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The causes of the conflict [by Amy Briffa- Class 5A]

Long-term causes:
• The Eastern Question
• Expansion of the British and Russian Empires in the
1830s and 1840s
• Hostility between France and Russia
• France was ready for war in order to restore its former
glory
• The dwindling of the Congress System
• Misconceptions of Tsar Nicholas I
• Increasing Russophobia
•The Eastern Question- the Ottoman Empire, or as it was
better known at the time ‘the Sick man of Europe’ was weaker
than ever and various social and political conflicts were
developing because of this. More national aspirations were
starting to emerge amongst its territories. The independence of
Greece in 1830 was one of its major defeats. This weakening
also served to strengthen the Russian’s aspirations to gain more
territory and restore their influence in the area.

•Expansion of British and Russian Empires- in the 1830s


and 1840s Russia advanced into the Caucasus and towards
Persia and Afghanistan gaining new territory there. In the same
period of time the British Empire was always strengthening
more and more its influence in India. These expansions in both
of the two greatest empires of the time were bound to create
territorial and economic conflicts.
• France-Russia relations- Russia was an extremely
conservative force . On the other hand, with Napoleon in power
France was a great reformist. After the establishing of the Duchy
of Warsaw in 1807 and the French invasion of Russia in 1812
relations between the two worsened. Later on, Napoleon III
adopted a foreign policy that supported national revolutions in
homogenous empires such as the Ottoman and Habsburg
Empires, also called ‘la politique des nationalites’, which was
completely against what Tsar Nicholas I’s beliefs.

•France was ready for war in order to restore its former


glory- Napoleon III gave great expectations to French
nationalists who believed he was going to revise the Peace
Treaty of 1815 and re-establish France as the greatest
superpower in the continent.
• The dwindling of the Congress System- the
attempt of bringing powers together to debate and
negotiate in order to settle conflicts instead of going
in wars had initially managed to be successful.
However as time went by the more conservative the
system became, the more international powers’
longing to attack one another was intensified. The
superpowers’ aspirations became always more
conflicting and could not be managed with this
system anymore.

•Russia’s misconceptions- After his royal visit to


British Prime minister Lord of Aberdeen in 1844, Tsar
Nicholas I misinterpreted the Prime minister’s
intentions and went back to Russia believing Britain
would be in favour of his plan to partition the Ottoman
Empire.
After having helped the Austrians to defeat the 1848 revolutions
in Hungary Russian Tsar Nicholas I also incorrectly assumed
that if there was to be any major international conflict they would
be siding with him, or in the very least stay neutral.

•Increasing Russophobia- the fear of having a Russian


takeover in Europe was always increasing, both between
politicians and also amongst the people. This fear was further
present in Britain because of the trouble that such an event
would cause to the Empire’s link with India in the Far East.
Immediate/Short-term Causes:

• the Holy places dispute

• Prince Menshikov’s unsuccessful mission

• Russia’s invasion in the Danubian principalities

• The brutal attack at Sinope on the Turkish fleet


• The Holy places dispute- France’s Napoleon III
demanded the restoration of the protectorship and access
to the Nativity Church in Jerusalem for the Roman
Catholics. The Tsar, who with the Treaty of ‘Küçük
Kaynarca’ had become the protector of the Orthodox
Christians in the Ottoman Empire, opposed greatly this
demand of the French because it threatened Russia’s
influence over the Ottoman Empire.

• Prince Menshikov’s unsuccessful mission- Russian


Tsar Nicolas I sent Prince Alexander Sergeyevich
Menshikov to Constantinople in order to negotiate with the
Porte over the Holy Places conflict. However the demands
made were not fully welcomed by the Ottomans and this
angered greatly the Russians. The Ottoman Empire,
confident with France and Britain’s support ignored the
Russians’ threats.
• Russia’s invasion in the Danubian principalities- on the
2nd of July 1853 the Russian forces invaded Moldavia and
Wallachia as response to the ignoring of the demands they
had made to the Ottomans. This prompted the Ottomans
to officially declare war against Russia on 4 October 1853.

• The brutal attack at Sinope on the Turkish fleet- this


attack happened on the 30th of November and resulted in
the destruction of all but one of the Turkish ships. It was
condemned greatly in the British press, and eventually led
to both Britain and France declaring war against the
Russians.
The main timeline of events in the conflict
[by Connor Cassar- Class 4A]

1844
• September: Russian Chancellor; count Nesselrode visits England
• December: Submitted to British Government. The Tsar visits
London and suggests the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire
between Britain and Russia.

1852
• December: The sultan under pressure from Napoleon III gave
catholic monks keys to churches in Ottoman territory
1853
• Early 1853: Nicholas I considers Russian policy in the Near East.
• 9 February: Nesselrode envisages a rupture of Russo-Turkish
Relations.
• June: Britain and France assemble their fleets in Besika Bay
• September 23: British fleet ordered to Constantinople
• 2 July: Russians invade the Romanian principalities
• 4 October: Turkey declares war on Russia
• 30 November: Russian naval victory at Sinope.
1854
• 27 and 28 March: Britain and France declare war.
• August: Russia withdrew from Wallachia and Moldavia.
• September: Allies land on the Crimean peninsula.
• November: Battle of Inkerman. Allied Victory

1855
• June: Piedmont joins the Allies.
• September: South side Sebastopol fell to the Allies
• Baron Peter von Meyendroff sent to St. Petersburg by Austrian
Government to demand an end to war diplomatically.
1856
• 1 February: Russia accepted preliminary peace terms after Austria
threatened to join the allies.
• 25 February-30 March: Congress of Paris
• 30 March: Treaty of Paris; guaranteed the integrity of Ottoman
Turkey and obliged Russia to surrender southern Bessarabia, at the
mouth of the Danube.
The role played by the Great Powers
[by Andrew Bowman- Class 5A]
Protagonists:

Neutrals or did not intervene:


Why did the Powers intervene?

• Britain and France intervened to keep the Russians out of the


Mediterranean and hold the status quo of the Ottoman Empire.
• Russia wanted a way to the Mediterranean and the Crimea was the
only way to have access to the sea.
• Piedmont-Sardinia intervened so that it can increase its prestige and
the Great Powers would recognize Italian unity once this was
completed.
• Austria didn't take part but did influence Russian decisions and
forced them to make peace.
• Prussia sent only a handful of troops to assist the Allies. This was so
that they can practice their new weapons and tactics.
• The Ottoman Empire is the ‘victim’ of this war. It lost territories on
both Europe and Anatolia.
Malta’s role in the Crimean War
[by Catherine Calleja- Group 5A]
Malta’s vital importance in the conflict-
Malta gained importance in the Crimean War because of its strategic
position and its good harbour. Henry Frendo implies that Malta was
the,’mano d’opera’ which could offer aid in the Crimean War. Malta
became known as the general quarters of logistics and operations not
only those military and navy but also technological, commercial,
medical and sanitary operations. Malta served as a base for the
soldiers to stay in before going to the Crimean War. Their stay in Malta
increased in prosperity.

For instance women who knew how to sew could earn a lot of money
in the market for making matresses,pillows,pillow covers etc..
Furthermore, men who were carpenters could earn a lot of money by
making beds ,wardrobes ect.
Malta’s general hospital

• The condition of hospitals based in Scutari was in a disastrous


state. People like Florence Nightingale tried to arrange the
hospitals ,she found them in a disastrous.
• The Hospitals were infected with diseases caused by rats, lack of
beds and medicine. Due to this lack of necessities, the soldiers
who were injured were sent to Malta.
• By the arrival of these soldiers, the awareness on hospitals
increased.
• According to Henry Frendo:
“Il-ħtiġijiet tal-Krimea madankollu taw spinta lis-servizzi sanitarji
hawnhekk,fost l-oħrajn.....”
Malta’s prosperity during the Crimean War

• The arrival of a mass of people brought about the opening of


business, commerce and enterprise.
• There was an increase in buying/selling.
• The set up of new houses.
• The demand for services also increased . This resulted people making
loads of money.
• Laferla remarks : “smokes plugged their pipes with golden
sovereigns.”
Negative effects of the Crimean War on Malta

• The Crimean War was not beneficial for everyone. There were
certain people who became ever more poorer due to a huge
increase in prices.
• Not everyone received an increase in his salary. For instance
people who lived on the money which they earned from charity
suffered a lot
• According to Mons Casoloni Malta the population of Malta was in a
huge misery “il-miżerja tal-poplu.”
• According to Rita Grima the war did not mean prosperity to
everyone but also meant death.
The effects of the Crimean War
[by Yasmine Azzopardi- Class 4A & Lysander Agius- Class 5A]
Tactical warfare
• During this war railways were used for the first
time as military tactics
• The beginning of usage of trenches, which would
dominate World War I
• Resulted in improvements by allied forces in
leadership and communications as they thought of
themselves before the war that they were
particularly knowledgeable in these areas
• Better organization, discipline and upgrade of
militia by the Russian army as in battles such as
Inkerman they failed to capitalise although having
superior number of troops than their opposition
• Degrees of improvement regarding sanitation and
treatment of the wounded
• Outlined the importance for vast supplies in future
wars
Settlement of Land and Area

• The Black Sea declared as a neutralized zone.

• Free Navigation of the Danube

• Moldavia, Wallachia and Kars were restored to the Ottoman


Empire as well as being granted southern Bessarabia

• The claim of Russia that for the protection of Greek Orthodox


Christians was denied

• The Ottoman territories of Moldavia, Wallachia and Serbia were


granted a large measure of independence and self-government
by the Sultan
Relationship between the powers
• This marked the beginning of a collaboration of past enemies
Britain and France, who had fought for the first time on the
same side post Napoleon I

• France gained national prestige as it now had a victory to boast


with on it’s resume as well as the Congress being held in Paris
(1856)

• Cavour’s Italy gained status as well as possible help for it’s


fight for unification by participating in the Crimean War

• Turkey was inducted into The Concert of Europe

• However the Ottoman Empire would continue to decline as


large measures of independence were granted to occupied
territory.
• Russia’s influence in Vienna and Prague decreased

• Russia’ progress towards the Mediterranean was halted therefore


satisfying the aims of the British

• However the biggest loser was Austria as by not aiding Russia it


had broken a well-established relationship as well as The Holy
Alliance and after the war Austria remained diplomatically
isolated
Sanitation and Hospital Conditions

• Hospitals where built near sewers, meaning most hospitals were


infested with pests which brought infestations that could lead to
epidemics such as malaria

• Hospital necessities such as drugs, beds, and medical instruments


were lacking. This was because most material, which arrived, was
held by department regulations

• In case of emergencies the medical service was unable to cope


with war, because it lacked proper administration. This also
affected the amount of soldiers that lost there live during the war
• Florence Nightingale helped revolutionize the treatment of
wounded soldiers and gave the way for later developments
in battlefield medicine.
Media Coverage

• This was the first time in which the telegraph and Press exerted any
influence on the course of events.

• During the war, reporters were reporting directly from the


frontlines, most of the reports, which were published, were over
exaggerated.

• The frontline reports caught the attention of the people and


brought forward the truth about the war

• The media played an important role in bring down of the


government rules by Lord Aberdeen in 1855
Books:
-Rapport, Michael, ‘Nineteenth Century Europe’ , Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, England
2005, 422 pages.
-Wood, Anthony, ‘Europe 1815-1960 Second Edition’, Longman Singapore Publishers Pte Ltd.,
Singapore, 1984.
-Forçade, Eugene, ‘Storia delle Cause della Guerra d’Oriente’, Milano, 1854.
-Hugh Ragsdale, V.N.Ponomarev, ‘Imperial Russian Foreign Policy’, Cambridge University
Press, 1993, 457 pages.
-Anderson, The Great Powers and the Near East 1774-1923, Edward Arnold, London 1970.
-Richards, Denis, Modern Europe 1789-1984, Longman, England 1977.
-Thomson, David, Europe Since Napoleon, Penguin Books, London 1990.
-Warner Philip, The Crimean War- A Reappraisal, Wordsworth Military Lib, 2001
-Miller, ‘Modern European History’ ,Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, 1997
- Grima, Rita, ‘Malta and the Crimean War 1853-1856’, 1979
Websites:
-http://www.preceden.com/timelines/33371-cause-of-the-crimean-war
-http://www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/crimean-war-begins
-http://www.ourtimelines.com/zcrim.html
-http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143040/Crimean-War
-http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/crimea_01.shtml
-https://prezi.com/scns9qm4tq6k/prussia-during-the-crimean-war/
-http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143040/Crimean-War?hc_location=ufi

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