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“STUDY OF PARAMETERS WHICH EFFECT THE SINTER


MACHINE SPEED”
A mini project

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the


Requirements for the award of the Degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
4th year
in
METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING
(SINTER PLANT)
by
K.KRISHNA PRASAD 16011A0618
K.SAI RAMA KRISHNA 16011A0633
J.SAI CHANDU 16011A0636
Y.VINAY KUMAR 16011A0654
B.VINEETH 16011A0655

Under the esteemed guidance of

Y.V.R.SRINIVASA RAO
Asst. General Manager,
SINTER PLANT

DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING


HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT: Dr.K.SRINIVASA VADAYAR(Ph.D)
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING(AUTONOMOUS)
HYDERABAD – 500085
TELANGANA
2019

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JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING (AUTONOMOUS), HYDERABAD – 500 085
METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

Certified that this is a bonafide record of the dissertation work entitled, “ STUDY OF
PARAMETERS WHICH EFFECT THE SINTER MACHINE SPEED ”,
APRIL-MAY 2019
by
K.KRISHNA PRASAD 16011A0618
K.SAI RAMA KRISHNA 16011A0633
J.SAI CHANDU 16011A0636
Y.VINAY KUMAR 16011A0654
B.VINEETH 16011A0655

submitted to the faculty of Metallurgical Engineering, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

Degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY with specialization SINTER PLANT from


Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad College of Engineering (Autonomous),
Hyderabad.

Signature of the INCHARGE :

Name of the INCHARGE: Y.V.R. SRINIVASA RAO

Signature of Head of the Department


Dr.K.Srinivasa Vadayar
Associate Professor
Department of
Metallurgical Engineering

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VISION:

To be a continuously growing world - class company

We Shall
➠ Harness our growth potential and sustain profitable growth.
➠ Deliver high quality and cost competitive products and be the first choice of customers.
➠ Create an inspiring work environment to unleash the creative energy of people.
➠ Achieve excellence in enterprise management.
➠ Be a respected corporate citizen, ensure clean and green environment and develop vibrant
communities around us.

MISSION:

To attain 10 million ton liquid steel capacity through technological upgradation, operational
efficiency and expansion, to produce steel at international standards of cost and quality; to meet
the aspirations of the stockholders.

CORE VALUES:

➠ Commitment
➠ Customer Satisfaction
➠ Continuous Improvement
➠ Concern for Environment
➠ Creativity & Innovation

**VSP BELIEVES IN THE BEST AND ENDEAVOURS TO GIVE THE BEST**

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DECLARATION

We declare that the project work entitled “STUDY OF PARAMETERS


WHICH EFFECT THE SINTER MACHINE SPEED” submitted to
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD,
is a record of an original work done by us under the guidance of
Y.V.R.SRINIVASA RAO , AGM RINL, VSP and this project is submitted in the
partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of the degree of bachelor of
technology in metallurgical engineering. The results embodied in this report
have not been submitted to any other university or institution for the award of
any degree or diploma.

K.KRISHNA PRASAD 16011A0618


K.SAI RAMA KRISHNA 16011A0633
J.SAI CHANDU 16011A0636
Y.VINAY KUMAR 16011A0654
B.VINEETH 16011A0655

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is an honour for us to present this project which has helped us in enhancing our
practical and theoretical skills in various metallurgical aspects.

With great pleasure we take this opportunity to express gratitude to all the people
who helped us to complete this project successfully.

We express our sincere gratitude to Y.V.R.SRINIVASA RAO, AGM (SINTER


PLANT) for his valuable and constant guidance during the tenure of the project.

We are eternally grateful to all employees of SINTER PLANT department for their
valuable time, suggestions and guidance given during the execution of project.

We would like to show our special gratitude towards MR. DR.K.SRINIVASA


VADAYAR (HOD, DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING),
for his infinite patience and perseverance in teaching and suggesting the remedies
in our project. His encouragement has been a source of inspiration during our
course and project work.

We would like to thank Mrs DR.S DEVAKI RANI (PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT


OF METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING), for being a constant support and
guidance.

We would also like to thank all those not mentioned above without whom our
project would have been incomplete without practical learning experience.

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ABSTRACT

Visakhapatnam Steel Plant, the flagship of Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd is the only
shore based integrated steel plant in India located on the shore of bay of Bengal in
Visakhapatnam of Andhra Pradesh.

Its present capacity is around 3.4mT of liquid steel with turnover of around
rupees 10,000 crores.The quality of the products and the control of various
processes of VSP under which we have done our project “STUDY OF
PARAMETERS WHICH EFFECT THE SINTER MACHINE SPEED”
“STEEL REALLY IS THE FOUNDATION OF WHAT MOVES THE AUTO INDUSTRY “

Hence our topic has an influencing scope on the country’s economy. It has been a 4
weeks experience filled with gaining knowledge of RINL, which helped in having
results of blast furnace operations

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OVERVIEW OF VSP:

● Visakhapatnam Steel Plant, the first coastal based Steel Plant of India is located, 16
KM South West of city of Destiny i.e.Visakhapatnam.

● Bestowed with modern technologies, VSP has a installed capacity of 3 Million Tonnes
per annum of Liquid Steel and 2.656 Million tonnes of saleable steel.

● At VSP there is emphasis on total automation, seamless integration and efficient


upgradation, which result in wide range of long and structural products to meet stringent
demands of discerning customers within India and abroad.

● VSP products meet exalting International Quality Standards such as JIS, DIN, BIS, BS
etc.

● VSP has become the first integrated Steel Plant in the country to be certified to all the
three international standards for quality (ISO-9001), for Environment Management
(ISO-14001) & for Occupational Health & Safety (OHSAS-18001).

● The certificate covers quality systems of all operational, maintenance,service units


besides Purchase systems, Training and Marketing functions spreading over 4 Regional
Marketing Offices, 20 branch offices and 22 stock yards located all over the country.

● VSP by successfully installing & operating efficiently Rs.460 crores worth of Pollution
Control and Environment Control Equipments and converting the barren landscape by
planting more than 3 million plants has made the Steel Plant, Steel Township and
surrounding areas into a heaven of lush greenery.

● This has made Steel Township a greener, cleaner and cooler place,which can boast of
3 to 40 C lesser temperature even in the peak summer compared to Visakhapatnam
City.

● Having a total manpower of about 16,613 VSP has envisaged a labour productivity of
265 Tonnes per man year of Liquid Steel which is the best in the country and
comparable with the international levels.

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MAJOR SOURCES OF RAW MATERIALS:

RAW MATERIAL SOURCE


IRON ORE LUMPS & FINES BAILADILA, MP

BF LIMESTONE JAGGAYYAPETA ,AP

SMS LIMESTONE UAE

BF DOLOMITE MADHARAM ,AP

SMS DOLOMITE MADHARAM ,AP

MANGANESE ORE CHIPURUPALLI ,AP

BOILER COAL TALCHER ,ORISSA

COKING COAL AUSTRALIA

MEDIUM COKING COAL KARGALI

Water Supply:
● Operational water requirement of 36 mgd is being met from the yeleru Water supply
Scheme.
Power Supply:
● Operation power requirement of 180 to 200 MW is being met through Captive Power
Plant.
● The capacity of the power plant is 286.5 MW. VSP is exporting 60 MW power to APSEB.

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MAJOR DEPARTMENTS:

1. Raw Material Handling Plant (RMHP):

● VSP annually requires quality raw materials viz. Iron Ore,fluxes (Limestone,
Dolomite), coking and non coking coals etc. to the tune of 12-13 Million tonnes
for producing 3 Million Tonnes of Liquid Steel.
● To handle such a large volume of incoming raw materials received from different
sources and to ensure timely supply of consistent quality of feed materials to
different VSP consumers, Raw Material Handling Plant serves a vital function.
● This unit is provided with elaborate unloading, blending, stacking & reclaiming
facilities viz. Wagon Tipplers, Ground & Track Hoppers, Stock yards Crushing
plants, Vibrating screens, Single/twin boom stickers, wheel on boom and Blender
reclaimers.
● In VSP peripheral unloading has been adopted for the first time in the country.

2. Coke ovens & Coal Chemical Plant (Co&CCP):

● Blast Furnaces, the mother units of any Steel plant require huge quantities of
strong, hard and porous solid fuel in the form of hard metallurgical coke for
supplying necessary heat for carrying out the reduction and refining reactions
besides acting as a reducing agent.
● Coke is manufactured by heating of crushed coking coal (below 3 mm) in
absence of air at temperature of 1000 C and above for about 16 to 18 hours.
● A Coke Oven comprise of two hollow chambers namely coal chamber and
Heating Chamber.
● In the heating chamber a gaseous fuel such as Blast Furnace Gas, Coke Oven
Gas etc. is burnt.
● The heat so generated is conducted through the common wall to heat &
carbonize the Coking Coal placed in the adjacent coal chamber.
● Number of ovens built in series one after the other form a Coke Oven Battery.
● At VSP there are three Coke Oven Batteries, 7 Metre tall and having 67 Ovens
each. Each oven is having a volume of 41.6 cu. metre & can hold upto 31.6
Tonnes of dry coal charge.
● The Carbonization takes place at 100- 1050 C in absence of air for 16-18 hours.

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● Red Hot Coke is pushed out of the oven and sent to Coke Dry Cooling Plants for
cooling to avoid its combustion.
● There are 3 Coke Dry Cooling Plants (CDCP) each having 4 cooling Chambers.
● The capacity of each cooling chamber is 50-52 TPH.
● Nitrogen gas is used as the Cooling medium. The heat recovery from nitrogen is
done by generating steam and expanding in two back pressure turbines to
produce 7.5 power each.
● The Coal chemicals such as Benzole (& its products) ,Tar (& its products),
Ammonium Sulphate etc. are extracted in Coal Chemical Plant from C.O.
● Gas. After recovering the Coal chemicals the gas is used as a by product fuel by
mixing it with gases such as BF Gas, LD Gas etc.
● A mechanical, biological & chemical treatment plant takes care of the effluents.

3. Sinter Plant (SP):

● Sinter is a hard & porous ferrous material obtained by agglomeration of Iron Ore
fines, Coke breeze, Limestone fines,Metallurgical wastes viz. Flue dust, mill
scale, LD slag etc.
● Sinter is a better feed material to Blast Furnace in comparison to Iron Ore lumps
and its usage in Blast furnaces help in increasing productivity, decreasing the
coke rate & improving the quality of Hot Metal produced.
● Sintering is done in 2 nos. of 312 Sq. Metre, Sinter Machines of Dwight Lloyd
type by heating the prepared feed on a continuous metallic belt made of pallets at
1200-1300 C .Hot Sinter discharged from Sintering machine is crushed to +5mm
- 50 mm size and cooled before despatching to Blast Furnaces.
● The dust laden air from the machines are cleaned in scrubbers & electrostatic
precipitators to reduce the dust content to 100 mg/ m3 level before allowing to
escape into the atmosphere and thus helping in maintaining a clean & dust free
environment.

4. Blast Furnaces (BF):

● Hot Metal is produced in Blast Furnaces, which are tall vertical furnaces. The
furnace is named as Blast Furnace as it is run with blast at high pressure &
temperature.
● Raw Materials such as sinter/ Iron Ore Lumps, Fluxes (Limestone/Dolomite)
and Coke are charged from the top and hot blast at 1100 C to 1300C- and
5.75 KSCG pressure is blown almost from the bottom.
● The furnaces are designed for 80% Sinter in the burden.
● VSP has two 3200 cu. metre Blast Furnaces (largest in India) equipped with
Paulworth Bell less top equipment with conveyor Charging.

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● Rightly named as "Godavari" & "Krishna" after the two rivers of AP, the furnaces
will help VSP in bringing prosperity to the state of Andhra Pradesh.
● Provision exists for granulation of 100% liquid slag at blast furnace cast house
and utilization of blast furnace gas top pressure (1.5-2.0 atmospheric pressure) to
generate 12 MW of power in each furnace by employing gas expansion turbines.
● The two furnaces with their novel circular cast house and four tap holes each are
capable of producing 9720 tonnes of Hot Metal daily or 3.4 Million Tonnes of low
sulphur Hot Metal annually.

5. Steel Melting Shop (SMS):

● Steel is an alloy of Iron with carbon upto 1.8%. Hot Metal produced in Blast
Furnaces contains impurities such as Carbon (3.5-4.25%) Silicon (0.4 - 0.5%),
Manganese (0.3-0.4%), Sulphur(0.04% max) and Phosphorous (0.14% max) is
not suitable as a common Engineering Material.
● To improve the quality the impurities are to be eliminated or decreased by
oxidation process.
● VSP produces steel employing three numbers of top blown Oxygen Convertors
called LD Convertors (L & D stand for Linz & Donawitz - two towns in Austria
where this process was first adopted) or Basic Oxygen Furnaces/Convertors.
Each convertor is having 133 cu. Metre volume capable of producing 3 Million
Tonnes of Liquid Steel annually.
● Besides Hot Metal, Steel Scrap, Fluxes such as calcined lime or Dolomite form
part of the charge to the Convertors.
● 99.5 % pure Oxygen at 15-16 KSCG pressure is blown in the Convertor through
oxygen lance having convergent divergent copper nozzles at the blowing end.
● Oxygen oxidises the impurities present in the Hot metal, which are fixed as slag
with basic fluxes such as lime.
● During the process heat is generated by exothermic reactions of oxidation of
metalloids viz Si, Mn,P and C and temperature rises to 1700 C enabling refining
& slag formation.
● Different grades of steel of Superior quality can be made by this process by
controlling the Oxygen blow or addition of various ferro alloys or special additives
such as Fesi, FeMn, SiMn, Coke Breeze, Aluminum etc. in required quantities
while liquid steel is being tapped from the convertor into a steel ladle.
● Convertor/LD Gas produced as by product is used as a secondary fuel.
● Characteristics of VSP Convertors :
Capacity - 150 Tonnes per heat/blow
Volume - 133 Cu. Metre
Convertor Sp. Volume - 0.886 Metre Cube per tonne
Tap to Tap Time - 45 mts - 60 mts
Height to Diameter ratio - 1.36

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Lining i) Working - Tar Dolomite ii) Permanent - Chrome Magnesite Bricks


Average. Lining Life - 2445 heats
● Liquid Steel produced in LD Convertors is solidified in the form of blooms in
continuous Bloom Casters.
● However, to homogenise the steel and to raise its temperature, if needed,
steel is first routed through, Argon rinsing station, IRUT Refining Furnaces.

6. Continuous casting Department (CCD):

● Continuous casting may be defined as teeming of liquid steel in a mould with a


false bottom through which partially solidified ingot/bar (Similar to the shape &
cross section of the mould) is continuously withdrawn at the same rate at which
liquid steel is teamed in the mould
● Facilities at a continuous casting machine include a lift and Turn table for ladles,
Copper mould, oscillating system tundish, Primary & Secondary Cooling
arrangement to cool the steel bloom. Gas cutting machines for cutting the blooms
in required lengths (Av. 6 metres long)
● At VSP we have six-4 strand continuous casting machines capable of producing
2.82 Million Tonnes/year Blooms of size 250 x 250 mm and 250 x 320 mm.
● Entire quantity of molten steel produced (100%) is continuously cast in radial
bloom casters which help in energy conservation as well as production of
superior quality products.

7. Rolling Mills:

● Blooms produced in SMS-CCD do not find much applications as such and are
required to be shaped into products such as Billets, rounds, squares, angles
(equal & unequal), Channels, IPE Beams, HE Beams, Wire rods and
reinforcements bars by rolling them in, three sophisticated high capacity, high
speed, fully automated rolling mills, namely Light & Medium Merchant Mills
(LMMM), Wire Rod Mill (WRM) and Medium Merchant and Structural Mill
(MMSM).

8. Light & Medium Merchant Mill (LMMM):

● LMMM comprises of two units. In the Billet/Break down mill 250 x 320 mm size
blooms are rolled into Billets of 125 x 125 mm size after heating them in two nos.
of Walking beam Furnaces of 200 Tons/hr capacity each.
● This unit comprises of 7 stands (2 horizontal 850 x 1200 mm) and 5 alternating
vertical & horizontal stands (730 x 1000 mm & 630 x 1000 mm) Billets are

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supplied from this mill to Bar Mill of LMMM & Wire Rod Mill.
● The billets for rolling in bar mill of LMMM are first heated in 2 strand roller hearth
furnace of 200 T/h capacity to temperature of 1150 C-1200 C.
● The bar mill comprises of 26 stands - 8 stand double stand roughing train, 2 nos.
of 5 stands, double strand Intermedial train & two nos 4 stand single strand
finishing trains.
● The mill is facilitated with temp core heat treatment technology evaporative
cooling system in walking beam furnaces, automated pilling & bundling facilities,
high degree of automation and computerization.
● The mill is designed to produce 710,000 tons per annum of various finished
products such as rounds, rebars, squares, flats, angles, channels besides billets
for sale.

9.Wire Rod Mill (WRM):

● Wire Rod Mill is a 4 strand, 25 stands fully automated & sophisticated mill.
● The mill has a four zone combination type reheating furnace (walking beam cum
walking hearth) of 200 TPH capacity for heating the billets received from billet mill
of LMMM to rolling temperature of 1200 C.
● The heated billets are rolled in 4 strand. No twist continuous mill having a
capacity of 8,50,000 tonnes of Wire Rod coils and having the following
configuration.
- 7 stand two high 4 strand horizontal roughing train.
- 6 stand two high 4 strand horizontal Intermediate Mills.
- 2 stand 4 strand pre finishing Mill.
- 10 stand 4, strand. No twist finishing mill.
● The mill produces rounds in 5.5 - 12 mm range and rebars in 8-12 mm range.
● The mill is equipped with standard and retarded steelmore lines for producing
high quality Wire rods in Low, Medium & High carbon grade meeting the stringent
National & International standards viz. BIS, DIN, JIS, BS etc. and having high
ductility, uniform grain size, excellent surface finish.

10. Medium Merchant & Structural Mill (MMSM):

● This mill is a high capacity continuous mill consisting of 20 stands arranged in 3


trains.
● Roughing train having a 8 stands (4 two high horizontal stands, 2 vertical stands
and 2 combination stands)

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● Intermediate Train has 6 mill stands as per details given below.


- 2 high horizontal stands
- 2 combination stands
- 2 horizontal stands / two universal stands
● Finishing Train - consists of 6 stands namely
- 2 combination stands
- 4 horizontal stands / 4 universal stands
● The feed material to the mill is 250 x 250 mm size blooms, which is heated to
rolling temperatures of 1200 0C in two walking beam furnaces.
● The mill is designed to produce 8,50,000 tons per annum of various products
such as rounds, squares, flats, angles (equal & unequal), T bars, channels, IPE
beams / HE beams

SAFETY MEASUREMENTS:

**The role of safety measures in the working site is very crucial. Some of them are discussed
below:

● Helmet and safety shoes are must for everyone in the working site.

● While working areas where there is emission of harmful gases,dust etc,and workers
must wear dust mask.

● Welders must wear welding shield and leather gloves while welding.

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FLOW CHART OF VSP:

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“STUDY ON SINTER PLANT”

What is Sintering?
● Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid porous mass of a material by
heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
● Sintering is a process of agglomeration of fine particles into a porous and lumpy mass by
Incipient fusion caused by heat produced by combustion of solid fuel within the mass
itself.

Major sections in sinter plant:

➔ R.M.B(Raw Material Bins):


Section dealing with handling of all raw materials to production of base mix.
➔ S.M.B(Sinter Machine Building):
Section dealing with sinter preparation.

Major sections of R.M.B :


● Receiving bins
● Flux crushing plant
● Flux screening plant and coke crushing plant
● Raw material bins

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● Material Mixing and Distribution plant


● Base mix yard

Major sections of S.M.B:


● S.M.P.P(Secondary Mixing Pelletizing Plant)
❖ Sinter raw material bins
❖ Drum Pelletizer
● S.M.B(Sinter Machine Building)
❖ Sinter Machine
❖ Single roll crusher
❖ Hot screens
❖ Drum cooler
❖ Straight line cooler
● S.S.P(Sinter Screening Plant)
❖ Double deck screener
❖ Single deck screener
❖ G.C.P(Gas Cleaning Plant)
❖ Electrostatic precipitators

Importance of Sintering:

1. Sintering facilitates productive use of fine size iron ore.


2. Sinter increases productivity of blast furnace as it reduces coke rate in blast
furnace.
3. Sinter eliminates 90% of sulphur in raw materials.
4. Sintering enables utilization of metallurgical waste materials generated in the
plant.
5. Sinter improves process consistency in blast furnace.

Factors affecting Sintering:

1. The porosity of the charge.


2. The suction applied to draw air through the sinter mass.
3. Time taken to complete the process.
4. Ignition.
5. Moisture content.

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Quality required for sinter product :

● High resistance against mechanical stress under the blast furnace reduction conditions.
● Good reducibility.
● Uniformity of the size distribution.

SINTERING PROCESS:

● Sintering is carried out by putting a mixture of iron ore fines mixed with solid flux
on a permeable grate.
● The charge material is laid evenly across the whole width of the pallets through
vibration feeders.
● The top layer of the bed is heated to sintering temperature i.e. 1100-1200 C by
gas burners.
● Air is drawn downwards through permeable grate with the help of exhaust
blowers.
● This is to spread heat all over the sinter cake and to give some pressure for the
agglomeration of iron ore and flux.
● Combustion takes place between carbon of coke breeze present in sinter mix
and oxygen present in air.
● The narrow combustion initially developed at the top layer and travels downward
layer by layer cooling the top layer.
● The hot blast from the blast furnace is used in drying, preheating & burning the
layers of the sinter bed.
● In combustion zone bonding takes place between the ore particles & a strong
porous mass of sinter is formed.

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Flux crushing plant :

● No of Reversible hammer crushers : 4


● Capacity of Hammer Crusher : 250 Tons/hr
● Feed size : -80mm
● Product size : -3mm(80%)
● Total hammers : 45 (9 Rows & 5 Hammers/row)
● Rotor RPM : 1000
● Weight of Hammer : 16KG

Flux screening plant :

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● Capacity : 250 T/hr


● Feed size : -25mm
● Separation size : -3mm
● Screening efficiency : 85 to 90%
● Motor capacity : 37KW
● Capacity : 25 to 250 TPH

Coke crushing plant :

No. of coke crushers :7


Speed of roll(rpm) :116-top,179-bottom
Bunkers capacity :900m^3
Each crusher capacity :16 TPH
Operation capacity :150 TPH
Roller dia : 900 mm
Roller length : 700 mm

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SINTER MACHINE BUILDING:

➔ Function: Sinter making,sinter crushing,sinter screening,cooling of hot sinter and sinter


returns.
➔ Sinter machines: 2 no’s
➔ Type : Dwight Lloyd
➔ Total grate area : 312 m^2
➔ Sinter grate area : 76 m^2
➔ Length between sprockets : 93.4 m
➔ No. of pellets : 135
➔ Grate length : 4.5 m
➔ Number of wind boxes : 26
➔ Drive arrangement : left hand
➔ Wind box arrangement : right hand
➔ Speed of machine pallets : 1.5 to 8 m/min

Hot screening :

➔ Function : crushed hot sinter received from SRC and hot screen will screen the sinter
below 5mm to drum cooler and above 5 mm to straight line cooler.
➔ Hot screen : 2 no’s
➔ Capacity : 600 TPH
➔ Screen plate : 3000 mm width *6800 mm length

Secondary mixing and pelletizing plant:


❖ Total of 16 bunkers,8 bunkers for each machine.
❖ These bunkers stores the materials as 1&2 limestone and coke respectively from RMB.
❖ 3&4 sinter returns from sinter screening plant and SMB, sludge from SDPH and ACP
dust.
❖ 5 to 8 bunkers filled with base mix from BMY.
❖ The main equipment in this section are 2 no’s of drum pelletizer with the capacity of 640
to 1030 t/hr.

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Gas cleaning plant(GCP):

➔ Function: cleaning of process gas from sinter machine and recycling of collected duct.
The collected duct from both ACP and GCP is recycled in sinter process.
➔ Dry type electrostatic precipitators : 4 no’s
➔ Suction area : 246.6 m2 *4
➔ Cold chamber suction area : 97.4 m2 *2
➔ Dust content : Inlet 3g/Nm3
Outlet 0.1g/Nm3

Air cleaning plant(ACP):

➔ Function: cleaning of air from area de-dusting in SMB & SSP and recycle of collected
duct.
➔ Dry type electrostatic precipitators : 2 no’s
➔ Hot chamber suction area : 246.6 m2 * 2+20
➔ Cold chamber suction area : 97.4 m2 * 2
➔ Dust content : Inlet 8g/Nm3
Outlet 0.1g/Nm3

Sinter screening plant(SSP):

Function : Separation of sinter returns and bed material sinter from product sinter.
➔ No. of double deck screens : 2 no.’s
➔ No. of single deck screens : 2 no’s

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Size fraction from double deck screens :


➔ +20mm : goes to blast furnace(CA 6)
➔ 10 to 20mm : goes to blast furnace(CA 5) sinter m/c as bed material(PE 2-1 &A3)
➔ -10mm : goes to single deck screen

Size fraction from single deck screen:


➔ +5mm : goes to blast furnace(CA 7).
➔ -5mm : goes to SMPP section as sinter return (OK 13,8 & 20 to Bin 3 and OK 14,7 & 19
to Bin 4 in SMPP).

Single roll crusher(SRC):

● Function: Hot sinter discharged from sinter machine to single roll crusher and hot sinter
will be crushed to less than 150mm and dispatched to hot screen.
● Single roll crusher : 2 no.s
● Spiked rotor size : 1300mm diameter and 4200mm length.
● Capacity : 800 to 900 TPH.

Straight line cooler:


● Function : hot sinter +5 mm to 150 mm size received to SLC by hot screen and in
SLC,hot sinter will cool less than 1000C by using blower fans bottom of the SLC.
● Straight line cooler : 2 no’s
● Cooling area : 420 m2
● Length of cooling surface : 119.5m
● Cooling layer thickness :1.0m
● Capacity : upto 550 TPH
● Number of wind boxes : 16
● Number of blower fans : 8(S-31 TO S-38 M/C-1)
8(H-31 TO H-38 M/C-2)
● Capacity of each blower : 280,000m3/Hr.

Slime dewatering pump house(SDPH):

● Collection,cleaning of dirty water from various sections of the plant and pumping of
clarified water to all the required areas in the plant.
● Dirty water clarification is done in hydro cyclones,spiral classifiers,radical-thickeners and
disc vacuum filters.The recovered slime is recycled in sintering process.

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Sinter mix preparation :


● Sinter mix is a mixture of base mix,Sinter returns and Water in proper proportion.
Limestone ,coke are added if necessary.
● Constituents used in Sinter Mix preparation :
Base mix - 70%
Sinter returns - 20%-25%
Water - 5.5-6.5%
Limestone & coke - If necessary
Role of moisture :
● Moisture helps in two ways in sintering. Help in forming of balls in pelletizing plant.
Another one is, moisture helps in sinter permeability and bed permeability.
Sinter permeability :
● Presence of moisture in the mix helps in increasing the rate of heat flow.
Bed permeability :
● Moisture increases the rate of air suction through the sinter bed.

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“Study of parameters which effect the sinter machine 


speed“ 

❖ Moisture content
❖ Temperature
❖ Size(micro fineness in base mix)
❖ Vacuum
❖ Bed permeability
❖ Coke(acts as fuel)
❖ Non-uniform feeding
❖ Bed material availability
❖ Ignition system
❖ Silica
❖ Effect of flux
❖ Effect of iron ores fines quality
❖ Mixing
❖ Blend loading system

Moisture content :

● Moisture of the sinter mix plays an important role in the granulation process and hence
affects the sinter productivity.
● Moisture forms liquid bridges between particles for beginning the granulation process.
● Capillary forces are responsible to decrease the distance between the particles and
increase the granules resistance.
● Moisture content is to be optimum since the excess of moisture has harmful effect on
the granules and on the sinter bed permeability and stability.
● Moisture maintains the permeability of the bed.
● The rate of rise temperature levels is more rapid in wet than in dry state.
● It affects the amount of heat transfer.

Ignition system :

● The time and temperature of ignition is essential for proper progress of the flame front
and a proper sinter quality.
● Excess of ignition causes decrease in bed permeability and the metallurgical properties
of the sinter.
● This increases the generation of return fines and hence the productivity.
● The use of multi slit burners improves the ignition efficiency and reduces the ignition
energy by around 30%.

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Blend loading system :

● The segregated blend loading system for loading the sinter mix on the sinter machine
strand helps in the permeability of the mix and hence in improving the machine
productivity.
● Segregation plate helps in distribution of coarse particles from fine particles on sinter
bed.
● As the material falls from burden feeder on to the segregation plate,it helps the coarse
particle to fall on the bottom of the sinter bed whereas the fine particles will fall on those
coarse particles thus helping in permeability of the mix on the sinter bed.

Effect of iron ore fines quality :

● In the sintering process main raw material used is iron ore fines,Quality of the iron ore
fines influences the process of sintering to a great extent.
● An increase in the mean size of the iron ore fines promotes the productivity of the
sintering machine, saves the specific fuel consumption but reduces the sinter strength.
● Dense low alumina iron ores gives a better sinter strength and lower specific fuel
consumption.
● Very high level of micro fines in the ore decreases the granulation efficiency and
consequently ,decreases the bed permeability and affects the productivity of sintering
adversely.
● The iron ore porosity has effect on the sinter porosity and its physical and metallurgical
properties.
● Iron ores with high loss on ignition affects the sintering process in a negative way by
reducing the productivity,increasing the specific fuel consumption and reducing the sinter
strength.

Silica :

● A higher percentage of silica in the sinter mix counters the effect of high alumina in the
ore.
● It is always desirable to have alumina/silica ratio in the sinter mix as 0.5 or below.

Effect of flux :

● In sinter mix lime stone or lime and dolomite or calcined dolomite are added as basic
fluxes while sand or quartzite fines are used as acidic fluxes.
● The fluxing oxides in the sinter are to be modified the blast furnace(BF) slag chemistry in
such a way so as to have desired characteristics of the BF slag.
● Basic fluxes added to the sinter mix in the form of lime and calcined dolomite also act as
a binder in the sinter mix and improve the fine particles agglomeration.

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● They improve the productivity of sinter machine and reduce the specific solid fuel
consumption.
● Size distribution of fluxes is important for the sintering productivity.

Mixing:

● The sintering performance depends on the efficiency of the mixing of the components of
the sinter mix and granulation of the sinter mix in the pelletizing drum.
● This activity carried out in two mixing drums then being carried in a single drum gives
better performance with respect to permeability of sinter bed and hence results in
improvement in sintering productivity.

CONCLUSION:

● The sinter process control is not based more on perception of operators but on more
scientific and accurate method.
● Moreover the calculation of permeability, control of moisture, machine speed, suction
etc. are a real time and continuous process which minimizes the need of continuous
monitoring by the operators.
● The system itself takes care of change in nature of charge mix and controls the various
parameters accordingly to get optimum productivity and quality.

“ TODAY’S WASTAGE  
TOMORROW’S SHORTAGE “ 

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