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3A – Speculation and deduction

1. must + infinitive
Pedro and Sofia must be very tired since they pulled an all-nighter for the exam this
You must arrive at the airport two hours before the departure time of your flight.
2. must have + past participle
They must have heard the news about the kidnapped.
You must have eaten the cake.
3. can’t/couldn’t + perfect infinitive
They couldn’t have awoken Steven since they must have slept the whole night.
4. may/might/could + perfect infinitive
They might have forgotten the keys back in the house.
They may have left the party early.
5. Should + infinitive (or should have + participle)
The postman should arrive soon!
If I start to study for my English exam today, I should ace it easily.
I started to study for my English exam a week ago, I should have aced the exercises by
6. Be bound/be sure + infinitive
He keeps stealing money from the cashier, he’s bound to be caught.
We’re sure to attend the music festival since we should receive free tickets from the
brand deal.
7. Subject + be likely / unlikely + infinite or it is likely/unlikely + that + clause
Daniela is unlikely to graduate high school since she’s sure to fail at least half her
It is unlikely that Daniela graduates from high school.

3B – Adding emphasis (1): inversion

1. Not only… Not until… Never… No sooner… than

Note: If the second event occurs immediately after the first, we can express that idea
using the structure no sooner … than.

Not only is my cold getting worse, but also I’m starting to develop a fever.
Not until the hotel room is cleaned will we enter it.
Never have I seen such a beautiful landscape.
(No sooner + clause, than + clause) No sooner had I closed my eyes than I fell asleep.
No sooner had I arrived at the train station than the train departed.
2. Do / does / did + subject + main verb
(Not only … But Also) Not only did the train arrived late, but it was also packed with
(Not until + time phrase/clause + clause) Not until you realize the mistake you have
made do you leave the house.
Not until you start to study for the upcoming exam do you go to the birthday party.
3. Only then… Only when… Hardly/Scarcely…when, and rarely…
(Only then + clause) The exam scores were out. Only then was I able to relax.
(Only when + clause, inverted clause) Only when you buy your own things, do you
realize money’s true value.
(Hardly/Scarcely + clause, when + clause) Hardly had I ordered my coffee when the
burglars entered Starbucks.
Rarely have I entered such a disgusting restaurant.

3C – Unreal uses of the past tenses

1. Wish + Subject of the verb + past simple
They wish they didn’t forgot the due date for the English essay.
I wish we didn’t have bought a new Ferrari.
2. Wish + subject of the verb + past perfect
They wish they hadn’t skipped the English class the other day.
I wish I had swum in the lake near our beach house in the summer.
3. If only + subject of the verb + past perfect
If only we had swum in the lake near our beach house in the summer, we could
have had better memories.
If only I had hidden my money, perhaps the burglars wouldn’t have taken it.
4. If only + subject of the verb + past simple
If only I had better eye sight, I could see the birds nesting.
If only I knew he was cheating on me, I could have had prepared myself.
5. If only + subject of the verb + infinitive
If only we would see the soccer match, then I could study.
If only they would come to the wedding, then Patricia could relax.
6. Would rather + subject of the verb + past simple
I would rather she cancelled the oral presentation.
I would rather the doctor prescribed cheaper medication.
7. Would rather + subject of the verb + infinitive
I would rather study English grammar than code for my master thesis.
They would rather fail the exam than study for it.
8. It’s (high) time + subject + past simple
It’s time you studied for the upcoming English exam.
It’s time the doctor prescribed a better medication
9. It’s (high) time + to infinite
It’s time to draw a picture of a bunny.
It’s high time to lend the car to Matthew.