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Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr.

Meliaceae

LOCAL NAMES
Burmese (thitto); English (sentol,santol,kechapi); Filipino (malasantol);
French (faux mangoustan); Indonesian (sentul,kecapi,ketuat); Khmer (kôm
piing riech); Lao (Sino-Tibetan) (tong,toongz); Malay
(kecapi,kelampu,ranggu); Thai (kra thon,sa thon,katon,ma tong);
Vietnamese (s[aa][us]-dan,s[aa][us]-dau,sâú)

BOTANIC DESCRIPTION
Sandoricum koetjape is a deciduous, small to large tree, up to 45(-50) m
tall. The tree bole is sometimes straight but often crooked or fluted, Tree habit: Tree planted as understorey in a
branchless for up to 18(-21) m and with a trunk diameter up to 100 cm. coconut plantation. (Rafael T. Cadiz)
Buttresses up to 3m high. Bark surface smooth or sometimes flaky or
fissured, lenticillate, greyish to pale pinkish-brown, inner bark pale brown
or red-brown to pink, exuding a milky latex. The tree is interesting because
it branches unusually low to the ground but has a compact crown.

Leaves trifoliate arranged spirally, exstipulate; leaflets entire.

Flowers in an axillary thyrse, bisexual, 4-5 merous; calyx truncate to


shallowly lobed; petals free; staminal tube cylindrical, carrying 10 anthers;
disk tubular; ovary superior, 4-5-locular with 2 ovules in each cell, style-
head lobed. Tree habit: Secondary forest stand. (Rafael
T. Cadiz)
Fruit a 1-5-locular drupe about the size of a clenched fist; pyrenes 1(-2)-
seeded. Seed large, without aril and surrounded by a translucent or pale,
acid, edible pulp of good flavour.

S. koetjape is a highly variable species and was formerly divided into 2 or


3 species based on the colour of the old leaves, however there appears to
be no correlation with other characters and this distinction has been
dropped.

BIOLOGY Plant at Ulumalu and Hana Hwy, Maui,


Santol is a hermaphroditic tree flowering after 5-7 years (clonally Hawaii (Forest and Kim Starr)
propagated trees may flower after 3-4 years). Pollination is by insects.
Flowers annually and in Peninsular Malaysia the flowering period is so
reliable in its timing that it was formerly the signal for the planting of rice.
New leaves develop rapidly and flowers appear shortly after the
development of new shoots. Fruit maturation takes about 5 months. In the
Philippines ripe fruits are present from June-October, and in Thailand from
May-July. Bats disperse the seeds.

Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009) Page 1 of 5


Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr.
Meliaceae

ECOLOGY
S. koetjape is found scattered in primary or sometimes secondary rain forest. It also occurs in lowland dipterocarp forest.

BIOPHYSICAL LIMITS
Altitude: 0-800 m

Soil type: Prefers podzolic soils in both perhumid and seasonal climates.

DOCUMENTED SPECIES DISTRIBUTION


Native: Brunei, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam
Exotic: Australia, Sri Lanka

Native range

Exotic range

The map above shows countries where the species has been planted. It does neither
suggest that the species can be planted in every ecological zone within that country,
nor that the species can not be planted in other countries than those depicted. Since
some tree species are invasive, you need to follow biosafety procedures that apply to
your planting site.

Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009) Page 2 of 5


The map above shows countries where the species has been planted. It does neither
suggest that the species can be planted in every ecological zone within that country,
nor that the species can not be planted in other countries than those depicted. Since
Sandoricumsome
koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr.
tree species are invasive, you need to follow biosafety procedures that apply to
your planting site. Meliaceae

PRODUCTS
Food: The fruit is edible, being eaten fresh or processed into jam or chutney. The fruit is peeled, quartered and cooked
in syrup to make delicious preserves.

Timber: S. koetjape yields a lightweight to medium-weight hardwood with a density of 290-590 kg/m³ at 15% moisture
content. Heartwood is pale red, yellowish-red or yellow-brown with a pink tinge, indistinct or distinguishable from the
pale white or pinkish sapwood; grain straight or slightly wavy.

Tannin or dyestuff: The bark is used for tanning fishing nets.

Poison: The seeds of S. koetjape contain limonoids (antifeedant compounds).

Medicine: The pounded leaves are sudorific when applied to the skin and are used to make a decoction against
diarrhoea and fever. The powdered bark is an effective treatment for ringworms, and contains triterpenes with anti-
cancer activity. The aromatic roots are employed as an anti-diarrhetic, anti-spasmodic, carminative, antiseptic,
astringent, stomachic and are prescribed as a general tonic after childbirth.

Other products: The fruits are used as fish bait in Sarawak. The fragrant wood is used in perfumery.

SERVICES
Erosion control: The tree is important in soil conservation.

Shade or shelter: It gives an excellent shade.

Reclamation: The species is hardy and thrives without irrigation in areas with a prolonged dry season.

Soil improver: S. koetjape is known to form vesicular arbiscular mycorrhizae.

Ornamental: S. koetjape is planted for aesthetic purposes along avenues and in parks.

Boundary or barrier or support: Poles from the tree are used for fencing.

Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009) Page 3 of 5


Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr.
Meliaceae

TREE MANAGEMENT
Seedling growth is fast.

GERMPLASM MANAGEMENT
Seedling exhibiting epigeal germination. Seeds have short viability, and a germination rate of 90-95% in 16-31 days.

PESTS AND DISEASES


The sapwood is susceptible to Lyctus. The wood is susceptible to marine borer attack and moderately resistant to
insect attack.

Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009) Page 4 of 5


Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr.
Meliaceae

FURTHER READNG
CABI. 2000. Global Forestry Compendium. CD-ROM. CABI
Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S. (eds.). 1998. PROSEA 5(3) Timber trees: lesser known species. Backhuys
Publishers, Leiden.

SUGGESTED CITATION
Orwa C, A Mutua, Kindt R , Jamnadass R, S Anthony. 2009 Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide
version 4.0 (http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp)

Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009) Page 5 of 5

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