we get started? We’ve been learning a lot about structures
lately. And for homework, you read about a new, very complex structural design
that I want to talk about today. So has everyone done the reading? I’ll take your
silence as a ‘yes’. Maria, could you start? What’s interesting about this new building?

Maria: Well, it’s really innovative because it’s an 80-story, rotating building. It’s
always turning around. It’s going to be the first rotating skyscraper after it’s

Dr. Wang: Yes, that’s right. Okay, what else? Kareem, go ahead.

Kareem: Um, I thought it was interesting that the building will always be changing
shape, because each floor turns separately from the other floors. Also since it’s
always turning, the views from each floor will vary, too. So that means you could
wake up in the morning with the sunrise, and then at the end of the day, you could
see the sunset from the same window.

Dr. Wang: Right. That’s definitely an interesting aspect of the building. Now, I want
to proceed to the second part of the article. Tell me about the construction plans.
Yes, Maria.

Maria: The plan is to construct each story of the building in a factory.

Dr. Wang: Yes, it’ll be the first skyscraper built in a factory… Could you explain how
they plan to do this?

Maria: Sure. After they build the floors at the factory, they’ll take each finished floor
to the construction site and attach it to the building’s center…which is a core made
of concrete.

Dr. Wang: Right. So what’s the significance of this plan? Kareem?

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Kareem: Well, by building each floor in a factory, they’ll be able to construct the
building very quickly. And that means they’ll save money, too.

Dr. Wang: That’s a good point. Okay, now why don’t we move on. What about green
technology? To me, that’s a really interesting part of this building’s complex design.

Kareem: I thought so, too. When the skyscraper’s finished, it’ll be the world’s first
building that can generate its own power. There’ll be machines between each floor
that generate wind power for the building.

Dr. Wang: Uh huh, right. What do you think, Gary? Are we missing anything related
to the building’s green technology?

Gary: Um, I remember the article saying that the building will have external solar
panels to generate power from the sun, too.

Dr. Wang: Excellent, Gary. But I have a question for you: This is a structural
engineering course. Why should we care about green technology?

Gary: Well…we know that buildings use a lot of power and resources, and those can
be really expensive. Our clients want to save on energy costs. And it’s always good to
help the environment, right?

Dr. Wang: That’s right. So, since our clients are going to be asking for this, we have
to understand how to use green technology in the structures we build. Now let’s go
on to another topic. How do engineers plan to make sure the building is strong and
to ensure the integrity of the building? Maria, can you help us out?

Maria: Actually, it’s that central concrete core we were talking about earlier – that’s
what provides the strength and support for the building.

Dr. Wang: Exactly. Okay, so let’s summarize the article. What are some aspects of
this building that make it unique or special? Gary?

Gary: Well, it’s the first rotating skyscraper. It’s also going to be constructed in a
factory and then attached to a central core. That’s never been done before with a

Dr. Wang: Okay, and …

Maria: And it uses green technology that enables the building to generate its own

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Dr. Wang: That’s a good summary. I think that covers everything. Any questions
about the reading assignment, then? Okay, let’s move on to the next topic.

End of Unit Task B (Audio)


F1: Hello. My name is Sarah Stewart, and I’m the head engineer for the landfill
project. Building this new landfill will result in several benefits for our area, and I’d
like to discuss those benefits with you today.

Now we all know that landfills are places for our waste materials and other garbage.
Currently, we’re paying other cities to take our trash, and that’s costing us a lot of
money. The new landfill will enable us to save a lot of money because we won’t have
to pay other cities anymore.
Also, we can recover gas from waste and garbage. The gas that we take from our
garbage can be used to produce power, so this will decrease our city’s energy costs.

Finally, a landfill is one of the safest ways to store garbage. As a result, we can limit
environmental problems. So overall, this is a great project that will benefit us all.
Thank you.

End of Unit Task C (Audio)


M1: Good afternoon. I’m Frank Yamato. My environmental protection company did
a study of the landfill project, and our study revealed several negative effects of
building the landfill.

First, they want to build the landfill very close to homes and families. In fact, there
are around 100,000 people living near the landfill site. Those people would have to
live with terrible smells and other chemicals from the landfill, which can even lead
to serious health problems.

Another negative effect of the landfill is water pollution. Almost 25 percent of our
water comes from underground—right under our city, in fact. The proposed landfill
site is very close to an important water source. As a result, the landfill could pollute
our water supply.

And also, since this is a big project, it’ll cost a lot of money and take a long time to
complete. We think it would be cheaper to spend money on improving our local
recycling facility. In conclusion, we think that there are just too many negative
aspects of this project. Therefore, our company strongly recommends not building
the landfill.

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Unit 2 A Marketplace of Ideas


LISTENING SKILL: Abbreviations and Symbols

Watch 1 (Video)

Reporter: I’m here with entrepreneur Susan Shahi to talk about her company,
Central Square. It’s a new, popular shared workspace. Susan, thanks for joining us.

Susan Shahi: My pleasure, thanks for having me.

Reporter: So, could you tell our listeners what a shared workspace is?

Susan Shahi: Sure. A shared workspace brings small, new businesses together in
one office. At Central Square, our office is one big open space with several different
companies in it, so it’s easy to meet and converse with people in different fields.
They can share business ideas and information. It’s really amazing because you have
talented people around you who you can network with. And everyone saves time
and money by helping each other.

Reporter: Sounds really interesting. So, how did you get the idea to open a shared

Susan Shahi: Well, I was working on another business last year. I had a home office,
and I felt really isolated there. I wanted to discuss my ideas with other people who
had experience in different areas of business than me. So one day, I was talking with
a friend who told me about a shared office space in San Francisco. I thought it would
be great to open one here. And, that’s how I got the idea to open Central Square.

Reporter: Got it. And what kinds of companies are renting space from you?

Susan Shahi: A wide range. We have technology, fashion design, freelance

writers…and that mix is so important. Just last month, a design company worked on
the styling for a software developer’s logo. In return, the developer helped the
designer with her website. So, two of our new, small businesses helped each other,
and it was in their mutual interest to do so. And that’s what we do here.

Reporter: That sounds great. So, how can I rent office space at Central Square?

Susan Shahi: Well, we have monthly, weekly, and daily rental spaces, so small
businesses don’t have to commit to a longer lease than they need. You know, new
businesses often cease to exist because of the high rent for office space. So our

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cheaper shared rental space gives new businesses a chance to succeed during the
preliminary stages of their development.

Reporter: Clearly, your business is doing very well. Do you do anything to find new

Susan Shahi: We don’t really have to do much. People hear about us from their
friends, their coworkers, other people they know. We do coordinate social events
and ‘Networking Nights,’ though, which have helped us to find new customers.

Reporter: And what are your plans for the future?

Susan Shahi: I think the next evolution in our business is to rent temporary space to
companies that expand seasonally. Like accounting firms, which always hire more
staff and need more space during tax season. We could also rent to large retail
stores that take on extra customer service representatives for temporary call
centers during big shopping seasons, like right before children return to school.

Reporter: Sounds like you’re positioned to grow. What advice would you give to
other entrepreneurs?

Susan Shahi: Hmm. My advice is to be willing to take risks and be willing to fail.
Very few people succeed on their first try. You have to have the courage to pursue
new ideas even if other ideas have failed. That’s how you learn. That’s how you
create a company that makes you a millionaire.

SPEAKING SKILL: Supporting Opinions

Watch 2 (Video)

M1: Hello everyone. Today we’ll be starting our discussion of international business
in the Middle East. So we’ll be learning about major centers for business in the
region—cities like Doha, Abu Dhabi, and Dubai that are large and are growing even

Dubai is one of the best examples in the region of a modern, global city. But that
wasn’t always true. In the 1970s, most of Dubai was desert, and there were actually
only around 180,000 people living in the whole city. The economy was mainly
focused on oil. At the time, Dubai’s leaders made a strategic decision to expand the
economic focus. Their strategy was to invest in infrastructure, to make
transportation into and out of Dubai easier.

So, governing authorities built a shipping port. Today, Dubai has the largest man-

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made port in the world. And there are 850 companies that operate there—that
includes large multinationals like Sony, Grundig, and Daewoo.

Dubai also built an international airport, which is now the third busiest airport in
the world. Incredibly, it produces 28% of Dubai’s total income, at 22 billion dollars a
year. The shipping port and airport have made Dubai a hub of trade in the Middle
East. In fact, many products in Bahrain, Kuwait, Doha, and Abu Dhabi came into the
region in Dubai.

Another part of Dubai’s business strategy is its “free zones,” or tax-free

neighborhoods. There are over 20 of these free zones, and there are no personal or
corporate income taxes in them, so they’re good places to set up a business. And
companies from all over the world have done just that. Many of the free zones focus
on one particular type of business, so that high tech companies are together in one
free zone and commodities such as gold and diamonds are traded in another. I want
to note that the free zones have brought in a lot of investment from China; more and
more Chinese companies are using Dubai as their base for trading in the Middle

Along with this, the government simplified business regulations to make it easier for
people to come to Dubai and start a company. In some cases, it takes just a few days
to establish a new business. So it’s not surprising that around 80% of the people
living in Dubai are immigrants from other countries looking for business
opportunities and jobs. In fact, about 100,000 people move there every year.
All of this investment coming in to Dubai means that people can have a very high
quality of life there, including world-class shopping and entertainment. For example,
the Dubai Mall is the world’s largest mall. There’s another large shopping center,
called the Mall of the Emirates that has five indoor ski slopes—so you can ski on
snow when it’s 104 degrees Fahrenheit outside. And one of the next big projects is a
65 billion dollar theme park, called Dubai Land.

Dubai has also focused on attracting high-quality health care workers and
educational institutions. There are excellent hospitals and doctors. And quite a few
famous schools and universities from Great Britain, Canada, Australia, and the
United States have international campuses in Dubai.
So these are some of the things that Dubai has done to make itself an international
center for business. Things have really changed there since the 1970s. Now, oil
brings in only about four percent of the GDP. For your reading this week, we’re
going to be studying trade regulations in Dubai and other major cities in the region…

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Unit 3 Enhancing Reality



Listen 1 (Audio)

M1: Good afternoon, everyone. Notice anything…different? Anyone notice my stylish

high-tech glasses? I promise you that I’m not just trying to look cool. These are
actually augmented reality glasses. Has anyone seen these before? No one?

Well, augmented reality, or AR, is when you can see not only the world around you,
but also get computer information and images related to what you’re seeing. It’s like
placing a computer layer over the real world.

So first of all, I want to show you how these AR glasses work. Now I’m looking out
this classroom window here. With these glasses, not only do I see everything that’s
outside, but I also see computer graphics with weather information. For instance,
my glasses say that it’s 77 degrees and sunny outside right now. Also, I’m getting
information on flowers and trees as I look around. For example, that flower over
there – my glasses say that it’s an azalea. It’s important to note that these glasses
work as a phone, too. So I can send text messages using voice commands, and I can
have a phone conversation using the glasses.

Okay, next I want to talk about different applications that could work with AR

Let’s say you go on a trip overseas. You could use an augmented reality application
as your tour guide. You could look at a museum and see everything that’s inside it
before you go in. Of course, if you decide to go into the museum, you could interact
with information and even videos related to different exhibitions there. Plus, after
the museum, when you see a restaurant that looks good, your glasses will show you
the complete menu and prices as well as online reviews. And then when it’s time to
exchange money, you can use your AR glasses to compare currency rates at different
banks. And you won’t need a camera for this trip because you can take photos and
videos with your glasses, too.

There are plenty of other possible AR applications. Let’s say that after you graduate
you’re looking for a job. Imagine if you could look at a building and see what
companies are inside the building and what job openings they have. Along the same
lines, imagine an application giving you land information when you’re hiking, so you
know if hills, roads, and rivers are ahead of you. In fact, this is something the
military has already started using.

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In addition, AR applications can be used in education. If you’re in the library looking

at a book with AR glasses, you’ll see Internet links to videos related to your book. Of
course, if you get bored in the library, you’ll have thousands of videos and games
stored on your glasses to entertain you. But I know none of you gets bored in the
library, right?

Finally, there are some great applications for AR in health and medicine. For people
with heart problems, AR apps can check their heart rates and connect them with
their doctor if there’s a problem. There’s even an application that lets medical
students practice surgery on virtual human bodies.

For the duration of class, I want you to break into groups of four. I’d like each group
to discuss a new application for augmented reality glasses. You’ll be developing your
application throughout the week, so this planning period is key. Also, as you work,
each group can come up and take turns using the glasses. Ok, so I’m going to read
aloud the names for each group…

SPEAKING SKILL: Sharing Opinions Politely

Listen 2 (Audio)

Moderator: Hello everyone, and welcome to Tech at Work. Today, millions of robots
are doing jobs that humans once did. They’re cleaning our houses, driving our cars,
and even providing medical services. Robots are becoming a bigger part of our lives
every day, and they’re getting smarter and faster. That’s why I’m here today with
scientist Edward Ballantyne…

Edward: Hello.

Moderator: …and Pritha Sarin. Pritha is a researcher at the Economic Development

Organization. Welcome, Pritha.

Pritha: Hi, thanks for having me.

Moderator: Today we’re talking about the future of manufacturing. One common
concern is that the widespread use of robots in factories will cause millions of
people to lose their jobs. Edward, let’s start with you. What do you think about
robots in the workplace?

Edward: I think there’s nothing to worry about. History has shown that robots and
automation actually create economic growth. Robots can work seven days a week

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without rest, and they don’t need retirement and health benefits. They save
companies time and money so that the companies can invest in new developments.

Pritha: I’m not sure that I agree. Yes, we’ve experienced automation before, but
never this fast and never this much. At some factories, just one robot can substitute
for five human workers. Most people can’t retrain for new jobs fast enough to
compete with robots. I think there will be significant job losses.

Edward: Yes, I partially agree with you. Robot technology is advancing quickly, it’s
true. I’m reluctant to agree with you completely, because I think people adjust
quickly too. And we’ll still need workers to design and program new robots, so there
will be lots of new jobs. I think the effects of job losses will be marginal.

Moderator: Let’s talk about the human element. Is there value in having a person
perform a task, instead of a machine? An interesting question came up at Google.
Google has developed its own driverless cars. These cars have special detection
systems that sense other cars, traffic lights, and everything else on the road, so they
don’t need a person to drive them. Engineers have said that driverless detection
systems will eventually make robots almost perfect drivers. So, in the future, it could
even become illegal for people to drive their own cars because robots will be safer
drivers. Do you think we have too much confidence in the abilities of the machines
we’re creating? Pritha, can you take this one?

Pritha: Well, I see it a little differently. Forget the technology and think about the
people. I worry that people will lose basic skills. What if a robot breaks down after
you’ve become dependent on it to drive you to work? Or worse, what if people let
robots do everything? Then we stop learning, and we stop creating.

Edward: Well, people might forget how to do some activities. That’s probably true.
But to me, this doesn’t matter. How many people can ride a horse today? How many
people can make their own clothes? Not many and not many would want to. People
today spend their time doing other things and there’s nothing wrong with that.

Moderator: Well, I’m still trying to decide what I think. Going back to the point that
Pritha made, what if robots do become conscious, and start to think and be creative?
Then robots really could take over almost all human roles in the workplace.

Edward: I partially agree that robots will be able to do some thinking, but I think
robots will always need computer programming to think at a higher level. And that
computer programming will always come from people. You know, a university in the
US recently devoted a lot of time and money to programming a robot to see itself in
the mirror, but … it was programmed to do that, and it couldn’t do anything else
besides that. I don’t think self-aware robots are a real threat.

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Pritha: He’s absolutely right. Having self-aware robots seems impossible to me. But
I think we have other things to worry about with robots. Again, I worry about job
loss and the people who are displaced by machines…

Moderator: I’m sorry, Pritha, Edward, we’re going to have to take a break here.
When we return, we’ll discuss what human skills will become more important in an
automated work environment.

End of Unit Task (Audio)


M1: Some people say that the growth of technology is an overall benefit, but I see it
a little differently. First of all, I believe that the growth of technology is a major
social problem among young people. For instance, studies have shown that over
60% of high school students are addicted to hi-tech devices. In fact, students
addicted to technology exhibited loneliness and depression. In addition, lack of
social interaction is a problem. As people become addicted to their hi-tech machines,
they have less interaction with other people. As a result, they lose important social
skills that are needed for living in the real world. For these reasons, I feel that there
are more disadvantages than benefits with the growth of technology.

Unit 4 Literary Symbols


LISTENING SKILL: Outlining Notes

Listen (Audio)

Professor, Dr. Kimberly Chang: Alright, everyone, let’s start today’s lecture on
symbolism. In literature, writers sometimes use a person, an object, or an event to
represent an idea, a theme, or a feeling. This person, object, or event is a symbol. So
let’s talk about a few different categories of symbols.

The first symbol we see a lot in literature is the weather. For example, a writer
might use a rainstorm or thunder to represent bad news or trouble. I’m sure you’ve
read books where a big rainstorm comes right before something bad happens. In
fact, rain itself is another symbol that often refers to sadness. If any of you have read
Ernest Hemingway’s book A Farewell to Arms, you may remember that the main
character walks in the rain after someone close to him dies.

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Ok, next, let’s talk about landforms as symbols – different shapes of land. What do
you think climbing to the top of a mountain might mean? Anybody?

Student 1: Maybe … solving a tough problem?

Professor: Right. A good example of this is in the book Lord of the Rings, where the
characters have to climb mountains to overcome challenges and reach their goal.

Now, it’s important to remember that the same symbol can mean different things in
different books. There isn’t complete uniformity across literature. And symbols can
have different meanings in different cultures, too, so the meanings of symbols in
different books may even contradict each other depending on a writer’s culture.
Colors have a range of meanings, for example. In some cultures, white can refer to
weddings, but in other cultures it can refer to funerals. So when you’re trying to
understand the meaning of a symbol, check to see if the writer’s culture and the
meaning of a symbol are compatible with each other.

Another category of symbols is animals. Eagles, for instance – big birds like eagles
often represent common themes. The famous poet Muhammad Iqbal used eagles in
his writing a lot. What could an eagle mean? Yes, what do you think?

Student 2: For me, I guess an eagle would represent strength or courage.

Professor: Yes. Eagles often represent strength. But like colors, animals can mean
different things to different writers, so you really have to think about the writer’s
culture, too.

Ok. Finally, you should know that writers sometimes create their own personal
symbols with a meaning specific to that book. Does anyone remember the clock
tower in the book To Kill a Mockingbird? The author Harper Lee describes the clock
tower as old and slow. Now, if the clock is a symbol for the town, what do you think
the town is like?

Student 1: Um, slow … and old-fashioned?

Professor: Exactly. The author is saying that the town is changing too slowly and
also that the town needs to be fixed. Actually, the two ideas overlap because
changing would also require fixing the town.

Ok. So those are a few of the symbols you often find in literature. While you’re
reading Melville’s Moby Dick, please pay attention to any symbols you find, because
I’m going to ask you to write about them later.

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SPEAKING SKILL: Giving Short Oral Summaries

Watch (Video)

Dr. Sarah Clark: Ok, looks like we’re ready to get started. You’ll each be presenting
short summaries of your books to the class today. So I think Irene is going to go first.
She read Jules Verne’s Around the World in Eighty Days. Irene...

Irene: Okay, thanks. The book Around the World in Eighty Days is an adventure story
written by Jules Verne in the late 1800s. It is about Phileas Fogg and his assistant,
and their trip around the world.

In the beginning of the book, Fogg is in London. One night, Fogg tells his friends that
it is possible to travel around the world in eighty days. His friends disagree with
him. They say they will give him 20,000 pounds, or around two million dollars in
today’s money, if he can travel around the world in 80 days. So Fogg and his
assistant plan their trip around the world.

Fogg and his assistant then leave London. They have a lot of problems during their
trip, such as becoming separated from each other in unfamiliar countries, and their
transportation breaking down. But each time, they figure out how to resolve the
challenges they face. And they continue with their trip, never abandoning their goal.
They travel through a lot of really interesting places around the world, such as
London, Egypt, India, and Japan.

In the end, after many difficulties, Fogg and his assistant arrive back in London,
apparently too late to get the money. At least, it appears that way at first. They think
they arrived only a few minutes too late. However, Fogg realizes that it is actually a
day earlier because of the time difference as they were crossing the world. As a
result, Fogg’s friends give him the money.

Overall, I think this is a great adventure story that teaches the reader about different
places around the world. In the historical context of the 1800s, traveling around the
world was a very difficult thing to do. So, I also think the book teaches the reader
about effort and Fogg’s attitude to never give up. Even though he faces many
challenges, Fogg labors on toward his goal and succeeds in the end.

Unit 5 Creative Solutions


LISTENING SKILL: Listening for Proposals

Watch (Video)

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Narrator: Greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide act as a blanket around the Earth.
When carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, it spreads evenly around the
Earth. In the past, the carbon dioxide blanket was thinner. But today it is thicker.
And this thicker blanket around the Earth traps more of the sun's heat and prevents
the sun's energy from reflecting back into space. This process makes the Earth

The Earth’s warming and the resulting ice melt have worried scientists who are now
trying to find solutions for global climate change.

For as long as the sun has been shining, man has been protecting himself from it
using sunshades. Imagine if you could do this for the whole world.

One solution may be to do just that. Place a giant sunshade made of 16 trillion glass
discs in space, a million miles from the Earth. These discs can reflect the sun's rays.
Just two percent of sunlight needs to be reflected away from the Earth to prevent
climate change.

This proposed giant sunshade of glass discs could provide the solution to global

A sunshade in space isn't the only plan for reflecting the sun's rays and reducing
global temperatures. There is another suggestion. These clouds are marine
stratocumulus clouds. They are only a few hundred meters thick but scientists are
interested in them because of their reflectivity. Scientists have established that they
are great for reflecting the sun’s rays back into space.

This new solution proposes to use large boats that take water from the sea and then
spray the seawater into the clouds above. By spraying the clouds with seawater,
they become more reflective.

As the seawater is sprayed upward from the boats, the water leaves behind salt in
the clouds. The salt rises up into the clouds and attracts more water. This makes the
clouds thicker and more reflective. It's estimated that 500 hundred liters of water
per second sprayed every year can make enough shiny clouds to control the
temperature of the earth and prevent global climate change.

These two technologies are interesting new ideas that scientists are now studying,
and they could help stop the Earth from warming while we work to develop more
carbon-neutral power sources for the future.

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Another possible solution is to run a pipe from a nitrogen factory and pump gallons
of urea into the ocean feeding the plankton that absorb carbon dioxide. When CO2 is
absorbed by phytoplankton it releases oxygen, with the remaining carbon staying in
the plankton. When the plankton die they sink to the ocean floor taking the carbon
with them. By adding nutrients to areas of the ocean that lack phytoplankton a lush
forest can be created that will reverse the effects of global warming by absorbing
carbon dioxide. Another elegant solution is synthetic trees that remove CO2 from
the air giving the world some breathing space whilst alternative carbon-neutral
energy sources can be developed.

Nuclear power, although carbon-neutral, still has serious waste issues. Free energy
like wave power is being proposed as an alternative. This experimental sea snake
has joints that move with the waves to generate electricity. Hydroelectric plants
generate electricity by releasing rainwater stored behind enormous dams. As the
water plummets downhill it turns giant turbines that generate power. Electricity
generating wind farms are already well established in a number of countries but
they're totally dependent on prevailing weather conditions so have come to be seen
as a supplemental resource.

Fossil fuels are running out as mankind's power demands increase. The need for
alternative solutions is not just science fiction. It's a practical necessity.

SPEAKING SKILL: Giving and Responding to Proposals

Listen (Audio)

F1: Hey, guys. How’re you doing?

F2: I’m good.

M1: Yeah, fine, how’re you?

F1: Not bad. So, how to solve climate change … do you have any proposals for our

F2: I think so. I have an idea that could conserve energy, but I’m not sure if my
proposal is any good. I’d like to get your input on it.

F1: Sure.

F2: Okay. Well, we know that people around the world are using more energy and
burning more fuel. So, more CO2 is being released in the air, and this is making the
Earth hotter. My suggestion is to use government funds for a new domestic energy

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conservation program. It would reduce taxes for people who share rides to work.
People would use a lot less fuel. Also, we would develop educational programs for
TV, radio, and schools to show people how to conserve energy at home and in the
office. So I think this kind of conservation program would help us decrease energy
use and prevent climate change.

M1: That’s a good idea, but I’m not sure if an energy conservation program would
really be enough. The world’s population is growing—remember, we read in class
that there may be 8 billion people on Earth within the next few years? So even if
everyone starts to use less energy, we still have more people using energy. So,
conservation programs only give us an intermediate solution. We must have a long-
term solution. Here’s my idea. We should fund new technology to stop global climate
change. There are already a lot of great ideas for using solar power, for example. We
also have an idea for creating a giant sunshade around Earth that would reflect the
sun’s rays. These are great concepts, but most scientists don’t have enough money
to develop them. So I think that we must use government funds to develop new
technology. And with this funding, scientists will have enough money to help stop
climate change.

F1: I like that suggestion. I guess my only worry would be time. How long would it
take to build new technology like a giant sunshade? And scientists have been
working on solar power for years, but it still doesn’t produce as much energy as
people need. I’m thinking that maybe we could tax carbon emissions to solve the

F2: Okay, how would that work?

F1: Well, if a company like a manufacturer releases carbon gas into the air, the
company will have to give extra money to the government. The more carbon a
company produces, the more it will be taxed. So companies will decrease their
output of carbon emissions because they’ll want to save money.

F2: That’s a great point. The only issue I see is that companies might lose so much
money on taxes that workers could lose their jobs.

F1: Hm, right. Well, let’s get back to our presentation. We have three good proposals
here. Should we talk about all three in our presentation?

M1: That would be interesting, but it might be difficult to present all three ideas as
one unified proposal.

F2: True. It would sound like several random solutions. We should probably just
focus on one proposal for solving climate change.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

F1: Yeah, that’ll probably be better.

Unit 6 What to Eat


LISTENING SKILL: The Cornell Method to Take Notes

Listen 1 (Audio)

M1: All right, let’s get started. We’ll be talking today about individual nutrition.

It seems like almost every day we hear about a new comprehensive nutrition study.
There’s a lot of information in the news. Sometimes, the information in one study is
different than the information in the next study, so people can get confused about
what food to eat and how to have a healthy diet.

In the past, nutrition experts researched the vitamins and minerals in food, and how
healthy and unhealthy foods affected people’s bodies. Then, they recommended the
same comprehensive health plan for everyone. A lot of health professionals still had
questions, though. For example, why is it that some people can consume a high fat
diet and still be healthy? And other people consume low fat diets and have serious
health problems. And why do vitamin supplements help some people but not other
people? Why does one kind of food give some people energy and make other people
feel tired? Health experts began to think that every person had unique nutritional

So because of this, a lot of research recently has been focused on individual

nutritional requirements. We’re learning that food, and the chemicals in food, have
very different effects on different people. This means that diets and nutrition plans
need to target individual needs. People are unique. Our heights and weights are
different, our ages and lifestyles are different. Most health professionals today feel it
makes sense that good nutrition is different for each person.

Another recent focus of research is the importance of family history in nutrition. For
example, if many generations of people in your family consumed milk, it’s likely that
your body will be able to digest the natural chemicals in milk. However, if milk was
not something people in your family and culture consumed, your body may have
difficulty digesting it.

So this is our challenge. The goal in nutrition research is to help people develop a
diet that is customized for them. The website Nutrition Target has a guide that

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

attempts to do this. People enter their personal information, like their height,
weight, age group, and how active they are, and then Nutrition Target creates special
nutrition plans based on those factors. Programs like this are an important step in
applying the science of nutrition. But this is just the first step.

In the future, health experts will create even more specific nutritional plans for
people based on their unique needs. This will require a more comprehensive
understanding of nutrition and the effects of food. So for the next two lectures, we’ll
be studying how health professionals can understand and target individual needs.

SPEAKING SKILL: Preparing Well-Organized Presentations

Listen 2 (Audio)

F1: Good afternoon. Today, I will be discussing ways to use food to improve your
body and mind.

Before we start, I’d like you to look at the number 60 on the slide. I surveyed 200
students on campus and found that around 60 percent of all students did not really
understand the positive effects of food on their bodies and minds.

So, I’m going to talk about three important kinds of foods: food to increase
brainpower, food to increase energy, and food to help prevent sickness.

So let’s start with food for increasing brainpower. As students, we want to be

mentally focused and, most importantly, to remember what we’ve learned! So here
are some foods that will help.

Oily fish, such as salmon or mackerel, contain chemicals called omega-3 fatty acids.
Omega-3 fatty acids support brain cells that help improve memory and
concentration. If you eat just one portion of oily fish, you’re getting the
recommended daily amount of Omega 3s.

Another great food for improving memory and brain function is soy, which supports
the parts of the brain related to memory. Soy can be found in tofu and miso soup,
and it’s easy to include as a part of a healthy diet.

Next, I’m going to talk about food you can eat to increase your energy. As students,
we need lots of energy during the day.

Leafy green vegetables, such as kale and spinach, have a variety of vitamins and
minerals. They’re considered “super foods” because they have so many nutrients
that give us energy.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

There are also a lot of good fruits and nuts that can help increase energy. For
instance, the fiber in apples can help prevent sleepiness—which is especially helpful
during an afternoon lecture. Also, you should drink lots of water. Your body needs
water to keep your energy level high.

Finally, let’s highlight some great foods for improving your ability to prevent
sickness. We all know that colds can make life hard, especially during exam week.

One of the best foods for preventing sickness is yogurt. Yogurt has healthy bacteria
in it that produce disease-fighting cells in the body. Studies have shown that people
who eat yogurt regularly do not get colds as often as people who never eat it.

Another great way to increase your ability to fight sickness is to consume Vitamin C.
Healthy snacks like oranges and bell peppers have lots of Vitamin C, and can
decrease the effects of a cold by 30% or more. Academic research has also
connected Vitamin C to decreases in tension and stress.

To summarize, today we’ve talked about improving brainpower, increasing energy,

and preventing sickness. We can do all of those things with food. Before I end, let me
add that placing priority on your health is not difficult. You don’t have to follow a
rigid new health plan. You just need to include healthier foods in your diet. Also,
many of the foods I talked about are cheaper than some of the salty, sugary snacks
that are visible all around campus. So eating healthier can save you money, too!

Thank you very much. Any questions?

Unit 7 Working in the Field


LISTENING SKILL: Listening for Implications

Listen (Audio)

Narrator: Hello, everyone, and welcome to Career Exhibit. Today we’re looking at
careers in geology.

You might not realize it, but geology affects several important aspects of our lives,
and it also offers exciting career opportunities – predicting natural disasters,
studying climate change, searching for natural resources, and protecting the
environment are just some of the things that geologists do.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

So what exactly is geology? The short answer is that geology is the study of the
structure or composition of the Earth.

Geologists are rarely restricted to just one place, because they work both outdoors
and also in an office. They also use new technology and equipment, which are
always developing and changing. So geologists almost never find themselves sitting
at the same desk and doing the same thing every day. Jobs in geology are usually
very interesting.

One field of geology is environmental geology. Environmental geologists seek to

predict floods, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions. They also help keep our
environment clean. Here’s an environmental geologist we interviewed earlier.

Geologist F1: Last year, our team went into a town that was having problems with
their water supply. The water was making people sick, and no one knew why. We
studied the area and found an old garbage landfill near the town. It was polluting the
water supply, so we removed the landfill and treated the water. Now, the town’s
water is safe, and people aren’t getting sick anymore. Being able to help people was
a great experience for me in my career.

Narrator: A second field in geology is exploration geology. Exploration geologists

look for natural resources. They search remote places for oil, gas, and minerals such
as gold. We interviewed this exploration geologist during her short stay in the city.

Geologist F2: I love being outside in nature. Sometimes I work in very remote areas
for weeks at a time, spending all day outdoors and then sleeping in a tent. And it’s a
good thing that I have my love of nature to motivate me. Last year we worked in the
cold for months, and drilled wells in twelve different places before we found oil
where we thought it would be. But of course, when you find what you’re looking for,
the feeling is just amazing.

Narrator: It’s also good to have a geologist around at a construction site.

Engineering geologists make sure that land is safe for building homes, roads, and
bridges. This engineering geologist told us about his work.

Geologist 3 (Male): When I get to a construction site, I look around at the area. I
pay attention to the rocks, soil, and water on the surface, and then I use radar and
drill into the ground to find out what’s under the surface. I’m looking for any
possible scenarios that could happen on the site – problems like landslides, water
leaking into the building’s foundation, even earthquakes. Sometimes architects have
had to alter their plans based on my recommendations, and it’s turned out to be
very lucky that they did. At the end of a project, it’s a great feeling when I look up
and see a brand-new building that I helped with and know it’s safe.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

Narrator: To become a geologist, you’ll need a university degree in geology. Starting

salaries are good. Also, during their careers, many geologists become managers and
executives in other areas, so they’re not restricted to geological work only. More
good news: there are many jobs for geologists and job opportunities are expected to
increase. If you’re interested in becoming a geologist, make sure you find a geology
program that matches your career goals.

SPEAKING SKILL: Polite Requests and Interruptions

Watch (Video)

Host: I’m here with geologist Dr. Mark Richards. He’s going to explain how a bio-
sand water filter works. Good morning Dr. Richards. Thank you for being here.

Dr. Richards: Thanks for having me. It’s great to be here.

Host: First of all, could you explain how you learned to make a water filtration

Dr. Richards: Well, as a geologist, I often work outdoors in remote areas,

sometimes for many weeks. One of the things I had to learn was how to clean or
purify the water from the nearest stream, river, or lake so that I could drink it or
cook with it. I did this by making a bio-sand water filter.

Host: Okay, great. And you’re going to explain how to make one?

Dr. Richards: Yes, I am. To start, you need a container, like a plastic bottle. The first
layer is made of large stones. Next, you have some smaller stones that you place on
top of the bigger ones. Wet sand goes on top of that. This sand layer should be
thicker than the stone layers.

Host: Now if I could just stop you for a moment – what is the purpose of the sand?

Dr. Richards: The sand actually holds onto harmful viruses and bacteria as the
water passes through it. It acts as a filter to remove bad smells and tastes from the
water and, most importantly, can eliminate many viruses and bacteria from the

Host: And how much sand do you have to use?

Dr. Richards: As you can see here, you want a lot more sand than rock, probably 7
or 8 times as much. Then you make a small hole on the side. Notice that the hole is

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

below the level of the sand. We want the water to pass through the sand. Now a little
tube gets inserted on the side. You can use a straw, too.

The dirty water will filter through…

Host: I’m sorry to interrupt, could you tell us if bio-sand filters will completely
purify the water?

Dr. Richards: Under ideal circumstances, the bio-sand water filter can produce
drinking water, but the source water must not be too contaminated, either. It can
reduce turbidity as well as the percentage of pathogens, like bacteria and viruses
and also…

Host: I’d like to clarify—it won’t produce perfectly clean water.

Dr. Richards: No, it’s not 100% clean. However, these filters have been credited
with improving health in many places around the world where there have been
ongoing problems with water for years. Sometimes because of these water filters,
people are able to drink water from a nearby source for the first time and not get
sick. When you need drinking water, this simple water filter can be a lifesaver. And
that is one of the most important aspects of these water filters.

Host: Making your own water filtration system—that’s a skill that could be very
useful. Dr. Richards, thank you very much again for being our guest.

Dr. Richards: My pleasure.

Unit 8 The Happiness Formula



Watch 1 (Video)

Narrator: Professor Daniel Kahneman is a scientific superstar. He won a Nobel

Prize for challenging the basis of modern economics and he's not even an economist.
He's a psychologist who wants to know how to make people happy.

Daniel Kahneman: It's a fundamental fact in the happiness research. Standard of

living has increased dramatically and happiness has increased not at all, and in some
cases, has diminished slightly. I mean there's a lot of evidence that being richer

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

hasn't made us -- isn't making us happier at least in the Western world. So we

clearly need something else.

Narrator: It's a huge claim. Put simply, the science shows that once average
incomes are more than ten thousand pounds a year, extra riches don't make a
country any happier.

And the British scene fits the picture.

Simply look at what's happened over the last say 50 years, 1950 to today, we've got
massively richer but during the same period of time, our happiness levels have
hardly changed at all.

Our wealth, our possessions are like mood music in a shopping mall, pretty quickly
we filter them out, but boy, do we love to shop. Struggling with our bulging bags, we
get the same pleasure cavemen felt. Echoes of returning from the hunt.

Consumerism promises us happiness but the science shows there are two reasons
why it can never work. We've seen one: we adapt to our material possessions. And
the other?

Scientists call it the problem of comparison. Imagine you've just got yourself a brand
new Mini. You're the only one in the street that's got one and you feel great. Then
your neighbors drive up in two top of the range BMWs and suddenly, your Mini just
doesn't do it for you anymore. And that's the problem of comparison.

In our happy lab, we have recreated psychological experiments from the science of

Today we're examining comparison.

We took three volunteers and asked them to do a simple task.

What we didn't tell them was that they would be rewarded differently.

F1: There you go. There's the first one.

M1: Thank you.

F1: Would you mind opening it?

Narrator: A fiver.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

F1: You're welcome.

F2: Thank you very much.

F2: Wow, thank you.

Narrator: 10 pounds. And the third we paid nothing.

F1: How did you feel when you opened your envelope?

M1: Whenever you see cash, makes you feel all right.

F1: Do you feel all right?

M1: Yeah.

F1: So you felt quite happy?

M1: Yes.

F1: Okay so how did you feel when you saw the second participant opening her

M1: Well I gathered she got twice as much as me. So that annoyed me, and I thought
she's going to get a 50 pound note. I thought I sat at the wrong end.

F1: Okay.

Narrator: And researchers reckon we've got more consumerists. In 1965, about 8
out of 10 college students in the U.S. said it was essential to strive for meaning in
your life. In 2000, about the same proportion said it was essential to strive for

Consumerism promises to make people happy, but it cuts both ways. It makes the
haves feel good for a time, while the have-nots are made to feel bad and the more
materialist people are, the less happy they're likely to be, especially the young.

M2: One of the most concerning findings of our research with children was that the
children that are more brand aware, or more consumerist in that sense, came across
as less satisfied in other parts of their lives.

Narrator: They were unhappier.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

M2: They were unhappier in that sense.

SPEAKING SKILL: Checking for Understanding

Watch 2 (Video)

Host: Our world is becoming more interconnected every day, because of this,
studying abroad is a very important experience for students to have. The Study
Abroad Office offers programs in eighty countries worldwide. This is an opportunity
for students to have a once-in-a-lifetime experience overseas. Let’s hear about what
studying abroad is really like. With me here is Craig Harrison who studied in China
last year.

So why China, Craig?

Craig: Well, I’ve always wanted to study abroad. And my major is East Asian studies,
so I thought China would be a really great place to see and experience some of the
things I’ve been studying up until now.

Host: So you thought that the study abroad program in China matched your
academic goals. Then, how were the classes there?

Craig: Well, I took two full semesters of classes at a university in Beijing, and all the
courses I took transferred back home to credit in my major. So as far as classes go, it
was a lot less difficult than I had anticipated. In fact, it was quite easy.

Host: That’s good.

Craig: Yeah, it was.

Host: You know, when students ask me about the Study Abroad program, they often
want to know about where they’re going to live. Was housing something you
worried about?

Craig: Well, prior to leaving for Beijing, I had planned to live in the dorms there. But
I actually ended up living with a host family instead, which the Study Abroad Offices
here on campus arranged for me.

Host: So you’re saying that the Study Abroad Office organized your homestay. How
was that?

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

Craig: It was incredible. I learned so much about Chinese culture. My Mandarin

language skills improved quickly because my host family didn’t speak much English.
Getting to know them was one of the best aspects of my time in China.

Host: If I understand you correctly, you’re saying homestays are a great way to
learn local language.

Craig: Definitely. Homestays really help you to get to know the local culture, too.

Host: Then, was there anything that surprised you about the culture?

Craig: A lot, actually. You know, I had read a lot about Chinese culture before going
to China, but I don’t think I began to really understand it until I went there and
experienced it myself.

Host: Can you give us an example?

Craig: Sure. I learned that when you’re a guest in someone’s home and the person
offers you food, even if you want it, it’s polite to say you don’t want it two, or even
three times, before you accept it.

Host: Wow. So let me make sure I understand. If someone offers me something in

China, I should refuse it several times before I accept it? Because not doing so could
be considered impolite?

Craig: Yes, you should refuse it about two or three times. For me, learning about
these cultural customs really improved my understanding of China and the people

Host: Right. Now, I know that the format for each study abroad program includes
trips, events, and other opportunities. What was one of the highlights of your

Craig: Well, of course walking the Great Wall and seeing the Forbidden City were
great parts of my program. But to be honest, the best part was walking around and
exploring the smaller backstreets of Beijing, called Hutongs. I liked seeing everyday
life on the streets, and being in the middle of the sights, the sounds, and smells of the
markets. Everything was so different to me. People were curious about me, too, so
that made it fun.

Host: It seems like you had a very positive experience. So how would you assess
your overall time in China and your program?

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

Craig: Very highly… It was something I’ll never forget. You know, I made a lot of
good friends in China. I got to study Mandarin where it’s really spoken, and I did and
saw a lot of really cool things in a foreign country. You know, living abroad helped
me mature as a person. So, it was great.

Host: Well, thank you for sharing your thoughts on your time in China with us,
Craig. And for those of you interested in studying abroad, the Study Abroad Office
will be giving presentations consultations this Friday, starting at six o’clock in the
student union building.

Unit 9 Stop the Presses


LISTENING SKILL: Facts and Opinions

Watch (Video)

Narrator: When it comes to news about the news these days, no news is good

Newsperson: In Denver they stopped the presses for good today. After nearly 150
years in operation, the Rocky Mountain News published its final edition.

Narrator: Are we really facing the demise of the great Metropolitan Daily? It was,
after all, the newspaper that became as powerful a force as any it covered.

M1: Hard as it is for those of us whose day cannot begin without the newspaper, it is
a medium that cannot survive without dramatic change. Indeed, it's not clear if it
can survive as we know it at all. But does that mean an enormous vacuum, an
absence of the kind of information a democratic society needs?

Michael Wolf: It's the end of the newspaper business right now, this point in time.

Narrator: Why is longtime media watcher Michael Wolf predicting the imminent
end of the newspaper? Consider the facts. Just since 2000, daily newspaper
circulation has dropped from 55 million to 50 million. In the last two years alone,
print ad revenue for papers dropped 28 percent, more than 11 billion dollars, and
that was before the recession really kicked in. Classified ads, the most profitable of
all, have migrated to the web on sites like Craigslist. And while the newspaper does
have a home online, readers don't pay a dime to read it. Just ask the next generation.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

F1: The Internet is something that we constantly have with us. I constantly have my
laptop on.

M2: I read the New York Times online, the Washington Post online.

F2: Realistically I prefer the Internet. I do. Because things are updated constantly.

Narrator: And what about the local angle? Editors, you know, always tell their
reporters to get the local angle. Well, you can't get more local than the suburban
community of Montclair, New Jersey.

Debra Galant: This is cute.

Liz George: Yeah.

Narrator: Where Debra Galant and Liz George have launched a website,

Debra Galant: We're much more dynamic. People are coming. They're having a
conversation. They're exchanging ideas and opinions. You can't do that on the local
newspaper site.

Narrator: It's produced from their living rooms and from a coffee shop. And they
say the web offers powerful advantages over the printed page. Quite apart from the
cost advantages of no paper, no presses, no delivery cost.

Liz George: If you hear helicopters overhead and you think is there a police search
going on, is there some kind of news breaking, you're not going to wait until
Thursday until the local paper comes out. You're going to go right to baristanet.com
and see what's going on up the street.

Narrator: But for Mark Porter, editor of the Montclair Times, baristanet.com
represents something very different.

Mark Porter: They're primarily just like a lamprey eel feeding off the work of
another entity. They haven't gone to the meeting. They haven't interviewed the five
or six sources that a reporter has done for a newspaper. And it really is pilferage.

Narrator: So can the immediacy of the web and the depth of the traditional
newspaper somehow be fused?

Brian Tierney: That's a large audience.

© Oxford University Press. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. 28

Inside Listening and Speaking 2

Narrator: In Philadelphia entrepreneur Brian Tierney and a consortium of wealthy

investors bought the 180-year-old Philadelphia Inquirer and the tabloid Daily News
some three years ago. They placed a multi-hundred million dollar bet that the
papers can adapt and survive.

Brian Tierney: We had a series recently on the EPA and the Bush administration. It
took several months to do. It cost a quarter of a million dollars to do that. I can't do
that with two bloggers. I can't do that the way all-news radio in this market does it
where they basically buy our newspaper and then paraphrase our stories every day.
We are the originators of the investigative work that needs to be done.

Narrator: But Tierney is facing the same dilemma every paper is. While he could
save a fortune, becoming web only, readers don't pay for it, and advertisers won't
pay nearly what they do for a print ad. One answer, he says, readers will have to
start paying either with a subscription or a so-called micro-payment, a few cents for
each article they click on the web.

Brian Tierney: Not that much money, given the overall scope of what television
bills and cell phone bills and all the rest of it are, cable bills are. And I think people
will pay it.

Narrator: At the heart of Tierney's efforts to save the enterprise is the website,
Philly.com, where content from the Inquirer and the Daily News is combined with
original fare.

Right now Brian Tierney's company is in bankruptcy. He argues that if the people
who read the Inquirer pay for it with a higher newsstand price and a subscriber fee
on the web, the enterprise will survive and flourish.

Brian Tierney: Times change. But you can either look in the rearview mirror and
lament the past or you can say, you know, it's exciting.

SPEAKING SKILL: Being Persuasive in Academic Discussions

Listen (Audio)

Student 1: Ok, the first question here says to briefly define citizen journalism in
your own words.

Student 2: Well, I guess it’s just regular people, finding the news and then reporting
on it and delivering it to other people.

Student 1: Yeah, that sounds right.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

Student 2: Also, citizen journalism is pretty broad. It includes blogs, cell phone
videos, podcasts ... really any way that you can record something and then share it
with a large audience.

Student 1: Right. Exactly. Okay, next question: Do you think that overall, citizen
journalism is positive or negative?

Student 2: Well, I think overall it’s a bad thing. I know that people might say that
citizen journalism is good because it gets the average person more involved in the
news, but I disagree. The average person doesn’t have the skills of a professional
reporter. And you really need those professional skills when you’re reporting on a
story or a major event.

Student 1: Yeah, okay, but how many people get news from blogs? More and more
every day, right? If the quality weren’t good, people wouldn’t be going to citizen
journalists for news. So evidently, they’re doing something right.

Student 2: Well, I’m more worried about all the bloggers and independent
journalists out there who don’t understand the great responsibility related to
reporting on the news. I did an internship at a newspaper last summer, and I saw
that the news you get from someone’s blog and the news you get from professional
news organizations are totally different.

Student 1: How so?

Student 2: Well, for starters, most big news organizations follow general rules and
policies for reporting the news. Stories have to be fact-checked before they’re
published, and newspaper staff also check that sources are who they say they are.
No rumors allowed. How many blogs have you seen report something that we later
learned was false? Remember when citizen journalists reported that Steve Jobs had
had a heart attack, but the story wasn’t true? That story had a very negative impact
on Apple’s stock price … if you remember.

Student 1: Yeah, but why can’t citizen journalists learn to follow the same rules as
professionals do? I know you think that citizen journalists are ignorant of the rules
of journalism, but I believe that bloggers and independent reporters are starting to
follow those rules. They’re learning.

Student 2: Sure, maybe a few do, but in my opinion, there are too many who don’t.
When I was working at the newspaper, we researched small independent news sites
and found problems with their sources, their facts, and the overall quality of their
reporting. Bloggers just aren’t as good as professional journalists.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

Student 1: That’s fine, but you know that if you rely only on professionals, you’ll
lose a lot of good stories and visuals like photos and videos. Citizen journalists have
covered remote places and controversial issues that large news companies
sometimes ignore.

Student 2: I partially agree with you. We can still get videos and photos from
average people. However, professional journalists should do the actual reporting.

Student 1: Well, we’re going to have to agree to disagree on this one. I still see
citizen journalists as having a positive impact in the news.

Student 2: Okay.

End of Unit Task (Audio)


Dr. Jerome Tyler: This semester one of our most important topics is Journalism
and Objectivity. Objectivity in journalism means that reporters give the facts of the
news without mentioning their opinions about these facts. Now traditionally,
reporters were expected to be objective. It was their job to report the facts, not their
opinions. But today, with blogs and social media, expressing opinions in the news is
much more common. This is a very controversial issue with strong opinions on both
sides of the debate.

On one side, we have people arguing that it is a reporter’s job to only report the
facts. So, a reporter’s opinion should not be part of reporting the news. After
presenting the facts, a reporter should let people decide for themselves what they
think. If people want to know opinions, they can watch a debate or read an editorial.
So that’s one side of the issue.

There are other people who disagree with this. They think that it’s fine for reporters
to give us their opinions on the news because reporters understand the stories
better than we do. Some people also believe that it’s impossible to be objective, so
reporters should not hide their opinions. Instead, they should be open and honest
about what they think when reporting the news.

This is just a brief introduction to the debate on objectivity in journalism. We’re

going to investigate this issue further during the semester. And as I said, I hope to
have some class discussions and find out what you think about this issue.

Unit 10 Artificial Retina


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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

LISTENING SKILL: Using Context to Follow a Lecture

Watch 1 (Video)

Erica: An artificial retina that can help the sightless regain some of their vision has
just been approved in Europe. The FDA may soon do the same here in the US. CBS
News correspondent John Blackstone has more.

John Blackstone: For Dean Lloyd, the world hasn't always been dark.

Dean Lloyd: I had functional vision until I was 34 or 35 years old. And then I lost
almost all of it in 6 months or less.

John Blackstone: Still Dean has thrived over the years. He became a lawyer opening
his own practice. He does housework. He accepted that he would never see again.

Dean Lloyd: Let there be light.

John Blackstone: Until a company called Second Sight came looking for volunteers
for a clinical trial that would surgically implant a bionic eye.

Lisa: And my dream was for my dad to be able to see again. When he said he wanted
to participate in this study, I was very excited about it.

John Blackstone: The device starts with a tiny video camera mounted in a pair of
glasses. A transmitter in the glasses sends the images to a chip implanted on the
back of the damaged eye. There, 60 electrodes send the image along the optic nerve
straight to the brain. Today, Dean can make out shapes. He can tell light from dark.
At one point, there appeared to be a breakthrough.

Lisa: He just all of a sudden exclaimed, "I can see your hand.” I just was kind of
speechless and in shock and it took me a couple of seconds. I just felt really

John Blackstone: In fact, Dean had only seen an outline, but from total blindness,
this is a major step.

Dean Lloyd: When I look at you, I can get your boundaries, your borders, and you're
a bit bigger than my daughter, that's for sure.

John Blackstone: For Lisa, the technology to help restore sight and perhaps full
sight is more than just cool science. It's a race against time.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

Lisa: So at 22, when I got the news.

John Blackstone: You got the news.

Lisa: When I got that news --

John Blackstone: You were going to go blind.

Lisa: Yeah.

John Blackstone: The disease her father has is hereditary. For now, she looks to her
dad --

Lisa: He's definitely been a pioneer.

John Blackstone: And to the future.

Lisa:-- happens for me if I do lose all of my sight. You know Dad's definitely shown
me what to do and how to live my life. And I'm not wigged-out about it.

John Blackstone: John Blackstone, CBS News, Sunnyvale, California.

Erica: Boy, what a family. Joining us now with more on the device and how it works,
medical correspondent Dr. Jennifer Ashton. I mean revolutionary in so many ways.
Break it down for us though. Who would actually be eligible for this? How many
people could potentially benefit?

Dr. Jennifer Ashton: Potentially, Erica, we're talking about 10 million people in this
country who are blind from problems dealing with their retinas.

Erica: Wow.

Dr. Jennifer Ashton: Excitingly, the company also told us they're already at work on
the next generation model, which instead of 60 electrodes has 240 electrodes
possibly making it more accurate.

Erica: So -- and so then perhaps if it makes it more accurate maybe the key to make
out because we heard him say, oh I see, you know I see your hand to his daughter.

Dr. Jennifer Ashton: Right.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

Erica: He is sort of seeing the outline of it. Could that mean that maybe they could
make out more in terms of images?

Dr. Jennifer Ashton: Hopefully more accuracy. An interesting historical

perspective, Erica, this is really where cochlear implants for people who are deaf,
this is where they were 26 years ago. So we're a little behind that but for visual
problems, blindness, this is very, very helpful.

SPEAKING SKILL: Nonverbal Communication

Watch 2 (Video)

Male Student: How many of you know the average life expectancy in the early
1800s? Believe it or not, the average life expectancy throughout the world was
approximately 29 years. Seems very young, doesn’t it? … In fact, at that time, it was
under 40 years of age in every country in the world – not very high. So, the average
person led a very short life.

Now fast forward. How about today? Today average life expectancy is around 70
years of age, and in every single country in the world it is above 40. That’s a
dramatic shift.

So how did we get these increases? Well, during the 1800s, increases in life
expectancy were small. Then, a change occurred. In the early 1900s, scientists began
to develop cures for deadly diseases such as polio, typhoid, and measles. And the
development of new medicines for diseases corresponded to increases in life
expectancy. Of course better sanitation, improved nutrition, and new medical
technology also helped.

Recent academic studies have also shown average life expectancy has increased by
11 years for men and 12 years for women since the 1970s.

So what’s the next phase? Doctors and scientists have predicted many different
outcomes. But most agree life expectancy will continue to increase. The real
question is by how much. Some experts have indicated that the next generation of
children could even live 150 years, with new technology as the principal reason for
this increased life expectancy. However, other experts say that despite new
technology, life expectancy will increase more slowly. They say that ages will range
from 100 to 110 in the future. So there is some disagreement among the experts.

As people continue to get older, one thing is clear. Just helping people to get older is
not enough. One of the biggest challenges is how to help people live well in old age.

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Inside Listening and Speaking 2

So how do we help people live happy, productive, and healthy lives as they get older
and older?

That’s my presentation. Thank you very much. Any questions?

End of Unit Task (Audio)


Narrator: Hello, everyone. Did you know that your mind has an effect on your
health? I’m going to talk briefly about some studies that show how the mind affects a
person’s health.

In one recent study, doctors tested the Placebo Effect. Sick patients were given a pill
and told it was medicine for their illness. However, the pill wasn’t real medicine. It
looked and tasted just like real medicine, but it had no chemicals in it. It was neither
harmful nor helpful to the human body. Interestingly, 83% of the patients who took
the false medicine reported feeling better. Many other studies that have given sick
people placebos have shown similar results. So just thinking they were taking
medicine actually makes some people feel better.

In another study, doctors studied neuropeptides. These are chemicals produced by

the brain when it thinks, and they’re found all over the body. These chemicals are
one way that the mind speaks to the body. When we laugh or experience a good
feeling—like, from doing well on a test—our brain produces neuropeptides that
travel all over the body. Some experts believe that these chemicals can fight cancer
and help with other health problems.

To summarize, more and more studies are showing that the mind is linked to our
health. The two are most certainly connected. So when we think about health, we
need to consider the mind as well as the body.

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