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Trigonometry

(Including Height and Distances,


Second, Minute, Digree, Radians,
1

Relation θ= rl , Minimum and Maximum


Value of Trigonometric Functions)

This Chapter '’Trigonometry ' is taken from our Book:

ISBN : 9789387421165
2

CHAPTER
Trigonometry

25
(I ncluding Height and Dist ances,
Second, Minute, Digree, Radians,
Relation θ = rl , Minimum and Maximum
Value of Trigonometric Functions)
TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO There are six ratios formed from three sides h, p and b.
Each one of these six ratios is given a specific name.
Consider a DABC right angled at B i.e., ÐABC = 90º.
If we consider ÐC = q , as shown in the figure (i),
The side opposite to ÐB i.e., longest side AC is called
then the six ratios between h, p and b for this angle
hypotenus (h).
are named as

p AB b BC p AB
A
sin q = = , cos q = = , tan q = =
h AC h AC b BC
h (Hypotenus)
(Perpendicular) p h AC h AC b BC
cosec q = = , sec q = = , cot q = =
p AB b BC p AB
q
B C If we consider ÐA = q as shown in the figure (ii), then
b (Base)
(i) for this angle
p BC b AB p BC
sin q = = , cos q = = , tan q = =
A h AC h AC b AB
q h AC h AC b AB
h (Hypotenus) cosec q = = , sec q = = , cot q = =
(Base) b
p BC b AB p BC
Clearly sin q & cosec θ are reciprocal to each other,,
C
cos q & sec q are reciprocal to each other and
B p (Perpendicular) tan q and cot q are reciprocal to each other..
(ii)

In trigonometry, to find the perpendicular (p) and base 1 1


sin q = , cosec q =
(b), first of all we have to consider any of the two cosec q sin q
acute angles A and C. If we consider ÐC , then the 1 1
i.e., cos q = , sec q =
side AB opposite to ÐC will be perpendicular (p) and sec q cos q
1 1
the remaining side BC will be base (b) as shown in the tan q = , cot q =
cot q tan q
figure (i). But if we consider ÐA , then the side BC
opposite to ÐA is will be the perpendicular (p) and In other words,
the remaining side AB will be the base (b) as shown in
sin q. cosec q = 1, cos q. sec q = 1, tan q cot q = 1
the figure (ii).
We can also see that
3
Note that: we write ( sin q ) as sin 2 q and
2
p
p h sin q
tan q = = = ( cos q) 2 = cos 2 q
b b cos q
h Therefore sin 2 q + cos 2 q = 1
Similarly on dividing by b2 on both sides of equation
b (i), we get tan 2 q + 1 = sec 2 q
b h cos q
cot q = = = Þ sec2 q - tan 2 q = 1
p p sin q
h and on dividing by p 2 on both sides of equations (i),

sin q cos q we get 1 + cot 2 θ = cosec 2 θ


i.e., tan q = , cot q =
cos q sin q
Þ cosec2θ - cot 2q = 1
By Pythagorus theorem, Thus
p 2 + b2 = h 2 ...(i)
sin 2 q + cos 2 q = 1, sec 2 q - tan 2 q = 1, cosec 2q - cot 2 q = 1
By dividing h2 on both sides of equation (i), we get From the above formule, we can easily derived
2 2 2 2
p b æ pö æ bö
+ =1 Þ ç ÷ + ç ÷ =1 sin q = 1 - cos2 q , cos q = 1 - sin 2 q
h 2
h 2 è hø è hø
tan q = sec 2 q - 1, sec q = 1 + tan 2 q
Þ ( sin q ) + ( cos q ) = 1
2 2
cot q = cosec 2 q - 1, cosec q = 1 + cot 2 q

VALUE OF TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS FOR SOME SPECIFIC ANGLES

Trigonometrical ratio (q) 0° 30° 45° 60° 90°

1 1 3
sin q 0 1
2 2 2

3 1 1
cos q 1 0
2 2 2
1
tan q 0 1 3 Not defined
3
1
cot q Not defined 3 1 0
3
2
cosecθ Not defined 2 2 1
3
2
sec q 1 2 2 Not defined
3
4
Trigonometric Ratios for SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF
Complementary Angles ANGLES
sin (90° – q) = cos q, cos (90° – q) = sin q, There are two system which are commonly use for
tan (90° – q) = cot q, cot (90° – q) = tan q, measuring angles
cosec (90° – q) = sec q sec (90° – q) = cosec q (1) Sexagesimal or English system :
Illustration – 1 1 right angle = 90 degree (= 90°)
1° = 60 minutes (= 60')
Evaluate cos43° + sec 32° 1' = 60 second (= 60")
sin 47° cosec 58°
(2) Circular system : The measure of an angle
Solution : We know that cos (90° – q) = sin q subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc of
sin 47° = sin (90° – q) = cos 43° length equal to the radius of the circle is called
Also, cosec 58° = cosec (90° – 32°) = sec 32° one radian.
P
cos 43° sec32° cos43° sec32° Consider a circle of radius r r r
\ sin 47° + cosec58° = cos43° + sec32° =1+1=2 having centre at O. Let A be a 1 rad
O r A
point on the circle. Now cut
Illustration – 2
off an arc AP whose length is
sec2 54° – cot 2 36° equal to the radius r of the
Evaluate +2sin 2 38°sec 2 52° circle. Then by the definition the measure
cosec2 57° – tan2 33°
of Ð AOP is 1 radian (= 1c)
2
– sin 2 45° + tan 17° tan 60° tan 73° . p radians = 180°
3
RELATION BETWEEN ARC,
Solution : The given expression is RADIUS AND CENTRAL ANGLE
sec 2 54° - cot 2 36° If s is the length of an arc of a circle of radius r, then the
+ 2 sin 2 38° sec 2 52 ° - sin 2 45 °
2
cosec 57° - tan 33 ° 2 angle q (in radians) subtended by this arc at the centre

2 s
+ tan17° tan 60° tan 73° of the circle is given by q = or s = r q.
r
3
B
sec 2 (90° - 36°) - cot 2 36° s
= + 2 sin 2 38° sec2
2
cosec (90° - 33°) - tan 33° 2 q
O r A
2
(90°–38°) - sin 2 45° + tan(90° - 73°) tan 73° tan 60°
3
i.e., Arc = radius × angle in radians
1 2 1 1 2 1 Note that the unit of s and r will be always same in
= + 2sin 38°´ 2 - + ´ ´ tan 73°´ 3
1 sin 38° 2 3 tan 73° this formula

[Q cosec2 q - cot 2 q = 1, sec2 q - tan 2 q = 1] Area of a Sector


OAB be a sector having central angle q (in radians) and
1 1 9
= 1+ 2 - + 2 = 5- = p
2 2 2 radius r. Area of the sector OAB is given by r 2q .
2
5
B 9. If 4q < 60°, then
s
C
q 1
O r A (a) sin q. sin 2 q. sin 4q = sin 3q
4

1
(b) cos θ . cos 2θ. cos 4θ = cos 3θ
IMPORTANT RESULTS 4
(c) tan θ . tan 2θ . tan 4θ = tan 3θ
1 - tan q cos q + sin q
1. tan ( 45 + q ) = = 10. For all value of q
1 + tan q cos q - sin q
(a) If sin q + cosec q = 2, then 1
2. (a) sin ( 60 - q) .sin q. sin ( 60 + q) = sin 3q
4
sin q = cosec q = 1
1
(b) If cos q + sec q = 2, then cos q = sec q = 1 (b) cos ( 60 - q ) .cos q. cos ( 60 + q ) = cos3q
4
(c) If tan q + cot q = 2, then tan q = cot q = 1
(c) tan ( 60 - q) .tan q. tan ( 60 + q) = tan 3q
3. (a) If sin A + cos B = 2, then A = 90º and
11. Maximum and Minimum Value
B = 0º
(b) If sin A + cos B = 0, then A = 0º and Minimum Maximum
sin q ( odd power ) -1 +1
B = 90º
cos q (odd power) -1 +1
p 2
4. If p sin q + q cos q= r then tan q = sin q (even power) 0 +1
q 2
cos q (even power) 0 +1
5. If a sin q + b cos q = m and b sin q - a cos q = n tan q ( odd power ) -¥ +¥
2 2
then a + b = m + n 2 2
cot q ( odd power ) -¥ +¥
1 tan 2 q (even power) 0 +¥
6. (a) If sec q + tan q = x, then sec q - tan q =
x cot q ( even power )
2
0 +¥
(b) If cosecq – cot q = x, then cosec q + cot q = sec q ( odd power ) -¥ +¥
1 cosec q ( odd power ) -¥ +¥
x sec q ( even power )
2
1 ¥
7. (a) If a sec q – b tan q = c and b sec q – a tan q 2
cosec q (even power) 1 ¥
2 2 2 2
= d, then a - b = c - d
Note that :
(b) If a sec q + b tan q = c and b sec q + a tan q
(i) The value of sec q and cosecq can be any thing
2 2 2 2
= d, then a - b = c - d from -¥ to +¥, except between -1 and 1.
8. If A + B = 45º or 225º , then (ii) When value of q increases from 0º to 90º , then
* value of sin q increases from 0 to 1.
(a) (1 + tan A)(1 + tan B ) = 2 * value of cos q decreases from 1 to 0.
* value of tan q increases from 0 to ¥
(b) (1 - cot A)(1 - cot B) = 2
6
(iii) If a > b, then OA, then the acute angle AOP, between the line of
sight and the horizontal line is known as ANGLE OF
• maximum value of a sin 2 q + b cos 2 q = a
ELEVATION of object P. If the object P is below the
• minimum value of a sin 2 q + b cos 2 q = b horizontal line OA then the angle AOP, between the
If b > a, then line of sight and horizontal line is known as ANGLE
• Maximum value of a sin 2 q + b cos 2 q = b OF DEPRESSION of object P.
P (object)
• Minimum value of a sin 2 q + b cos 2 q = a
2 2 ght
(iv) Maximum value of a sin q ± b cos q = a + b f si
eo
Lin
Minimum value of a sin q ± b cos q = - a 2 + b2 Angle of elevation
(observer) O A
2n 2n
(v) Maximum value of sin q + cos q =1 Horizontal line
Minimum value of sin 2 n q + cos2 n q Horizontal line
(observer) O A
= sin 2 n 45º + cos2 n 45º Angle of depression
1 Lin
eo
(vi) Maximum value of sin n q + cos n q = f si
2n ght
Minimum value of P (object)
ì0, when n is even
ï
sin n q + cos n q = í -1
ïî 2n
, when n is odd TO FIND THE HEIGHT AND THE
DISTANCE OF AN INACCESSIBLE
(vii) Maximum value of a tan 2 q + b cot 2 q = ¥ TOWER STANDING ON A
Minimum value of a tan 2 q + b cot 2 q = 2 ab HORIZONTAL PLANE
(viii) If a £ b, then minimum value of
Let AB be a tower and B be its foot. On the horizontal
a sin 2 q + b cosec 2q = a + b line through B, take two points P and Q. Measure the
If a ³ b, then minimum value of length PQ.
a sin 2 q + b cosec2q = 2 ab Let PQ = a.
Let the angles of elevation of the top A of the tower as
(ix) If a £ b, then minimum value of seen from P and Q be respectively a and b ( b > a) then
a cos2 q + b sec 2 q = a + b Ð APB = a, ÐAQB = b. Let AB = x, BQ = y.
If a ³ b, then minimum value of
2 2
a cos q + b sec q = 2 a + b AB x
From right angled D ABP, tan a = =
(x) Minimum value of a sec 2 q + b cosec 2 q PB a + y
\ a + y = x cot a. ........(i)
( )
2
= a+ b
A
2 2
Maximum value of a sec q + b cosec q = ¥

ANGLE OF ELEVATION AND x


ANGLE OF DEPRESSION
Let an observer at the point O is observing an object a b
a Q y B
at the point P. The line OP is called the LINE OF P
SIGHT of the point P. Let OA be the horizontal line
AB x
passing through O. O, A and P should be in the same From right angled D ABQ, tan b = =
vertical plane. If object P be above the line of sight BQ y
7
\ y = x cot b ........(ii) In rt. D ACB,
From equations (i) and (ii), AC h h
tan 60° = = Þ 3=
\ a = x cot a - x cot b . BC x x
In rt. D BCD,
a
Þ x= CD 8
cot a - cot b tan 30° = =
a cot a BC x
Also y = x cot a - a Þ y = -a A
cot a - cot b
a cot a - a ( cot a - cot b )
Þ y= h
cot a - cot b
60°
a cot b B C
Þ y= 30°
cot a - cot b
In the above case, P and Q are on the same side of the 8
tower. If the two points are on the opposite sides of
the tower then from the adjoining figure, we get x D
x 1 8
tan a = or PB = x cot a Þ = Þ x=8 3
PB 3 x
x \ Height of hill = h + 8 = 3x + 8
and tan b = or BQ = x cot b.
BQ
= ( 3) (8 3) + 8 = 32 m
\ a = PB + BQ = x (cot a + cot b)
Distance of ship from hill = x = 8 3 m
a Illustration – 4
\x=
cot a + cot b A vertical to stands on a horizontal plane and is sur-
A mounted by a vertical flag staff of height 6 meters. At
point on the plane, the angle of elevation of the bottom
and the top of the flag staff are respectively 30° and
x 60°. Find the height of tower.
a b Solution : Let AB be the tower of height h meter
y Q and BC be the height of flag staff surmounted on the
P B
a
tower.
and y = BQ = x cot b Let the point of the plane be D at a distance m meter
Note : Here, all the lines AP, AQ, AB are in the same from the foot of the tower.
plane. In D ABD, C

Illustration – 3 5m

B
A man is standing on the deck of a ship, which is 8 m
above water level. He observes the angle of elevation
of the top of a hill as 60° and the angle of depression of
the base of the hill as 30°. Calculate the distance of h
the hill from the ship and the height of the hill.
60°
Solution : Let x be the distance of hill from man 30°
D x A
and h + 8 be height of hill which is required.
8
AB 1
=
h
Þ x = 3h ........... (i)
Þ 3h - h = 8 3 Þ h( 3 - 1) = 8 3
tan 30° = Þ
BD 3 x
In D ADC, 8 3 ( 3 + 1)
Þ h= ´
3 -1 3 +1
AC 5+ h 5+h
tan 60° = Þ 3= Þx= ....... (ii)
AD x 3 8 3( 3 + 1)
Þ h=
2
5+h
From (i) and (ii), 3h = Þ 3h = 5 + h Þ h = 4 3( 3 + 1) Þ h = 4(3 + 3) metres
3
5 From (ii), x = h
Þ 2h = 5 Þ h= = 2.5 m
2 So, x = 4(3 + 3) metres
So, the height of tower = 2.5 m
Hence,
Illustration – 5
The angles of depressions of the top and bottom of 8 m Height of multistoried building = 4 (3 + 3) metres
tall building from the top of a multistoried building
distance between two building = 4 (3 + 3) metres.
are 30° and 45° respectively. Find the height of
multistoried building and the distance between the Illustration – 6
two buildings. The angle of elevation of an aeroplane from a point on
Solution : Let AB be the multistoried building of the ground is 45°. After a flight of 15 sec, the eleva-
height h and let the distance between two buildings tion changes to 30°. If the aeroplane is flying at a
be x meters. height of 3000 metres, find the speed of the aeroplane.
Ð XAC = Ð ACB = 45° (Alternate angles) Solution : Let the point on the ground is E which
Ð XAD = Ð ADE = 30° (Alternate angles) is y metres from point B and let after 15 sec. flight it
AE 1 h-8 covers x metres distance
In D ADE, tan 30° = Þ =
ED 3 x AB
[Q CB = DE = x] In D AEB, tan 45 ° =
EB
Þ x = 3 ( h - 8) ........... (i)
3000
In D ACB, Þ 1= Þ y = 3000m ............. (i)
y
h h
tan 45° = Þ 1= Þ x=h ........... (ii)
x x CD 1 3000
In D CED, tan 30° = Þ =
A
ED 3 x+ y
X 30°
45° (Q AB = CD)
h–8
Þ x + y = 3000 3 ............. (ii)
From eqs. (i) and (ii)
D 30°
E h
x + 3000 = 3000 3 Þ x = 3000 3 - 3000
8m
Þ x = 3000 ( 3 - 1) Þ x = 3000 ´ (1.732 - 1)
Þ x = 3000 ´ 0.732 Þ x = 2196 m
45°
C x B
Distance covered
Speed of aeroplane =
Time taken
From (i) and (ii),
3 (h - 8) = h Þ 3h - 8 3 = h
9
A C
Solution : Let the length of second string be x m.
AC 1 AC
In D ABC, sin 30° = or = Þ AC = 50m
AB 2 100
3000m
AF 1 AF - FC
In D AEF, sin 45° = Þ =
AE 2 x

1 50 - 10
45° Þ = [Q AC = 50m, FC = ED = 10m]
30° 2 x
E B D
y x
1 40
2196 Þ = Þ x = 40 2m
= m / sec = 146.4 m / sec 2 x
15
A
2196 18
= ´ km / hr = 527.04 km / hr
15 5
x
Hence, the speed of aeroplane is 527.04 km/hr.
100
Illustration – 7
45°
A boy is standing on the ground and flying a kite with F E
100 m of string at an elevation of 30°. Another boy is 30° 10m
standing on the roof of a 10 m high building and is B C D
flying his at an elevation of 45°. Both the boys are on So the length of string that the second boy must
opposite sides of both the kites. Find the length of the
have so that the two kites meet = 40 2m
string that the second boy must have so that the two
kites meet.
10

LEVEL - 1
1. In the adjoining figure, the length of BC is x cosec2 30°. sec2 45°
(a) 2 3 cm C 10. If = tan2 60° – tan2 30º,
8cos 2 45° . sin 2 60°
(b) 3 3 cm m then x = ?
6c
(a) 1 (b) – 1
(c) 4 3 cm (c) 2 (d) 0
(d) 3 cm 30° 11. If x sin3q + y cos3q = sinq . cosq. and
A B x sinq – y cosq = 0, find the value of x2 + y2
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
2. If the length of the shadow of a tower is 3
times that of its height, then the angle of eleva- 1 + sin q
tion of the sun is 12. What is equal to?
1 - sin q
(a) 15° (b) 30° (c) 45° (d) 60°
3. The angle of elevation of the top of a tower at (a) secq – tanq (b) secq + tanq
point on the ground is 30°. If on walking 20 metres (c) cosecq + cotq (d) cosesq – cotq
towards the tower, the angle of elevation become 13. What is log (tan 1°) + log (tan 2°) + log (tan 3°) +
60°, then the height of the tower is ....... + log (tan 89°) equal to?
10 (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) – 1
(a) 10 metre (b) metre 14. I f sin 7x = cos 11x, t h en t h e value of
3
tan 9 x + cot 9x is
(c) 10 3 metre (d) None of these (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
4. If sec q + tan q = x, then sec q = ? 2
15. If cos 4 q – sin 4 q = , t hen th e value of
x2 + 1 x2 + 1 x2 - 1 x2 - 1 3
(a) (b) (c) (d) 2 cos 2 q – 1 is:
x 2x 2x x 2 3
5. If angles A, B, C of a DABC form an increasing (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) (d)
3 2
AP, then sin B = ? 16. If sin q + sin 2 q = 1. Find the value of
1 3 1 cos 2 q + cos 4 q
(a) (b) (c) 1 (d)
2 2 2 (a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 3
6. sec4 A – sec2 A is equal to 17. How many degrees are there in an angle which
(a) tan2 A – tan4 A (b) tan4 A – tan2 A equals two third of its complement?
4
(c) tan A + tan A3 (d) tan2 A + tan4 A (a) 36° (b) 45° (c) 48° (d) 60°
7. If q & 2q – 45° are acute angles such that sin q sec q - 1
= cos (2q – 45°), then tan q is equal to 18. For any real value of q, =?
sec q + 1
1
(a) 1 (b) – 1 (c) 3 (d) (a) cot q – cosec q (b) sec q – tan q
3 (c) cosec q – cot q (d) tan q – sec q
8. The value of tan6 20° – 33 tan 4 20° + 27 tan 2 20° 19. tan 5x tan 3x tan 2x = ?
is :
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 (a) tan 5x – tan 3x – tan 2x (b) 0
sin 6x - sin 3x - sin 2x
cos3 20° - cos3 70º (c) (d) tan 9x
9. The value of is cos 5x - cos 3x - cos 2x
sin 3 70° - sin 3 20°
20. Find the maximum and minimum value of
1 1
(a) (b) (c) 1 (d) 2 16sin q. 4sin q. 2cos q. 128cos q
2 2 (a) 10, –10 (b) 5, –5 (c) 1, –1 (d) 0, –1
11
21. Find the maximum and minimum value of 32. If 3 cos q = 5 sin q, then the value of
15 sin 2q + 10 cos2 q.
5sin q - 2 sec3 q + 2 cos q
(a) 25, 15 (b) 20, 10 (c) 15, 10 (d) 30, 20 is equal to
22. If P = sin220° + sin 240° + sin 250°+ sin270°, then. 5sin q + 2sec3 q - 2 cos q
(a) 0 < P < 1 (b) 1 < P < 1.5 271 376
(c) 1.5 < P < 2 (d) P = 2 (a) (b)
979 2937
23. If 3sinq + 4 cos q = 5, then what is
542
3 cos q – 4 sin q equal to? (c) (d) None of these
(a) 0 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 2937
24. If tan a, tan b are the roots of x2 + px + q = 0 x cosec2 30°. sec2 45°
33. If = tan2 60° – tan2 30º,
(p ¹ q) then tan (a + b) = ? 8cos 2 45° . sin 2 60°
p then x = ?
(a) p – 1 (b) (a) 1 (b) – 1 (c) 2 (d) 0
q -1 34. If q is an acute angle such that sec2 q = 3, then
(c) 2q + p (d) None of these
25. If q be a positive acute angle satisfying cos2 q + tan 2q - cosec 2 q
is
cos4 q = 1, then the value of tan 2 q + tan4 q is tan2 q + cosec 2 q
3 1 4 3 2 1
(a) (b) 1 (c) (d) 0 (a) (b) (c) (d)
2 2 7 7 7 7
26. The value of tan 4°. tan 43°. tan 47°. tan 86° is 35. If q & 2q – 45° are acute angles such that
1 sin q = cos (2q – 45°), then tan q is equal to
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 3 (d)
3 1
27. The minimum value of cos 2q + cos q for real (a) 1 (b) – 1 (c) 3 (d)
3
values of q is–
36. If 5q & 4q are acute angles satisfying
(a) – 9/8 (b) 0
(c) –2 (d) None of these sin 5q = cos 4q then 2 sin 3q – 3 tan 3q = ?
28. If 5 tan q – 4 = 0, then the value of
1
5sin q - 4 cos q (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) – 1 (d)
=? 3
5sin q + 4 cos q 37. If sec q + tan q = x, then sec q = ?
5 5 1
(a) (b) (c) 0 (d) x2 + 1 x2 + 1 x2 - 1 x2 - 1
3 6 6 (a) (b) (c) (d)
x 2x 2x x
29. The value of tan6 20° – 33 tan 4 20° + 27 tan 2 20°
is : tan q tan q
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 38. + is equal to
sec q - 1 sec q + 1
1 cosec 2 q - sec 2 q (a) 2 tan q (b) 2 sec q
30. If tan q = , then =? (c) 2 cosec q (d) 2 tan q . sec q.
7 cosec2 q + sec2 q 39. If a cos q + b sin q = m and a sin q – b cos q = n,
5 3 1 3 then a2 + b2 =
(a) (b) (c) (d)
7 7 12 4 (a) m2 – n2 (b) m2 n2 (c) n2 – m2 (d) m2 + n2
8 40. If sin a + cos b = 2 (0°< b < a < 90°), then
31. If q is an acute angle such that tan2 q = , then æ 2a + b ö
7 sin ç ÷=
è 3 ø
the value of
(1 + sin q )(1 - sin q ) is a a a 2a
(1 + cos q )(1 - cos q) (a) sin
2
(b) cos
3
(c) sin
3
(d) cos
3
7 8 7 64 41. If sin a sec (30° + a) = 1 (0 < a < 60°), then the
(a) (b) (c) (d) value of sin a + cos 2a is
8 7 4 49
12
2+ 3 c c
æ 2811p ö æ 3811p ö
(a) 1 (b) (c) 0 (d) 2 (a) ç ÷ (b) ç ÷
2 3 è 8000 ø è 8000 ø
42. The minimum value of 2 sin2 q + 3 cos2 q is
c c
(a) 0 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 1 æ 4811p ö æ 5811p ö
(c) ç ÷ (d) ç ÷
1 è 8000 ø è 8000 ø
43. If cosec 39° = x, the value of +
cosec 2 51° sin q - cos q + 1 æ pö
52. ç where q ¹ ÷ is equal to
1 sin q + cos q - 1 è 2ø
sin 2 39°+ tan2 51° - is
sin 2 51° sec 2 39° 1 + sin q 1 - sin q
(a) (b)
(a) x 2 - 1 (b) 1 - x 2 (c) x2 – 1 (d) 1 – x2 cos q cos q
44. If tan 2q tan 4q = 1, then the value of tan 3q is 1 - cos q 1 + cos q
(c) (d)
1 sin q sin q
(a) 3 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 53. The simplified value of (1 + tanq + secq)
3
(1 + cotq – cosecq) is
1 (a) – 2 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) – 1
45. If secq = x + (0° < q < 90°), then sec q + tan q is
4x sin 53° cot 65°
equal to 54. The value of ¸ is
cos 37° tan 25°
x 1
(a) (b) 2x (c) x (d) (a) 2 (b) l (c) 3 (d) 0
2 2x
46. If x = a secq cos f, y = b secq sin f, z = c tan q, cos 60° + sin 60°
55. The value of is
cos 60° – sin 60°
x2 y2 z2
then, the value of + - is :
a2 b2 c2 (a) – 1 (b) 3 +2
(a) 1 (b) 4 (c) 9 (d) 0 (c) – (2 + 3 ) (d) 3 – 2
sec q + tan q 5 56. In a triangle, the angles are in the ratio 2 : 5 : 3.
47. If = , then sin q is equal to : What is the value of the least angle in the radian ?
sec q - tan q 3
p p 2p p
1 1 2 3 (a) (b) (c) (d)
(a) (b) (c) (d) 20 10 5 5
4 3 3 4 57. If ta n a + cot a = 2, then the value of
p tan 7 a + cot 7 a i s
48. If 0 £ q £ and sec 2 q + tan 2 q = 7 , then q is (a) 2 (b) 16 (c) 64 (d) 128
2
58. From 125 metre high towers, the angle of
5p p depression of a car is 45°. Then how far the car
(a) radian (b) radian is from the tower ?
12 3
(a) 125 metre (b) 60 metre
p p (c) 75 metre (d) 95 metre
(c) radian (d) radian
5 6 x
49. The simplest value of 59. If sin 17° = , then sec 17° – sin 73° is equal to
y
sin2x + 2 tan2x – 2 sec2 x + cos2 x is
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) –1 (d) 2
y y2
50. If x = a sin q and y = b tan q then prove that (a) (b) æ 2 2ö
y2 - x 2 çx y - x ÷
a2 b2 è ø
- is x 2
x2 y2 x
(c) (d) æ 2 ö
æ y y2 - x 2 ö 2
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 ç ÷ çy y -x ÷
è ø è ø
51. The radian measure of 63°14¢51¢¢ is
13
60. If q is a positive acute angle and cosec q + cot q
1 1
= 3 , then the value of cosec q is 66. If sin (A - B) = and cos(A + B) = , then
2 2
1 2
(a) (b) 3 (c) (d) 1 (a) A = 60°, B = 45° (b) A = 30°, B = 15°
3 3
(c) A = 45°, B = 15° (d) A = 60°, B = 30°
61. If cos a + sec a = 3 , then the value of
cos3 a + sec3 a is 67. The length of a string between a kite and a point
(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) 4 on the ground is 85 m. If the string makes an
62. If sin q + cos q = 2 cos q, then the value of cot 15
angle q with level ground such that tan q = ,
q is 8
how high is the kite ?
(a) 2 + 1 (b) 2 - 1 (c) 3 - 1 (d) 3 + 1
(a) 75 m (b) 78.05 m
63. The value of sin 21° + sin22° + sin23° + .... +
sin 289° is (c) 226 m (d) None of these
1 1 68. A ladder is resting against a wall at height of
(a) 22 (b) 44 (c) 22 (d) 44
2 2 10m. If the ladder is inclined with the ground at
x sin f an angle of 30°, then the distance of the foot of
64. If tan q = , then cot q + cot f =
1 - x cos f the ladder from the wall is
sin f 1 10 20
(a) (b) (a) 10 3 m (b) 20 3 m (c) m (d) m
sin q x sin f 3 3
sin q sin q 69. The value of the expression
(c) (d) [cosec (75° + q) – sec (15° – q) – tan (55° + q) + cot
1 - cos q 1 - cos f
(35° – q)]
æk ö
65. If cos (81° + q) = sin çè - q÷ø , then k = 3
3 (a) –1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d)
(a) 9° (b) 30° (c) 27° (d) 45° 2

LEVEL - 2
1. The top of a broken tree has its top touching the when their angles of elevation at the same
ground (shown in the adjoining figure) at a dis- observing point are 60º and 45º respectively.
tance of 10 m from the bottom. If the angle made How many metres higher is the one from the
by the broken part with ground is 30°, then the other ?
length of the broken part is (a) 286.53 m (b) 274.53 m
A (c) 253.58 m (d) 263.83 m
7
3. If sin q – cos q = and 0 < q < 90°, then the
13
value of sin q + cos q is.
B 17 13 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d)
13 17 13 17
4. A person, standing on the bank of a river,
30°
observes that the angle subtended by a tree on
the opposite bank is 60°; when he reaches 20 m
A 10 m C
far (away) from the bank, he finds the angle to
20 be 30°. The height of the tree and the breadth of
(a) 10 3 cm (b) m (c) 20 cm (d) 20 3 m the river are :
3
2. An aeroplane at a height of 600 m passes (a) 10 3 m, 10 m (b) 10, 10 3 m
vertically above another aeroplane at an instant (c) 20 m, 30 m (d) None of these
14
1 1 4
5. If sin q + cos q = , then find the value of sin q (a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d)
2 2 5
– cos q = ?
14. If tan 15° = 2 - 3 , the value of
3 7 7
(a) ± (b) ± (c) ± (d) ± 7 tan 15°. cot 75° + tan 75° . cot 15° is.
2 2 2 (a) 14 (b) 12 (c) 10 (d) 8
6. If 2 sin a + 15 cos2 a = 7, (0° < a < 90°), find the 15. The value of (sin2 1° + sin2 3° + sin2 5° + .......+
value of cot a sin 2 85° + sin 2 87° + sin 2 89°)
3 5 1 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d) (a) 21 (b) 22
4 4 2 4 2
7. If sinx + siny = a and cosx + cos y = b, what is
sin x. sin y + cos x. cos y equal to? 1 1
(c) 22 (d) 23
(a) a + b – ab (b) a + b + ab 2 2
2sin a
æ a 2 + b2 - 2 ö
(d) çè 16. If y = then 1 - cos a + sin a
(c) a2 + b2 – 2 ÷ø 1 + cos a + sin a 1 + sin a
2
is equal to
8. If sin x + cos x = c, then sin 6x + cos6 x is equal to.
(a) 1/y (b) y (c) 1 – y (d) 1 + y
1 + 6c2 - 3c 4 1 + 6c2 - 3c 4 17. If 1 + sin2 A = 3 sin A cos A, then what are the
(a) (b) possible values of tan A?
16 4
(a) 1/4, 2 (b) 1/6, 3
1 + 6c2 + 3c 4 1 + 6c2 + 3c 4 (c) 1/2, 1 (d) 1/8, 4
(c) (d)
16 4 p
18. If q + f = , what is the value of ( 3 + tan q)
9. If A, B, C and D are the successive angles of a 6
cyclic quadrilateral, then what is
cos A + cos B + cos C + cos D equal to? ( 3 + tan f) ?
(a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 0 (a) 1 (b) – 1 (c) 4 (d) – 4
19. What should be the height of a flag where a 20
10. If 1 + sin x + sin2 x + sin3 x + ......... ..¥ = 4 + 2 3 ,
feet long ladder reaches 20 feet below the flag
find the value of x (The angle of elevation of the top of the flag at
(a) 60o (b) 30o (c) 90o (d) 0o the foot of the ladder is 60°)?
p p (a) 20 feet (b) 30 feet
11. In a DABC, ÐB = , ÐC = and D divides BC
3 4 (c) 40 feet (d) 20 2 feet
sin ÐBAD 20. A vertical pole with height more than 100 m
internally in the ratio 1 : 3, then is consists of two parts, the lower being one-third
sin ÐCAD
of the whole. At a point on a horizontal plane
equal to
through the foot and 40 m from it, the upper part
1 1 1
(a) (b) (c)
(d) 6 1
2 3 6 subtends an angle whose tangent is . What is
2
12. Find the minimum & maximum value of the height of the pole ?
sin 6q + cos6q. (a) 110 m (b) 200 m
1 1 1 3 1 3 (c) 120 m (d) 150 m
(a) ,1 (b) , (c) , 1 (d) , 21. The correct value of the parameter ‘t’ of the
4 4 2 4 4 4
13. If tan q = 1, then find the value of identity 2( sin6x + cos6x) + t (sin 4x + cos4x) = –1
is:
8sin q + 5sin q (a) 0 (b) –1 (c) –2 (d) –3
sin q - 2 cos3 q + 7 cos q
3
15
22. If a cos q – b sin q = c, then a cos q + b sin q = ? 1
(a) 4 (b) 0 (c) (d) 1
(a) ± a 2 + b2 + c 2 (b) ± a 2 + b 2 - c 2 8
30. The angles of elevation of the top of a tower
(c) ± c 2 - a 2 - b 2 (d) None of these standing on a horizontal plane from two points
23. The angular elevation of a tower CD at a place A on a line passing through the foot of the tower
due south of it is 60° ; and at a place B due west at a distance 9 ft and 16 ft respectively are
of A, the elevation is 30°. If AB = 3 km, the height complementary angles. Then the height of the
of the tower is tower is
(a) 9 ft (b) 12 ft
(a) 2 3 km (b) 3 6 km
(c) 16 ft (d) 144 ft
3 3 3 6 31. If sin 2a = cos3a, then the value of (cot6a – cot2a)
(c) km (d) km is
2 4 (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) – 1 (d) 2
2 32. The value of
24. If tan (q1 + q2) = 3 and sec (q1 – q2) = 3 ,
cot 5°.cot10°.cot15°.cot 60°.
then the value of sin 2q1 + tan 3q2 is equal to cot 75°.cot 80°.cot 85°
(assume that 0 < q1 – q2 < q1 + q2 < 90°) is
(cos 2 20° + cos 2 70°) + 2
(a) 0 (b) 3 (c) 1 (d) 2
25. A kite is flying at a height of 50 metre. If the 9 1
length of string is 100 metre then the inclination (a) (b)
3 9
of string to the horizontal ground in degree
measure is 1 3
(a) 90o (b) 60o (c) 45o (d) 30o (c) (d)
26. From the top of a light-house at a height 20 metres 3 9
above sea-level, the angle of depression of a 33. If x = a cos q – b sin q, y = b cos q + a sin q, then
ship is 30°. The distance of the ship from the find the value of x2 + y2.
foot of the light-house is (a) a2 (b) b2
2
(a) 20 m (b) 20 3 m a
(c) 2 (d) a2 + b2
(c) 30 m (d) 30 3 m b
27. If 2y cosq = x sinq and 2x secq – y cosecq = 3, cos3 q + sin3 q cos3 q - sin 3 q
34. The value of +
then the relation between x and y is cos q + sin q cos q - sin q
(a) 2x2 + y2 = 2 (b) x2 + 4y2 = 4 is equal to
2 2
(c) x + 4y = 1 (d) 4x2 + y2 = 4 (a) –1 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 0
28. If sec q + tan q = 3 , then the positive value of 35. The shadow of a tower standing on a level plane
sinq is is found to be 30 m longer when the Sun's altitude
changes from 60° to 45°. The height of the tower
1
(a) 0 (b) is
2
3 (
(a) 15 3 + 3 m ) (b) 15 ( 3 + 1) m
(c) (d) 1
(c) 15 ( 3 - 1) m (d) 15 ( 3 - 3 ) m
2
cos 4 a sin 4 a
29. If + = 1 , then the value of 36. If x = r sin a cos b, y = r sin a sin b and z = r cos
cos 2 b sin 2 b a, then
(a) x2 + y2 + z2 = r2
cos 4 b sin 4 b
+ is (b) x2 + y2 – z2 = r2
cos 2 a sin 2 a (c) x2 – y2 + z2 = r2
(d) x2 + y2 – z2 = r2
16
41. The top of two poles of height 20 m and 14 m are
x y x y
37. If cos q + sin q = 1, sin q - cos q = 1, connected by a wire. If the wire makes an angle
a b a b of 30° with the horizontal, then the length of the
then wire is
(a) 12 m (b) 10 m (c) 8 m (d) 6 m
x2 y2 42. Two men standing on opposite sides of a flag-
(a) x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 (b) +=2
a 2 b2 staff measure the angles of the top of the flag-
(c) a2x2 + b2y2 = 1 (d) None of these staff is 30° and 60°. If the height of the flagstaff
is 20 m, distance between the men is
38. An aeroplane flying horizontally 1 km. above
(a) 46.19 m (b) 40 m
the ground is observed at an elevation of 60°
(c) 50 m (d) 30 m
and after 10 seconds the elevation is observed
to be 30°. The uniform speed of the aeroplane in If x sin q + y cos q =
43. x 2 + y 2 and
km/h is
(a) 240 (b) 240 3 cos 2 q sin 2 q 1
+ 2 = 2 , then the correct
a2 b x + y2
(c) 60 3 (d) None of these
relation is
39. A 25 m ladder is placed against a vertical wall of
a building. The foot of the ladder is 7 m from the x2 y2 x2 y2
base of the building. If the top of the ladder slips (a) a 2 - b 2 = 1 (b) - =1
b2 a 2
4m, then the foot of the ladder will slide
(a) 5 m (b) 8 m (c) 9 m (d) 15 m x2 y2 x2 y2
40. The angles of elevation of the top of a tower (c) a 2 + b 2 = 1 (d) + =1
b2 a 2
from two points at distances m and n metres are
complementary. If the two points and the base 44. If x = psecθ and y = q tan θ then
of the tower are on the same straight line, then (a) x2 – y2 = p2q2
the height of the tower is (b) x2q2 – y2p2 = pq
(a) mn (b) mn 1
(c) x2q2 – y2p2 = 2 2
m p q
(c) (d) None of these
n (d) x 2 q2 – y2p2 = p2q2
17

Hints and Solutions


Level 1 Adding (i) & (ii), we get
1 x2 + 1
BC BC 2 sec q = x + =
1 x x
1. (d) sin 30° = Þ = Þ BC = 3 cm.
AC 2 6 cm x2 + 1
2. (b) Let height of tower (AB) be h metres, then sec q =
2x
length of its shadow (BC) = 3 h metres. 5. (b) Given, angles A, B, C are increasing AP.
B –A = C – B
Sun
A A+C
B= ÞA+ C= 2B .....(i)
2
A, B, C are the angles of DABC,
h
A + B + C = 180°
Þ B + (A + C) = 180°
[from (i), A + C = 2B]
Þ B + 2B = 180°
q
B = 60°
C B
3h
3
Let angle of elevation be q , then \ sin B = sin 60° =
2
h 1 6. (d) sec4 A – sec2 A = sec2 A (sec2 A – 1)
tan q = = Þ q = 30°
3h 3 = (1 + tan2 A) × tan 2 A
3. (c) [Q 1 + tan2 A = sec2A]
= tan2 A + tan4 A
7. (a) sin q = cos ( 2q – 45°)
or cos (90° – q) = cos (2q – 45°)
Þ 90° – q = 2q – 45°
Þ q = 45°
\ tan q = tan 45° = 1
h
8. (b) 3 = tan 60° = tan(3 ´ 20°)

3 tan 20° - tan 3 20°


=
1 - 3 tan 2 20°

OA = h cot 60°, OB = h cot 30° 9t 2 + t 6 - 6t 4


Squaring, 3 = , tan 20° = t
OB – OA = 20 = h (cot 30° – cot 60°) 1 + 9t 4 - 6t 2

20 20 3 Þ t 6 - 33t 4 + 27t 2 = 3
Þ h= = = 10 3 m
æ 1 ö 2 Þ tan 6 20° - 33 tan 4 20° + 27 tan 2 20° = 3
ç 3- ÷ 9. (c) cos 20° = cos(90° – 70°) = sin 70°
è 3ø
4. (b) Given, sec q + tan q = x ...(i) cos 70° = sin 20°
sec2 q – tan2 q = 1 cos3 20° - cos3 70°
Þ (sec q – tan q) (sec q + tan q) = 1 \
sin3 70° - sin 3 20°
1 1
or sec q – tan q = = ...(ii) sin3 70° - sin 3 20°
sec q + tan q x = =1
sin3 70° - sin 3 20°
18
2 2
x ´ 22.( 2)2 æ 1 ö 15. (c) cos4q – sin4q =
10. (a) = ( 3)2 - ç ÷ 3
2
2
æ 1 ö æ 3ö è 3ø
8´ ç ÷ ´ç ÷ ( cos2 q)2 - ( sin 2 q)2 = 2
è 2 ø çè 2 ÷ø 3

x ´ 4´ 2 1 8x 9 - 1
= Þ ( cos2 q + sin 2 q)( cos2 q - sin 2 q) = 2
or, = 3- Þ 3
1 3 3 3 3
8´ ´ 2
2 4 Þ cos 2 q - sin 2 q =
3
8 8
x= x =1
cos 2 q - (1 - cos 2 q ) =
or, 2
3 3 Þ
3
11. (b) x sin3 q + y cos3 q = sinq cos q
x sin q – y cos q = 0 2 2
Þ cos 2 q - 1 + cos 2 q = Þ 2 cos2 q – 1 =
Þ x sin q = y cos q 3 3
Þ x. sin q. sin 2 q + y cos3q = sin q. cos q 16. (c) sin q + sin 2 q = 1 Þ sin q = 1 – sin 2 q
Þ y cos q. sin2 q + y cos3q = sin q. cos q Þ sin q =cos2 q Now,
Þ y cos q (sin2 q + cos q) = sin q cosq cos2 q + cos4 q = cos2 q + (cos2 q)2
Þ y cos q = sin q cos q = sin q + sin2 q = 1.
y = sin q 17. (a) Let the required angle be x,
Similarly, x = cos q then complement of x = 90 – x.
x2 + y2 = sin2q + cos2 q = 1. According to question,
(1 + sin q) ´ (1 + sin q) 2
1 + sin q x= ( 90 - x )
12. (b) = 3
1 - sin q (1 - sin q ) ´ (1 + sin q)
Þ 3x = 180 – 2x Þ 5x = 180

(1 + sin q )2 (1 + sin q) 2 180


x= = 36°
= = 5
1 - sin 2 q cos2 q
1
1 + sin q 1 sin q sec q - 1 -1
= = + cos q 1 - cos q
cos q cos q cos q 18. (c) = =
sec q + 1 1 cos q
= sec q + tan q. +1
cos q 1 + cos q
13. (a) log (tan 1°) + log (tan 2°) + log (tan 3°) +
cos q
........ + log (tan 89°)
= log (tan 1°. tan 2° . tan 3° ............. . tan 89°) 1 - cos q (1 - cos q) (1 - cos q)
= log (tan 1°. tan 89°. tan 2°. tan 88°. = =
1 + cos q (1 + cos q) (1 - cos q)
.............. tan 45°)
[tan q. tan (90 – q) = tan q. cot q = 1].
= log (1 × 1 × 1 × 1 × 1 .............. × 1) (1 - cos q)2 (1 - cos q)2 1 - cos q
= = =
= log 1 = 0. 1 + cos q2
sin q 2 sin q
14. (b) sin 7x = cos 11x
1 cos q
Þ sin 7x = sin (90 – 11 x) = - = cosec q - cot q
Þ 7x = 90 – 11 x sin q sin q
Þ 7x + 11x = 90 tan A + tan B
19. (a) We know, tan ( A + B) =
90 1 - tan A. tan B
x= = 5 , So, tan 9x + cot 9x
18 tan 3x + tan 2x
Þ tan ( 5x ) =
= tan 45° + cot 45°= 1 + 1= 2. 1 - tan 3x.tan 2x
19
Þ tan 5x – tan 5x tan 3x. tan 2x = tan 3x + tan 2x 25. (b) Given, cos2 q + cos4 q = 1
Þ tan 5x tan 3x. tan 2x = tan 5x – tan 3x – tan 2x. or, cos4q = 1 – cos2 q
20. (a) 16sin q. 4sin q. 2cos q. 128cos q [Q sin2 q + cos2 q = 1]
4 2
cos q = sin q.
= 24sin q. 22sin q. 2cos q . 27cos q
= 26sin q + 8cos q
sin 2 q 1
max 6 sin q + 8 cos q or, 1 = .
cos q cos 2 q
2
é Minimum value of a sin q + b cos q Þ tan2q. sec2 q =1
ê or, tan2 q. (1 + tan 2q) = 1
ê= – a 2 + b 2 Maximum value of [Q sec2q – tan2 q =1]
ê
êë a sin q + b cos q = a 2 + b 2
or, tan 2 q + tan 4 q = 1
26. (b) tan4°. tan 43°. tan 47°. tan 86°
= 62 + 82 = 10
= tan 4° . tan 43° . tan (90° – 43°) tan (90°
Min 6sin q + 8 cos q – 4°)
= - 62 + 82 = -10 = tan 4° . tan 43°. cot 43° cot 4°
[Q tan (90 – q) = cot q]
Maximum value of the expression = 210
Minimum value of the expression = 2–10 1 1
= tan 4° × tan 43° × ´
21. (c) 15 sin 2q + 10 cos2 q tan 43° tan 4°
= 15 sin2q + 10 (1 – sin 2q) é 1 ù
= 15 sin2q + 10 – 10 sin 2q êQ cot q = tan q ú
= 5 sin2q + 10 ë û
Minimum value of sin 2q = 0 and Max value =1
of sin2q = 1 27. (a) Let S = cos 2q + cos q
Hence, = 2 cos 2 q - 1 + cos q
Minimum 5 sin2q + 10 = 5 × 0 + 10 = 10
Maximum 5 sin2q + 10 = 5 × 1 + 10 = 15. æ 2 1 1ö 1
= -1 + 2 ç cos q + cos q + ÷ -
22. (d) P = sin220° + sin 240° + sin250° + sin270°. è 2 16 ø 8
= sin220° + sin270° + sin240° + sin250° 2
= sin220° + sin2 (90 – 20) + sin240° + 9 æ 1ö 9
= - + 2 ç cos q + ÷ ³ -
sin2 (90 – 40) 8 è 4ø 8
= sin 20° + cos 20° + sin 40° + cos240°
2 2 2
So, the minimum value S = – 9/8
= 1 + 1 = 2. 28. (c) Given, 5 tan q – 4 = 0
23. (a) 3 sin q + 4 cos q = 5 ...(i) 4
3 cos q – 4 sin q = k ... (ii) Þ tan q =
(i)2 + (ii)2 5
9 sin2 q + 16 cos2 q + 24 sinq cos q = 25 ( 5sin q - 4 cos q)
2 2
9 cos q + 16 sin q - 24sin q cos q = k 2
cos q 5 tan q - 4
Expression = =
9 ( sin q + cos q) + 16 ( cos q + sin q ) = 25 + k
2 2 2 2 2 ( 5sin q + 4 cos q ) 5 tan q + 4
Þ 9 + 16 = 25 + k2 cos q
k = 0.
4
24. (b) tan a + tan b = – p 5´ - 4
5 4-4 0
tan a . tan b = q = = = =0
4 4+4 8
tan a + tan b 5´ + 4
tan ( a + b ) = 5
1 - tan a. tan b
29. (b) 3 = tan 60° = tan(3 ´ 20°)
-p p
= = 3 tan 20° - tan 3 20°
1 - q q -1 =
1 - 3 tan 2 20°
20
9t 2 + t 6 - 6t 4 5 tan q - 2 sec4 q + 2
Squaring, 3 = 4 2
, tan 20° = t
=
1 + 9t - 6t 5 tan q + 2 sec 4 q - 2
6 4 2
Þ t - 33t + 27t = 3
4
3 æ 34 ö
5 ´ - 2 ´ çç ÷÷ + 2
Þ tan 6 20° - 33 tan 4 20° + 27 tan 2 20° = 3 5 è 5 ø
= 4
1 3 æ 34 ö
30. (d) Given, tan q = 5 ´ + 2 ´ çç ÷÷ - 2
7 5 è 5 ø

2
æ 1 ö 8 1156
2
sec q = 1 + tan q = 1 + ç ÷ = 3- 2´ + 2 5 - 2312
è 7ø 7 625 625
= 1156 =
3+ 2´ - 2 1 + 2312
8 625 625
sec q 7 = 8
cosec q = tan q = 813 271
=
1 =
2937 979
7
2
2 x ´ 22.( 2)2 æ 1 ö
æ 8ö 33. (a) = ( 3)2 - ç ÷
( 8)
2 2
- çç ÷÷ 2
æ 1 ö æ 3ö è 3ø
cosec 2 q - sec 2 q è 7ø 8´ ç ÷ ´ç ÷
\ = è 2 ø çè 2 ÷ø
cosec 2 q + sec2 q æ 8ö
2
( 8)
2
+ çç ÷÷
è 7ø x´ 4´ 2 1 8x 9 - 1
or, = 3- Þ =
1 3 3 3 3
8´ ´
8 8 æ1 - 1 ö 6 2 4
8- ç ÷
7 = è 7ø = 7 6 3
= = = 8
x=
8
8+
8 æ 1ö 8 8 4 or, x =1
8 ç1 + ÷ 3 3
7 è 7 ø 7
34. (d) sec2 q = 3
(1 + sin q )(1 - sin q ) 1 - sin q 2 tan2 q = sec2 q – 1 = 3 – 1 = 2
31. (a) =
(1 + cos q )(1 - cos q ) 1 - cos 2 q sec 2 q 3
cosec2 q = =
2 2 2
cos q 1 1 7 tan q
= 2 = = = .
sin q tan q2 8 8 3 1
2-
7 tan 2 q - cosec2 q 2 = 2 =1
3 Now, =
tan q + cosec q 2 + 3
2 2 7 7
32. (a) Given, 3 cos q = 5 sin q Þ tan q = .
5 2 2
2 35. (a) sin q = cos ( 2q – 45°)
2 æ3ö
sec q = 1 + tan q = 1 + ç ÷ or, cos (90° – q) = cos (2q – 45°)
è5ø Þ 90° – q = 2q – 45°
Þ q = 45°
25 + 9 34 \ tan q = tan 45° = 1
= = .
25 5 36. (b) Given, sin 5q = cos 4q = sin (90° – 4q)
In expression, dividing the numerator & Þ 5q = 90° – 4q
denominator by cos q, q = 10°
21
2 sin 3q – 3 tan 3q 3
= sin 60° =
= 2 sin 30° – 3 tan 30° 2

1 1 a 3
=2× – 3´ = 1 – 1 = 0. cos = cos 30° =
2 3 3 2
37. (b) Given, sec q + tan q = x .....(i) sin a
sec2 q – tan2 q = 1 41. (a) =1
cos ( 30° + a )
Þ (sec q – tan q) (sec q + tan q) = 1
1 1 sin a
or sec q – tan q = = .....(ii) Þ =1
sec q + tan q x sin ( 90° – 30° - a)
Adding (i) & (ii), we get
sin a
1 x2 + 1 Þ sin ( 60° – a ) = 1
2 sec q = x + =
x x Þ sin a = sin (60° – a)
x2 + 1 Þ a = 60° – a
sec q = Þ 2a = 60° Þ a = 30°
2x
\ sin a + cos 2a
38. (c) é 1 1 ù 1 1
tan q ê + ú
ë sec q - 1 sec q + 1û = sin 30° + cos 60° = + =1
2 2
é sec q + 1 + sec q - 1 ù 42. (c) 2 sin2q + 3cos2q
= tan q ê ú = 2 sin2q + 2cos2q + cos2q
ë (sec q - 1)(sec q + 1) û = 2 (sin2q + cos2q) + cos2q
= 2 + cos2q
é 2 sec q ù \ Minimum value of cos2q = 0
= tan q ê 2 ú
ë sec q - 1 û \ Required minimum value = 2 + 0 = 2

2sec q 1
2 sec q 2 43. (c) + sin 2 39° + tan 2 51°
= tan q´ = = 2
cosec 51°
tan 2 q tan q cos q ´ sin q
cos q 1

2 sin 2 51°.sec2 39°
= = 2 cosec q. = sin 2 51° + sin2 39° + tan2(90° – 39°)
sin q
39. (d) (a cos q + b sin q)2 + (a sin q – b cos q)2 1
-
= m2 + n2. sin (90° – 39°).sec 2 39°
2

a2 cos 2 q + b 2 sin 2 q + 2ab cos q. = cos2 39° + sin 2 39° + cot2 39°
sin q + a2 sin2 q + b2 cos2 q – 2 ab sin q.
1
cos q –
= m2 + n2. cos 2 39° . sec 2 39°
or a2 (cos2 q + sin2 q) + b2 (sin2 q + cos2 q) [\ sin (90° – q) = cos q, tan (90° – q) = cot q]
= 1 + cot2 39° – 1
= m2 + n2.
or a2 + b2 = m2 + n2 = cosec2 39° – 1 = x2 – 1
40. (b) sin a + cos b = 2 1
QMaximum value of cos b and sin a is 1. 44. (c) tan 2q = = cot 4q
tan 4q
\ sina = 1 and cos b = 1 Þ tan 2q = tan (90° – 4q)
Þ a = 90° ; b = 0° Þ 2 q = 90° – 4 q
æ 180° ö Þ 6q = 90° Þ q = 15°
æ 2α + β ö
\ sin ç ÷ = sin çè 3 ÷ø \ tan 3q = tan 45° = 1
è 3 ø
22
4 x2 + 1 \ q = tan–1 3
45. (b) sec q =
4x p
q=
3
tan q = sec2 q - 1
49. (c) sin2x + 2 tan2 x – 2sec2x + cos2x
sin2x + cos2 x – 2 (sec2 x – tan2 x)
( 4x + 1) 1 – 2 (1) = –1
2
- ( 4 x)
2 2 2
æ 4 x 2 + 1ö
= ç ÷ -1 = a2 b2 a2 b2
è 4x ø ( 4 x)2 50. (a) 2
– 2
= -
x y a 2 sin 2 q b2 tan 2 q
=
( 2 x + 1)( 2 x - 1) = 4 x 2 - 1 Þ cosec q – cot2q = 1
2

4x 4x '
æ 51 ö
2 2 51. (a) 63° 14' ç ÷ [1 minute = 60 seconds]
4x + 1 4x - 1 è 60 ø
\ sec q + tan q = +
4x 4x ' '
é 17 ù é 297 ù 297
2
4x + 1 + 4x - 1 8x 2 2 Þ 63° ê14 + ú Þ 63° ê ú Þ 63º + 20 ´ 60
= = = 2x ë 20 û ë 20 û
4x 4x [1 degree = 60 minutes]
46. (a) x = a sec q. cos f; y = b secq. sin f; z = c tan q
°
æ 75897 ö 75897 p
x2 y2 z2 Þç ÷ Þ ´ radian
\ + - è 1200 ø 1200 180
a2 b2 c2
c
a 2 sec2 q cos 2 f b2 sec2 q sin 2 f æ 2811 ö
= + Þç p÷
a2 b2 è 8000 ø
52. (a) sin q - cos q + 1
c2 tan 2 q
– sin q + cos q - 1
c2
Dividing Numerator and Denominator by
= sec2 q. cos2 f + sec2 q. sin2 f – tan2 q cos q
= sec2 q (cos2 f + sin2 f) – tan2 q
= sec2 q – tan2 q = 1 sin q cos q 1
- +
sec q + tan q 5 Þ cos q cos q cos q Þ tan q - 1 + sec q
47. (a) = sin q cos q 1 tan q + 1 - sec q
sec q - tan q 3 + -
Þ 5 sec q – 5 tan q = 3 sec q + 3 tan q cos q cos q cos q
Þ 2 sec q = 8 tan q
(tan q + sec q) – (sec 2 q - tan 2 q)
tan q 2 1 sin q 1 Þ
Þ = = Þ ´ cos q = tan q - sec q + 1
sec q 8 4 cos q 4
(tan q + sec q)[1 - sec q + tan q]
1 Þ Þ q+ q
Þ sin q = tan q - sec q + 1
4 Þ tan q + sec q
48. (b) sec2q + tan2q = 7
sin q 1 1 + sin q
1 + tan 2 + tan2q = 7 Þ + Þ
(Q 1 + tan2q = sec2q) cos q cos q cos q
53. (b) (1 + tan q + sec q) (1 + cot q – cosec q)
6
tan2 q = =3 æ sin q 1 öæ cos q 1 ö
2 Þ ç1 + + 1+ -
÷ç ÷
tan q = ± 3 è cos q cos q øè sin q sin q ø
tan q = 3 or tan q = – 3 æ sin q + cos q + 1 öæ sin q + cos q - 1 ö
Þç ÷ç ÷
As 0 < q < p/2 è cos q øè sin q ø
23
58. (a) A
(sin q + cos q)2 - 1 Tower q = 45º
=
sin q cos q

sin 2 q + cos 2 q + 2sin q cos q - 1


=
sin q cos q 125 m
2sin q cos q
= =2
sin q cos q
q = 45º C
sin 53º cot 65º B Car
54. (b) ¸
cos 37º tan 25º In DABC
sin 53º tan 25º sin 53º tan 25º AB 125 125
´ Þ ´ tan q = Þ tan 45º = Þ1 =
cos 37º cot 65º cos(90º –53º ) cot(90º –25º ) BC BC BC
sin 53º tan 25º BC = 125 m
Þ ´ =1 Hence, car is 125 m far from the tower.
sin 53º tan 25º
[Q cos (90º – q) = sin q and cot (90º – q) = x
59. (d) sin17° =
tan q] y
1 3
+ x2 y2 - x 2
cos 60º + sin 60º 2 2 = 1+ 3 ´1+ 3 cos 17° = 1 - =
55. (c) =
cos 60º – sin 60º 1 3 1 – 3 1+ 3 y2 y

2 2 Now, sec 17° – sin 73° = sec 17° – cos 17°

(1 + 3)2 1+ 3 + 2 3 4 + 2 3 y y2 - x 2
Þ = = = -
12 – ( 3) 2 1– 3 –2 y2 - x 2 y

2(2 + 3)
Þ = - (2 + 3) y 2 - y2 + x 2 x2
-2 = =
56. (d) Let angles are 2x, 5x and 3x. y y2 - x2 y y2 - x 2
2x + 5x + 3x = 180º 60. (c) cosec q + cot q =
(sum of interior angle of triangles is 180º) 3
10x =180º 1 cos q
x = 18º + = 3
sin q sin q
\ Least angle in degree = 2x = 2 × 18 = 36º
1 + cos q
p p = 3
In radian = ´ 36º = sin q
180º 5
57. (a) tan a + cot a = 2 q
2 cos2
2
1 = 3
tan a + = 2 Þ tan2 a + 1 = 2 tan a q q
tan a 2 sin cos
2 2
Þ tan2 a – 2 tan a + 1 = 0
Þ tan2 a – tan a – tan a + 1 = 0 q
Þ tan a (tan a – 1) – 1 (tan a – 1) = 0 cot = 3
2
(tan a – 1) (tan a – 1) = 0
\ tan a = 1 q 1 q
tan = ; = 30°; q = 60°
Now, tan7 a + cot7 a = (tan a)7 2 3 2
1 2
+ =1+ 1 = 2 cosec q = cosec 60° =
(tan a) 7 3
24
61. (c) cosa + sec a = 3 1 1
66. (c) sin ( A - B) = and cos ( A + B) =
taking cube both sides 2 2
cos3a + sec3 a + 3 cos a sec a (cos a + sec a) Þ sin (A – B) = sin 30° and cos (A + B)
=3 3 = cos 60°
Þ (A – B) = 30° ..... (1)
cos3a + sec3a + 3 3 = 3 3 and (A + B) = 60° ..... (2)
cos3a + sec3a = 0 Solving (1) and (2), we get
62. (a) sinq + cosq = 2 cosq A = 45° and B = 15°
67. (a) Length of the string of the kite AB = 85 m
sinq = ( 2 - 1) cos q B
15
tan q =
1 8
cot q = 85 m
2 -1 8
Þ cot q =
1 2 +1 15 q
cot q = ´ = 2 +1 A C
2 -1 2 +1
63. (d) (sin2 1° + sin2 89°) + (sin2 2° + sin2 88°) + ... 64
Þ cosec 2 q - 1 =
+ (sin 2 44° + sin 2 48°) + sin 2 45° 225
= (sin 1° + cos2 1°) + (sin2 2° + cos2 2°) + ...
2
64 289
+ (sin2 44° + cos2 44°) + sin 2 45° Þ cosec2 q = 1 + =
225 225
1
= 1 + 1 + .... + 1 (44 times) + 289 17 15
2 Þ cosec q = = Þ sin q =
225 15 17
1
= 44
2 BC
In DABC, sin q =
AB
x sin f
64. (b) We have, tan q =
1 - x cos f Þ 15 BC m
= Þ BC = 75cm
17 85
1 - x cos f 1 \ Height of kite = 75 m
Þ =
x sin f tan q 68. (a)
1
Þ - cot f = cot q
x sin f 10 m
1
Þ = cot q + cot f
x sin f

æk ö
65. (c) We have, cos (81° + q) = sin çè - q÷ø
3
30°
k x
Þ 81° + q + – q = 90°
3 Let ‘x’ be the distance of foot of ladder
[Q cos a = sin b, then a + b = 90°] 10 1 10
tan 30° = Þ = Þ x = 10 3 m
k x 3 x
Þ = 90° – 81° Þ k = 27°
3 69. (b) sec (15° – q) = sec (90° – 75° – q)
= sec (90° – (75° + q) = cosec (75° + q)
25
cot (35° – q) = cot (90° – 55° – q) 4. (a) From right angled Ds ABC and DBC,
= cot (90° – (55° + q) = tan (55° + q) we have
\ given expression = cosec (75° + q) – cosec
BC BC
(75° + q) – tan (55° + q) + tan (55° + q) tan 60° = and tan 30° =
=0 AB BD
C
h
Level 2 Þ 3=
x
AC 3 10 m 1 h h
1. (b) cos30° = Þ = and =
AB 2 AB 3 x + 20
60°
30°
20 Þ h=x 3 D A B
Þ AB = m.
3 20 m x
x + 20
2. (c) Let the aeroplanes are at point A and D and h=
respectively. Aeroplane A is flying 600 m 3
above the ground. x + 20
Þx 3 = Þ 3x = x + 20 Þ x = 10 m
3
Putting x = 10 in h = 3 x, we get h = 10 3 m
Hence, height of the tree = 10 3 m and
the breadth of the river = 10 m.
1
So, AB = 600. 5. (b) sin q + cos q = , ...(i)
ÐACB = 60º, ÐDCB = 45º 2
AB sin q – cos q = k (Let) ....(ii)
From DABC, = tan 60º (i)2 + (ii)2,
BC
1
600 sin 2q + cos 2 q + 2sin q cos q =
Þ BC = = 200 3 . 4
3
DB sin2q + cos2q - 2sin q cos q = k 2
From DDCB, = tan 45° Þ DB = 200 3 .
BC
So, the distance AD = AB – BD (
2 sin2 q + cos2q = ) 1 2
4
+k

= 600 – 200 3 1 1 7
Þ 2= + k 2 Þ k2 = 2 - Þ k2 =
= 200 (3 – 3 ) = 200 (3 – 1.7321) = 253.58 m. 4 4 4
3. (a) (sin q + cos q)2 + (sin q – cos q)2
= (sin2 q + cos2 q) + 2 sin q . cos q + (sin 2 q 7
k=±
+ cos2 q) – 2 sin q. cos q. = 1 + 1 = 2 2
So, (sin q + cos q)2 + (sin q – cos q)2 = 2 6. (a) 2 sin a + 15 cos2 a = 7
2 Þ 2sin a + 15 (1 – sin 2 a) = 7
æ7ö Þ 2 sin a + 15 – 15 sin 2a = 7
or, (sin q + cos q)2 + ç ÷ = 2
è 13 ø Þ 15 sin 2 a – 2 sin a – 8 = 0
49 289 Þ (3 sin a + 2) (5 sin a – 4) = 0
or, (sin q + cos q)2 = 2 – = 3 sin a + 2 = 0
169 169
sin a = –2/3 or 5 sin a – 4 = 0
2 4
æ 17 ö 17
sin a =
sin q + cos q = ç ÷ = . 5
è 13 ø 13
26
Since, a lies between 0° – 90°. So, sin a is [Q sum of opposite angles of cyclic
positive. quadrilateral is 180°]
cos A + cos B + cos C + cos D
4 Perpendicular
sin a = = = cos A + cos B + cos (180 – A) + cos (180 – B)
5 Hypotenuse = cos A + cos B – cos A – cos B = 0.
2 2
10. (a) a = 1, r = sin x
Base = ( 5 ) - ( 4 ) = 3
a
S¥ =
Base 3 1- r
\ cot a = =
Perpendicular 4
1
7. (d) sin x + sin y = a ...(i) = 4+2 3
1 - sin x
cos x + cos y = b ....(ii)
1 4-2 3
(i) + (ii)
2 2
Þ = 4+2 3´
1 - sin x 4-2 3
sin2x + sin2y + cos2x + cos2y + 2sin x sin y +
2cos x cos y = a2 + b2 1 4
Þ =
Þ sin2x + cos2x + sin2y + cos2y + 2 (sin x sin y 1 - sin x 4 - 2 3
+ cosx cosy) = a2 + b2
Þ 1 + 1 + 2 (sin x sin y + cos x cos y) = a2 + b2 4 é Dividing numerator ù
1 4 êand denominator ú
Þ = ê ú
æ 2 2 ö 1 - sin x 4 2 3
Þ sin x sin y + cos x cos y = ç a + b - 2 ÷ 4
-
4
ëê by 4 ûú
è 2 ø
8. (b) sin x + cos x = c 1 1
Þ (sin x)2 + (cos x)2 + 2 sin x. cos x = c2 Þ =
1 - sin x 3
Þ sin2 x + cos2x + 2sin x. cosx = c2 1-
Þ 1 + 2 sin x cos x = c2 2
Þ 2 sin x cos x = c2 – 1 Comparing both sides

c2 - 1 sin x =
3
Þ x = 60°.
sin x cos x =
2 2
sin6x + cos6x = 1 – 3 sin 2x cos2 x
11. (c) A
2
æ c 2 - 1ö æ c + 1 - 2c
4 2ö
= 1 - 3ç ÷ = 1- 3ç ÷ø
è 2 ø è 4

4 - 3c 4 - 3 + 6c 2 1 - 3c4 + 6c 2
= = 60° 45°
4 4
Note that: B x D 3x C

( sin 2 x + cos2 x )3 = (sin 2 x )3 + ( cos 2 x )3 sin 60° sin Ð BAD


= ...(i)
AD BD
+ 3sin 2 x cos 2 x ( sin 2 x + cos 2 x )
sin 45° sin Ð CAD
Þ ( sin 2 x + cos 2 x ) = sin 6 x + cos6 x + 3sin 2 x cos2 x
3
= ...(ii)
AD DC
6 6 2 2
Þ 1 = sin x + cos x + 3sin x cos x From (i) and (ii),
Þ 1 - 3sin 2 x cos 2 x = sin 6 x + cos 6 x
sin 60o 3x sin Ð BAD
=
9. (d) A + C = B + D = 180° sin 45 o x sin Ð CAD
27

3 8+5 (8 + 5)
2 = 3.sin ÐBAD = 2 =
2
Þ 1 - 2 + 14
1 sin ÐCAD 1 2 7
- +
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

13 ´ 2
sin ÐBAD 3 1 = =2
Þ = = 13
sin ÐCAD 2 ´3 6
14. (a) tan 15° . cot 75° + tan 75° . cot 15°
12. (a) sin6q + cos6q = tan 15 . cot (90° – 15°) + tan (90° – 15°) cot 15°
= (sin2q)3 + (cos2q)3 = tan 15° . tan 15° + cot 15° . cot 15°
= (sin2q + cos2q)3 – 3sin2q. cos2q (sin2q + = (tan 15°)2 + (cot 15°)2
cos2q)
= 1 – 3 sin 2q cos2q 1
= (tan 15°)2 +
3 2 2
( tan15°)2
= 1 - ´ 4 sin q.cos q
4 Putting the value of tan 15° = 2 - 3
3 3
= 1 - ( 2sin q. cosq ) = 1 - ( sin 2q )
2 2 2
æ 1 ö
4 4 = (2 - 3) 2 + ç ÷
Min sin 2q = 0 è2- 3ø
2
3 é 1 2+ 3ù
So, Max (sin q + cos q) = 1 - ( 0 ) = 1 - 0 = 1
6 6 = (2 - 3) 2 + ê ´ ú
4 ë2 - 3 2 + 3 û
=1–0=1 2
Max sin 2q = 1 2 æ2+ 3ö
= (2 - 3) + çç ÷÷
3 1 è 4-3 ø
So, min (sin6q + cos6q) = 1 - (1) =
4 4 = (2 - 3)2 + (2 + 3) 2
13. (a) tan q = 1
= 2 éë 2 + ( 3) ùû [Q (a + b)2 + (a – b)2
2 2
sec q = 1 + tan q = 1 + 1 =
2 2
= 2 (a2 + b2)]
1
cos q = = 2 ( 4 + 3) = 2 × 7 = 14
2 15. (c) To find total number of terms
2 First term = 1, last term = 89, common diff = 2.
æ 1 ö 1 an = a1 + (n – 1)d
sin q = 1 - cos q = 2 1- ç ÷ =
è 2ø 2 89 = 1 + (n – 1) 2
Þ 88 = (n – 1) 2
8sin q + 5 sin q
Now, Þ n – 1 = 44
sin q - 2 cos 3 q + 7 cos q
3
Þ 45 terms.
Now, sin 2 1° + sin2 3° + sin2 5°+.......... +
1 1
8´ + 5´ sin2 85° + sin 2 87° + sin 2 89°
2 2 = (sin 1° + sin2 89°) + (sin2 3° + sin2 87°)
2
= 3 3
æ 1 ö æ 1 ö 1 + ..... 22 terms + sin2 45°
ç ÷ - 2´ç ÷ + 7´ = (sin 1° + cos 1°) + (sin 2 3° + cos2 3°)
2 2
è 2 ø è 2 ø 2
2
æ 1 ö
+ ..... 22 terms + ç ÷
è 2ø
28
1 tan q + tan f 1
= (1 + 1 + ........... 22 terms) + Þ =
2 1 - tan q tan f 3
1 1
= 22 + = 22 Þ
2 2 3 tan q + 3 tan f = 1 - tan q tan f ...(1)
1 - cos a + sin a ( 3 + tan q) ( 3 + tan f)
16. (b) =
1 + sin a
= 3 + 3 tan q + 3 tan f + tan q tan f
1 - cos a + sin a . 1 + cos a + sin a
= 3 + 1 – tan q tan f + tan q tan f = 4
1 + sin a 1 + cos a + sin a
19. (b) In DABD, D
(1 + sin a)2 - cos 2 a BD
= tan 60° =
(1 + sin a) (1 + cos a + sin a) AB 20
2
(1 + sin a + 2sin a) - (1 - sin a) 2 h
Þ 3= h
= AB
(1 + sin a ) (1 + cos a + sin a ) C
h
2sin a (1 + sin a ) Þ AB = 20
= (1 + sin a ) (1 + cos a + sin a ) 3
A 60° B
2sin a Now, in DABC
= =y AC2 = AB2 + BC2
1 + cos a + sin a
2
17. (c) In the given equation, æ h ö
Þ 20 2 = ç + (h - 20) 2
1 + sin2 A = 3 sin A cos A è 3 ÷ø
Dividing both sides by cos2A,
Þ h2 + 3h2 – 120h = 0
1 sin 2 A sin A Þ 4h2 – 120h = 0
We get + = 3. Þ h (h –30) = 0
2 2 cos A
cos A cos A h = 0 or 30
h = 0 not possible
Þ sec 2 A + tan 2 A = 3 tan A
Þ h = 30 ft
Þ 1 + tan 2 A + tan 2 A = 3 tan A 20. (c) Let h be the height of pole, upper portion
CD subtend angle q at A.
Þ 2 tan 2 A - 3 tan A + 1 = 0 1
Then, tan q =
Þ 2 tan2 A – 2 tan A – tan A + 1= 0 2
Þ 2 tan A (tan A – 1) – 1(tan A – 1) = 0 Let lower part BC subtend angle f at A, then
In D ABC,
Þ (2tan A – 1) (tan A – 1) = 0
D
1
Þ tan A = ,1
2 2h/3
p
18. (c) Given that q + f =
6 C
p
Þ tan (q + f) = tan h/3
6 q
f
A B
40
29

tan f =
BC
=
h /3
=
h 23. (d) In D ACD, we get AC = h cot 60° = h. 1 / 3 , ( )
AB 40 120
In DBCD, BC = h cot 30° = h 3 .
In D ABD,
Therefore, from right-angled triangle BAC,
BD we have
tan(q + f) =
AB BC2 = AB2 + AC2

tan q + tan f h 2
( ) æ h ö
2
Þ = Þ h 3
2
= (3) + ç ÷
1 - tan q tan f 40 è 3ø

1 h
+ 2(60 + h) h D
h
Þ 2 120 = Þ =
h 40 (240 - h) 40
1-
240 h

Þ 80 (60 + h) = 240 h – h2
C
Þ 4800 + 80 h = 240 h – h 2
Þ h2 – 160 h + 4800 = 0 30° 60°
Þ (h – 120) (h – 40) = 0
B 3 km A
Þ h = 120
[h = 40 is discarded, since h > 100 is given]
21. (d) Given identity h2 8 2
2(sin6x + cos6x) + t (sin4x + cos4x ) = – 1 Þ 3h 2 = 9 + Þ h =9
3 3
Þ 2[(sin2x + cos2x)3 – 3 sin2x cos2x (sin2x
+ cos2x)] + t[(sin2x + cos2x)2 – 2sin2x cos2x] 27 3 3 3 6
=–1 Þ h2 = Þh = km = km
8 2 2 4
[Q (a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab (a + b)
and (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab where 24. (d) tan (q1 + q2) = 3 = tan 60°
a = sin 2x, b = cos2x] Þ q1 + q2
Þ 2[1– 3sin2x cos2x] + t[1 – 2 sin2x cos2x]
2
=–1 = 60° and sec (q1 – q2) = = sec 30°
Þ 2 – 6 sin2x cos2x + t – 2t sin2x cos2x = – 1 3
= t (1 – 2 sin2x cos2x) = – 3 (1 – 2 sin2x cos2x) Þ q1 – q2 = 30°
Þ t = – 3. \ q1 = 45° and q2 = 15°
22. (b) (a cos q – b sin q)2 + (a cos q + b sin q)2 \ sin 2q1 + tan 3q2 = sin 90° + tan 45°
= a2 cos2 q + b2 sin2 q – 2ab sin q cos q =1+1=2
+ a2cos2 q + b2 sin2 q + 2ab cos q. sin q.
= a2 (cos2 q + sin2 q) + b2 (sin2 q + cos2 q) 25. (d)
= a2 × 1 + b2 × 1
= a2 + b2. 100 m 50 m
\ (a cos q – b sin q )2 + (a cos q + b sin q )2
= a2 + b2 . q
Þ c2 + (a cos q + b sin q)2 = a2 + b2
Þ a cos q + b sin q = ± a 2 + b2 - c 2
30
50 m 1 Therefore, sin q = 1 - cos 2 q
sinq = 100 m =
2
3 1
q = 30° Þ 1- =
4 2
20 30°
26. (b) tan 30° =
x cos 4 a sin 4 a
29. (d) + =1
1 20 20m cos 2 b sin 2 b
=
3 x Þ cos4 a sin2 b + sin4 a cos2 b
30° = cos2 b sin2 b
x = 20 3m x Þ cos4 a (1 – cos2 b) + cos2 b (1 – cos2 a)2
27. (b) 2y cos q = x sin q = cos2 b (1 – cos2 b)
2y Þ cos4 a – cos4 a cos2 b + cos2 b – 2 cos2 a
Þ sin q = cos q
x cos2 b + cos4 a cos2 b = cos2 b – cos4 b
And 2x sec q – y cosec q = 3 Þ cos4 a – 2 cos2 a cos2 b + cos4 b = 0

y Þ (cos2 a – cos2 b)2 = 0


Þ 2 x sec q - =3
sin q Þ cos2 a = cos2 b
Þ sin2 a = sin2 b
2x yx
Þ - =3
cos q 2 y cos q cos 4 b sin 4 b
Then, +
3 x cos 2 a sin 2 a
Þ 3cos q = x Þ cos q =
2 2
cos2 b cos 2 a sin 2 b sin 2 a
Now sin2 q + cos2 q = 1 Þ +
cos 2 a sin 2 a
2
x Þ cos2 b + sin2 b = 1
Þ y2 + =1
4 30. (b) In DABC

Þ 4 y 2 + x2 = 4 h
tan a = ...(1)
9
28. (b) sec2 q – tan2 q = 1
(sec q + tan q) (sec q – tan q) = 1
A
1 In DABD
3(sec q - tan q) = 1 Þ sec q - tan q =
3 h

...(1)
a b
sec q + tan q = 3 (Given) ...(2) B 9 C
16
Adding equations (1) and (2)
1 4 2 h
2sec q = 3 + Þ 2sec q = Þ sec q = tan b =
3 3 3 16
a + b = 90° (given)
3 é 1 ù
\ cos q =
2 êëQ sec q = cos q úû b = 90 – a
h
since tan b =
16
31
Þ (a2 + b2) (cos2
q + sin2q)
h
tan(90 - a) = Þ cot a Þ a2 + b2. (1) Þ a2 + b2
16
(cos q + sin q)(cos2 q + sin 2 q - sin q cos q)
h 16 34. (c)
= or tan a = ...(2) (cos q + sin q)
16 h
From eqs. (1) and (2) (cos q - sin q)(cos 2 q + sin 2 q + sin q cos q)
+
h 16 (cos q - sin q)
= Þ h2 = 16 ´ 9 Þ h = 12feet.
9 h = 2 cos2 q + 2sin2 q – sin q cos q + sin q cos q
=2
31. (a) If sin 2 a = cos3 a

tan 2 a = cos a ...(1) 35. (a) A


Now consider, cot6 a – cot2 a

1 1 é 1 ù h
= 6
- 2 êSince, cot a = tan a ú
tan a tan a ë û
45° 60°
D x B
Substituting tan2a = cos a, equation will be 30 m C

1 1 1 - cos 2 a sin 2 a In DABC, tan60° =


h
= - = =
3
cos a cos a cos3 a cos3 a x

tan 2 a h
= =1 x= ...(1)
cos a 3

32. (d) cot 5º.cot10º.cot15º.cot 60º.cot 75º h


In D ABD, tan 45° =
.cot 80º.cot 85º 30 + x
(cos 2 20o + cos 2 70º ) + 2 h
1= or h = 30 + x
30 + x
cot(90º –85º ).cot(90º –80º ).cot(90º –75º ). Putting value of x from (1)
Þ cot 60º.cot 75º.cot 80º cot 85º
h
(cos 2 (90º –70º ) + cos 2 70º ) + 2 h = 30 +
3

1
or h ( 3 - 1) = 30 Þ h = 15 (3 + 3) m
cot 60º 1 3 3
Þ = 3 = ´ = 3
(1 + 2) 3 3 3 3 9
36. (a) x = r sin a cos b, y = r sin a sin b, z = r cos a
33. (d) x = a cos q – b sin q \ x2 + y2 + z2 = r2sin2a cos2b + r2sin2a
y = b cos q + a sin q sin2b + r2cos2a
x 2 + y2 = (a cos q – b sin q)2 + (b cos q + = r2sin2a (cos2b + sin2b) + r2cos2a
a sin q)2 = r2 sin2 a + r2 cos2 a = r2
2 2 2 2
Þ a cos q + b sin q – 2 ab cos q sin q x y x y
+ b2 cos2 q + a2 sin2 q + 2ab cos q sin q 37. (b) cos q + sin q = 1, sin q - cos q = 1
a b a b
Þ (a2 + b2) cos2 q + (a2 + b2) sin2 q
32
Squaring and adding, we get
2 2 40. (a) In DABC, A
æx y ö æx y ö
çè cos q + sin q÷ø + çè sin q - cos q÷ø = 1 + 1
a b a b
=1+1
h
x2 y2
Þ + =2 o –q
a2 b2 90 q
D C B
38. (b) d = H cot 30° – H cot 60° n
Time taken = 10 second
h = m tan q ... (1)
cot 30° - cot 60°
speed = ´ 60 ´ 60 = 240 3 In DABD,
10 h = n tan(90o – q) ... (2)
Multiplying (1) and (2),
h2 = m tanq × n tan
(90o – q)
= mn tanqcotq
= mn
Þh= mn
41. (a) Here, CD = 20 m [Height of big pole]
AB = 14 m [Height of small pole]

D
39. (b) In DABC,
6m

B 30°
A x E
20 m
4m
14 m 14 m
E

m
25 A C

DE = CD – CE Þ DE = CD –AB[QAB= CE]
D 7m B Þ DE = 20 – 14 = 6 m
DE
In DBDE, sin 30° =
BD
AB = 252 - 7 2 = 24 m
\ EB = 24 – 4 = 20 m 1 6
Þ = Þ BD = 12 m
In DBDE, 2 BD
\ Length of wire = 12 m
BD = 252 - 202 =15 m 42. (a) C and D be the position of the men and AB
DC = 15 – 7 = 8 m is the height of flagstaff.
33
A 43. (d) x sinq + y cos q = x2 + y2
Put x = sin q
20 m y = cos q in the above equation, we have

D
60° 30°
C sin 2 q + cos 2 q = sin 2 q + cos 2 q
B
Þ1=1
AB Þ x = sin q & y = cosq is the solution of
In DABC, tan 30° = above equation. Now, on using x = sin q &
BC
y = cos q in
1 20
Þ = Þ BC = 20 3 cos 2 q sin 2 q 1
3 BC + 2 = 2
a2 b x + y2
AB
In DABD, tan 60° =
BD y2 x2 1
Þ + =
a 2 b2 sin 2 q + cos2 q
20 20
Þ 3= Þ BD =
BD 3 x2 y 2
Þ + =1
Distance between the men, CD = BC + BD b2 a2
20 60 + 20 80 x
= 20 3 + + = 44. (d) We know sec2q – tan2q = 1 and secq = ,
3 3 3 p

80 3 80 ´ 1.73 y
= = = 46.19 m tan θ =
3 3 q
\ x2q2 – p2y2 = p2q2