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Article

Speed Control for Turbine-Generator of ORC Power

Generation System and Experimental Implementation

Hyung-Seok Park 1 , Hong-Jun Heo 1 , Bum-Seog Choi 2 , Kyung Chun Kim 3

and Jang-Mok Kim 1, *

1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea;

hs_4451@pusan.ac.kr (H.-S.P.); hhongjun@pusan.ac.kr (H.-J.H.)

2 Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials, Daejeon 34103, Korea; bschoi@kimm.re.kr

3 School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea; kckim@pusan.ac.kr

* Correspondence: jmok@pusan.ac.kr; Tel.: +82-51-510-2366

Received: 11 December 2018; Accepted: 3 January 2019; Published: 9 January 2019

Abstract: This paper presents a rotation speed estimation and an indirect speed control method for

a turbine-generator in a grid-connected 3-phase electrical power conversion system of an organic

Rankine cycle (ORC) generation system. In addition to the general configuration mechanism and

control techniques that are required in the grid-connected ORC power generation system, the indirect

speed control method using the grid-side electric power control and the speed estimation method is

proposed for the proper speed control of turbine-generators. The speed estimation method utilizes a

digital phase-locked loop (PLL) method that uses a state observer to detect the positive-sequence

voltages. A 10 kW system where a Motor-Generator set is used as a turbine simulator and a 23 kW

actual system for the grid-connected ORC power generation were designed and manufactured,

respectively. This paper includes various experimental results obtained from field tests conducted on

actual installed ORC systems.

Keywords: generator speed control; electrical power generation; turbine and generator;

grid-connected converter; organic Rankine cycle; renewable energy

1. Introduction

As part of the renewable energy generation system, researches on power generation systems

using heat sources have been developed. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with an organic

compound having a low boiling point as a working fluid can obtain high-pressure steam even with a

low-temperature heat source. Accordingly, there are many technical and economic advantages, and it

is possible to generate high efficiency power from various heat sources [1,2].

In the ORC generation system, the output power of the turbine is converted into electric power

by the generator, and it transferred to the grid network via an electric power conversion system.

The generated electric power must be synchronized with the grid electric power under the constant

frequency before fed into the grid [3,4]. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram and the photographs of

the ORC generation system with the grid-connected electric power conversion system.

The generator is directly coupled to the turbine expander that is designed for a high-speed drive

so as to reduce the size and increase the efficiency [5–7]. Additionally, the generator rotor will operate

at variable speeds according to the operating conditions of the ORC system. However, due to the

ripple or fluctuation of the turbine rotation speed caused by the unpredictable nature of the ORC

system, the generator is exposed to the speed ripple, which in turn causes significant vibration and

noise. This means that the degradation in control performance and durability of the ORC system are

Energies 2019, 12, 200 2 of 13

inevitable. Thus,

Energies 2019, 12, x FORthe rotation

PEER REVIEW speed of the turbine-generator should be operated constantly for 2 ofthe

13

stable operation of the ORC generation system [8].

The rotation speed information of the turbine-generator is needed for proper speed control and

it can be

be measured

measuredby byaaspeed

speedsensor,

sensor,such

such asasencoders

encoders or orresolvers

resolvers [9].[9].

However,

However, thesethese

sensors add

sensors

difficulties

add to the

difficulties installation

to the andand

installation maintenance,

maintenance, increasing

increasing system

systemcost,cost,and

andgreatly

greatly reducing

reducing the

reliability due

reliability duetotothe thehostile

hostile environment

environment of high

of high temperature

temperature and and humidity

humidity of theofturbine

the turbine

[9,10].[9,10].

Thus,

Thus,

the the estimation

estimation of the generator

of the generator speed speed

shouldshould be adopted

be adopted for theforORC thesystem

ORC system

[10,11].[10,11].

In general, PWM switched converters or diode diode rectifiers

rectifiers are are used

used as as generator

generator side side AC/DC

AC/DC

converters. In References [12,13], a PWM converter has high power flow management capability and

can directly control the generator speed. However, the use of the PWM converter for the high-speed

generator causes several problems such as as high

high switching

switching frequency,

frequency, high device device breakdown

breakdown voltage,

voltage,

and price increase. A multilevel PWM topology to meet the voltage and power requirement is also

used in MWMW generation

generationsystems,

systems,as asininReference

Reference[14]. [14].However,

However,a ahigh-performance

high-performance control

control system

system is

is required

required along

along with

with control

control complexity,

complexity, andandthethe price

price is considerably

is considerably increased

increased [15].

[15].

Many studies using a diode rectifier instead of a PWM converter on the generator side have been

performed [16].

performed [16].Advantages

Advantagesofofthis this topology

topology include

include reliability,

reliability, durability,

durability, lower lower costhigher

cost and and higher

rated

rated power

power than PWMthan PWM converters,

converters, especially

especially in the power

in the power generationgeneration

systemsystemwith the with the high-speed

high-speed driven

driven turbine

turbine [15,17,18].[15,17,18].

However, However,

the usagethe of usage

a diodeofrectifier

a diodemakesrectifier makes it impossible

it impossible to directly

to directly control the

control thespeed

generator generator speed

on the on theside.

generator generator side. Furthermore,

Furthermore, the generator the generator terminal

terminal voltage hasvoltage has a

a distorted

distorted waveform

waveform caused by the caused by the of

conduction conduction of the diode

the diode rectifier [5,15,18],rectifier

which[5,15,18],

results inwhich resultsripple

a significant in a

significant ripple component of the estimated speed. Together, it leads

component of the estimated speed. Together, it leads to a great challenge for the improved speed to a great challenge for the

improved

control speed control

performance in theperformance

ORC system. in Athemethod

ORC system. A method

of controlling of controlling

the generator speedthe bygenerator

using an

speed by using

additional DC-DC anboost

additional DC-DC

converter boost rectifier

in a diode converter hasinbeen

a diode rectifier

recently has been

studied, recently studied,

as in references [19,20].

as in references

However, it also[19,20].

has theHowever, it alsoas

same problems hasPWMthe same problems as PWM converters.

converters.

Therefore, in in order

order toto solve

solvethe

theproblem

problemofofspeed speedestimation

estimationand and control

control caused

caused byby thethe

useuse

of

thethe

of generator-side

generator-side diode

dioderectifier,

rectifier,asasshown

shownininFigure Figure1,1,this this paper

paper presents

presents aa rotation speed

estimation method

estimation methodunder underthethe distorted

distorted generator

generator terminal

terminal voltage

voltage of theofdiode

the rectifier

diode rectifier and an

and an indirect

indirect

speed speedmethod

control control method using grid-side

using grid-side electriccontrol

electric power power for control

the ORCfor the ORCgeneration

power power generation

system.

system.

The The proposed

proposed speed control

speed control systemsystem is verified

is verified by experimental

by experimental resultsresults

of theofmanufactured

the manufactured and

and installed

installed actualactual grid-connected

grid-connected ORCORC system.

system.

Mechanical System Electric Power Conversion System

shaft

Turbine AC DC

Evaporator

Expander

DC AC

Grid

Generator Diode DC-link PWM Filter

Rectifier Inverter

Cooling

Pump Tower PC

Heat Source Condenser Microprocessor Control System Grid

Turbine

Generator Microprocessor

Electric Power Conversion System Control System

Figure 1.

Figure 1. Schematic

Schematicdiagram

diagramand

and photographs

photographs of the

of the whole

whole manufactured

manufactured organic

organic Rankine

Rankine cycle

cycle (ORC)

(ORC) generation

generation system.system.

2. Grid-Connected Electric

2. Grid-Connected Electric Power

Power Conversion

Conversion System

System

Grid-connected

Grid-connected electric

electric power

power conversion

conversion systems

systems are

are commonly

commonly comprised

comprised of

of aa generator-side

generator-side

rectifier,

rectifier, a DC-link, a grid-side inverter, a grid filter, and a control system. The grid-side three-phase

a DC-link, a grid-side inverter, a grid filter, and a control system. The grid-side three-phase

PWM

PWM inverter supplies the regulated AC power from the rectified DC voltage to the grid. Itgrid.

inverter supplies the regulated AC power from the rectified DC voltage to the It is

is critical

in grid-connected electric power conversion systems for optimized control to meet the grid

interconnection and required electric power quality [21–24].

Energies 2019, 12, 200 3 of 13

critical in grid-connected electric power conversion systems for optimized control to meet the grid

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 13

interconnection and required electric power quality [21–24].

The

The control

control algorithm

algorithm for

for the

the grid-side

grid-side PWM

PWM inverter

inverter is

is illustrated

illustrated in

in Figure

Figure 2.2. It

It represents

represents the

the

‘Microprocessor Control System’ part of Figure 1 in detail. The control structure for the

‘Microprocessor Control System’ part of Figure 1 in detail. The control structure for the grid-side grid-side PWM

inverter consists

PWM inverter of twoofcascaded

consists loops.loops.

two cascaded The two

Thecurrent controllers

two current in theininner

controllers loop loop

the inner havehave

a fasta

response in a synchronous

fast response reference

in a synchronous frameframe

reference [25–27]. The DC

[25–27]. Thevoltage controller

DC voltage in onein

controller ofone

the of

outer

the loops

outer

implements the balanced electric power of the DC- link, which enables the active power

loops implements the balanced electric power of the DC- link, which enables the active power flowing flowing to

the grid.

to the grid.

Figure 2. control block

block diagram

diagram of

of the

the gird-side

gird-side PWM

PWM inverter

inverter with

with the

the PLL

PLLmethod.

method.

Additionally,

Additionally, thethe power

power factor

factor controller

controller inin the

the other

other outer

outer loop

loop controls

controls thethe reactive

reactive power.

power.

Therefore, the two current controllers for q-axis and d-axis obtain their references

Therefore, the two current controllers for q-axis and d-axis obtain their references from the DC from the DC voltage

and power

voltage andfactor

powercontroller, respectively.

factor controller, Additionally,

respectively. the two current

Additionally, the twocontrollers

current generate

controllers thegenerate

voltage

references on d and q axes, for the PWM signal generation [28,29]. The current

the voltage references on d and q axes, for the PWM signal generation [28,29]. The current synchronized with

the grid voltage

synchronized should

with be injected

the grid voltageinto the grid

should as the standards

be injected into the required.

grid as the Accurate

standards phase angle

required.

information of the grid voltages can be detected using a phase-locked loop (PLL)

Accurate phase angle information of the grid voltages can be detected using a phase-locked loop method [30].

(PLL)The synchronous

method [30]. reference frame (SRF) PLL method detects the angular position of three-phase

voltageTheby controlling reference

synchronous the error frame

of the(SRF)

actual and

PLL the estimated

method [31].

detects the The SRF-PLL

angular position of is three-phase

robust and

has

voltage by controlling the error of the actual and the estimated [31]. The SRF-PLL is robusthas

better dynamic performance than zero crossing PLL discussed in [32,33]. This method andbeen

has

generally utilized various applications for the phase angle detection [34,35]. The

better dynamic performance than zero crossing PLL discussed in [32,33]. This method has been SRF-PLL is conducted

in the d and

generally q axis synchronous

utilized referencefor

various applications frame

theasphase

shown in Figure

angle 2. This

detection PLL requires

[34,35]. reference

The SRF-PLL is

frame transformations, namely the stationary and synchronous reference frame,

conducted in the d and q axis synchronous reference frame as shown in Figure 2. This PLL requires and the phase locker

is implemented

reference frameby setting the d-axis

transformations, voltagethe

namely to zero. The PIand

stationary controller output reference

synchronous is the angular

frame,velocity of

and the

the grid voltage. After taking the integration of the angular velocity, the phase angle

phase locker is implemented by setting the d-axis voltage to zero. The PI controller output is the is obtained [31,34].

angular velocity of the grid voltage. After taking the integration of the angular velocity, the phase

3. Speed Estimation and Control for Turbine and Generator

angle is obtained [31,34].

3.1. Speed Estimation Using PLL

3. Speed Estimation and Control for Turbine and Generator

The SRF-PLL used for the phase angle detection of the grid voltage can be also adopted in

generator

3.1. Speed control to estimate

Estimation the rotational speed [36,37]. In this case, the extracted three-phase terminal

Using PLL

voltage from the generator is used instead of the grid, the generator speed can be estimated in the same

The SRF-PLL used for the phase angle detection of the grid voltage can be also adopted in

way as the grid voltage [38,39]. In the case of the PWM switched converters are used as generator

generator control to estimate the rotational speed [36,37]. In this case, the extracted three-phase

side AC/DC converters, since the generator, three-phase terminal voltage, has a non-distorted voltage

terminal voltage from the generator is used instead of the grid, the generator speed can be estimated

without any harmonics, it has fast and good dynamic characteristics like in the grid voltage.

in the same way as the grid voltage [38,39]. In the case of the PWM switched converters are used as

However, a diode rectifier is used instead of the PWM converter in this paper. As shown in

generator side AC/DC converters, since the generator, three-phase terminal voltage, has a non-

Figure 3, the three-phase terminal voltage has a non-sinusoidal waveform due to the diode conduction

distorted voltage without any harmonics, it has fast and good dynamic characteristics like in the grid

of the rectifier in the generation region, and has a variable frequency of the generator. As a result,

voltage.

the estimated speed from the generator terminal voltage by the conventional SRF-PLL method has a

However, a diode rectifier is used instead of the PWM converter in this paper. As shown in

significant error, which is similar to the estimated phase angle under the distorted grid angle conditions.

Figure 3, the three-phase terminal voltage has a non-sinusoidal waveform due to the diode

This means that the speed control performance and overall system efficiency will be degraded [36,37].

conduction of the rectifier in the generation region, and has a variable frequency of the generator. As

a result, the estimated speed from the generator terminal voltage by the conventional SRF-PLL

method has a significant error, which is similar to the estimated phase angle under the distorted grid

angle conditions. This means that the speed control performance and overall system efficiency will

be degraded [36,37].

Energies 2019, 12, 200 4 of 13

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 4 of 13

Figure 3. and estimated

estimated speed

speed using

using

SRF-PLL method.

conventional SRF-PLL method.

In order

order toto achieve

achieve satisfactory

satisfactory performance

performance of of the

the speed

speed estimation

estimation under under the the non-sinusoidal

non-sinusoidal

distorted

distorted voltage,

voltage,certain

certain techniques

techniques suchsuchas harmonics

as harmonics compensation,

compensation,filtering, and positive-sequence

filtering, and positive-

component detection can

sequence component be additionally

detection used [40–42].

can be additionally An improved

used [40–42]. An performance of the conventional

improved performance of the

SRF-PLL

conventionalunder distorted

SRF-PLL voltages

under is achieved

distorted voltages by is

separating

achieved the positive and

by separating thenegative

positivesequences and

and negative

by feeding back only the positive-sequence. The SRF-PLL method

sequences and by feeding back only the positive-sequence. The SRF-PLL method with positive- with positive-sequence detection

has the better

sequence tracking

detection hasperformance

the better trackingthan the conventional

performance SRF-PLL

than topology [43].

the conventional In thistopology

SRF-PLL paper, a state

[43].

observer is utilized

In this paper, a stateasobserver

the positive-sequence

is utilized as the voltage detection method.

positive-sequence voltage Based on the method.

detection positive-sequence

Based on

of

thethe distorted three-phase

positive-sequence of thegenerator

distorted terminal

three-phase voltages,

generatordetected

terminalby a voltages,

state observer, the generator

detected by a state

position

observer,andthespeed

generatorcan be obtained

position andfrom

speed the

can positive-sequence

be obtained fromvoltage by the SRF-PLL.voltage by the

the positive-sequence

Assuming that the three-phase voltage is unbalanced and distorted with high-order harmonics,

SRF-PLL.

it can be decomposed

Assuming into positive,

that the three-phase voltagenegative, and homopolar

is unbalanced and distorted (zero)

withsequence

high-order components.

harmonics,

By calculating

it can and decomposing

be decomposed into positive,each sequence

negative,component,

and homopolar only the voltage

(zero) of the positive-sequence

sequence components. By

component

calculating andcan be extracted [44].

decomposing eachUsing

sequencethis as the input voltage

component, only theofvoltage

the SRF-PLL, accurate position

of the positive-sequence

estimation

componentfrom can betheextracted

unbalanced [44].and distorted

Using this as three-phase

the input voltage of is possible.

the SRF-PLL, accurate position

The positive

estimation from theand negativeand

unbalanced sequence

distorted components

three-phaseofvoltage the three-phase

is possible. voltage are given in

Equation (1), where

The positive andp and n represent

negative sequence positive and negative,

components of therespectively.

three-phase The zeroare

voltage sequence

given incomponent

Equation

is not

(1), considered

where p and nbecause

represent of positive

the balanced electric circuit

and negative, of the generator.

respectively. The zero sequence component is not

considered because of the balanced electric circuit ofthe generator.

Va cos(ωt + ϕ p ) cos(ωt + ϕn )

2π

Vb = Vp cos(ωt cos( − 2π 3ω t++ ϕϕpp)) + Vn cos(

cosω(ωtt + ϕ+n ) 3 + ϕn ) (1)

Va ωt + 2π + ϕ ) 2π

Vc cos ( p cos (

V = V cos(ω t 3− 2π + ϕ ) + V cos(ω t + 2π + ϕ 3)

ωt − + ϕ n )

b p

p

n

n

(1)

3 3

Equation (1) can be calculated V

c in the d-q stationary reference

frame asEquation (2).

2π 2π

cos(ω t + + ϕ p ) cos(ω t − + ϕn )

" # " # " # 3" # 3 " #

s

Vs Vpd Vnds

cos(ωt + ϕ p ) cos(ωt + ϕn )

Equation ds(1) can

= +

be calculated

s ins the = Vpstationary reference+frame

d-q Vn as Equation (2). (2)

Vq Vpq Vnq sin(ωt + ϕ p ) − sin(ωt + ϕn )

Vds V pds V nds cos(ω t + ϕ p ) cos(ω t + ϕ n )

s = s + s = Vp + Vn by using a state (2)

The generator three-phase

V terminal

V V voltage

q pq nq sin(

canω t

be+ ϕ )

modeled

p − sin(ω t + ϕ n ) equation with the

positive and negative sequence voltage in the stationary reference frame. The equation of the general

state The generator

observer three-phase

is shown terminal

in Equation voltage

(3). Where canybe

x and modeled

is the by using

state and outputa vector,

state equation withand

respectively, the

positive and negative sequence voltage in the stationary reference frame. The equation

L is the gain of the state observer, A and C is the system and output matrix, respectively. of the general

state observer is shown in Equation (3). Where x and y is the state and output vector, respectively,

and L is the gain of the state observer, Ad and C is the system and output matrix, respectively.

x̂ = A x̂ + L(y − C x̂ ) (3)

dt d

xˆ = A xˆ + L ( y − C xˆ ) (3)

dt

By differentiating Equation (2), the state equation can be derived as Equation (4).

Energies 2019,12,

Energies2019, 12,200

x FOR PEER REVIEW 55 of

of 13

13

V pds equation

0 −ω can V pd as Equation (4).

s

0 be0 derived

0

V s

0 0 0 V pqs

= d pq (4)

s

dt V0nds − 00 ω V0nds

s

ωω 0

Vpd Vpd

s s

d s V0s

Vpq nq 00 0 −ω0 0 V

0nq Vpq

= (4)

dt

Vnds ω 0 0 ω

Vnds

The output equation fors the decomposed state variables of Equation

s (2) can be expressed as

Vnq 0 0 −ω 0 Vnq

Equation (5).

The output equation for the decomposed state variablesVofpd Equation (2) can be expressed as

s

Equation (5). V s 1 0 1 0 V pqs

y = cx = ds = (5)

0 1 0 1 Vnds Vpd

s

V

" # q" #s

Vds 1 0 1 0 Vnq Vpq s

y = cx = = (5)

V s s

0 1 0 (3)–(5) 1

The state observer equation is derived q from Equations Vndis

and given in Equation (6), where

s

Vnq

the angular speed variable ω is estimated from the previous sample and the tuned observer constant

should

Thebe used.

state observer equation is derived from Equations (3)–(5) and is given in Equation (6), where

the angular speed variable ω̂s is estimated from thes previous sample

and the tuned observer constant

V pd V pd V spd

should be used. 0 −ω 0 0 l11 l12

s 0 V

spq l 1 0 1 0 V pq

s

d V pq 0 0 0 21 l22

s

ω̂ s 0= s + y − s

(6)

V̂pd 0 −dt 0 V̂pd s l l V̂pd

ω 0 0 ωs V l3111 l32 12 0 1 "0 1 V

s

0 V nd 0 nd

#

s

l l21 l l22 1 0nd 1 0

0 0

s

V̂pq V̂pq V̂pq

d

0 0 −ω 0s s+ 41 42 − (6)

0 V nq 0

= y

0 V1nq 0 1

s s

dt s

V̂nd V nq l31 l32 s

V̂nd ω̂ ω̂

V̂nd

s

V̂nq 0 0 −ω̂ 0 s

V̂nq l41 l42

s

V̂nq

The block diagram of the speed estimation method using the SRF-PLL with a state observer is

presented in Figure

The block diagram4. The measured

of the three-phasemethod

speed estimation generator terminal

using voltagewith

the SRF-PLL is transformed into the

a state observer is

stationary reference frame voltage. The positive and negative sequence component

presented in Figure 4. The measured three-phase generator terminal voltage is transformed into the is decomposed

by the state

stationary observer.

reference frameThen, the The

voltage. generator

positivespeed is estimated

and negative from

sequence the positive-sequence.

component is decomposedThe by

estimated

the electrical

state observer. speed

Then, theisgenerator

transformed into

speed mechanicalfrom

is estimated speed

thedepending on the pole

positive-sequence. The number

estimatedof

the generator.

electrical speed The speed can into

is transformed be estimated

mechanical with minimal

speed error on

depending andtheripple, and used

pole number for generator.

of the the speed

control

The afterwards.

speed can be estimated with minimal error and ripple, and used for the speed control afterwards.

𝑽𝒖 𝐿 𝐿 . . . . 𝒔

Conventional

𝑽𝒅𝒔 𝒔

𝑽𝒑𝒅 𝒔

, 𝑽 𝒏𝒅 𝒔

, 𝑽𝒑𝒒 𝒔

, 𝑽 𝒏𝒒

𝐿 𝐿

𝒔

𝑽𝒑𝒅 𝒔

, 𝑽𝒏𝒅 𝒔

, 𝑽𝒑𝒒 𝒔

, 𝑽𝒏𝒒

𝟏

𝒔

𝑽𝒑𝒅 𝒔

, 𝑽𝒏𝒅 𝒔

, 𝑽𝒑𝒒 𝒔

, 𝑽𝒏𝒒 𝑽𝒑𝒅 PLL Method (Fig. 2) 𝝎𝒆 𝟐 𝝎𝒎

𝒂𝒃𝒄

𝑽𝒗 𝐿 𝐿 𝑷

𝟒 𝟒 𝟒

𝒔 𝟒

𝒔 Synchronous Reference

𝑽𝒒𝒔 𝐿 𝐿 𝑽𝒑𝒒 Frame Transformation

𝑽𝒘 𝒔 𝟏

𝒅𝒒 0 𝜔 0 0

PI Controller

𝜔 0 0 0 𝒔

Stationary 0 0 0 𝜔 𝝎𝒆

3-phase Reference Frame

0 0 𝜔 0

Generator Transformation 𝒔

𝑽𝒑𝒅 𝒔

, 𝑽𝒏𝒅 𝒔

, 𝑽 𝒑𝒒 𝒔

, 𝑽𝒏𝒒 𝟒

(𝒂𝒃𝒄 → 𝒅𝒒𝒔) Equation 6

Figure 4. Speed

Figure4. Speed estimation

estimation method

method using

usingSRF-PLL

SRF-PLLwith

withaastate

stateobserver.

observer.

3.2. Indirect Speed Control

Since a diode rectifier is used on the generator side instead of the PWM converter, the torque

Since a diode rectifier is used on the generator side instead of the PWM converter, the torque

and speed of turbine and generator cannot be directly controlled. Therefore, the torque of the turbine

and speed of turbine and generator cannot be directly controlled. Therefore, the torque of the turbine

and generator should be indirectly controlled through the generated electrical power on the grid side,

and generator should be indirectly controlled through the generated electrical power on the grid side,

which allows the speed of the turbine and generator to be operated constantly.

which allows the speed of the turbine and generator to be operated constantly.

The input power of the generator from the turbine can be expressed, as shown in Equation (7).

The input power of the generator from the turbine can be expressed, as shown in Equation (7).

When the output power of turbine increases under a DC-link voltage control of the grid-side PWM

When the output power of turbine increases under a DC-link voltage control of the grid-side PWM

inverter, the turbine-generator speed increase due to the difference between turbine and generator

inverter, the turbine-generator speed increase due to the difference between turbine and generator (load)

(load) torques. Then, the operating point of the turbine and generator is changed by the torque

torques. Then, the operating point of the turbine and generator is changed by the torque characteristic

characteristic line. Therefore, for the constant speed operation, the generator torques can be controlled

line. Therefore, for the constant speed operation, the generator torques can be controlled according

according to the given output power of the turbine.

to the given output power of the turbine.

Pinput

Pinput =T =MTM××ωωMM (7)

(7)

x FOR PEER REVIEW

Energies 2019, 12, 200 66of

of 13

The mechanical generator torque is expressed in Equation (8). At the steady state, the right-side

The mechanical

differential generator

term of Equation (8)torque

is zero.isNeglecting

expressed intheEquation

damping(8). At the

effect steady

of the state,

inertia the right-side

moment and the

friction term, the mechanical turbine output torque is approximately equal to the load moment

differential term of Equation (8) is zero. Neglecting the damping effect of the inertia torque ofand

the

the friction term, the mechanical turbine output torque is approximately equal to the load torque of

generator.

the generator.

dω

TM==J Jdω + +Bω

TM Bω

+ +TLTL (8)

dtdt

The load

The load torque

torque can

can be

beregarded

regardedasasthe

thegenerator

generatorelectric

electrictorque

torquedelivered

deliveredtoto

thethe

grid, as as

grid, given in

given

e is the generated torque component current of the

Equation (9). Where KT is the torque constant and iqs e

in Equation (9). Where KT is the torque constant and iqs is the generated torque component current

q-axis synchronous reference frame. Therefore, the mechanical speed of the turbine and generator can

of the q-axis synchronous

be maintained by controllingreference frame.

the torque Therefore,

component theofmechanical

current speed of the turbine and

the generator.

generator can be maintained by controlling the torque component current of the generator.

e

TL = Te = KT × iqse (9)

TL = Te = K T × iqs (9)

The peak

The peak value

value ofofoutput

outputvoltage

voltagewith

withthe

theconstant

constantexcitation

excitation ofof

thethe generator

generator is proportional

is proportional to

to the rotating speed of the machine. The variation of the q-axis current

the rotating speed of the machine. The variation of the q-axis current (the generated peak(the generated peak output

output

current from

current fromthethegenerator)

generator)depends

dependson the

on difference between

the difference the peak

between theoutput

peak voltage

output of the generator

voltage of the

and the DC–link voltage. This implies that it is possible to control the torque

generator and the DC–link voltage. This implies that it is possible to control the torque componentcomponent (q-axis)

current by

(q-axis) adjusting

current the DC-link

by adjusting voltage,voltage,

the DC-link which further

which controls the mechanical

further controls speed ofspeed

the mechanical the turbine

of the

and generator.

turbine and generator.

The schematic

The schematic diagram

diagram for speed control

for speed control is shown in

is shown Figure 5.

in Figure 5. The

The indirect

indirect speed

speed control

control system

system

is developed based on the relationship between the DC-link voltage and the

is developed based on the relationship between the DC-link voltage and the torque component torque component current

of the generator.

current The speed

of the generator. Thecontroller outputs the

speed controller DC-link

outputs voltage reference

the DC-link from the from

voltage reference error the

between

error

the reference and the estimated speed. The DC-link voltage should be guaranteed

between the reference and the estimated speed. The DC-link voltage should be guaranteed to be the to be the standard

value at least

standard foratsystem

value stability

least for systemand can beand

stability changed

can bewithin

changed thewithin

systemthe limits.

system limits.

ω m* PI controller

∆Vdc* Vdc*

Κp

to DC voltage

controller

˄

ωm 1

limiter

Κi V *

from speed estimator S dc_std

( PLL with state observer )

Figure 5.

Figure Block diagram

5. Block diagram for

for indirect

indirect speed

speed control.

control.

The overall

The proposed speed

overall proposed speed control

control algorithm for the

algorithm for the turbine-generator

turbine-generator of of the

the ORC

ORC system

system isis

illustrated in Figure 6. The three-phase generator voltage is measured by the generator-side

illustrated in Figure 6. The three-phase generator voltage is measured by the generator-side voltage voltage

sensor. The

sensor. Therotor

rotorspeed

speed information

information of the

of generator, whichwhich

the generator, is usedisinused

the speed

in thecontroller, is estimated

speed controller, is

using the PLL method. The rotor speed with reduced ripple components can

estimated using the PLL method. The rotor speed with reduced ripple components can be estimatedbe estimated from the

positive

from thesequence voltage. The

positive sequence speed

voltage. Thecontroller is locatedis in

speed controller the outer

located loop

in the of the

outer loopDC-link voltage

of the DC-link

controller,

voltage which controls

controller, whichthecontrols

active power generation

the active powerof the generator.ofThe

generation thetorque component

generator. The current

torque

control can control the turbine-generator speed indirectly.

component current control can control the turbine-generator speed indirectly.

Therefore, the

Therefore, the proposed

proposed speed

speed control

control system

system can

can control

control the

the generator speed for

generator speed for the

the stable

stable

operation by controlling the amount of transmitted electric power to the grid.

operation by controlling the amount of transmitted electric power to the grid. All the otherAll the other components

of Figure 6 have

components been explained

of Figure 6 have been in detail in the

explained inSection

detail in2.the Section 2.

Energies 2019, 12, 200 7 of 13

Energies

Energies 2019,

2019, 12,12, x FOR

x FOR PEERREVIEW

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of 13

Diode Rectifier DC link PWM Inverter

PWM Inverter Electric

ElectricPower

Power

Mechanical

Mechanical Conversion System

System

Conversion System

System Generator Grid Filter

Generator Grid Filter

Vas Ι ag Vag

Turbine

Vas Vbs ΙΙbgag Vag

Vbg

Turbine Vbs Vcs ΙΙcgbg VcgVbg

V.T

Expander V.T

Expander Vcs Ι cg Vcg

V.T

C.T V.T

Power V.T

C.T V.T 3ϕ Grid

Power 3ϕ Grid

(Fig.1)

(Fig.1) Vas,Vbs,Vcs Vdc PWM Ι ag, Ιbg, Ι cg Vag,Vbg,Vcg

Vas,Vbs,Vcs Vdc PWM

abc

Ι ag, Ιbg, Ιθcggrid Grid Angle

Vag,Vbg,Vcg

Speed PLL method

θ grid Estimator

PLL method with dq

abc Grid Angle

EstimatorPLLState

Speed

observer

method with (Fig.5) Vdc θ

PLL method

Ιdqqe Estimator grid

Estimator

(Fig.4) State observer

˄ (Fig.5)

Speed Vdc*Vdc DC voltage Ι qe* Ι eQ - Current Vq

e*

θ grid

ωm Controller Controller e*

q

Controller e* PWM

(Fig.4) ˄ Speed Vdc* DC voltage Ι q

Ι de Q - Current Vq

ωω *

mm Controller Controller e* PWM

D -Controller

e*

PF * Power Factor Ι d Current Vd

ω m* Algorithm (S/W)

Speed Control Controller Ι de Controller

Vde*SVPWM

( ≈ 1)* ( ≈ 0)e*

PF Power Factor Ιd D - Current

Speed Control Algorithm

Microprocessor (S/W) (H/W)

Control System ( ≈ 1) Controller ( ≈ 0) Controller SVPWM(Fig.2)

Figure Figure 6. Proposed

6. Proposed indirect

indirect speed

speed controlalgorithm

control algorithm in

inaagrid-connected

grid-connectedORCORC

generation system.system.

generation

Figure 6. Proposed indirect speed control algorithm in a grid-connected ORC generation system.

4. Experimental Set-Up

4. Experimental andand

Set-Up Results

Results

4. Experimental Set-Up and Results

Two of types of experiments

Two types experiments areare conductedin

conducted in order

order to toverify thethe

verify proposed

proposed indirect speed speed

indirect control control

systems.

Twofirst The

types first experimental

of experiments setup shown

are conducted in Figure 7 is a 10 kW small-scale system, where a motor

systems. The experimental setup shown in in order7toisverify

Figure a 10 kWthe small-scale

proposed indirect

system,speed control

where a motor

simulates the turbine and is used for the confirmation of the proposed control method during the

systems.

simulates the The first experimental

turbine and is used setup

for shown

the in Figure 7 isofa 10

confirmation thekW small-scale

proposed system,

control where aduring

method motor the

developing stage. This system consists of two grid-connected electric power conversion systems and

simulates

developing the turbine

stage. and is used forof

This system thetwo

confirmation of the proposedpower controlconversion

method during the and

a motor-generator set. A 15 consists

kW PMSM, which grid-connected

is directly coupledelectric

with a 12 kW PMSG, systems

is operated as

developing stage. This system consists of two grid-connected electric power conversion systems and

a motor-generator set. A 15

the turbine simulator. TwokW PMSM,systems

converter whichare isused

directly

as thecoupled withfor

drive systems a 12 kW simulator

turbine PMSG, is operated

and

a motor-generator set. A 15 kW PMSM, which is directly coupled with a 12 kW PMSG, is operated as

generator, respectively. The entire control algorithm is implemented in a

as the turbine simulator. Two converter systems are used as the drive systems for turbine simulator micro-processor control

theboard.

turbineThesimulator.

electrical Two converter

parameters systems

of the are used

experimental as the

setup are drive systems

presented for turbine

in Table 1. simulator and

and generator,

generator, respectively.

respectively. The Theentire

entire control

control algorithm

algorithm is is implemented

implemented in ainmicro-processor

a micro-processor control

control

board. The electrical parameters of the experimental

board. The electrical parameters of the experimental setup are presented in

Gridsetup are presented in Table 1.

Table 1.

(3ϕ 220Vrms )

Grid

(3ϕ 220Vrms )

10kW Reduction System

(Turbine Simulator & Generator) Oscilloscope

(Turbine Simulator & Generator) Oscilloscope

Turbine

Generator

Simulator PC1

Turbine Drive System Conversion System PC2

Simulator PC1

Figure 7. Experimental setup of 10 kW small-scale grid-connected ORC simulation system.

Turbine Simulator Grid-Connected

Drive System Conversion System PC2

Figure

Figure 7. Experimental

7. Experimental setup

setup ofof1010kW

kWsmall-scale

small-scale grid-connected

grid-connected ORC

ORCsimulation system.

simulation system.

System Parameter Value

Table 1. 1.Parameters

Table of

of Experimental

DC-link

Parameters Setup.

capacitance Setup.

Experimental 3133 (uF)

Converter System Switching frequency 10 (kHz)

System

System Parameter

Control period

Parameter 100 Value

(us)

Value

DC-link

Grid capacitance

line-line voltage 55 (Vrms3133

) (4:1(uF)

trans.)

Grid-Network

DC-link

Frequency 6010(Hz)

Converter System Switching frequency 3133 (kHz)

(uF)

capacitance

Filter L inductance 5 100

(mH)

Converter System Control period (us)

Switching

Rated power 15

Grid line-line voltage 55 (kW)/12

(V10

rms)(kHz)(kW)

(4:1 trans.)

frequency

Rated torque 95.4 (Nm)/70 (Nm)

Grid-Network(PMSM/G)

Simulator/Generator Frequency 60 (Hz)

Control constant

Back period 109.0 (V100 (us)

FilterEMF

L inductance peak L-L

5 (mH) /krpm)

Pole number

Grid line-line 8

Rated power 15 (kW)/12 (kW)

55 (Vrms ) (4:1 trans.)

voltage

Rated torque 95.4 (Nm)/70 (Nm)

Grid-Network

Simulator/Generator (PMSM/G)

BackFrequency

EMF constant 60peak

109.0 (V (Hz)

L-L/krpm)

Filter L inductance

Pole number 5 (mH)

8

Rated power 15 (kW)/12 (kW)

Rated torque 95.4 (Nm)/70 (Nm)

Simulator/Generator (PMSM/G)

Back EMF constant 109.0 (Vpeak L-L /krpm)

Pole number 8

Energies 2019, 12, 200 8 of 13

Figure 8 shows the experimental results of the generator speed estimation performance under the

Figure 8SRF-PLL

conventional shows the and experimental results of

the state observer the generator

SRF-PLL. speed

In Figure 8a,estimation performance under

using the conventional SRF-PLL,

significant ripple components are observed in waveforms of the generator voltages Vd , Vd ,SRF-

the conventional SRF-PLL and the state observer SRF-PLL. In Figure 8a, using the conventional

s e and the

PLL, significant

estimated speed ωripple

PLL . components

On the other are

hand,observed

the in

state waveforms

observer of the

SRF-PLL generator

eliminates voltages

the 𝑉

ripple , 𝑉 , and

components

the estimated

from speedofωPLL

the waveforms the. estimated

On the other speedhand, the state

by using the observer SRF-PLL component

positive sequence eliminates the ripple

of generator

components s from the waveforms

e of the estimated speed by using the positive sequence

voltage Vd_positive and Vd_positive . The ripple of the estimated generator speed ω proposed_PLL is reduced component

of generator voltage 𝑉 _ 𝑉_

by about 85% compared to thatand of the . The ripple of the estimated generator speed ωproposed_PLL

conventional estimation method.

is reduced by about 85% compared to that of the conventional estimation method.

Figure 8b represents the results of speed estimation under the conventional and the proposed

Figure 8b represents the results of speed estimation under the conventional and the proposed

method in a full operating range. In the region indicated as ‘Generator Speed-up Region’ in Figure 8b,

method in a full operating range. In the region indicated as ‘Generator Speed-up Region’ in Figure 8b,

the generated power cannot be transmitted to the grid side because the excited voltage amplitude

the generated power cannot be transmitted to the grid side because the excited voltage amplitude

according to the generator speed does not reach to the DC-link voltage. At the transition stage between

according to the generator speed does not reach to the DC-link voltage. At the transition stage

‘Generator Speed-up Region’ and ‘Generation Region’, the generated power starts flowing to the grid.

between ‘Generator Speed-up Region’ and ‘Generation Region’, the generated power starts flowing

Additionally, the generator

to the grid. Additionally, thevoltage

generatoris distorted

voltage is due to diode

distorted due conduction. As can be

to diode conduction. As seen,

can bethe speed

seen,

waveform

the speedofwaveform

the conventional method has much

of the conventional method morehasripple

muchcomponents

more ripplethan the proposed

components thanmethod.

the

The curve ω

proposed method. in Figure 8b is the actual speed measured by the encoder in

The curve ωm_measured in Figure 8b is the actual speed measured by the encoder

m_measured order to confirm in the

speed

orderestimation performance.

to confirm the speed estimation performance.

using conventional PLL with state observer Power Generator Speed-up Region Generation Region

1500 1500

𝑽𝒅𝒔 𝒔

𝑽𝒅_𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆

150 150

𝝎𝒎_𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒆

[RPM] 𝝎𝒎_𝑷𝑳𝑳_𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒂𝒍 [RPM]

[V] [V]

0 0 0 0

< using conventional PLL >

25 25 Transient state

of estimation

[V] [V] 1500 1500

0 0 𝝎𝒎_𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒆

𝑽𝒅𝒆 𝒆

𝑽𝒅_𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆 𝝎𝒎_𝑷𝑳𝑳_𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒅

1200 1200 [RPM] [RPM]

𝝎𝑷𝑳𝑳 𝝎𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒅 𝑷𝑳𝑳 0

with state observer > 0

Transient state

0 10 ms 0 of estimation 0.2 s

(a) (b)

Figure8.8. Experimental

Figure Experimental results

resultsof

ofthe

therotation

rotationspeed

speedestimation

estimationforfor

thethe

turbine-generator: (a) Estimated

turbine-generator: (a) Estimated

speedby

speed byPLL;

PLL; and

and (b)

(b) estimated

estimated speed

speedininaafull

fulloperating

operatingrange.

range.

Theexperimental

The experimental results of thetheproposed

proposedindirect

indirectspeed

speedcontrol

control is is

shown

shown in Figure 9. From

in Figure 9. Fromspeed

speed

controlin

control inthe

the‘Generation

‘Generation Region’,

Region’,by byincreasing

increasingq-axis

q-axiscurrent

currentto to

thethe

grid-side

grid-side(negative direction)

(negative direction)

usingthe

using the speed

speed control

controlaction,

action,the

thegenerator

generatorspeed is controlled

speed constantly

is controlled at theatreference

constantly speed speed

the reference of

1000RPM. The grid-side d-axis current is controlled to be zero to achieve the unity

of 1000RPM. The grid-side d-axis current is controlled to be zero to achieve the unity power factor. power factor.

Whenthe

When the turbine

turbine output

output power

power increases

increases suddenly,

suddenly, the q-axis

the q-axis current

current injected

injected intogrid

into the theisgrid is

increased

increased (from −4A to −18A) by the DC-link voltage control to keep the constant

(from −4A to −18A) by the DC-link voltage control to keep the constant speed for the safe operationspeed for the safe

ofoperation

the ORCof the ORC system.

system.

The second experiments are implemented in the actual ORC power generation system, as shown

The second experiments are implemented in the actual ORC power generation system, as shown

in Figure 10. The configuration of the experimental setup is same as the one shown in Figure 1. And

in Figure 10. The configuration of the experimental setup is same as the one shown in Figure 1. And the

the ORC loop configurations, the working fluid, the operation process, performance curves, sensors

ORC loop configurations, the working fluid, the operation process, performance curves, sensors and

and system parameters used in this experiment are the same as that previously designed and

system parameters used in this experiment are the same as that previously designed and manufactured

manufactured in Reference [45]. Generator (PMSM) is directly coupled to the expander shaft.

in Reference [45]. Generator (PMSM) is directly coupled to the expander shaft.

Energies 2019, 12, 200 9 of 13

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Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 13

Speed Control

Turbine Turbine Power Increase

Power Speedup Region Speed ControlRegion

Generation Turbine Power Increase

Turbine

Power Speedup Region Generation Region

200 200

200 200

[V] [V]

[V]

1200 [V]

1200

0 0

1200 1200

0 0

𝑹𝑷𝑴𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒓 [RPM]

[RPM]

[RPM] 𝑹𝑷𝑴𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒓 [RPM]

0 0

0 0

𝒊𝒅𝒆 𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 𝒊𝒅𝒆 𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅

𝒆 𝒆

0 𝒊𝒅 𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 𝒊𝒅 𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 0

0 𝒊𝒒𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 0

[A]

𝒊𝒒𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 𝒊𝒒𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 [A]

[A] 0.5 s 𝒊𝒒𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 [A]

-20 -20

0.5 s

-20 -20

Figure 9.

Figure Experimental results

9. Experimental results of

of the

the proposed

proposed indirect generator speed control.

Figure 9. Experimental results of the proposed indirect generator speed control.

Diode

Rectifier PWM

Diode Inverter

Rectifier PWM

Inverter

DC link

DC link

DSP Control Board

(a) (b)

(a) (b)

Figure 10. Experimental setup for the actual ORC power generation system: (a) Gird-connected

Figure

Figure10.10.

electric Experimental

Experimental

power setup

conversionsetupfor

for the

system; actual

andactual ORC

(b) 23ORC power

kW power

ORC generation

generation

power system:

system:

generation (a) Gird-connected

(a) Gird-connected

system. electric

electric

power power conversion

conversion system;

system; and23(b)

and (b) kW 23ORC

kW ORC power

power generation

generation system.

system.

The experimental results of the proposed indirect speed control are presented in Figure 11a–d.

The

It showsThe experimental

experimental

the waveforms results

results

for the of

of themassthe proposed

proposed

flow rate ofindirect

indirect speed

the workingspeed control

control

fluid areare

and thepresented

presented in Figure

turbineinin/outlet

Figure 11a–d.

11a–d.

pressure

It

It showsshows the the waveforms

waveforms for thefor the

mass mass

flow flow

rate of rate

the of the

working working

fluid

(a), the pressure ratio and the turbine output power (b), the rotation speed and torque of the turbine- and fluid

the and

turbine the turbine

in/outlet in/outlet

pressure

pressure

(a),generator

the pressure (a),

(c), the

andpressure

ratio the ratio

andDC-link

the turbine and theand

output

voltage turbine

power output

(b),

the grid-side power

torque(b),

the rotation speed theand

component rotation

torque speed

(q-axis)of the and torque

turbine-

current (d) in

of the turbine-generator

generator

detail. (c), andthe

During the DC-link

experiment, (c), voltage

and

thethe DC-link

and

turbine the

output voltage

grid-side

power and

torque the component

grid-side

is increased fromtorque to 1.4component

0(q-axis) kWcurrent (q-axis)

(d)

to confirm inthe

current

detail. (d)

During in

control performance.the detail. During

experiment, the experiment,

turbine outputthe turbine

power isoutput

increased power from is increased

0 to 1.4 kW from

to 0 to

confirm1.4 kW

the to

confirm

control Initially the

performance. control performance.

(before 80s), when the turbine output power is supplied, the turbine and generator

Initially

Initially

speeds increase (before

(before until 80s),

80s), when

reaching when thethe

the startturbine

turbine

point output

output

of thepower power

‘Generation is supplied,

is supplied,

Region’.the the

At turbine

turbine

this pointand and generator

generator

(from 80s), the

speeds

speeds

rotation increase

increase

speeduntil until reaching

reaching

control the

the start

is started, start

and point point of the ‘Generation

of the ‘Generation

the generator starts supplying Region’.

Region’. theAt At this

this point

power point

to the(from (from80s),

grid system 80s),

thethe

and

rotation

rotation

the constantspeed

speed control

control

speed is started,

is started,

control and and

thethe

is implemented generator

generator

(3000RPM). starts

starts Assupplying

supplying

presented thethe power

power

in Figure to the

to 11d,

the bygrid

grid system

system

controlling andand

the

the

theDC-linkconstant

constant speed speed control

control is is implemented

implemented (3000RPM).

(3000RPM). As As

presentedpresented

voltage, the injection of the generated q-axis torque component current gets regulated, in in

Figure Figure

11d, by11d, by controlling

controlling the

the DC-link

DC-link voltage,

accordingly. voltage, thegenerator

the injection

Then, the injection ofgenerated

of thetorque the generated q-axis

is indirectly q-axis

torque torque

controlled component

component thecurrent

through current getsgets

injection ofregulated,

regulated,

grid-side

accordingly.

accordingly. Then, Then, the the generator

generator torque

torque is is indirectly

indirectly

current, which further maintains the rotor speed, as shown in Figure 11c. controlled

controlled through

through the the injection

injection of of grid-side

grid-side

current,

current, At which

which

time further

further

1050s, the maintains

maintains

turbinethe the rotor

rotor

output speed,

speed,

power as as shown

shown

increases in in

due toFigure

Figurethe11c. 11c.

increase in the mass flow rate of

At At

timetime 1050s,

1050s, thethe turbine

turbine output

output power

power increases

increases

the working fluid as shown in Figure 11a,b. For the generator speed to be controlled due dueto to

the the increase

increase in in the

the massmassflowflowrate

constantly rate of

of in

the

thethis working

working fluidfluidas as shown

shown in in Figure

Figure 11a,b.

11a,b. For Forthe the generator

generator speed

region, the DC-link voltage is controlled to have a lower value, and the grid-side q-axis current speed to to

be be controlled

controlled constantly

constantly in in

thisthis region, the

region, the DC-link

correspondingly DC-link voltage

voltage

increases is controlled

is controlled

(Figure to have

to have a lower

11d). Accordingly, a lower value,

value, and

the generator and the grid-side

the grid-side

(load) q-axis

q-axis current

torque increases, current

and the

correspondingly

correspondingly increases

increases (Figure

(Figure 11d).11d). Accordingly,

Accordingly,

generator speed is controlled to maintain constantly (Figure 11c). the the generator

generator (load)

(load) torque

torque increases,

increases, and andthethe

generator

generator speedspeed is is controlled

controlled to to maintain

maintain constantly

constantly (Figure

(Figure 11c).

11c).

In conclusion, as observed in the experimental waveforms, the proposed speed control system

can In conclusion,

Inachieve

conclusion, as as

the desired observed

observed in

thethe

controlinperformance experimental

experimental waveforms,

underwaveforms,

various thethe

supplied proposed

proposed

turbine speed

outputspeed control

control

due system

system

to the power

can achieve

canfluctuation

achieve theofthe desired

desired control

control performance

performance under

under various

various supplied

supplied

the ORC system. Since the noise and vibration of turbine-generator are caused by turbine

turbine output

output duedueto to

the the power

power the

fluctuation of the ORC system. Since the noise and vibration

speed ripple from the ORC power output ripple, constant speed control reduces noise and vibration.of turbine-generator are caused by the

speed

Thisripple

meansfrom that,the ORC power

without the useoutput ripple,

of indirect constant

speed speed

control, thecontrol

ORC outputreduces noisecause

ripple and vibration.

to the noise

This means that, without the use of indirect speed control, the ORC output ripple cause to the noise

Energies 2019, 12, 200 10 of 13

fluctuation of the ORC system. Since the noise and vibration of turbine-generator are caused by the

speed ripple from the ORC power output ripple, constant speed control reduces noise and vibration.

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 10 of 13

This means that, without the use of indirect speed control, the ORC output ripple cause to the noise

and vibration of the generator. Therefore, from the experimental results shown in Figure 11, the ORC

and vibration of the generator. Therefore, from the experimental results shown in Figure 11, the ORC

turbine

turbineoutput

output ripple

ripplewaveform

waveformand

andthe

the indirectly controlledspeed

indirectly controlled speedwaveform

waveformcan

canbebe considered

considered as as

thethe

performance

performance comparison.

comparison.

(a)

(b)

Shaft Speed

Shaft Torque

(c)

(d)

Figure

Figure 11.11.Experimental

Experimental results

results of

of proposed

proposed speed

speed control

controlininthe

theactual

actualORC

ORCgeneration

generation system:

system:

(a)(a) Mass

Mass flow

flow rate

rate ofofworking

workingfluid

fluidand

andturbine

turbine in/outlet

in/outlet pressure;

pressure;(b)

(b)pressure

pressureratio

ratioand

andturbine

turbine

output

output power;(c)(c)Rotation

power; Rotationspeed

speedand

and torque

torque of

of the

the turbine-generator;

turbine-generator; and

and(d)

(d)DC-link

DC-link voltage and

voltage and

grid-side torque component (q-axis)

grid-side torque component (q-axis) current.current.

5. Conclusions

This paper presented an indirect speed control method for a turbine-generator in a grid-

connected electric power conversion system of an ORC power generation system. The rotor speed

Energies 2019, 12, 200 11 of 13

5. Conclusions

This paper presented an indirect speed control method for a turbine-generator in a grid-connected

electric power conversion system of an ORC power generation system. The rotor speed information for

proper speed control was estimated from the positive-sequence voltage of the generator by using the

state observer PLL method. Additionally, the constant speed control could be guaranteed by controlling

the grid-side generated electrical power. Accordingly, the proposed control method improves stability

and durability of the ORC generation system by making it possible to estimate the rotating speed

under the distorted generator terminal voltage due to the diode rectifier. It also realizes the constant

rotation speed control despite the ripple or fluctuation of the turbine power. This paper also presented

the information about the configuration mechanism and control techniques that are required in the

grid-connected generation system. For the experimental verification, 10 kW and 23 kW grid-connected

ORC power generation experimental systems with a turbine simulator and actual turbine, respectively,

were designed and manufactured. The field test was conducted in the installed actual grid-connected

ORC system. The effectiveness of the proposed control system has been verified through extensive

experimental results. As a future plan, the proposed control system will be applied to the 220 kW

large-scale ORC power generation system (photographs in Figure 1), which was manufactured and

installed previously in Reference [46].

Author Contributions: Methodology, H.-S.P., H.-J.H. and J.-M.K.; Software, H.-S.P.; Validation, H.-J.H.; Formal

analysis, H.-S.P. and H.-J.H.; Data Curation, B.-S.C. and K.C.K.; Writing-Original Draft Preparation, H.-S.P.;

Writing-Review and Editing, H.-S.P., K.C.K. and J.-M.K.; Visualization, B.-S.C.; Project Administration, J.-M.K.

Funding: This research was funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the

Korean government (MSIT) through GCRC-SOP (No. 2011-0030013).

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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