Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 50
AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD BridgeBridge DesignDesign SpecificationsSpecifications JoshJosh BeakleyBeakley August,August,
AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD BridgeBridge
DesignDesign SpecificationsSpecifications
JoshJosh BeakleyBeakley
August,August, 20102010
AASHTO  StandardStandard SpecificationsSpecifications forfor HighwayHighway BridBridggeses ((LFDLFD)) –– 1717
AASHTO
 StandardStandard SpecificationsSpecifications forfor HighwayHighway
BridBridggeses ((LFDLFD)) –– 1717 thth EditionEdition -- 20022002
 LoadLoad FactorFactor DesignDesign
 LRFDLRFD BBrrididgege DDesesiigngn SSpecpecifiificatcatiionsons
 LoadLoad ResistanceResistance FactorFactor DesignDesign
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design 3 S p ecifications – First Edition - 1994  ““InIn
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
3
S
p ecifications – First Edition -
1994
 ““InIn 19871987,, thethe SubcommitteeSubcommittee submittedsubmitted aa
requestrequest toto thethe AASHTOAASHTO StandingStanding CommitteeCommittee
onon ResearchResearch toto undertakeundertake anan assessmentassessment ofof thethe
UU
SS
BridBridggee desidesiggnn ssppecificationsecifications,, reviewreview
foreignforeign designdesign specificationsspecifications andand codes,codes,
considerconsider designdesign philosophiesphilosophies alternativealternative toto
tthhoseose ununddererllyyiingng SStantanddarardd SSpecificationspecifications,, anandd
toto renderrender recommendationsrecommendations basedbased onon thesethese
investigations.”investigations.”
4 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications – First Edition - 1994  LRFDLRFD –– LoadLoad
4
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
Specifications – First Edition -
1994
 LRFDLRFD –– LoadLoad andand ResistanceResistance FactorFactor DesignDesign
 ““AA furtherfurther philosophicalphilosophical extensionextension resultsresults fromfrom
consideringconsidering thethe variabilityvariability inin thethe propertiesproperties ofof
structuralstructural elements,elements, inin similarsimilar fashionfashion toto loadload
variabilitiesvariabilities ””
 “LRFD“LRFD reliesrelies onon extensiveextensive useuse ofof statisticalstatistical
methods,methods, butbut setssets forthforth thethe resultsresults inin aa mannermanner
readilreadilyy usableusable bbyy bridbridggee desidesiggnersners andand
analysts.”analysts.”
Statistically Based Design
Statistically Based Design
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)  “A“A reliabilityreliability--basedbased designdesign
Load and Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD)
 “A“A reliabilityreliability--basedbased designdesign methodologymethodology inin
whichwhich forceforce effectseffects causedcaused bbyy factoredfactored loadsloads
areare notnot permittedpermitted toto exceedexceed thethe factoredfactored
resistanceresistance ofof thethe comcompponents.”onents.”
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design 7 S p ecifications – First Edition - 1994  ““ThThee
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
7
S
p ecifications – First Edition -
1994
 ““ThThee bbooddyy ooff kknownowlleeddgege rerellateatedd toto tthhee ddesesiigngn
ofof highwayhighway bridgesbridges hashas growngrown enormouslyenormously
sincesince 19311931 andand continuescontinues toto dodo so.so. TheorTheoryy andand
practicepractice havehave evolvedevolved greatly,greatly, reflectingreflecting
advancesadvances through….”through….”
 “The“The pacepace ofof advancesadvances inin thesethese areasareas has,has, ifif
anything,anything, steppedstepped upup inin recentrecent years.”years.”
8
8
9 LRFD is Coming
9
LRFD is Coming
AASHTO Design and Installation  AASHTOAASHTO StandardStandard SpecificationsSpecifications forfor HiHigghwahwayy
AASHTO Design and Installation
 AASHTOAASHTO StandardStandard SpecificationsSpecifications forfor
HiHigghwahwayy BridBridggeses
 DivisionDivision II –– DesignDesign
 DiDivviissiionon IIII –– CConstructonstructiionon
 AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD BridgeBridge DesignDesign
SSpecpecifiificacatitionsons
 AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD BridgeBridge ConstructionConstruction
SpecificationsSpecifications
AASHTOAASHTO DesignDesign SSpecpecifiificatcatiionsons
AASHTOAASHTO
DesignDesign
SSpecpecifiificatcatiionsons
AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges  SectionSection 33 –– LoadsLoads  SectionSection 66
AASHTO Standard Specifications
for Highway Bridges
 SectionSection 33 –– LoadsLoads
 SectionSection 66 –– CulvertsCulverts
 SectionSection 88 –– ReinforcedReinforced ConcreteConcrete
 SSecectitionon 1212 –– SSooilil--CCorruorruggaatteedd MMeettaall
StructureStructure InteractionInteraction SystemsSystems
 SectionSection 1616 –– SoilSoil--ReinforcedReinforced ConcreteConcrete
StructureStructure InteractionInteraction SystemsSystems
 SectionSection 1717 –– SoilSoil--ThermoplasticThermoplastic PipePipe
InteractionInteraction SSyystemsstems
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications  SectionSection 33 –– LoadsLoads andand LoadLoad FactorsFactors
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
Specifications
 SectionSection 33 –– LoadsLoads andand LoadLoad FactorsFactors
 SectionSection 44 –– StructuralStructural AnalysisAnalysis andand
EvaluationEvaluation
 SSectectiionon 55 –– CConcreteoncrete SStructurestructures
 SectionSection 1212 –– BuriedBuried StructuresStructures andand TunnelTunnel
LiLinersners
Structures Designed Per Section 12  SectionSection 12.712.7 -- MetalMetal Pipe,Pipe, PipePipe Arch,Arch, andand
Structures Designed Per Section 12
 SectionSection 12.712.7 -- MetalMetal Pipe,Pipe, PipePipe Arch,Arch, andand
ArchArch StructuresStructures
 SectionSection 12.812.8 -- LongLong--SpanSpan StructuralStructural PlatePlate
StructuresStructures
 SectionSection 12.912.9 -- StructuralStructural PlatePlate BoxBox
SStructurestructures
 SectionSection 12.1212.12 –– ThermoplasticThermoplastic PipesPipes
 SectionSection 12.1312.13 –– SteelSteel TunnelTunnel LinerLiner PlatePlate
Structures Designed Per Section 12  SectionSection 12.1012.10 –– ReinforcedReinforced ConcreteConcrete PipePipe
Structures Designed Per Section 12
 SectionSection 12.1012.10 –– ReinforcedReinforced ConcreteConcrete PipePipe
 SectionSection 1212
1111
-- PrecastPrecast BoxBox CulvertsCulverts,, CastCast--
inin--placeplace BoxBox Culverts,Culverts, CastCast--inin--placeplace ArchesArches
 SSectectiionon 1212
StructuresStructures
1414
-- PPrecastrecast ThThreeree--SidSideedd
Load Factors
Load Factors
Load Factors Load Load Factor Standard LRFD Minimum Maximum Dead 1.3 0.90 1.25 Water 1.3
Load Factors
Load
Load Factor
Standard
LRFD
Minimum
Maximum
Dead
1.3
0.90
1.25
Water
1.3
1.0
1.0
Earth – Vertical
1.3
0.90
1.30
Earth - Horizontal
1.3
0.90
1.35
Live
1.3 x 1.67 = 2.17
0.0
1.75*
* A multiple presence factor is included in the total load
LRFD Design
LRFD Design
Live Load
Live Load
Live Load  3.6.1.23.6.1.2 DesignDesign VehicularVehicular LiveLive LoadLoad  33 66 11 22 11 GeneralGeneral
Live Load
 3.6.1.23.6.1.2 DesignDesign VehicularVehicular LiveLive LoadLoad
 33
66 11 22 11
GeneralGeneral
 “Vehicular“Vehicular livelive loadingloading onon thethe roadwaysroadways
ooff bbrrididgesges oror iincncididentaentall structuresstructures,,
designateddesignated HLHL--93,93, shallshall consistconsist ofof aa
comcombibinatnatiionon ooff::
 DesignDesign trucktruck oror designdesign tandem,tandem, andand
 DesiDesiggnn lanelane loaloadd
Live Load Spacing – HL-93 4000 lb. 12,500 lb. 12,500 lb. 6 ft. 14 ft.
Live Load Spacing – HL-93
4000 lb.
12,500 lb.
12,500 lb.
6 ft.
14 ft.
12,500 lb.
12,500 lb.
16000 lb.
16000 lb.
(12,00 lb per STD)
AASHTO
HS 20 LOAD
AASHTO
ALTERNATE LOAD
HS20 or HL 93 Single Axle
HS20 or HL 93 Single Axle
Axle Width
Axle Width
Applied Live loads  33 66 11 33 33 DesignDesign LoadsLoads forfor DecksDecks,, DeckDeck Systems,Systems,
Applied Live loads
 33
66 11 33 33
DesignDesign LoadsLoads forfor DecksDecks,, DeckDeck
Systems,Systems, andand thethe TopTop SlabsSlabs ofof BoxBox CulvertsCulverts
 WhereWhere thethe slabslab spansspans primarilyprimarily inin thethe
longitudinallongitudinal direction:direction:
 ForFor toptop slabsslabs ofof boxbox culvertsculverts ofof allall spansspans andand
forfor allall otherother cases,cases, includingincluding slabslab--typetype
bridgesbridges wherewhere thethe spanspan doesdoes notnot exceedexceed 1515 00
ft,ft, onlyonly thethe axleaxle loadsloads ofof thethe designdesign trucktruck oror
designdesign tandemtandem ofof ArticlesArticles 3.6.1.2.23.6.1.2.2 andand
33
66 11 22 33,,
resresppectivelectivelyy,, shallshall bebe aappppliedlied
Applied Live loads  33 66 11 33 33 DDesesigignn LLoaoaddss fforor DDececkks,s, DDececkk Systems,Systems,
Applied Live loads
 33
66 11 33 33
DDesesigignn LLoaoaddss fforor DDececkks,s, DDececkk
Systems,Systems, andand thethe TopTop SlabsSlabs ofof BoxBox
CulvertsCulverts
 WhereWhere thethe slabslab spansspans primarilyprimarily inin thethe
transversetransverse direction,direction, onlyonly thethe axlesaxles ofof
thethe desidesiggnn trucktruck ofof ArticleArticle 3.6.1.2.23.6.1.2.2 oror
designdesign tandemtandem ofof ArticleArticle 3.6.1.2.33.6.1.2.3
sshhaallll bbee appapplilieedd ttoo ththee ddececkk ssllaabb oror ththee
toptop ofof boxbox culverts.culverts.
Lane Load – 3.6.1.3  LRFDLRFD –– 20042004 –– TruckTruck andand LaneLane LoadLoad  6464
Lane Load – 3.6.1.3
 LRFDLRFD –– 20042004 –– TruckTruck andand LaneLane LoadLoad
 6464 lbslbs acrossacross aa 1010 ftft widthwidth
 DLADLA notnot appapplilieedd
 LRFDLRFD –– 20052005 –– TruckTruck onlyonly
 LRFDLRFD –– FFuuttureure –– ??
 StandardStandard SpecificationSpecification –– 3.7.1.13.7.1.1
 EitherEither trucktruck oror LaneLane LoaLoadd
 TruckTruck governsgoverns forfor shortershorter spansspans
Tire Footprint  LRFDLRFD –– 3.6.1.2.63.6.1.2.6  ww==2020””  l=10”l=10” 
Tire Footprint
 LRFDLRFD –– 3.6.1.2.63.6.1.2.6
 ww==2020””
 l=10”l=10”
 StStananddarardd SSpecpecifiificacatitionon –– 66 44 11
 “Concentrated“Concentrated Load”Load”
Concentrated Load
Concentrated Load
Live Load Distribution STD – Spread a = a + 1.75*H LRFD – Spread a
Live Load Distribution
STD – Spread a = a + 1.75*H
LRFD – Spread a = a + 1.15*H
STD – Sprea
LRFD – Spread b = b +1.15*H
d b
=
b
+ 1.75
*
H
Live Load Area for Depths ≥ 2 ft.  LRFDLRFD (3.6.1.2.6)(3.6.1.2.6)  AA == (20/12(20/12
Live Load Area for Depths ≥ 2 ft.
 LRFDLRFD (3.6.1.2.6)(3.6.1.2.6)
 AA
== (20/12(20/12 ++ 11 15D15D )(10/12)(10/12 ++ 11 15D15D ))
LL
EE
EE
 1.151.15 aboveabove shouldshould bebe replacedreplaced withwith 1.01.0
ifif sesellectect granugranullarar bbacackfillkfill iiss notnot useusedd
 StandardStandard (6.4.1)(6.4.1)
AA LL == (1.75D(1.75D EE )) 22
Live Load Spread
Live Load Spread
Dynamic Load Allowance  LRFDLRFD –– DynamicDynamic LoadLoad AllowanceAllowance (3.6.2.2)(3.6.2.2) 
Dynamic Load Allowance
 LRFDLRFD –– DynamicDynamic LoadLoad AllowanceAllowance (3.6.2.2)(3.6.2.2)
 DLADLA == 00
33(133(1
00
-- 00
125D125D
))
EE
 StandardStandard –– ImpactImpact FactorFactor (3.8.2.3)(3.8.2.3)
 IMIM == 00
33
–– 00’’--00”” ttoo 11’’--00”” INCLINCL
 IMIM == 0.20.2 –– 1’1’--1”1” toto 2’-2’-0”0” INCL.INCL.
 IMIM == 0.10.1 –– 2’2’--1”1” toto 2’-2’-11”11” INCL.INCL.
Two Trucks Passing
Two Trucks Passing
Live Load Distribution through Pipe and Soil
Live Load Distribution through
Pipe and Soil
Multiple Presence Factor Design Code Lanes AASHTO AASHTO CHBDC STD LRFD 1 1.0 1.2 1.0
Multiple Presence Factor
Design Code
Lanes
AASHTO
AASHTO
CHBDC
STD
LRFD
1
1.0
1.2
1.0
2
1.0
1.0
0.90
3
0.90
0.85
0.80
4
0.75
0.65
0.70
Load Factor or Presence Factor?  StandardStandard SpecificationSpecification  LoadLoad FactorFactor isis
Load Factor or Presence Factor?
 StandardStandard SpecificationSpecification
 LoadLoad FactorFactor isis 1.31.3 xx 1.671.67 == 2.172.17
 UltiUltimamattee LLoaoadd OOnene LLaneane ==WW LL xx 22 1717
 UltimateUltimate LoadLoad TwoTwo LanesLanes == WW LL xx 2.172.17
 LRFDLRFD SpecificationSpecification
 LoadLoad FactorFactor isis 1.751.75
 UltimateUltimate LoadLoad OneOne LaneLane == WW LL xx (1.2(1.2 xx
11 7575
== 22
1)1)
 UltimateUltimate LoadLoad TwoTwo LanesLanes == WW LL xx 1.751.75
Factors in Live Load Design One Lane Example AASHTO Live Load Spec. (lbs/ft) D-Load (indirect
Factors in Live Load Design
One Lane Example
AASHTO
Live Load
Spec.
(lbs/ft)
D-Load (indirect design)
value (lbs/ft)
Ultimate Load (direct
design) value (lbs/ft)
STD
1,000
1,000
2,170
LRFD
1,000
1,200
2,100
Two Lane Example
AASHTO
Live Load
Spec.
(lbs/ft)
D-Load (indirect design)
value (lbs/ft)
Ultimate Load (direct
design) value (lbs/ft)
STD
1,000
1,000
2,170
LRFD
1,000
1,000
1,750
Affect of Multiple Presence Factor  IfIf livelive loadload fromfrom oneone lanelane controls,controls, thethe
Affect of Multiple Presence
Factor
 IfIf livelive loadload fromfrom oneone lanelane controls,controls, thethe
LRFDLRFD desidesiggnn isis moremore conservativeconservative forfor
indirectindirect designdesign andand crackcrack controlcontrol design.design.
 IfIf twotwo oror moremore laneslanes controlcontrol,, thethe StandardStandard
SpecificationsSpecifications havehave aa moremore conservativeconservative
ultimateultimate loadload designdesign (flexure(flexure,, shearshear,, andand
radialradial tension).tension).
NCHRP 647 – Recommended Design Specifications for Live Load Distribution to Buried Structures
NCHRP 647 – Recommended
Design Specifications for Live
Load Distribution to Buried
Structures
NCHRP Report 647
NCHRP Report 647
Phi Factors  StrengthStrength ReductionReduction FactorsFactors  == 11 00 ff  vv ==
Phi Factors
 StrengthStrength ReductionReduction FactorsFactors

== 11 00
ff
 vv == 0.90.9
 LRFDLRFD –– 1212 55 55--11
 StandardStandard –– 16.7.4.616.7.4.6
“Basis of LRFD Methodology” ηη ii  ii QQ ii << RR nn  i
“Basis of LRFD Methodology”
ηη ii  ii QQ ii << RR nn
 i = a statistically based load factor
  = a statistically based resistance factor
Q i = force effect
R n = nominal resistance
η i = load modifier relating to ductility,
redundancy, and operational importance
Load Modifier - Culverts  LRFDLRFD 12.5.412.5.4  ““LoadLoad modifiersmodifiers shallshall bebe
Load Modifier - Culverts
 LRFDLRFD 12.5.412.5.4
 ““LoadLoad modifiersmodifiers shallshall bebe appliedapplied toto
buriedburied structuresstructures andand tunneltunnel linersliners asas
specifiedspecified inin ArticleArticle 11
33,,
exceptexcept thatthat thethe
loadload modifiersmodifiers forfor constructionconstruction loadsloads
shallshall bebe takentaken asas 11 00””
Load Modifiers  LRFDLRFD CC 1.3.2.11.3.2.1  ““DuctilityDuctility,, redundancyredundancy,, andand
Load Modifiers
 LRFDLRFD CC 1.3.2.11.3.2.1
 ““DuctilityDuctility,, redundancyredundancy,, andand operationaloperational
importanceimportance areare significantsignificant aspectsaspects
affectingaffecting thethe marginmargin ofof safetysafety ofof bridgesbridges ””
Load Modifiers (LRFD) For Culverts  StandardStandard == N/AN/A  LRFDLRFD (1(1 33 2)2) 
Load Modifiers (LRFD)
For Culverts
 StandardStandard == N/AN/A
 LRFDLRFD (1(1 33 2)2)
 DuctilityDuctility == ηη DD == 1.01.0
 RReeddununddancancyy == ηη RR == 11
0505
oror 11
00
 ImportanceImportance == ηη II == 1.01.0 oror 1.051.05
Load Modifier Culverts  LRFDLRFD 1.3.31.3.3 –– DuctilityDuctility  ““TheThe structuralstructural
Load Modifier Culverts
 LRFDLRFD 1.3.31.3.3 –– DuctilityDuctility
 ““TheThe structuralstructural systemsystem ofof aa bridgebridge shallshall
bebe proportionedproportioned andand detaileddetailed toto ensureensure thethe
developmentdevelopment ofof significantsignificant andand visiblevisible
inelasticinelastic deformationsdeformations atat thethe strengthstrength andand
extremeextreme eventevent limitlimit statesstates beforebefore failurefailure ””
Load Modifier - Culverts  LRFDLRFD 12.5.412.5.4 -- RedundancyRedundancy  ““ForFor strengthstrength
Load Modifier - Culverts
 LRFDLRFD 12.5.412.5.4 -- RedundancyRedundancy
 ““ForFor strengthstrength limitlimit statesstates,, buriedburied
structuresstructures shallshall bebe consideredconsidered
nonredundantnonredundant (1(1
05)05)
underunder earthearth fillfill andand
redundantredundant (1.0)(1.0) underunder livelive loadload andand
dynamicdynamic loadload allowanceallowance ””
Load Modifier - Culverts  LRFDLRFD 12.5.412.5.4 -- ImportanceImportance  ““OperationalOperational
Load Modifier - Culverts
 LRFDLRFD 12.5.412.5.4 -- ImportanceImportance
 ““OperationalOperational importanceimportance shallshall bebe
determineddetermined onon thethe basisbasis ofof continuedcontinued
functionfunction and/orand/or safetysafety ofof thethe roadwayroadway ””
The End ThisThis presentationpresentation cancan bebe downloadeddownloaded at:at:
The End
ThisThis presentationpresentation cancan bebe downloadeddownloaded at:at:
http://xfer.concretehttp://xfer.concrete--pipe.org/pipe.org/
Password:Password:
“LRFD”“LRFD”