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Elmetec Private Limited Lahore

Internship Report
The University of Lahore

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INTERNSHIP REPORT
Submitted To:
GM Elmetec
Submitted By
Imtiaz Ahmad Bsme01113115

Umair Tariq Bsme01113126

Khawar Saeed Bsme01113139

Muaaz Ali Bsme01113094

Haseeb Zahid Bsme01113037

Hasan Jan Bsme01113031

Irfan Ali Bsme01113098

Muhammad Shoaib Mukhtar Bsme01113026

Internship Department:
Elmetec Transformer

Department of Mechanical Engineering,


The University of Lahore, Lahore

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………..5

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………6

Exclusive Summary…………………………………………………………………7

Introduction……………….………………………………………………………….8

Transformer…………………………………………………………………………..9

Distribution Transformer……………………………………………………….11

Internship Schadule……………………………………………………………….11

Manufacturing Department…………………………………………………..12

QC Department………………………………………………………………….….22

PT & CT………………………………………………………………………………….25

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Dedication
To all those who have supported, encouraged, challenged, and inspired us. And
specially to our Beloved Parents, honorable teachers and friends for all their
guidance, love & attention which has made it possible for us to make it up to this
point and as well as the Internship Supervisors who bestowed us with the courage,
the commitment and the awareness to follow the best possible route, by their
unmatchable style and by best possible training.

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Acknowledgement

All the praises are for the almighty, Allah who bestowed us with the ability and
potential to complete this Internship. I also pay my gratitude to the Almighty for
enabling me to complete this Internship Report within due course of time.

Words are very few to express enormous humble obligations to my affectionate


Parents for their prayers and strong determination to enabling us to achieve this
job.

we also appreciate the cordial co-operation from all my Internship Supervisors in


the different departments of Elmetec and also of HR management for providing us
requisite information and knowledge for compilation of our complete Internship.

All the employers of Elmetec helped us a lot in performing all the activities and in
gaining the practical knowledge of industry. They gave us best environment and
knowledge to enhance our skills.

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Executive Summary
Elmetec Private Limited is the pioneer manufacturer of electrical goods in
Pakistan. The company has always been contributing towards the advancement
and development of the engineering sector in Pakistan by introducing a range of
quality electrical equipments by producing hundreds of engineers, skilled workers
and technicians through its apprenticeship schemes and training programmes.

We recently have done our internship in Elmetec, in which we got training from its
Distribution Transformer unit. The internship basically revolved around the
transformer design, manufacturing, I&QC and maintenance. The system, the style
of working & the commitment of the employees in Elmetec is really exemplary.

The difference between the success & failure is doing things right and doing things
nearly right, & Elmetec has always tried for success & that is why it is known to be
one of the leading companies in Pakistan.

In this report we have given a very brief review of what we have seen and learnt
during our internship. we have mentioned all these as we have made an internship
as according to the schedule. This report will give its reader knowledge about the
Elmetec and power division especially about transformer unit.

we have made it possible to write each and every thing that we have learnt here.
We have all our practical efforts in the form of this manuscript that’s the asset for
our future career.

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Introduction
Elmetec (Pvt.) Ltd. was incorporated in 1999 and over the years it has developed into a leading
manufacturer of Electrical Distribution Equipment in Pakistan. Elmetec has a professional team
of engineering personnels and utilizes the services of highly experienced European Consultants
& Engineers.

Elmetec is an ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004, OHSAS 18001:2007 & certified from TUV
NORD, Germany. It is a Pre-qualified/Registered Manufacturer of Water and Power
Development Authority of Pakistan (WAPDA) and Distribution and Electric Supply Companies,
for Distribution Transformers, Low Voltage/Medium Voltage Current Transformers, Potential
Transformers & Switchgear. It is also an approved supplier of Karachi Electric Supply Company
(KESC) and Govt. of Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK). It is registered with Pakistan Engineering
Council (PEC) as well.

Elmetec is a very progressive Indenting and Trading company of Pakistan. It represents foreign
principals/manufacturers from different countries for supply of their products in Pakistan. It is
a regular Supplier of Grid Station Equipment upto 500KV including Power Transformers,
Circuit Breakers, Current Transformers (CTs), Potential Transformers (PTs),
Disconnectors/Isolators and Capacitor Banks.

Elmetec is also supplying equipment to Pakistan Railways. It represents suppliers of


Locomotives, Wagons and Air Brake Systems.

Elmetec in collaboration with leading Russian Companies in the Petroleum sector, offers various
solutions for the Petroleum Industry for both upstream and downstream Companies. We provide
state of the art material such as Oil drilling Rigs, Equipment including pumps, valves, pipeline,
refurbished drilling bits with guarantee, down hole equipment etc. We also provide, through our
Russian partners, all Oilfield related services and processing solutions for Refinery upgradation
to meet Euro IV standards. We also provide solutions and equipment for fast track development
of Marginal wells and Fields. Our Petroleum division can also provide training courses both in
Pakistan and in Russia for all Upstream and downstream related activities.The division is
manned by experts with over 40 years of Local and International experience in the Petroleum
sector.

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Transformer
A transformer makes use of Faraday's law and the ferromagnetic properties of an iron core to
efficiently raise or lower AC voltages. It of course cannot increase power so that if the voltage is
raised, the current is proportionally lowered and vice versa.

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Complete Transformer

Active Part of Transformer


Elmetec (Electrical & Mechanical Technologies) Pvt. Ltd. manufactures 11 KV Distribution
Transformers from 10 KVA to 630 KVA as per WAPDA specifications and all other capacities up
to 5000 KVA. In addition to that, it also manufactures medium and low voltage switchgear
incorporating Vacuum Circuit Breakers, Oil Circuit Breakers and Load Break Switches,

Control & Relay Panels, Bus Tie Duct, Distribution Boards, Power Factor Improvement Plant
(PFI), Draw Out Motor Control Centers, Overhead Bus Bars are the other products. Elmetec also
manufactures Low & Medium Voltage Instrument Transformers.

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Elmetec transformers are available for various applications:

 Distribution Transformers (Pole /Pad Mounted)

 Pole Mounted Substation


Rated Output (KVA): 10,15,25,50,100,200

 Indoor Substation
Rated Output (KVA):250,400,500,630,750 ,1000,1250,1500 2000,2500 upto 5000KVA.

 Pad Mounted Distribution Transformer


Rated Output (KVA): Up to 630KVA

 Auto Transformers

Start of Internship at Elmetec


On my first day at Elmetec, we were first briefed by the Mr. Mudassir. We were informed that
we will be following a specific plan during our internship. All the internees were divided into 2
groups. There were around 10 internees in total. Our group was given the following schedule:

6 to 9 August
Core stacking.

11 to 13 August
Core coil assembly .

14 to 16 August
H.V and L.V connections.

18 to 20 August
L.V and H.V windings shop.

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21 to 23 August
P.T and C.T manufacturing Shop.

25 to 27 August
Tank manufacturing shop.

28 to 29 August
Paint shop.

1 to 3 September
Assembly section.

4 to 5 september
Testing.

8 to 10 September
Quality Control.

Manufacturing Department
It is the responsibility of the manufacturing department to manufacture different components
of transformer and then assemble them to make a transformer. Production department has
following sections:

 Winding Section

 Core Section

 Tank Section

 Assembly Section

How manufacturing department starts manufacturing? First, customer gives order to the
marketing and sales department. Marketing and sales department makes annual sales plan for
WAPDA. Marketing and sales department sends this order to Production planning and control

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department which makes a master production plan (Month wise). This plan is sent to Material
planning section which makes Material requirement plan or Bill of material according to the
master production plan. This plan is sent to the purchase department which buys material
according to this plan. Material is received in store where quality inspectors from I&QC
department check its quality than this material is sent to manufacturing department where
manufacturing of transformer starts.

1. Winding Section
In the winding section L.V and H.V windings of the coil are made.

 Raw Material
For L.V winding
 Paper insulated flat copper wire (For 10KVA to 50KVA)
 Copper foil (For 100KVA and above)

For H.V winding

 Enamel copper wire (For 10KVA to 200KVA)


 Paper insulated flat copper wire (400KVA and above)
 Type of Insulation Material
 Diamond dotted paper (For insulation between layers of windings)
 Press pan sheet (For end collars)
 Creep paper pipe (For insulation of terminal of tap changer)
 Craft paper (Used for insulation in disc winding)
 Thermo ducts
 Types of Windings

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 Disc winding
 Packet winding
 Layer winding
 Foil winding
File and layer winding are used in LV.File, packet and disc winding is used in HV.Disc and
packet winding are easy to repair.

 Machines Used
 Slitting machine is used for the cutting of bundles of insulation material.
 H.V P.I copper winders are used for the winding of P.I copper wire for
transformers of the rating 400KVA and above.
H.V enamel copper winders are used for the winding of enamel copper wire
for the transformer of the rating 10KVA to 400KVA.
 Standard Ratings of WAPDA

Standard ratings of WAPDA are 10KVA, 15KVA, 25KVA, 50KVA, 100KVA, 200KVA, 400KVA,
630KVA

HV winding is done over LV winding, both are insulated from each other. Connections are made
from start and end in LV and HV winding. But in HV we give taping connection at different
places according to design. On HV winding we used DDP paper to insulate it from tank. Oil is
also used for this purpose. Winding turns are according to design. At the end of this section
testing of winding is done using transformer turns ratio (TTR) meter which gives no. of turns.
we check it according to design.

2. Core Section

In the core section upper, side and yoke limbs of the core are made.

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 Raw Material

Raw material used for the making of core is M4 grade silicone steel sheet which is an alloy of
iron and silicon. Silicon is used to increase the permeability of iron.

 Machines

 Slitting machine is used to cut the big roll of silicon steel sheet in required sizes
(widths) according to the rating of transformer.

 Power press machines are used to make limbs. They are operated manually.

 After cutting of limbs V punching is done on the yoke limb which is called yoke
notching.

 PLC cutting machines are also used to make limbs. There are two PLC machines.
SDRI machine has a capacity of 40,000 limbs per day. L.A.E machine has a capacity of
60,000 limbs per day. In CNC machines length, width and angle are given as input.

 L.A.E measuring table is used to check errors in angle, width and length.

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 Iron Losses

Iron losses are the flux losses in core. Major factors in iron losses are;

 Quality of material.

 Bur.

 Air gap.

To reduce iron losses

 Material should be of good quality.

 Limbs should be bur free.

 Limbs should be rust free.

 Weight of core should be according to Tr. Design

After cutting of the limbs, they are stacked in a way that there is no air gap between the limbs.
All the limbs are joined except the upper yoke limb which is filled in the assembly section. Outer
side of the core is varnished to avoid rusting. Core is tightened using upper and lower pressing
beams. Then its goes to assembly section.

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Silicon sheet

Slitting of bundles

Cutting

Side limb Center limb Yoke limb

Core stacking

Testing

Checking of core

Stock

Process Flow Chart of Core Section

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3. Assembly Section

In the assembly section there are many processes in which all the components of the
transformer are put together to form a transformer. Important processes in the assembly
section are;

 Core Coil Assembly

In the core coil assembly coil is fitted in the core and upper yoke limb is inserted to complete
the core, then core is tightened using upper and lower pressing beams. For coil to coil
insulation and core to coil insulation press pan sheet is used. For insulation between bottoms
pressing beam and coil wooden base is used.

 Before Connection Test (BCT)

In the BCT area turns ratio of the coil is checked using TTR meter.

 H.T, L.T Connections

In this section Y-Delta connections are made. Tap changer is connected with the coil.
Connections are made according to work order specifications given by the design department.
Taping is done on these connections to avoid any short circuit.

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 After Connection Test (ACT)

In the ACT area turns ratio of the transformer is checked using TTR meter.

 Furnace

After ACT transformer is kept in the furnace for 48 to 72 hours according to its rating. It is done
to evaporate all the moisture from core or coil. Temperature of the furnace is 120 o to 130o.

 Cover Plate Assembly

In this section H.T, L.T bushings, through bolts, eye bolts connectors, arcing horns and other
parts are inserted in cover plate.

 Pre Tanking Section

When transformer is unloaded from the furnace it is inserted in the tank as quickly as possible
to avoid the getting of moisture in the live part. Live part of the transformer should be inserted
in the tank in 50mins to 1 ½ hours.

 Oil Filling Section

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In oil filling section oil is filled in the tank under vacuum. Amount of oil to be filled can be found
from bill of quantity (BOQ). For 10kv to 200kv oil filling chambers are used and for transformers
above 200kv oil is filled manually.

 Settling Area

After oil filling every transformer is kept for 12 hours in the settling area to check for oil leakage
and oil level.

Supply of coils Core coil Supply of core and


upper yoke limbs
assembly

Before Connections
connections test

Furnace Assembly of After


cover plate connections
test

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Unloading Oil filling


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Process Flow Chart of Assembly Section

4. Tank Section

In the tanking section cover plate, tank, and other mechanical components of the transformer
are made. Tank has following parts;

 Frame

 Cover plate

 Bottom

 Side plate

 Fin Walls

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 Conservator

 Raw Material

Raw material for tank and other components are

 MS sheet (Mild steel sheet)

 MSCR sheet (Mild steel cold rolled sheet)

 Component Welding

In this area lifting lugs, carrying beams and studs are welded using arc welding.

 Frame Punching and Welding Machine

Frame is punched and then welded in this machine.MIG welding is used in this machine.

 Fin Welding

After fin folding they are welded. MIG welding is used in this machine.

 Bottom Side Plate Welding

In this section bottom and side plates are welded together.

 Tank Assembly

Here all the parts of the tank are joint together.

 Tank Welding

Tank is welded to stop leakage.

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Inspection and quality Control
Inspection and quality control department ensures; material purchased by the purchase
department is according to the criteria suggested by IEC in their recommendations(Incoming),
during the manufacturing of transformers all the components of transformer are according to
transformer design(in processing),do all the quality tests so that transformer does not fail in
real conditions(Testing). Inspection and quality control department is further divided into three
sections

 Incoming
 In processing
 Testing
1. Incoming Section:
Incoming section is responsible for the checking of all the material which is purchased to ensure
that all the material is according to international standards. When the material is purchased it
first comes in the receiving where it is inward gate pass (IGP) number. Incoming section checks
through the system if material has arrived, then quality inspectors from the incoming go to the
store and check the material if material is according to standards set by IEC than material is
approved otherwise it is rejected and supplier compliant application form(SCAF) is sent to
supplier.

 Tests on Different Materials to Check there Quality

 Bird Protection Test


This test is used to check the thickness of paint so that cover plate will not short. In this
test 8kv voltage is applied to the cover plate for 1 minute if cover plate does not stand
it for I minute than it is rejected.

 Micron Meter
Micron meter is also used to check the thickness of paint on cover plate. The reading
should be greater than .25mm according to IEC recommendations.

 Mandrill Test
This test is used to check the quality of enamel on enamel copper wire. For mandrill
test all sizes of enamel copper wire will be wound over its own diameter for at least 8
to 10 turns and will be checked for zero cracks.

 Heat Shock Test

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This test is used to check the quality of enamel on enamel copper wire. The sample
prepared for the mandrill test is placed in electric oven at temperature 155 C o to 166 C o
for ½ hour and again mandrill test will be performed for test compliance.

 Break Down Test


The specimen of wire approximately 600mm is doubled and twisted for a distance of
125mm.The tension of wire pair while being twisted and a number of twists will be as
per specification (IEC-60317 and BS-4516).Enamel is removed from the wire at one pair
of ends and test voltage is applied between the conductors through high port test set
as per specification (IEC-60317). Note the reading where break down has occurred.

 Peel Off Test


This test is applicable to sizes over 1.0mm. A sample of the wire of about 500mm
length is placed in tester consisting of two fixing devices 500mm apart on the same
axis. One of these is able to rotate. Specific weight is attached on the fix side of device
as mentioned in specification by IEC-60317. By means of a scraper on opposite sides of
wire.
The rotating device is driven at 60 to 100 revolutions per minute. The number of
revolutions of fixing device is calculated from R=175/d. After applying specified number
of revolutions chipping off of the enamel is checked. Zero chipping off is required to
qualify for enamel copper wire.

 Iron Loss Test

Iron losses of the silicon sheet (alloy of iron and silicon) are found using direct reading iron loss
tester. First diameter of the sheet is measured using micrometer screw gauge. Diameter is fed
in the iron loss tester. Tester is energized for ½ hour and then iron losses are found. If 1.5 Tesla
are applied in tester than losses should not exceed .89 Tesla.

2. In Processing Section

In processing section ensures that during the manufacturing of transformers all the
components of transformers are according to design specifications. It is also responsible for
the testing of oil to check its quality.

 Oil Tests to Check its Quality


There are seven tests done in oil testing lab to check the quality of oil. If the oil fails in
one of these tests than it is rejected not used in transformers. Seven tests are

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I. Visual Inspection
II. Specific Gravity
III. Viscosity
IV. Flash Point
V. Dielectric Strength
VI. Acidity Value
VII. Pour Point
3. Testing
It is the responsibility of the testing section that the transformer does not fail in real
conditions. To check that it will not fail in real environment a number of tests are done on
the transformer before it is ready to dispatch. There are three types of tests which are done
on a transformer.
i. Routine Tests
ii. Type Tests

Routine Tests

Tests which are performed on each and every transformer are called routine tests. Every
transformer must pass these tests before dispatch. Test included in routine tests are

I. Transformer Turns Ratio Test (TTR Test)


II. Winding Resistance Test
III. Insulation Resistance Test (Meager Test)
IV. Induced Voltage Test
V. High Voltage Test (Separate source voltage)
VI. No Load Losses (Open circuit test)
VII. On Load Losses (Short circuit test)
VIII. Dielectric Tests

Type Tests

Tests which are done on samples taken from a whole lot are called type tests. Tests included in
type tests are

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Impulse Voltage With-Stand Test

Temprature Rise Test

Short Circuit Test

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS

Voltage Transformers (MV)

Introduction
Voltage Transformers consist of primary and secondary windings which are electrically isolated
but coupled magnetically by a core. Their role in electrical systems is of primary importance as
they bstep downbthe voltage of a system to measurable values, such as 110 V or 100 V, thus
enabling Standardization of equipment.

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ERRORS OF TRANSFORMATION
Errors are introduced in the operations of the Voltage Transformer because some voltage drops
in the primary and secondary winding due to leakage reactance, winding resistance and
magnetization of the core. This creates a (voltage) ratio error and phase error. Elmetec design
Voltage Transformer with minimum voltage drop, which is due to the resistance of the winding
and other losses of the transformer, by using best quality copper wire and electrical steel M-4.
The Voltage Transformers are encapsulated with high quality resin under vacuum, which
ensures the insulation of LV from HV, but also keeps the partial discharge at a low level as
required by the international Standards.

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS MEASURING

A voltage Transformer with typical accuracy class: 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 used mainly for
measuring through meters and similar apparatus.

PROTECTIONS

A Voltage Transformer with typical accuracy class 3P, 6P are used mainly for protection Relays.

Basic Features

Reliable operation under ambient temperature of -20 C to + 55 C.

- Capable of withstanding short time thermal and dynamic stresses.

- Capable of withstanding impulse voltage up to 110 kV.

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- Voltage transformer has been designed so that it can be installed in any MV panel.

- LV terminal can be sealed.

- A comprehensive range of ratio, burden and accuracy class is available as required in various
International & Local Standards.

- A strict quality control is enforced at various stages of production to ensure compliance of the
VTs. with assigned ratings.

- All material and components used in the manufacture of VTs. are subject to strict receiving
inspection.

- Guarantee of the performance of Medium Voltage VTs. according to rating plate data.

Construction

Elmetec produce custom-made VTs according to WAPDA, IEC, BSS, ANSI or any other
Local/International Standard specifications. These Voltage Transformers are single pole, double
pole and three poles.

Current Transformers

Introduction
A Current Transformer is the principal measuring device for protection and metering schemes
in any power system. The primary current of the CT is transformed into the required secondary
current, usually 5A or 1A. Not only is the accuracy of the transformation of prime importance,
but also the isolating function. This means no matter what the system voltage on the primary
circuit, the secondary circuit need to be insulated only for a low voltage.

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PRINCIPAL OF OPERATION

The Current Transformer works on the principle of available flux. In the bidealbCurrent

Transformer, secondary current would be exactly equal (when multiplied by the turns ratio)

and opposite to the primary current. But some of the primary current or the primary

ampere-turns is utilized for magnetizing the core, thus leaving less than the actual primary

ampere turns to be btransformedbinto the secondary ampere-turns. This introduces an error

in the ratio of the Current Transformer, which is classified as current (ratio) error and phase
error.

This error is measured at rated burden, specified power factors and rated frequency. Elmetec

designs take care of various factors to keep the errors with in the specified limits.

Basic Features

- Reliable operation under ambient temperature of -20 C to + 55 C.

- Capable of withstanding short time thermal and dynamic stresses.

- Capable of withstanding impulse voltage up to 110 kV.

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- Current transformer has been designed so that it can be installed in any MV panel.

- LV terminal can be sealed.

- A comprehensive range of ratio, burden and accuracy class is available as

required in various international & Local Standards.

- A strict quality control is enforced at various stages of production to ensure

compliance of the CTs with assigned Ratings.

- All material and components used in the manufacturing of CTs are subject to

strict receiving inspection.

- Guarantee of the performance of medium voltage CTs are according to rating

plate data.

Construction

Elmetec produces custom made CTs according to WAPDA, IEC, BSS, ANSI or any other
Local/International Standard specifications.

Current Trannsformer (LV)

Introduction
Elmetec produces a comprehensive range of Low Voltage Current Transformers according to
International/Local Standards. A variety of designs are available to suit individual requirements.

Ring Type (bus bar mounted) CTs with different sizes of windows are available that provides
easy mounting for any position in LV Switchgear.

Construction

All current transformers are constructed from high-grade material and are individually tested
for compliance with the specifications. A team of qualified and experienced staff is assigned for
the design and testing of current transformers. Strict quality control is exercised to provide a
reliable product.

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Application

Elmetec Low Voltage Current Transformers are indoor type and used for the operation of
Ammeter. Protection Relays, Kilo Watt-Hour Meters, Earth Fault Relays and other purposes.

Basic Features

- Reliable operation under ambient temperature of - 20 C to +55 C

- Capable of withstanding short time thermal and dynamic stresses.

- LV terminal can be sealed.

- Can either be mounted direct on the bus-bars or any other locations

with the help of mounting feet supplied loose.

- A comprehensive range of ratio, burden, and accuracy class is available

as required in various International & local standards.

- A strict quality control is enforced at various stages of production to

ensure compliance of the CTs with rating assigned.

- All material and component used in the manufacturing of CTs are

subject to strict receiving inspection.

- Accuracy tests have been performed at Research & Test Laboratory,

Rawat.

- Test certificates are provided on request.

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