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:-CONTENTS-:

• INTRODUCTION

• EXCHANGE & IT’S REQUIREMENT


-POWER PLANT
-MDF SECTION

• BSNL SERVICES
-DATAONE
-ISDN
-INTELLIGENT NETWORK

• 5ESS
-DESINGH FEATURES OF 5ESS.
-OPERATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE INTERFANCES.
-OVERVIEW OF SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE.
-WIRELESS RESOURCE UTILIZATION.
-COMMANDS USED FOR MANTENANCE AND
SUPERVISION OF 5ESS.EXCHANGE.

• CELL ONE
-TARANG

• WLL

• CONCLUSION

• BIBLIOGRAPHY

1
INTRODUCTION

The word communication means sharing the information and resource among different
users. In generally for communication we use telephone system.

The word “Telephone” is the combination of two Greek word “tele” and “phone”.”Tele”
means far and “phone” means voice and sound.

In 1874 Alexander Graham Bell invented the principal of telephone. The research of
electronic telephone exchanges was ultimately perfected in 1960.The research on mobile
telephone begins in 1946. The integrated service digital network (ISDN) id developed in
1976.

In 1980 optics technology developed. In optics technology we use optical fibre cable. The
optical fibre cables offer the potential carry greater volume of calls than satellite and
microwave links.

Now a days WLL technology become popular.WLL technology is the latest development
in the field of communication. Wireless Local Loop (WLL) technology is based on
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) principle. WLL is the wireless network.

The impact of telephone has been both positive and negative.


On the positive side the invention of telephone has resulted in the rapid diffuse
dissemination of the technology & scientific information, saves life through links to
emergency services, made possible the modern city through telephone connections,
increased the speed and ease with which information changes place and acceleration the
rate of scientific and technological changes & growth in industries.

On the other hand, wars are waged more easily, the scope of human conflict has been
extended also telephone lines, and multigenerational household has been broken up, as
living along is no longer an experiment in isolation possible.

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New Digital Switches Inducted in Indian Telecom Network.

SUPPLIER VALIDATED AT
SYSTEM
 FETEX-150 FUJITSU, JAPAN MUMBAI
 EWSD SIEMENS, GERMANY CALCUTTA
 AXE-10 ERICSSON, SWEDEN CHENNAI
 OCB-283 ALCATEL, FRANCE NEW DELHI
 5 ESS LUCENT, USA AHMEDABAD
 NEAX-61E NEC, JAPAN PATNA
 SYSTEM X GPT, UK HYDERABAD

EXCHANGE

A system that is responsible for switching the various subscribers. An exchange contains
many cabinates, and one cabinate contains many pillars. Each pillar contains a
distribution panel(D.P.). One D.P. contains many pairs and one pair makes connection for
subscriber .So from a D.P. there are so many connections for the subscriber.

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The communication is not possible from one exchange if the distance among the
subscriber is more than 10 km because of various losses involved with the
communication. So we need many exchanges in a city for the communication & these
exchanges are also interconnected.

Switching on dialing a number, the automatic connectivity of one subscriber to another is


called switching. Electromechanical and electronic devices do switching. Electronic
switching is done with the help of flip-flop & electromechanical switching is done using
Relay.

A Relay consist of a current carrying coil wound over a core. It also consist of armature
and contacts .When current is passed though the coil then due to magnetic field
developed, it attracts the armature due to this the contacts are displaced from their
original position. When a subscriber dials a number 220600 then corresponding to first
digit loop breaks in to two times , in other words a pulse like

is transmitted & same procedure repeated for the other corresponding digits.

If the dialed number is busy then loop will not be completed & the busy tone is send by
the exchange and if the number is not busy then a ringing is send by the exchange. The
number varies according to the area of exchange .For special services the no. are also
different as if subscriber dials starting digit 0,then it means the no. corresponding to an
out station.

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REQUIREMENT OF EXCHANGE

POWER PLANT

This plant consist of two unit i.e.


(1) Engine room
(2) Battery plant

• Engine room:-

This is the unit responsible for supplying power directly from electric supply
board of alternate supply from generator .Generally two sets of generator sets are
used one for current use & another as standby. There KVA rating is according to
the load of exchange.
In EWSD it is of 380 KVA rating. The power developed is send through bus bars
to the switch room, MDF section & other parts of exchange.

• Battery room:-

This is the unit consisting of 24 batteries of 2 volts connected in series to makes


48 volts, which is the potential at which the exchange works.

The battery room too has two sets of batteries . These are been charged by direct
supply or form generator sets & then supplied to various units through rectifiers.

The power plant of any telecommunication system is usually referred as the heart
of the installation since the communication system can function only as long as
power supply is available. Failure of power supply system in any installation
renders the communication facilities offered by it to be instantly paralyzed.

Requirement o Power Supply:-

Any power supply arrangement for a communication system must have two basic
characteristics:-
(1) Reliability of the component of the power plant & continuity of the power
supply.
(2) The power fed to the exchange equipments should be free from noise or
humidity & to telegraph equipment from large ripple harmonics.
*:-In communication network D.C. power is widely used.
Required power supply for EWSD exchange = 48v d.c.

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Source Of Power:-

Power for the communication system is divided from various sources of which the
important ones utilized in development are detailed below:-

(A) Commercial AC Power Supply: - AC mains of 220/230 v 1 phase or


440v 3 phase at a frequency of 50 Hz. provided which requires connection
to DC by means of converting equipments. It is necessary t provide a
stand by power supply as an alternative source of power plant installation
feeding power to the communication system as interruption may occurs in
the power supply.

(B) Primary Cells: - It is used in small magneto exchange telegraph offices.

(C) Prime Mover Generating Sets:- It is comprised of petrol/Diesel fired


engine, which is coupled to alternator .Prime mover generating sets is
generally used as stand by source of power & also as a regular source of
power in areas where commercial power mains are not available.

(D) Secondary Cells: - Battery of secondary cells is used to provide reserve


power for telecom systems in the exchanges. Normally two sets of
batteries are used for medium capacity telephone exchanges.

(E) Static Rectifier Unit: - It is an AC to DC to conversion set utilizing the


AC power mains as the primary source of power & delivering DC O/P at
the required voltage & current for charging of secondary cells or for
feeding telecommunication equipment.

(F) Ringers: - In electronic exchanges, ringing supply and tones are derived
from printing circuit board (PCB).

Maintenance of Secondary Cells:-

Value regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries ensures a reliable effective and user
friendly source of power. It is spill proof, leak proof & explosion resistant and there is
no need to add water or to clean terminals. It has low self-discharge rate which
eliminates the need for equalizing charge.

As the battery is discharged the lead di-oxide +ve active material & the spongy lead –
ve active material react with the sulpheruic acid electrolyte to from lead sulphate &
water during charge that process is reversed. Under typical charging conditions

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oxygen at the +ve plate occurs before hydrogen evolution at the –ve plate. This
feature is utilized in the design of VRLA batteries.

In VRLA batteries the oxygen gas evolved at the +ve plate, instead of bubbling
upwards is transported in gas phase through the separators medium to the –ve plate.
The separator is highly absorbent glass matrix type with very high porosity due to
which the oxygen gas finds an unimpeded path to the –ve plate. The oxygen gas
reduced by reaction with the spongy lead at the –ve plate turning a part of it in to
partially discharged condition there by effectively suppressing the hydrogen gas
evolution at the –ve plate. This is what known as the oxygen Recombination
principle.

M.D.F. Section:-
This is a link in between the subscriber and the switch room lying within the
exchange. It consists of terminal points, which are designated as N.E. side (no. of
equipments) and L.S. side (line of subscriber).

They are divided in to modules, which contain 128 terminal points (0 to 127) in each
module, which are arranged in systematic order.

The N.E. side is connected to the switch room with permanent writing, which has
color coding and has a standard. The N.E. side is connected to I.S. side in a bunch of
1200 pairs of jellyfish wire.

The L.S. side is on its backside and is the side connected to line side i.e. towards the
pillar & further to the subscriber. It is connected to the corrs’ terminals with the help
of jumper wire. This unit where the jumper wire as terminated is consist of 100 points
(1 to 200, 20 rows of each cols. Each)

In each terminals are inserted with fuse consisting OD to GD tubes. The absence of
fuse shows that the no. is not been allotted or is out of order.

After this unit wires are led to the pillar in bunch of pairs of copper wire.

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SERVICES
When it comes to connecting the 4 corners of the nation, and much beyond, one solitary
name lies embedded at the pinnacle-BSNL.A company that has gone pass the no. games
and the quest to attain the position of a leader. It is working round a clock to take India
into the future by providing world-class telecom services for people of India. BSNL is
India’s no. 1 telecom service provider and most trusted telecom brand of the nation.

Driven by the very best of telecom technology from chosen global leaders, it connects
each inch of the nation to the infinite corners of the globe, to enable you to step into
tomorrow.

Data One

BSNL launched Data One broadband service in January 2005, which shall be extended to
198 cities very shortly. The service is being provided on existing copper infrastructure on
ADSL2 technology. The minimum speed offered to customer is 256 kbps at Rs. 500/- per
month only. Subsequently, other services such as VPN, multicasting, videoconferencing,
video – on-demand, broadcast application etc. will be added.

Keeping the global network of Networks networked, the country wide internet services
of BSNL under the brand name Sanchar Net includes internet dial-up/leased line access,
cli based access(no account is required)and DIAS service, for web browsing and E-mail
applications. You can use your dial-up sanchar net account from any place in India, using
the same access no. ‘172233’, the facility which no other ISP has. BSNL has customer
base of more than 1.7 million for sanchar net service.

ISDN

Integrated Service Digital Network service of BSNL utilizes a unique digital network
providing high speed and high quality voice, data and image transfer over the same line.
It can also facilitate both desktop video and high quality video conferencing.

Intelligent Network

Intelligent Network Service (IN service) offers value – added services, such as:
Free Phone Service (FPH)
India Telephone Card (prepaid card)
Account Card Calling (ACC)
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Tele-Voting
Premium Rae Service (PRM)

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5ESS SWITCHING SYSTEM

The equipment for the 5ESS® switch is provided using the following traditional traffic
engineering practices: number of lines, number of trunks, and usage. Engineering
methods closely follow the modular architecture of the system. Traffic parameters are
used to determine the number of interface units required. Unit quantities are then used to
define the office size in SMs/SM-2000s (switching module/switching module-2000). The
number of SMs/SM-2000s then determines the engineering for the CM (communication
module), memory requirements, and so forth.
The basic building-block of the switch is the SM/SM-2000. An SM/SM-2000 can serve
varying numbers and types of interface units [line units, trunk units, and so forth] up to
the SM time-slot capacity of 512 time slots or 30K (in 3K slices) time slots for an SM-
2000. The general algorithm for sizing a switch and accommodating individual
variabilities is as follows:
Given the traffic characteristics, calculate the interface units required
Given the interface units required, calculate the time slots required
Given the number of time slots required, calculate the number of SMs/SM-2000s
required.

to the time frame used. They are ABS (or ABSBH) engineering, THD (or THDBH)
engineering, and HD (or HDBH) engineering; the traffic loads used for engineering are,
respectively, ABSBH, THDBH, and HDBH loads. In general, ABS engineering is used
for components with low to moderate utilization rate; HD engineering or THD
engineering is used for components sensitive to traffic peaks.
There are generally two types of service criteria: blocking and delay. Service levels of
these two criteria are expressed, respectively, as follows:
The percent of demands for service that fail to receive service
The percent of demands for service that are delayed, or the length of delay.

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DESIGN FEATURES OF 5ESS.

 SPC

 PCM PRINCIPLES

 TIME DIVISION SWITCHING (DIGITAL SWITCHING)

 DUPLICATED CENTRAL PROCESSOR, WORKING


SYNCHRONOUSLY

 REGIONAL PROCESSOR: PERFORM TASKS OF SIMPLE BUT


REPETITIVE NATURE.

 FUNCTIONAL MODULARITY: ADVANTAGES


1. SMOOTHER, QUICKER HARDWARE EXTENSION
2. SYSTEM UPGRADATION IS EASIER
3. NEW FUNCTIONS EASILY INCORPORATED.

 HIGHEST DEGREE OF BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY.

 ONE SYSTEM FOR ALL TYPE OF APPLICATIONS.

Operations and Administrative Interfaces

This section identifies and describes the various I/O (input/output) channel interfaces of
the switch. These interfaces allow administrative and maintenance personnel to
communicate with the switch. The functions of the interface devices are also described.
The I/O devices, which should be of interest to the switch administrator,

Interface Architecture

Specific types of interface facilities provide the transmission paths from the AM
(administrative module) to the various interfaces. The facilities include a peripheral
controller in the IOP (input/output processor) of the AM and cabling. Data sets and
telephone line facilities are required for remote terminal devices.

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Fixed Input/Output Interfaces

The fixed I/O interfaces consist of the equipment necessary for the switch to perform
properly and to provide the required administrative and maintenance functions. These
facilities include the following:
Magnetic tape and disk drive facilities
Master control center
Alarms.
The fixed interfaces must be assigned to specific IOP slots. There is a subset of fixed
interfaces that are required for all switches. The fixed assignments plus the required
interfaces.

Magnetic Tape and Disk Drive Facilities

A single tape/disk cabinet is needed to house the required minimum of four fixed-media
disk drives (two pairs) and one magnetic tape drive. An additional cabinet is needed for
other disk drives and tape units...
.
Alarms

The switch alarms are separated into equipment and building alarms. Equipment alarms
are those alarms that identify equipment problems. Building alarms are associated with
building functions that may have an effect on the switching equipment (for example, air
conditioning, open doors, power, and so forth).

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Overview of System Architecture

The 5ESS® switch is designed for application as a local, toll, combined local/toll,
operator services, gateway, or local tandem digital electronic switching system.
The architecture of the switch emphasizes flexibility through the use of distributed
processing and a modular growth plan. The modular design allows switching capacity,
system interfaces, and call processing capacity to be added incrementally.
Figure 4.1 provides a basic diagram of the components that make up the switch resources.
The components shown in this figure depict those that are available for many applications
and some may not be required for the application described in this manual. Those
resources that apply and their utilization are described in the subjects covered in this part.
Through the use of remotely located modules [not available for a VCDX (very compact
digital exchange) office], the features of the switch may be economically extended to
small switching offices located nearby. The ability to host remote modules provides
additional growth flexibility.
The switch can also support ISDN (integrated services digital network), wireless, IN
(intelligent network), and STP (signaling transfer point) network services. Voice and data
services may be provided by building both software and hardware incrementally on the
SM (switching module)/SM-2000.
The term SM as used in this subject will refer to switching modules other than the SM-
2000. Unless otherwise stated, the term SM, when used alone, should be defined as SM
(not valid for SM-2000). When used together, SM/SM-2000, the information provided is
common to both.

Hardware

A major design goal of the switch is to remain economically competitive over a wide
range of line, trunk, and operator position sizes. This goal is accomplished through the
development of an interconnected network of microprocessor-controlled SMs/SM-2000s.
The major characteristics of the switch are as follows:
Provides high-capacity optical links for calls between different SMs/SM-2000s
Provides virtually nonblocking access between nonconcentrated switch terminations
Provides integration of voice and digital data services into a single switch
Provides direct digital interfacing with digital facility terminations
Provides host capability for remotely located modules
Uses distributed control
Provides signaling and transmission treatment by an interface unit
Provides testing access to modular metallic facilities as an integral part of the interface
units.

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Software

The software architecture of the switch follows the distributed nature of the hardware
design. Distributed processing allows the processing power of the office to grow as the
office load grows through the addition of SMs/SM-2000s.
Software is distributed among modules and has the following characteristics:
Well-defined stable interfaces between major system components.
Modular partitions in hardware and software.
Remotely-located line/trunk interfaces capable of extensive stand-alone localized
processing, homing on a host central office only for centralized facilities.
A distributed architecture with functions partitioned to allow smooth growth, enhanced
fault isolation, overload containment, and so forth.
Advanced software characteristics as follows:
·High-level language for better understanding and easier changes
·An operating system providing a stable high-level interface between most software and
the underlying processor hardware
·Software designs oriented toward improved productivity
·Portability of software from circuit processor types to possible future processors
·A data base management system to provide controlled high-level interfaces to office
data.
An advanced software development system working within the operating system
environment.

Wireless Resource Utilization

One of the uses of the 5ESS® Switch is to provide cellular telephone service by
providing custom interfaces to wireless equipment provided by both Lucent Technologies
and other vendors. The 5ESS Switch supports the wireless applications for the following
standards:
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications)
JDC (Japan Digital Cellular).
5E-AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service wireless applications of the 5ESS Switch)
The GSM, JDC, and 5E-AMPS applications are described in the following sections.

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GSM Architecture

The three major components of a cellular system are the MSC (Mobile-services
Switching Center), the BS (Base Station), and the MS (Mobile Station). In a typical
cellular system, an MSC will serve a number of base stations, each of which serves a
coverage area called a cell. The MSC interconnects the cellular network with the land
network. As a mobile travels from cell to cell, the MSC will switch the call from one base
station to another in what is called a "handover" or "handoff". Each base station is
assigned a set of radios and radio channels. Typically, one base station can serve several
mobile stations located within its cell area simultaneously.
For the GSM system, the 5ESS Switch serves as the MSC (Mobile Switching Center). In
addition to the MSC functionality, it provides the functions of the VLR (Visitor Location
Register), the HLR (Home Location Register), the EIR (Equipment Identity Register),
and the AUC (Authentication Center).
The GSM wireless architecture is shown in Figure 17.1. The figure shows the 5ESS
Switch as the MSC and shows the MSC (mobile-services switching center) external
interfaces: BSS (base station system), OMC (operation maintenance center), Voice
Messaging System, Billing Center, and trunks to the PSTN (public switching telephone
network).

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COMMANDS USED FOR MAINTENANCE AND SUPERVISION OF 5ESS
EXCHANGE

Commands and parameters are used to change all type of data in the 5ESS system. The
only other way to affect some permanent data is by means of subscriber procedures or by
changing the program and data by means of a so called “function Change”. Commands
used in 5ESS are called Man-Machine-Language (MML). The MML is made up of
commands and parameters. Some commands do not contain any parameters; some
commands only a few and some commands contain a large number of parameters. Each
command in the system is described in a so called Command Description. There is one
Command Description for each command in the system. The syntax of the command
language is as shown:

DTSTP: DIP = 32UPD3;

Command Parameter Parameter


Code Name Value

Optical fibre cables


The tremendous growth of optical fibre technology and its bandwidth capacity has led to
a gradual replacement of microwave links with optical fibre cable for point-to-point
communication. The rate of growth has depended on the communication policy of
various nations. Europe has seen a rather more rapid growth than the US, reflecting the
increased investment by government; however, there are many cable TV companies in
the US that are laying fibre based networks. The primary disadvantage of optical cable is
that it is largely restricted to point-to-point communications. Microwave and satellite
systems retain an advantage in the ease with which they may be extended to include
additional users.
Cable laying for intercontinental use is an expensive operation that, like satellites, can be
justified only if the additional bandwidth is fully used. Optical fibre links now connect

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Britain and the US, and areas of Japan. Within the national network in Britain, the
replacement of microwave systems by optical fibre is well advanced, especially in
heavily populated areas of the country. Microwave systems will continue for some time
to come, however, if only because they are already paid for. In addition, microwave links
retain a considerable cost advantage in sparsely populated areas.
Optical fibre waveguide
For many years it has been appreciated that the use of optical (light) waves as a carrier
wave provides an enormous potential bandwidth. Optical carriers are in the region of
Hz to Hz, i.e. three to six orders of magnitude higher than microwave frequencies.
However, the atmosphere is a poor transmission medium for light waves. Optical
communication only became a widespread option with the development of low-loss
dielectric waveguide. In addition to the potential bandwidth, optical fibre communication
offers a number of benefits:
• Size, weight, flexibility. Optical fibres have very small diameters. A very large
number of fibres can be carried in a cable the thickness of a coaxial cable.
• Electrical isolation. Optical fibres are almost completely immune from external
fields. They do not suffer from cross-talk, radio interference, etc.
• Security. It is difficult to tap into an optical line. It is extremely difficult to tap
into an optical line unnoticed.
• Low transmission loss. Modern optical fibre now has better loss characteristics
than coaxial cable. Fibres have been fabricated with losses as low as .
The primary disadvantage of optical fibre are the technical difficulties associated with
reliable and cheap connections, and the development of an optical circuit technology that
can match the potential data-rates of the cables. The speed of these circuits, which are
electronically controlled, is usually the limiting factor on the bit-rate. The difficulty of
connection and high-cost of associated circuitry result in optical fibres being used only in
very high bit-rate communication. There is considerable current debate as to whether
optics will ever completely replace electronic technology. In addition, good phase control
of an optical signal is extremely difficult. Optical communications are forced to use the
comparatively crude method of ASK modulation.
Optical fibre is a waveguide. The fibre (in its simplest form) consists of a core of glass of
one refractive index, and a cladding of a slightly lower refractive index (Figure ). The
fibre is then surrounded by a refractive sheath. Typical fibre dimensions are to
diameter.

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Figure: The basic structure of a fibre optic waveguide

In simple terms, the action of a waveguide can be partially understood by considering the
rays down the fibre. A light-wave entering the fibre is either refracted into the cladding,
and attenuated, or is totally internally reflected at the core/cladding boundary. In this
manner it travels along the length of the fibre. The maximum angle at which it may enter
the guide and travel by total internal reflection is termed the acceptance angle (Figure
). It is also possible for the wave to follow a helical path down the guide. These rays are
called skew-rays.

Figure: Waveguide action of an optical fibre


However, this view is too simple to explain all features of waveguide behaviour. In fact,
it is not possible for the wave to take any ray down the guide. Only certain rays can be
taken. These rays are called modes. For any particular frequency, there is a different ray.
The modal action of a waveguide is a consequence of the wave nature of the radiation. A

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mono-mode fibre is a fibre that only has one acceptable ray-path per frequency. A
multi-mode fibre has a number of possible rays that light of a particular frequency may
take.
The attenuation of light in the guide has a number of sources. Absorption of light occurs
in the glass and this decreases with frequency. Scattering of light from internal
imperfections within the glass -- Rayleigh scattering -- increases with frequency.
Waveguide imperfections account for low-level loss that is approximately constant with
wavelength. Bending the waveguide changes the local angle of total internal reflection
and loss increases through the walls. A combination of these effects results in a minimum
absorption of about to in the to wavelength region. It is
these wavelengths that are used for transmission. (See Figure .)

Figure: Sketch graph showing contributions to net spectral loss is a glass core
In addition to attenuation, optical waveguides also suffer from dispersion. The dispersion
has two sources. Due to the modal behaviour, a waveguide is an intrinsically dispersive
device. Put simply, rays of different frequency travel on different paths having different
lengths. Because the different frequencies travel different lengths they take different
times. In addition to the waveguide dispersion, however, is the material dispersion. Glass

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is an intrinsically dispersive media. In single mode fibres the material dispersion
dominates the waveguide dispersion.
The bandwidth of optical fibres is dominated by the dispersion. In fact, the bandwidth of
individual fibres is actually much the same as high quality co-axial cable. It is ironic that
the principle justification for optical communication, very large bandwidth, has not in
practise been realised. However, it is possible to lay many hundreds of optical fibres in
the same cable cross-section as a single co-axial cable.

Fibre optic cable is available in three basic forms:


1. Stepped-index fibre. In this type of fibre, the core has a uniform refractive index
throughout. This generally has a core diameter of to . This is a
multi-mode fibre. (Figure .)

Figure: Stepped-index fibre


2. Graded-index fibre. In this type of fibre, the core has a refractive index that
gradually decreases as the distance from the centre of the fibre increases. This
generally has a core diameter of . This is a multi-mode fibre. (Figure .)

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Figure: Graded-index fibre
3. Mono-mode fibre. As the name suggests, the distinguishing characteristic of this
fibre is that allows only a single ray path. The radius of the core of this type of
fibre is much less than that of the other two; however it does have a uniform
refractive index. (Figure .)

Figure: Mono-mode fibre


From, 1 to 3, we find that the cost of production increases, the complexity of transmitter
and receiver increases, while the dispersion decreases. This latter property change means
that the mono-fibre also has the potential to provide greater bandwidth. As it becomes
cheaper to produce mono-mode fibre technology, we will see an increased use of this
type of optical fibre. Figure gives typical operational information for a mono-mode
fibre.

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Figure: Operational information for a mono-mode fibre

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ADVANTAGES OF FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATION

In Fibre Optic Communication system signals are transmitted as light, where as


conventional electronic communication system relies on electrons passing through the
wires. This is the crucial operating difference between a fibre optic communication and
other systems. Due to this main difference fibre optic communication has some
advantages over other conventional systems.

1. Resource Plentiful: the basic material for glass fibre is silicon dioxide which is
plentiful. Some optic fibres are made of transparent plastic, another readily
available material.
2. High Information carrying capacity: Fibre is able to carry large amount o
information .e.g. a single fibre can propagate data at 565 Mbps rate which
contains 7680 voice channels.
3. Low Cost :: For long paths fibre cables are cheaper to transport and easier to
install than metal cables
4. Less Attenuation: Attenuation is the reduction of signal magnitude as it travels
along the transmission path. A typical fibre will attenuate an optical signal by 0.3
db/km.Very long communication links can be constructed because of the
availability of low loss fibre .Repeaters needed to amplify weak signals can be
located at large intervals.
5. Greater Safety:: Optic fibres , glass or plastic , are insulators. No electric
current flow through them, either owing to the transmitted signaler owing to the
transmitted signal or owing to external radiation striking the fibre. Hence no
electric shocks.
6. Immunity to RFI: Fibre has excellent rejection of radio frequency interference
(RFI). RFI refers to interference caused by radio and television stations, radar and
other signals originating from electronic equipment.
7. Immunity to EMI: Fibres have excellent rejection of electromagnetic
interference (EMI). EMI includes those sources of radiation caused by natural
phenomena such as lighting or caused unintentionally such as sparking.
8. No cross talk: The optic wave within the fibre is trapped; none leaks out during
transmission to interfere with signals in other fibres. Conversely, light can not
couple in to the fibre from its side. The ability of a fibre to isolate itself from its
environment allows us to pack numerous fibres in a cable to transmit many
channels of information along a single path.
9. Higher Security: Fibres offer higher degree of security and privacy , because
fibres don’t radiate the energy within them. It is difficult for an intruder to detect
the signal being transmitted without the knowledge of users.
10. Small size and Light Weight: Fibres are smaller and lighter. A typical cable
design will have a fibre of diameter 125µm enclosed in a plastic sheath with an
outer diameter of 2.5 mm. The weight of this cable is 6 kg/km.

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APPLICATIONS OF FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS

Fibre systems are not perfect . They too have technical and economic limitations . For
selection of any system their relative merits and demerits must be evaluated. A few fibre
applications are described in this section . The list is not exhaustive and is merely
indicative of areas in which fibre optics is successful.

1. Long distance telecommunications: Telecommunication systems on land and at


sea can use fibre to carry many simultaneous telephone calls or other signals.
2. Inter exchange junctions: fibre can be used in inter exchange junction to carry
many simultaneous telephone conversations between to exchanges.
3. Fibre in the loop(RTL): The small size and large information carrying capacity
of optic fibres make them attractive as an alternative to conventional copper
twisted pair cables in subscriber loop;
4. Video Transmission: Applications that are primarily video include television
broadcast, cable television (CATV), remote monitoring and surveillance. The
broadcast television industry uses fibre transmission for short links e.g. studio to
transmitter or live event to equipment van, or live directly to studio.
5. Broadband Services: Fibre can be used for provisioning of broadband services
such as video request service where the subscriber can request that a particular
video cassette be played from a central storage location, home study courses,
medical facilities, train time table etc. these services requiring large bandwidths
can be mad available by using broadband transmission systems and fibre provides
the needed bandwidths.
6. Computer data communications: Low weight, small size, and the security
resulting rom a non radiating transmission line make fibres attractive for data
transfer over any distance. Fibre systems are particularly suited for transmission
of digital data such as that generated by computers. Interconnections can be made
between the central processing unit (CPU) and peripherals, between cpu and
memory, and between CPUs. A local area network (LAN) can be use fibre to
distribute information to several stations within a limited region (e.g. all the
stations are within the building). A variety of network topologies are available for
local area networks by using fibre transmission.
7. High EMI areas: Because of fibre rejection of EMI, signals traveling through
fibres laid along the railway track do not degrade. Optic communications are
compatible with electrified railways. Similarly fibres can pass unaffected through
areas where electrical power is generated or through power substations . Optic
cables can be suspended directly from power line towers, or poles , if the load can
be tolerated.
8. Military Applications: It include communications , command and control links
on ships and aircrafts , datalinks for satellite earth stations and transmission lines

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for tactical commandpost communication. On aircraft and ships the reduced ,
shock, fire and spark hazards are significant assets.
9. Non-communication fibre optics: fibre sensors still represent an important fibre
optics application. Fibre sensors have been use to measure temperature , pressure,
rotary and linear position.

Cell One

CELLONE
BSNL’s GSM cellular mobile service cell one has a customer base of over 5.2
million.Cellone provides all the services like MMS,GPRS, voice-Mail,E-Mail,SMS both
national & international, unified messaging service(send & receive E-Mails) etc.You can
use cell one in over 160 countries worldwide & in 270 cellular networks & over 1000
cities/towns across India. It has got coverage in all national &state highways & train
routes.Cellone offers all India roaming facility to both prepaid & postpaid customers
(including Mumbai & Delhi).

TARANG
TARANG (WLL)

This is a communication system that connects customer to the Public Switched


Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as substitute for

Conventional wires for all or part of the connection between the subscribers & telephone
exchange.

Countrywide WLL is being offered in areas that are non-feasible for the normal network

Helping relieve congestion of connection in the normal cable/wire-based network in


urban areas

Connecting the remote & scattered rural areas

Limited mobility without any air time charge.

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Wireless Local Loop
Wire less Local Loop is a cost effective, wireless alternative to fixed wire line service.
WLL is rapidly gaining in popularity in developing nations.

It if often very difficult to get telephone service in developing nations due to the cost and
time necessary to provide a wired network. Yet demand for telephone service continuous
to grow .As a result:

• There are over 4 billion people in the world without access to a telephone.
• There are approximately 50 million people on waiting list for phones.

WLL can establish telephone service with 1/10 th the infrastructure cost of developing a
wired network.

WLL phones in homes, offices or even boats connect with a wireless system in a manner
similar to that of CDMA cell phones.

The difference is that WLL phones usually stay in a relatively in a fixed location. WLL
phones often connect to AC current rather than using batteries. They can be used to
provide voice, fax, and data connections.

REASON FOR GOING WIRELESS

Here the main stress is not mobility, but the following points are given as

• Low maintenance cost


• Less manpower required for operation
• Ease in installations
• No need for Expensive Copper Wires

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Working of WLL

• Caller with frequency f1 Hz can communicate with the other in his home network.
• When out his home network, caller is directed through his home network. All this
direction of calls are controlled by the BSM.

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PSTN:

The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is a network of switches and


connections between switches. These switches are distributed across various switching
centers.

The PSTN is often represented as a cloud becomes the exact routing sequence used to
connect individual phone calls & vary & can’t be determined in advance.

A telephone connects to the PSTN through a local central office (CO), which handles
routing of incoming & outgoing calls for all telephones in its area. A city may have more
than one CO.

FUNCTION OF MTSO?

The Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) provides controls & commands to the
mobile telephones. It also provides connectivity to the PSTN.

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WHAT IS ROLE OF TELEPHONE NUMBER?

Suppose a number entered by consumer is shown below:

+91-11-2543340

Now the first two number indicate the country code (91 stands for India, 51 for USA etc.)
hence caller is directed to India’s gateway. After that next batch stands for city code (11
for Delhi), caller directed to Delhi zone, from that points the local exchange directs the
caller to required destination.

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Conclusion
This vocational training has a very crucial role in our engineering carrier. We have put in
our entire engineering knowledge to realize this project. The present is being information
technology age; our training in 5ESS. assumes great significance. We have carried out an
extensive study of this field by not only consulting various books & study materials but
also visiting places like BSNL, RajNagar, center, GZB. This entire exercise has taught us
the importance of team-work & co-operation without which training would not have
completed successfully.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

• COMPUTER NETWORKS- TANENBAUM

• DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORKING-


FOROUZAN
• COMMUNICATION SYSTEM-R.P.SINGH

• HAND OUTS ON OPTICAL FIBRE COMMUNICATION-

PREPARED BY BSNL CENTER.

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