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HOLY CROSS OF DAVAO COLLEGE

Sta. Ana Avenue, Davao City


FINAL EXAMINATION
SUMMER SY 2017
Graduate School Program

GENERAL CHEMISTRY
1. A sugar cube was heated until it melted completely. The heat was then increased and the
sugar decomposed into a black solid mass. The changes associated with this process are
Answer:
e. a physical change for melting and a chemical change for decomposition
Melting point of a solid is defined as the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid. Melting
point of a solid indicates the strength of the force of attraction between the particles of the solid. On heating
a solid, its molecules absorb energy in the form of heat and their kinetic energy increases.
As the kinetic energy increases, the temperature of the solid increases. As a result, the force of attraction
between the molecules decreases and the molecules become more and more separated. This increases the
potential energy of the molecule and the particles leave their fixed positions and start moving more freely.
At a particular temperature, the separation of the molecules increases by a large amount and the solid melts
and converts into liquid. This particular temperature is the melting point of that solid. The melting point of a
pure substance is always higher than the melting point of that substance when a small amount of an impurity
is present. Pressure also affects the melting point of a substance. As the pressure on the substance increases,
the melting point decreases.
The turning black solid of a sugar indicates that the sugar undergoes thermal decomposition reaction.
The black stuff is mainly carbon. There will be some water vapour released.

2. Which of the following statements about quantum theory is correct?


a. Electons reside only in quantized energy levels – the free electron in an infinite universe does
not have quantized states
b. When filling orbital with the same n and I quantum numbers, two electrons will fill the same
ml before filling a new ml - How do you know that two electrons are in the same orbital? In order
to fully specify an orbital, you need to know the principal quantum number, n, the azimuthal
quantum number, ℓ, and the magnetic quantum number, ml. The values of first three quantum
numbers for an electron determine exactly which orbital the electron in. Clearly, then, in order to
be in the same orbital, two electrons have to have exactly the same values for n, ℓ, and ml. Now
when two electrons have exactly the same values for n, ℓ, and ml, they share the same region of
space within the atom, and in the last lesson, you learned that that had important consequences
in terms of their spins. If you remember back to an earlier section, electrons in the same orbital,
sharing the same region of space, had to have different values of ms. If one electron had ms = +1/2,
then the other had to have ms = −1/2 and vice versa. Let's take a look at several examples.
An electron with n = 2, ℓ = 1, ml = −1, and ms = +1/2 is found in the same atom as a second
electron with n = 2, ℓ = 1, and ml = −1. What is the spin quantum number for the second
electron?
First electron: n = 1, ℓ = 1, ml = −1, ms = +1/2
Second electron: n = 1, ℓ = 1, ml = −1, ms = ?
Since the first three quantum numbers are identical for these two electrons, we know that
they are in the same orbital. As a result, the spin quantum number for the second electron
cannot be the same as the spin quantum number for the first electron. This means that the
spin quantum number for the second electron must be ms = −1/2
c. Lower energy orbital are filled with electrons before higher energy orbitals - Electrons fill
low energy orbitals (closer to the nucleus) before they fill higher energy ones. Where
there is a choice between orbitals of equal energy, they fill the orbitals singly as far as
possible.
d. No two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers in the same atom – Yes, when
two electrons are in the same orbital, they occupy the same region of space within the
atom. As a result, their spin quantum numbers cannot be the same, and thus these two
electrons cannot exist in the same atom. According to Pauli Exclusion principle that in an
atom or molecule, no two electrons can have the same four electronic quantum numbers.
As an orbital can contain a maximum of only two electrons, the two electrons must have
opposing spins
e. Valence electrons are in higher energy quantum levels than inner shell (core) electrons