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Grade 4

Earth and Space


Stars!
Each star is an
enormous ball of
glowing gases. Hydrogen
makes up most of these
gases.

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1.
Stars
Describe the different characteristics, color, and life
cycle of stars
Pre-Test

∙ Answer Brain Gauge on p. 342

∙ Time Limit: 5 minutes

∙ Write the answers in your book.

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Pre-Test Answer

1. A

2. B

3. D

4. A

5. A

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The sun is a star. It is the nearest star to Earth. It is
a massive sphere of hot and glowing gases that gives
of energy in the form of heat, light, and other types
of radiation. Without the sun’s heat, life will not
be possible on Earth.

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Definition of Terms

1. Refraction – is the bending of light as it passes from one substance to


another.

2. Hydrogen – lightest chemical element.

3. Helium – is a colorless, odorless inert gaseous element.

4. Density – is the mass per unit volume of a substance.

5. Nuclear Fusion – nuclear reaction in which two light nuclei combine to


form a heavier nuclei.
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Stellar Colors

Red Orange Yellow White Blue

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Red

Temperature Range: Less


than 3500 Kelvin

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Orange

Temperature Range: 3500 to


5000 Kelvin

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Yellow

Temperature Range: 5000 to


6000 Kelvin

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White

Temperature Range: 7500 to


11000 Kelvin

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Blue

Temperature Range: Greater


than 25000 Kelvin

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Apparent Magnitude vs. Absolute Magnitude

Absolute Magnitude Apparent Magnitude

∙ Refers to the brightness of ∙ The brightness of star as it


stars when viewed from appears to an observer on
the standard distance of Earth.
32.6 light-years. ∙ Subjective
∙ Objective
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Apparent Magnitude vs. Magnitude

Brightest Star

The brightest star in the night


sky is Sirius, a binary star with an
apparent magnitude of -1.46.

It has an inherent luminosity 20


times that of the sun and is only
8.7 light years away.
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Binary Star

A system of two stars in which


one star revolves around the
other or both revolve around a
common center.

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Sizes of Stars

Dwarfs Giants Supergiants


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Sizes of Stars

Dwarfs

Dwarfs are stars with


absolute magnitude less
than 1.

Examples of Dwarf Stars


are: Sun (Yellow dwarf),
Proxima Centauri (Red
dwarf), and Alpha
Centauri B (Orange
dwarf)
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Sizes of Stars

Giants

Giants are stars with an


absolute magnitude
greater than 1.

Examples of giant stars


are: Aldebaran (Red
giant), Delta Scuti
variables (Yellow giant),
and Alcyone (Blue
giants).
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Sizes of Stars

Supergiants

Supergiants are stars


brighter than giants. It has
an absolute.

Examples of supergiant
stars are: Betelgeuse
(Red supergiant), Rigel
(Blue supergiant), and
Polaris A (Yellow
Supergiant).
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Constellations

Constellations

Constellations are
arbitrary formation of
stars, seen from the Earth
as a figure or design.

They typically represent


an animal, mythological
person or creature, gods
and goddesses, or an
inanimate objects.
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Life Cycle of Stars
Stars have a beginning and an ending.

Average Red Giant White


Planetary
Star Dwarf
Nebula

Protostar
Black Hole
Stellar Nebula
Massive
Star Red Supergiant Supernova

Neutron Star
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Life Cycle of Stars: Average Stars

Black
Dwarf

Stellar Nebula Average Planetary White


Protostar Red Giant
Star Nebula Dwarf

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Life Cycle of Stars: Massive Stars

Black Hole

Stellar Nebula Massive Red


Protostar Supernova
Star Supergiant

Neutron
Star

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Post-Test

∙ Answer Brain Buster on pp. 351 – 352 (Letters A and B)

∙ Time Limit: 10 minutes

∙ Write the answers in your book.

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Post-Test Answer (Letter A)

1. F

2. E

3. A

4. B

5. C

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Post-Test Answer (Letter B)

1. Stars 7. True

2. True 8. Star map

3. True 9. True

4. Giants 10. Telescope

5. Black hole 11. True

6. True
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2.
Sun
• Describe the role of the Sun in the Water Cycle
• Describe the layers of the Sun
• Describe the effects of the Sun
The Sun!
The sun is at the center
of our solar system, with
eight planets and other
celestial objects. The sun
provides light and heat
to the orbiting planets.

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Pre-Test

∙ Answer Brain Gauge on pp. 354 – 355

∙ Time Limit: 5 minutes

∙ Write the answers in your book.

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Pre-Test Answer

1. D 6. D

2. D 7. C

3. B 8. D

4. D 9. A

5. A 10. D
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Uranus ⛢

Saturn ♄

Mercury ☿
Earth ♁
Neptune ♆

Venus ♀︎
Mars ♂︎

Jupiter ♃

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149.6 million km

Earth ♁

Sun ☉
Greek: Helios
Roman: Sol
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Layers of the Sun

Six Layers of the Sun:

1. Corona - region where prominences appear.

2. Chromosphere – faculae and flares arise here

3. Photosphere – molted appearance

4. Convection Zone – columns of hot gas

5. Radiation Zone – outward thermal radiation

6. Core – where thermonuclear fusion happens


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Layers of the Sun

Corona:

∙ Outermost layer of the sun’s


atmosphere.

∙ Prominence – immense
clouds of glowing gas that
erupt from the upper
chromosphere.
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Layers of the Sun

Chromosphere:

∙ The layer above the photosphere.

∙ Faculae – bright luminous


hydrogen clouds that form above
regions where sunspots are about
to form.

∙ Flares – bright filaments of hot gas


emerging from sunspots.
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Layers of the Sun

Photosphere:

∙ The inner layer of the sun’s


atmosphere.

∙ This layer has a mottled


appearance due to the turbulent
eruptions of energy at the surface,

∙ Covered by granulation.

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Layers of the Sun

Core:

∙ The central region where nuclear


fusion occurs (Two hydrogen
atoms combining to form helium)

∙ Nuclear fusion is possible due to


the extreme temperature at the
core, which produces light and
heat energy.
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Five Characteristics of the Sun

Nuclear Fusion:
Layers:
Refers to the process of
The sun itself and its
hydrogen atoms
atmosphere is made up
combining together to
of layers.
form helium, producing
heat and light energy. The
Energy Transportation:
temperature of the sun’s
The sun is the main
core is hot enough for
energy source of the
nuclear fusion to take
Earth. Energy is
place.
transported to the Earth
through radiation. Sun Spots:
Sun spots are temporary
Chemical Composition: areas that are cooler than
Sun, like most stars, is the rest caused by
made of hydrogen that concentrations of
turns into helium through magnetic field flux that
nuclear fusion. inhibit convection.
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Comparison:

Rotation: The Earth rotates every


24 hours while the Sun’s equator
rotates once every 25.4 days and its
poles rotates once every 36 days.

Diameter: The Earth’s diameter is


12 756 km while the Sun’s diameter
is 1 390 000 km.

Mass: The Earth’s mass is


6 x 1024 kg while the Sun’s mass is
2 x 1030 kg.

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Eclipse
An eclipse occurs when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are positioned along a straight path
and the shadow of either the moon or Earth is cast on the other.
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Solar Eclipse (S-M-E)
Happens when the moon is in between the Sun and Earth. This happens only during new
moon. The moon’s shadow falls only a small part of the Earth.
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Lunar Eclipse (S-E-M)
Occurs when the Earth is in between the Sun and Moon. This happens only during the
full moon.
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Eclipse

Solar Eclipse Lunar Eclipse

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Surface Phenomena of the Sun

Solar Flares:

∙ Ejections by the sun when it releases


massive amounts of gas and plasma.

∙ It interacts with the magnetic field of


the earth, specifically in the
thermosphere, which creates Aurora
borealis and Aurora australis

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Solar Flares

Aurora borealis (North) Aurora australis (South)

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Surface Phenomena of the Sun

Solar Prominences:

∙ Streams of very hot glowing gas


rising high into the outer layer of the
solar atmosphere and clearly visible
at the edge of the sun, against the
darkness of space.

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Surface Phenomena of the Sun

Sun Spots:

∙ Cool areas on the sun’s surface.

∙ Telescopes with filters such as the


Hale’s telescope enables
astronomers to see the sun spots on
the sun’s surface.

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Effects and Harmful Effects of Sunlight

Benefits: Harmful Effects:

∙ Solar power and vitamin D ∙ Causes sunburn, cataracts, skin


production damage, skin cancer, heat stroke,

∙ Photosynthesis and water cycle and dehydration.

∙ Generation of wind and weather. ∙ Solar flares destroys and disrupts


satellites, GPS navigation, and
∙ Heat and Light.
power grids.
∙ Produces auroras
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The Sun!
The sun is the main source
of light and heat. It helps
plants, animals, and even
humans grow. The sun is
important in many
processes on Earth like
photosynthesis, water
cycle, and generation of
weather. Life on Earth will
not be possible without the
sun.
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Post-Test

∙ Answer Brain Buster on pp. 364 – 365 (Letters A, B, and C)

∙ Time Limit: 10 minutes

∙ Write the answers in your book.

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Post-Test Answer (Letter A)

1. Aurora borealis 6. Solar Eclipse

2. Photosphere 7. 25.6 days

3. 149.6 km or 93 million miles 8. Helios

4. Hydrogen 9. Corona

5. Magnitude 10. Aurora australis

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Post-Test Answer (Letter B)

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Post-Test Answer (Letter C)

1. Core 6. Corona

2. Radiation Zone

3. Convection Zone

4. Photosphere

5. Chromosphere

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