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energies

Article
Speed Control for Turbine-Generator of ORC Power
Generation System and Experimental Implementation
Hyung-Seok Park 1 , Hong-Jun Heo 1 , Bum-Seog Choi 2 , Kyung Chun Kim 3
and Jang-Mok Kim 1, *
1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea;
hs_4451@pusan.ac.kr (H.-S.P.); hhongjun@pusan.ac.kr (H.-J.H.)
2 Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials, Daejeon 34103, Korea; bschoi@kimm.re.kr
3 School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea; kckim@pusan.ac.kr
* Correspondence: jmok@pusan.ac.kr; Tel.: +82-51-510-2366

Received: 11 December 2018; Accepted: 3 January 2019; Published: 9 January 2019 

Abstract: This paper presents a rotation speed estimation and an indirect speed control method for
a turbine-generator in a grid-connected 3-phase electrical power conversion system of an organic
Rankine cycle (ORC) generation system. In addition to the general configuration mechanism and
control techniques that are required in the grid-connected ORC power generation system, the indirect
speed control method using the grid-side electric power control and the speed estimation method is
proposed for the proper speed control of turbine-generators. The speed estimation method utilizes a
digital phase-locked loop (PLL) method that uses a state observer to detect the positive-sequence
voltages. A 10 kW system where a Motor-Generator set is used as a turbine simulator and a 23 kW
actual system for the grid-connected ORC power generation were designed and manufactured,
respectively. This paper includes various experimental results obtained from field tests conducted on
actual installed ORC systems.

Keywords: generator speed control; electrical power generation; turbine and generator;
grid-connected converter; organic Rankine cycle; renewable energy

1. Introduction
As part of the renewable energy generation system, researches on power generation systems
using heat sources have been developed. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with an organic
compound having a low boiling point as a working fluid can obtain high-pressure steam even with a
low-temperature heat source. Accordingly, there are many technical and economic advantages, and it
is possible to generate high efficiency power from various heat sources [1,2].
In the ORC generation system, the output power of the turbine is converted into electric power
by the generator, and it transferred to the grid network via an electric power conversion system.
The generated electric power must be synchronized with the grid electric power under the constant
frequency before fed into the grid [3,4]. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram and the photographs of
the ORC generation system with the grid-connected electric power conversion system.
The generator is directly coupled to the turbine expander that is designed for a high-speed drive
so as to reduce the size and increase the efficiency [5–7]. Additionally, the generator rotor will operate
at variable speeds according to the operating conditions of the ORC system. However, due to the
ripple or fluctuation of the turbine rotation speed caused by the unpredictable nature of the ORC
system, the generator is exposed to the speed ripple, which in turn causes significant vibration and
noise. This means that the degradation in control performance and durability of the ORC system are

Energies 2019, 12, 200; doi:10.3390/en12020200 www.mdpi.com/journal/energies


Energies 2019, 12, 200 2 of 13

inevitable. Thus,
Energies 2019, 12, x FORthe rotation
PEER REVIEW speed of the turbine-generator should be operated constantly for 2 ofthe
13
stable operation of the ORC generation system [8].
The rotation speed information of the turbine-generator is needed for proper speed control and
it can be
be measured
measuredby byaaspeed
speedsensor,
sensor,such
such asasencoders
encoders or orresolvers
resolvers [9].[9].
However,
However, thesethese
sensors add
sensors
difficulties
add to the
difficulties installation
to the andand
installation maintenance,
maintenance, increasing
increasing system
systemcost,cost,and
andgreatly
greatly reducing
reducing the
reliability due
reliability duetotothe thehostile
hostile environment
environment of high
of high temperature
temperature and and humidity
humidity of theofturbine
the turbine
[9,10].[9,10].
Thus,
Thus,
the the estimation
estimation of the generator
of the generator speed speed
shouldshould be adopted
be adopted for theforORC thesystem
ORC system
[10,11].[10,11].
In general, PWM switched converters or diode diode rectifiers
rectifiers are are used
used as as generator
generator side side AC/DC
AC/DC
converters. In References [12,13], a PWM converter has high power flow management capability and
can directly control the generator speed. However, the use of the PWM converter for the high-speed
generator causes several problems such as as high
high switching
switching frequency,
frequency, high device device breakdown
breakdown voltage,
voltage,
and price increase. A multilevel PWM topology to meet the voltage and power requirement is also
used in MWMW generation
generationsystems,
systems,as asininReference
Reference[14]. [14].However,
However,a ahigh-performance
high-performance control
control system
system is
is required
required along
along with
with control
control complexity,
complexity, andandthethe price
price is considerably
is considerably increased
increased [15].
[15].
Many studies using a diode rectifier instead of a PWM converter on the generator side have been
performed [16].
performed [16].Advantages
Advantagesofofthis this topology
topology include
include reliability,
reliability, durability,
durability, lower lower costhigher
cost and and higher
rated
rated power
power than PWMthan PWM converters,
converters, especially
especially in the power
in the power generationgeneration
systemsystemwith the with the high-speed
high-speed driven
driven turbine
turbine [15,17,18].[15,17,18].
However, However,
the usagethe of usage
a diodeofrectifier
a diodemakesrectifier makes it impossible
it impossible to directly
to directly control the
control thespeed
generator generator speed
on the on theside.
generator generator side. Furthermore,
Furthermore, the generator the generator terminal
terminal voltage hasvoltage has a
a distorted
distorted waveform
waveform caused by the caused by the of
conduction conduction of the diode
the diode rectifier [5,15,18],rectifier
which[5,15,18],
results inwhich resultsripple
a significant in a
significant ripple component of the estimated speed. Together, it leads
component of the estimated speed. Together, it leads to a great challenge for the improved speed to a great challenge for the
improved
control speed control
performance in theperformance
ORC system. in Athemethod
ORC system. A method
of controlling of controlling
the generator speedthe bygenerator
using an
speed by using
additional DC-DC anboost
additional DC-DC
converter boost rectifier
in a diode converter hasinbeen
a diode rectifier
recently has been
studied, recently studied,
as in references [19,20].
as in references
However, it also[19,20].
has theHowever, it alsoas
same problems hasPWMthe same problems as PWM converters.
converters.
Therefore, in in order
order toto solve
solvethe
theproblem
problemofofspeed speedestimation
estimationand and control
control caused
caused byby thethe
useuse
of
thethe
of generator-side
generator-side diode
dioderectifier,
rectifier,asasshown
shownininFigure Figure1,1,this this paper
paper presents
presents aa rotation speed
estimation method
estimation methodunder underthethe distorted
distorted generator
generator terminal
terminal voltage
voltage of theofdiode
the rectifier
diode rectifier and an
and an indirect
indirect
speed speedmethod
control control method using grid-side
using grid-side electriccontrol
electric power power for control
the ORCfor the ORCgeneration
power power generation
system.
system.
The The proposed
proposed speed control
speed control systemsystem is verified
is verified by experimental
by experimental resultsresults
of theofmanufactured
the manufactured and
and installed
installed actualactual grid-connected
grid-connected ORCORC system.
system.

< Organic Rankine Cycle Power Generation System >


Mechanical System Electric Power Conversion System
shaft
Turbine AC DC
Evaporator
Expander
DC AC
Grid
Generator Diode DC-link PWM Filter
Rectifier Inverter
Cooling
Pump Tower PC
Heat Source Condenser Microprocessor Control System Grid

ORC mechanical system Turbine Diode Rectifer PWM Inverter


Turbine

Generator Microprocessor
Electric Power Conversion System Control System

Figure 1.
Figure 1. Schematic
Schematicdiagram
diagramand
and photographs
photographs of the
of the whole
whole manufactured
manufactured organic
organic Rankine
Rankine cycle
cycle (ORC)
(ORC) generation
generation system.system.

2. Grid-Connected Electric
2. Grid-Connected Electric Power
Power Conversion
Conversion System
System
Grid-connected
Grid-connected electric
electric power
power conversion
conversion systems
systems are
are commonly
commonly comprised
comprised of
of aa generator-side
generator-side
rectifier,
rectifier, a DC-link, a grid-side inverter, a grid filter, and a control system. The grid-side three-phase
a DC-link, a grid-side inverter, a grid filter, and a control system. The grid-side three-phase
PWM
PWM inverter supplies the regulated AC power from the rectified DC voltage to the grid. Itgrid.
inverter supplies the regulated AC power from the rectified DC voltage to the It is
is critical
in grid-connected electric power conversion systems for optimized control to meet the grid
interconnection and required electric power quality [21–24].
Energies 2019, 12, 200 3 of 13

critical in grid-connected electric power conversion systems for optimized control to meet the grid
Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 13
interconnection and required electric power quality [21–24].
The
The control
control algorithm
algorithm for
for the
the grid-side
grid-side PWM
PWM inverter
inverter is
is illustrated
illustrated in
in Figure
Figure 2.2. It
It represents
represents the
the
‘Microprocessor Control System’ part of Figure 1 in detail. The control structure for the
‘Microprocessor Control System’ part of Figure 1 in detail. The control structure for the grid-side grid-side PWM
inverter consists
PWM inverter of twoofcascaded
consists loops.loops.
two cascaded The two
Thecurrent controllers
two current in theininner
controllers loop loop
the inner havehave
a fasta
response in a synchronous
fast response reference
in a synchronous frameframe
reference [25–27]. The DC
[25–27]. Thevoltage controller
DC voltage in onein
controller ofone
the of
outer
the loops
outer
implements the balanced electric power of the DC- link, which enables the active power
loops implements the balanced electric power of the DC- link, which enables the active power flowing flowing to
the grid.
to the grid.

Figure 2. General control


Figure 2. control block
block diagram
diagram of
of the
the gird-side
gird-side PWM
PWM inverter
inverter with
with the
the PLL
PLLmethod.
method.

Additionally,
Additionally, thethe power
power factor
factor controller
controller inin the
the other
other outer
outer loop
loop controls
controls thethe reactive
reactive power.
power.
Therefore, the two current controllers for q-axis and d-axis obtain their references
Therefore, the two current controllers for q-axis and d-axis obtain their references from the DC from the DC voltage
and power
voltage andfactor
powercontroller, respectively.
factor controller, Additionally,
respectively. the two current
Additionally, the twocontrollers
current generate
controllers thegenerate
voltage
references on d and q axes, for the PWM signal generation [28,29]. The current
the voltage references on d and q axes, for the PWM signal generation [28,29]. The current synchronized with
the grid voltage
synchronized should
with be injected
the grid voltageinto the grid
should as the standards
be injected into the required.
grid as the Accurate
standards phase angle
required.
information of the grid voltages can be detected using a phase-locked loop (PLL)
Accurate phase angle information of the grid voltages can be detected using a phase-locked loop method [30].
(PLL)The synchronous
method [30]. reference frame (SRF) PLL method detects the angular position of three-phase
voltageTheby controlling reference
synchronous the error frame
of the(SRF)
actual and
PLL the estimated
method [31].
detects the The SRF-PLL
angular position of is three-phase
robust and
has
voltage by controlling the error of the actual and the estimated [31]. The SRF-PLL is robusthas
better dynamic performance than zero crossing PLL discussed in [32,33]. This method andbeen
has
generally utilized various applications for the phase angle detection [34,35]. The
better dynamic performance than zero crossing PLL discussed in [32,33]. This method has been SRF-PLL is conducted
in the d and
generally q axis synchronous
utilized referencefor
various applications frame
theasphase
shown in Figure
angle 2. This
detection PLL requires
[34,35]. reference
The SRF-PLL is
frame transformations, namely the stationary and synchronous reference frame,
conducted in the d and q axis synchronous reference frame as shown in Figure 2. This PLL requires and the phase locker
is implemented
reference frameby setting the d-axis
transformations, voltagethe
namely to zero. The PIand
stationary controller output reference
synchronous is the angular
frame,velocity of
and the
the grid voltage. After taking the integration of the angular velocity, the phase angle
phase locker is implemented by setting the d-axis voltage to zero. The PI controller output is the is obtained [31,34].
angular velocity of the grid voltage. After taking the integration of the angular velocity, the phase
3. Speed Estimation and Control for Turbine and Generator
angle is obtained [31,34].
3.1. Speed Estimation Using PLL
3. Speed Estimation and Control for Turbine and Generator
The SRF-PLL used for the phase angle detection of the grid voltage can be also adopted in
generator
3.1. Speed control to estimate
Estimation the rotational speed [36,37]. In this case, the extracted three-phase terminal
Using PLL
voltage from the generator is used instead of the grid, the generator speed can be estimated in the same
The SRF-PLL used for the phase angle detection of the grid voltage can be also adopted in
way as the grid voltage [38,39]. In the case of the PWM switched converters are used as generator
generator control to estimate the rotational speed [36,37]. In this case, the extracted three-phase
side AC/DC converters, since the generator, three-phase terminal voltage, has a non-distorted voltage
terminal voltage from the generator is used instead of the grid, the generator speed can be estimated
without any harmonics, it has fast and good dynamic characteristics like in the grid voltage.
in the same way as the grid voltage [38,39]. In the case of the PWM switched converters are used as
However, a diode rectifier is used instead of the PWM converter in this paper. As shown in
generator side AC/DC converters, since the generator, three-phase terminal voltage, has a non-
Figure 3, the three-phase terminal voltage has a non-sinusoidal waveform due to the diode conduction
distorted voltage without any harmonics, it has fast and good dynamic characteristics like in the grid
of the rectifier in the generation region, and has a variable frequency of the generator. As a result,
voltage.
the estimated speed from the generator terminal voltage by the conventional SRF-PLL method has a
However, a diode rectifier is used instead of the PWM converter in this paper. As shown in
significant error, which is similar to the estimated phase angle under the distorted grid angle conditions.
Figure 3, the three-phase terminal voltage has a non-sinusoidal waveform due to the diode
This means that the speed control performance and overall system efficiency will be degraded [36,37].
conduction of the rectifier in the generation region, and has a variable frequency of the generator. As
a result, the estimated speed from the generator terminal voltage by the conventional SRF-PLL
method has a significant error, which is similar to the estimated phase angle under the distorted grid
angle conditions. This means that the speed control performance and overall system efficiency will
be degraded [36,37].
Energies 2019, 12, 200 4 of 13
Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 4 of 13

3. Waveforms of 3-phase generator voltages by diode rectifier and


Figure 3. and estimated
estimated speed
speed using
using
SRF-PLL method.
conventional SRF-PLL method.

In order
order toto achieve
achieve satisfactory
satisfactory performance
performance of of the
the speed
speed estimation
estimation under under the the non-sinusoidal
non-sinusoidal
distorted
distorted voltage,
voltage,certain
certain techniques
techniques suchsuchas harmonics
as harmonics compensation,
compensation,filtering, and positive-sequence
filtering, and positive-
component detection can
sequence component be additionally
detection used [40–42].
can be additionally An improved
used [40–42]. An performance of the conventional
improved performance of the
SRF-PLL
conventionalunder distorted
SRF-PLL voltages
under is achieved
distorted voltages by is
separating
achieved the positive and
by separating thenegative
positivesequences and
and negative
by feeding back only the positive-sequence. The SRF-PLL method
sequences and by feeding back only the positive-sequence. The SRF-PLL method with positive- with positive-sequence detection
has the better
sequence tracking
detection hasperformance
the better trackingthan the conventional
performance SRF-PLL
than topology [43].
the conventional In thistopology
SRF-PLL paper, a state
[43].
observer is utilized
In this paper, a stateasobserver
the positive-sequence
is utilized as the voltage detection method.
positive-sequence voltage Based on the method.
detection positive-sequence
Based on
of
thethe distorted three-phase
positive-sequence of thegenerator
distorted terminal
three-phase voltages,
generatordetected
terminalby a voltages,
state observer, the generator
detected by a state
position
observer,andthespeed
generatorcan be obtained
position andfrom
speed the
can positive-sequence
be obtained fromvoltage by the SRF-PLL.voltage by the
the positive-sequence
Assuming that the three-phase voltage is unbalanced and distorted with high-order harmonics,
SRF-PLL.
it can be decomposed
Assuming into positive,
that the three-phase voltagenegative, and homopolar
is unbalanced and distorted (zero)
withsequence
high-order components.
harmonics,
By calculating
it can and decomposing
be decomposed into positive,each sequence
negative,component,
and homopolar only the voltage
(zero) of the positive-sequence
sequence components. By
component
calculating andcan be extracted [44].
decomposing eachUsing
sequencethis as the input voltage
component, only theofvoltage
the SRF-PLL, accurate position
of the positive-sequence
estimation
componentfrom can betheextracted
unbalanced [44].and distorted
Using this as three-phase
the input voltage of is possible.
the SRF-PLL, accurate position
The positive
estimation from theand negativeand
unbalanced sequence
distorted components
three-phaseofvoltage the three-phase
is possible. voltage are given in
Equation (1), where
The positive andp and n represent
negative sequence positive and negative,
components of therespectively.
three-phase The zeroare
voltage sequence
given incomponent
Equation
is not
(1), considered
where p and nbecause
represent of positive
the balanced electric circuit
and negative, of the generator.
respectively. The zero sequence component is not
considered because  of the balanced  electric circuit ofthe generator.  
Va cos(ωt + ϕ p ) cos(ωt + ϕn )
   2π 
 Vb  = Vp  cos(ωt cos( − 2π 3ω t++ ϕϕpp))   + Vn  cos(
cosω(ωtt + ϕ+n ) 3 + ϕn )  (1)
   
Va  ωt + 2π + ϕ )   2π 
Vc cos ( p cos (
V  = V  cos(ω t 3− 2π + ϕ )  + V  cos(ω t + 2π + ϕ 3) 
ωt − + ϕ n )
 b p
 p
 n
 n

(1)
3 3
Equation (1) can be calculated  V
 c  in the d-q stationary  reference
 frame asEquation (2).
2π 2π
 cos(ω t + + ϕ p )  cos(ω t − + ϕn )
" # " # "  # 3"   # 3 "  #
s
Vs Vpd Vnds
cos(ωt + ϕ p ) cos(ωt + ϕn )
Equation ds(1) can
= +
be calculated
s ins the = Vpstationary reference+frame
d-q Vn as Equation (2). (2)
Vq Vpq Vnq sin(ωt + ϕ p ) − sin(ωt + ϕn )
Vds  V pds  V nds   cos(ω t + ϕ p )   cos(ω t + ϕ n ) 
 s  =  s  +  s  = Vp   + Vn  by using a state  (2)
The generator three-phase
V terminal
V V voltage
 q   pq   nq   sin(
canω t
be+ ϕ )
modeled
p   − sin(ω t + ϕ n )  equation with the
positive and negative sequence voltage in the stationary reference frame. The equation of the general
state The generator
observer three-phase
is shown terminal
in Equation voltage
(3). Where canybe
x and modeled
is the by using
state and outputa vector,
state equation withand
respectively, the
positive and negative sequence voltage in the stationary reference frame. The equation
L is the gain of the state observer, A and C is the system and output matrix, respectively. of the general
state observer is shown in Equation (3). Where x and y is the state and output vector, respectively,
and L is the gain of the state observer, Ad and C is the system and output matrix, respectively.
x̂ = A x̂ + L(y − C x̂ ) (3)
dt d
xˆ = A xˆ + L ( y − C xˆ ) (3)
dt
By differentiating Equation (2), the state equation can be derived as Equation (4).
Energies 2019,12,
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x FOR PEER REVIEW 55 of
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13

By differentiating Equation (2), thestate


V pds  equation
 0 −ω can  V pd  as Equation (4).
s
0 be0 derived
  0  
V s
0 0 0  V pqs 
= d  pq   (4)
s
dt V0nds  − 00 ω  V0nds 
 s
ωω 0
  
Vpd Vpd
     s   s
d s   V0s
Vpq    nq   00 0 −ω0 0  V
0nq   Vpq 
= (4)
 
dt 

Vnds   ω 0 0 ω

 Vnds 
The output equation fors the decomposed state variables of Equation
s (2) can be expressed as
Vnq 0 0 −ω 0 Vnq
Equation (5).
The output equation for the decomposed state variablesVofpd Equation (2) can be expressed as
s

 
Equation (5). V s  1 0 1 0  V pqs 
y = cx =  ds  =   (5)
0 1 0 1 Vnds  Vpd
 s 
V
" #  q"   #s
Vds 1 0 1 0 Vnq Vpq s 
y = cx = = (5)

V s s
0 1 0 (3)–(5) 1
 
The state observer equation is derived q from Equations Vndis 
and given in Equation (6), where
s
 Vnq
the angular speed variable ω is estimated from the previous sample and the tuned observer constant
should
Thebe used.
state observer equation is derived from Equations (3)–(5) and is given in Equation (6), where
the angular speed variable ω̂s is estimated from thes previous sample 
and the tuned observer constant
V pd  V pd  V spd  
should be used.    0 −ω 0 0     l11 l12    
 s   0  V
 spq  l  1 0 1 0 V pq  
s 
d V pq   0 0 0     21 l22     
s
ω̂  s  0=   s +  y −   s
 (6)
    
V̂pd 0 −dt 0 V̂pd s l l V̂pd
 ω 0 0 ωs V   l3111 l32 12  0 1 "0 1 V  
s
 
0 V nd  0    nd  
#
s
 l l21 l l22  1  0nd 1 0
0 0
  s 
V̂pq  V̂pq  V̂pq
     
d
0 0 −ω 0s   s+   41 42  − (6)
0 V nq  0 
= y
0 V1nq 0 1
  
s s
dt  s  
V̂nd V  nq  l31 l32    s 
 V̂nd   ω̂ ω̂    

 V̂nd 

s
V̂nq 0 0 −ω̂ 0 s
V̂nq l41 l42
 s
V̂nq

The block diagram of the speed estimation method using the SRF-PLL with a state observer is
presented in Figure
The block diagram4. The measured
of the three-phasemethod
speed estimation generator terminal
using voltagewith
the SRF-PLL is transformed into the
a state observer is
stationary reference frame voltage. The positive and negative sequence component
presented in Figure 4. The measured three-phase generator terminal voltage is transformed into the is decomposed
by the state
stationary observer.
reference frameThen, the The
voltage. generator
positivespeed is estimated
and negative from
sequence the positive-sequence.
component is decomposedThe by
estimated
the electrical
state observer. speed
Then, theisgenerator
transformed into
speed mechanicalfrom
is estimated speed
thedepending on the pole
positive-sequence. The number
estimatedof
the generator.
electrical speed The speed can into
is transformed be estimated
mechanical with minimal
speed error on
depending andtheripple, and used
pole number for generator.
of the the speed
control
The afterwards.
speed can be estimated with minimal error and ripple, and used for the speed control afterwards.

State Observer (Positive Sequence Computation)

𝑽𝒖 𝐿 𝐿 . . . . 𝒔
Conventional
𝑽𝒅𝒔 𝒔
𝑽𝒑𝒅 𝒔
, 𝑽 𝒏𝒅 𝒔
, 𝑽𝒑𝒒 𝒔
, 𝑽 𝒏𝒒
𝐿 𝐿
𝒔
𝑽𝒑𝒅 𝒔
, 𝑽𝒏𝒅 𝒔
, 𝑽𝒑𝒒 𝒔
, 𝑽𝒏𝒒
𝟏
𝒔
𝑽𝒑𝒅 𝒔
, 𝑽𝒏𝒅 𝒔
, 𝑽𝒑𝒒 𝒔
, 𝑽𝒏𝒒 𝑽𝒑𝒅 PLL Method (Fig. 2) 𝝎𝒆 𝟐 𝝎𝒎
𝒂𝒃𝒄
𝑽𝒗 𝐿 𝐿 𝑷
𝟒 𝟒 𝟒
𝒔 𝟒
𝒔 Synchronous Reference
𝑽𝒒𝒔 𝐿 𝐿 𝑽𝒑𝒒 Frame Transformation
𝑽𝒘 𝒔 𝟏
𝒅𝒒 0 𝜔 0 0
PI Controller
𝜔 0 0 0 𝒔
Stationary 0 0 0 𝜔 𝝎𝒆
3-phase Reference Frame
0 0 𝜔 0
Generator Transformation 𝒔
𝑽𝒑𝒅 𝒔
, 𝑽𝒏𝒅 𝒔
, 𝑽 𝒑𝒒 𝒔
, 𝑽𝒏𝒒 𝟒
(𝒂𝒃𝒄 → 𝒅𝒒𝒔) Equation 6

Figure 4. Speed
Figure4. Speed estimation
estimation method
method using
usingSRF-PLL
SRF-PLLwith
withaastate
stateobserver.
observer.

3.2. Indirect Speed Control


3.2. Indirect Speed Control
Since a diode rectifier is used on the generator side instead of the PWM converter, the torque
Since a diode rectifier is used on the generator side instead of the PWM converter, the torque
and speed of turbine and generator cannot be directly controlled. Therefore, the torque of the turbine
and speed of turbine and generator cannot be directly controlled. Therefore, the torque of the turbine
and generator should be indirectly controlled through the generated electrical power on the grid side,
and generator should be indirectly controlled through the generated electrical power on the grid side,
which allows the speed of the turbine and generator to be operated constantly.
which allows the speed of the turbine and generator to be operated constantly.
The input power of the generator from the turbine can be expressed, as shown in Equation (7).
The input power of the generator from the turbine can be expressed, as shown in Equation (7).
When the output power of turbine increases under a DC-link voltage control of the grid-side PWM
When the output power of turbine increases under a DC-link voltage control of the grid-side PWM
inverter, the turbine-generator speed increase due to the difference between turbine and generator
inverter, the turbine-generator speed increase due to the difference between turbine and generator (load)
(load) torques. Then, the operating point of the turbine and generator is changed by the torque
torques. Then, the operating point of the turbine and generator is changed by the torque characteristic
characteristic line. Therefore, for the constant speed operation, the generator torques can be controlled
line. Therefore, for the constant speed operation, the generator torques can be controlled according
according to the given output power of the turbine.
to the given output power of the turbine.

Pinput
Pinput =T =MTM××ωωMM (7)
(7)
x FOR PEER REVIEW
Energies 2019, 12, 200 66of
of 13

The mechanical generator torque is expressed in Equation (8). At the steady state, the right-side
The mechanical
differential generator
term of Equation (8)torque
is zero.isNeglecting
expressed intheEquation
damping(8). At the
effect steady
of the state,
inertia the right-side
moment and the
friction term, the mechanical turbine output torque is approximately equal to the load moment
differential term of Equation (8) is zero. Neglecting the damping effect of the inertia torque ofand
the
the friction term, the mechanical turbine output torque is approximately equal to the load torque of
generator.
the generator.

TM==J Jdω + +Bω
TM Bω
+ +TLTL (8)
dtdt
The load
The load torque
torque can
can be
beregarded
regardedasasthe
thegenerator
generatorelectric
electrictorque
torquedelivered
deliveredtoto
thethe
grid, as as
grid, given in
given
e is the generated torque component current of the
Equation (9). Where KT is the torque constant and iqs e
in Equation (9). Where KT is the torque constant and iqs is the generated torque component current
q-axis synchronous reference frame. Therefore, the mechanical speed of the turbine and generator can
of the q-axis synchronous
be maintained by controllingreference frame.
the torque Therefore,
component theofmechanical
current speed of the turbine and
the generator.
generator can be maintained by controlling the torque component current of the generator.
e
TL = Te = KT × iqse (9)
TL = Te = K T × iqs (9)
The peak
The peak value
value ofofoutput
outputvoltage
voltagewith
withthe
theconstant
constantexcitation
excitation ofof
thethe generator
generator is proportional
is proportional to
to the rotating speed of the machine. The variation of the q-axis current
the rotating speed of the machine. The variation of the q-axis current (the generated peak(the generated peak output
output
current from
current fromthethegenerator)
generator)depends
dependson the
on difference between
the difference the peak
between theoutput
peak voltage
output of the generator
voltage of the
and the DC–link voltage. This implies that it is possible to control the torque
generator and the DC–link voltage. This implies that it is possible to control the torque componentcomponent (q-axis)
current by
(q-axis) adjusting
current the DC-link
by adjusting voltage,voltage,
the DC-link which further
which controls the mechanical
further controls speed ofspeed
the mechanical the turbine
of the
and generator.
turbine and generator.
The schematic
The schematic diagram
diagram for speed control
for speed control is shown in
is shown Figure 5.
in Figure 5. The
The indirect
indirect speed
speed control
control system
system
is developed based on the relationship between the DC-link voltage and the
is developed based on the relationship between the DC-link voltage and the torque component torque component current
of the generator.
current The speed
of the generator. Thecontroller outputs the
speed controller DC-link
outputs voltage reference
the DC-link from the from
voltage reference error the
between
error
the reference and the estimated speed. The DC-link voltage should be guaranteed
between the reference and the estimated speed. The DC-link voltage should be guaranteed to be the to be the standard
value at least
standard foratsystem
value stability
least for systemand can beand
stability changed
can bewithin
changed thewithin
systemthe limits.
system limits.

ω m* PI controller
∆Vdc* Vdc*
Κp
to DC voltage
controller
˄
ωm 1
limiter
Κi V *
from speed estimator S dc_std
( PLL with state observer )

Figure 5.
Figure Block diagram
5. Block diagram for
for indirect
indirect speed
speed control.
control.

The overall
The proposed speed
overall proposed speed control
control algorithm for the
algorithm for the turbine-generator
turbine-generator of of the
the ORC
ORC system
system isis
illustrated in Figure 6. The three-phase generator voltage is measured by the generator-side
illustrated in Figure 6. The three-phase generator voltage is measured by the generator-side voltage voltage
sensor. The
sensor. Therotor
rotorspeed
speed information
information of the
of generator, whichwhich
the generator, is usedisinused
the speed
in thecontroller, is estimated
speed controller, is
using the PLL method. The rotor speed with reduced ripple components can
estimated using the PLL method. The rotor speed with reduced ripple components can be estimatedbe estimated from the
positive
from thesequence voltage. The
positive sequence speed
voltage. Thecontroller is locatedis in
speed controller the outer
located loop
in the of the
outer loopDC-link voltage
of the DC-link
controller,
voltage which controls
controller, whichthecontrols
active power generation
the active powerof the generator.ofThe
generation thetorque component
generator. The current
torque
control can control the turbine-generator speed indirectly.
component current control can control the turbine-generator speed indirectly.
Therefore, the
Therefore, the proposed
proposed speed
speed control
control system
system can
can control
control the
the generator speed for
generator speed for the
the stable
stable
operation by controlling the amount of transmitted electric power to the grid.
operation by controlling the amount of transmitted electric power to the grid. All the otherAll the other components
of Figure 6 have
components been explained
of Figure 6 have been in detail in the
explained inSection
detail in2.the Section 2.
Energies 2019, 12, 200 7 of 13
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2019, 12,12, x FOR
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of 13

ORCORC Diode Rectifier DC link


Diode Rectifier DC link PWM Inverter
PWM Inverter Electric
ElectricPower
Power
Mechanical
Mechanical Conversion System
System
Conversion System
System Generator Grid Filter
Generator Grid Filter
Vas Ι ag Vag
Turbine
Vas Vbs ΙΙbgag Vag
Vbg
Turbine Vbs Vcs ΙΙcgbg VcgVbg
V.T
Expander V.T
Expander Vcs Ι cg Vcg
V.T
C.T V.T
Power V.T
C.T V.T 3ϕ Grid
Power 3ϕ Grid
(Fig.1)
(Fig.1) Vas,Vbs,Vcs Vdc PWM Ι ag, Ιbg, Ι cg Vag,Vbg,Vcg
Vas,Vbs,Vcs Vdc PWM
abc
Ι ag, Ιbg, Ιθcggrid Grid Angle
Vag,Vbg,Vcg
Speed PLL method
θ grid Estimator
PLL method with dq
abc Grid Angle
EstimatorPLLState
Speed
observer
method with (Fig.5) Vdc θ
PLL method
Ιdqqe Estimator grid
Estimator
(Fig.4) State observer
˄ (Fig.5)
Speed Vdc*Vdc DC voltage Ι qe* Ι eQ - Current Vq
e*
θ grid
ωm Controller Controller e*
q
Controller e* PWM
(Fig.4) ˄ Speed Vdc* DC voltage Ι q
Ι de Q - Current Vq
ωω *
mm Controller Controller e* PWM
D -Controller
e*
PF * Power Factor Ι d Current Vd
ω m* Algorithm (S/W)
Speed Control Controller Ι de Controller
Vde*SVPWM
( ≈ 1)* ( ≈ 0)e*
PF Power Factor Ιd D - Current
Speed Control Algorithm
Microprocessor (S/W) (H/W)
Control System ( ≈ 1) Controller ( ≈ 0) Controller SVPWM(Fig.2)

Microprocessor Control System (H/W) (Fig.2)


Figure Figure 6. Proposed
6. Proposed indirect
indirect speed
speed controlalgorithm
control algorithm in
inaagrid-connected
grid-connectedORCORC
generation system.system.
generation
Figure 6. Proposed indirect speed control algorithm in a grid-connected ORC generation system.
4. Experimental Set-Up
4. Experimental andand
Set-Up Results
Results
4. Experimental Set-Up and Results
Two of types of experiments
Two types experiments areare conductedin
conducted in order
order to toverify thethe
verify proposed
proposed indirect speed speed
indirect control control
systems.
Twofirst The
types first experimental
of experiments setup shown
are conducted in Figure 7 is a 10 kW small-scale system, where a motor
systems. The experimental setup shown in in order7toisverify
Figure a 10 kWthe small-scale
proposed indirect
system,speed control
where a motor
simulates the turbine and is used for the confirmation of the proposed control method during the
systems.
simulates the The first experimental
turbine and is used setup
for shown
the in Figure 7 isofa 10
confirmation thekW small-scale
proposed system,
control where aduring
method motor the
developing stage. This system consists of two grid-connected electric power conversion systems and
simulates
developing the turbine
stage. and is used forof
This system thetwo
confirmation of the proposedpower controlconversion
method during the and
a motor-generator set. A 15 consists
kW PMSM, which grid-connected
is directly coupledelectric
with a 12 kW PMSG, systems
is operated as
developing stage. This system consists of two grid-connected electric power conversion systems and
a motor-generator set. A 15
the turbine simulator. TwokW PMSM,systems
converter whichare isused
directly
as thecoupled withfor
drive systems a 12 kW simulator
turbine PMSG, is operated
and
a motor-generator set. A 15 kW PMSM, which is directly coupled with a 12 kW PMSG, is operated as
generator, respectively. The entire control algorithm is implemented in a
as the turbine simulator. Two converter systems are used as the drive systems for turbine simulator micro-processor control
theboard.
turbineThesimulator.
electrical Two converter
parameters systems
of the are used
experimental as the
setup are drive systems
presented for turbine
in Table 1. simulator and
and generator,
generator, respectively.
respectively. The Theentire
entire control
control algorithm
algorithm is is implemented
implemented in ainmicro-processor
a micro-processor control
control
board. The electrical parameters of the experimental
board. The electrical parameters of the experimental setup are presented in
Gridsetup are presented in Table 1.
Table 1.
(3ϕ 220Vrms )

Grid
(3ϕ 220Vrms )
10kW Reduction System
(Turbine Simulator & Generator) Oscilloscope

Generator 10kW Reduction System


(Turbine Simulator & Generator) Oscilloscope
Turbine
Generator
Simulator PC1

Turbine Simulator Grid-Connected


Turbine Drive System Conversion System PC2
Simulator PC1
Figure 7. Experimental setup of 10 kW small-scale grid-connected ORC simulation system.
Turbine Simulator Grid-Connected
Drive System Conversion System PC2

Table 1. Parameters of Experimental Setup.


Figure
Figure 7. Experimental
7. Experimental setup
setup ofof1010kW
kWsmall-scale
small-scale grid-connected
grid-connected ORC
ORCsimulation system.
simulation system.
System Parameter Value
Table 1. 1.Parameters
Table of
of Experimental
DC-link
Parameters Setup.
capacitance Setup.
Experimental 3133 (uF)
Converter System Switching frequency 10 (kHz)
System
System Parameter
Control period
Parameter 100 Value
(us)
Value
DC-link
Grid capacitance
line-line voltage 55 (Vrms3133
) (4:1(uF)
trans.)
Grid-Network
DC-link
Frequency 6010(Hz)
Converter System Switching frequency 3133 (kHz)
(uF)
capacitance
Filter L inductance 5 100
(mH)
Converter System Control period (us)
Switching
Rated power 15
Grid line-line voltage 55 (kW)/12
(V10
rms)(kHz)(kW)
(4:1 trans.)
frequency
Rated torque 95.4 (Nm)/70 (Nm)
Grid-Network(PMSM/G)
Simulator/Generator Frequency 60 (Hz)
Control constant
Back period 109.0 (V100 (us)
FilterEMF
L inductance peak L-L
5 (mH) /krpm)
Pole number
Grid line-line 8
Rated power 15 (kW)/12 (kW)
55 (Vrms ) (4:1 trans.)
voltage
Rated torque 95.4 (Nm)/70 (Nm)
Grid-Network
Simulator/Generator (PMSM/G)
BackFrequency
EMF constant 60peak
109.0 (V (Hz)
L-L/krpm)

Filter L inductance
Pole number 5 (mH)
8
Rated power 15 (kW)/12 (kW)
Rated torque 95.4 (Nm)/70 (Nm)
Simulator/Generator (PMSM/G)
Back EMF constant 109.0 (Vpeak L-L /krpm)
Pole number 8
Energies 2019, 12, 200 8 of 13

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 13


Figure 8 shows the experimental results of the generator speed estimation performance under the
Figure 8SRF-PLL
conventional shows the and experimental results of
the state observer the generator
SRF-PLL. speed
In Figure 8a,estimation performance under
using the conventional SRF-PLL,
significant ripple components are observed in waveforms of the generator voltages Vd , Vd ,SRF-
the conventional SRF-PLL and the state observer SRF-PLL. In Figure 8a, using the conventional
s e and the
PLL, significant
estimated speed ωripple
PLL . components
On the other are
hand,observed
the in
state waveforms
observer of the
SRF-PLL generator
eliminates voltages
the 𝑉
ripple , 𝑉 , and
components
the estimated
from speedofωPLL
the waveforms the. estimated
On the other speedhand, the state
by using the observer SRF-PLL component
positive sequence eliminates the ripple
of generator
components s from the waveforms
e of the estimated speed by using the positive sequence
voltage Vd_positive and Vd_positive . The ripple of the estimated generator speed ω proposed_PLL is reduced component
of generator voltage 𝑉 _ 𝑉_
by about 85% compared to thatand of the . The ripple of the estimated generator speed ωproposed_PLL
conventional estimation method.
is reduced by about 85% compared to that of the conventional estimation method.
Figure 8b represents the results of speed estimation under the conventional and the proposed
Figure 8b represents the results of speed estimation under the conventional and the proposed
method in a full operating range. In the region indicated as ‘Generator Speed-up Region’ in Figure 8b,
method in a full operating range. In the region indicated as ‘Generator Speed-up Region’ in Figure 8b,
the generated power cannot be transmitted to the grid side because the excited voltage amplitude
the generated power cannot be transmitted to the grid side because the excited voltage amplitude
according to the generator speed does not reach to the DC-link voltage. At the transition stage between
according to the generator speed does not reach to the DC-link voltage. At the transition stage
‘Generator Speed-up Region’ and ‘Generation Region’, the generated power starts flowing to the grid.
between ‘Generator Speed-up Region’ and ‘Generation Region’, the generated power starts flowing
Additionally, the generator
to the grid. Additionally, thevoltage
generatoris distorted
voltage is due to diode
distorted due conduction. As can be
to diode conduction. As seen,
can bethe speed
seen,
waveform
the speedofwaveform
the conventional method has much
of the conventional method morehasripple
muchcomponents
more ripplethan the proposed
components thanmethod.
the
The curve ω
proposed method. in Figure 8b is the actual speed measured by the encoder in
The curve ωm_measured in Figure 8b is the actual speed measured by the encoder
m_measured order to confirm in the
speed
orderestimation performance.
to confirm the speed estimation performance.

using proposed PLL Turbine


using conventional PLL with state observer Power Generator Speed-up Region Generation Region
1500 1500
𝑽𝒅𝒔 𝒔
𝑽𝒅_𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆
150 150
𝝎𝒎_𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒆
[RPM] 𝝎𝒎_𝑷𝑳𝑳_𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒂𝒍 [RPM]
[V] [V]

0 0 0 0
< using conventional PLL >
25 25 Transient state
of estimation
[V] [V] 1500 1500
0 0 𝝎𝒎_𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒆
𝑽𝒅𝒆 𝒆
𝑽𝒅_𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆 𝝎𝒎_𝑷𝑳𝑳_𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒅
1200 1200 [RPM] [RPM]

[RPM] [RPM] < using proposed PLL


𝝎𝑷𝑳𝑳 𝝎𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒅 𝑷𝑳𝑳 0
with state observer > 0
Transient state
0 10 ms 0 of estimation 0.2 s

(a) (b)

Figure8.8. Experimental
Figure Experimental results
resultsof
ofthe
therotation
rotationspeed
speedestimation
estimationforfor
thethe
turbine-generator: (a) Estimated
turbine-generator: (a) Estimated
speedby
speed byPLL;
PLL; and
and (b)
(b) estimated
estimated speed
speedininaafull
fulloperating
operatingrange.
range.

Theexperimental
The experimental results of thetheproposed
proposedindirect
indirectspeed
speedcontrol
control is is
shown
shown in Figure 9. From
in Figure 9. Fromspeed
speed
controlin
control inthe
the‘Generation
‘Generation Region’,
Region’,by byincreasing
increasingq-axis
q-axiscurrent
currentto to
thethe
grid-side
grid-side(negative direction)
(negative direction)
usingthe
using the speed
speed control
controlaction,
action,the
thegenerator
generatorspeed is controlled
speed constantly
is controlled at theatreference
constantly speed speed
the reference of
1000RPM. The grid-side d-axis current is controlled to be zero to achieve the unity
of 1000RPM. The grid-side d-axis current is controlled to be zero to achieve the unity power factor. power factor.
Whenthe
When the turbine
turbine output
output power
power increases
increases suddenly,
suddenly, the q-axis
the q-axis current
current injected
injected intogrid
into the theisgrid is
increased
increased (from −4A to −18A) by the DC-link voltage control to keep the constant
(from −4A to −18A) by the DC-link voltage control to keep the constant speed for the safe operationspeed for the safe
ofoperation
the ORCof the ORC system.
system.
The second experiments are implemented in the actual ORC power generation system, as shown
The second experiments are implemented in the actual ORC power generation system, as shown
in Figure 10. The configuration of the experimental setup is same as the one shown in Figure 1. And
in Figure 10. The configuration of the experimental setup is same as the one shown in Figure 1. And the
the ORC loop configurations, the working fluid, the operation process, performance curves, sensors
ORC loop configurations, the working fluid, the operation process, performance curves, sensors and
and system parameters used in this experiment are the same as that previously designed and
system parameters used in this experiment are the same as that previously designed and manufactured
manufactured in Reference [45]. Generator (PMSM) is directly coupled to the expander shaft.
in Reference [45]. Generator (PMSM) is directly coupled to the expander shaft.
Energies 2019, 12, 200 9 of 13
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Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 13
Speed Control
Turbine Turbine Power Increase
Power Speedup Region Speed ControlRegion
Generation Turbine Power Increase
Turbine
Power Speedup Region Generation Region

200 200
200 200
[V] [V]
[V]
1200 [V]
1200
0 0
1200 1200
0 0
𝑹𝑷𝑴𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒓 [RPM]
[RPM]
[RPM] 𝑹𝑷𝑴𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒓 [RPM]
0 0
0 0
𝒊𝒅𝒆 𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 𝒊𝒅𝒆 𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅
𝒆 𝒆
0 𝒊𝒅 𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 𝒊𝒅 𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 0
0 𝒊𝒒𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 0
[A]
𝒊𝒒𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 𝒊𝒒𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 [A]
[A] 0.5 s 𝒊𝒒𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅 [A]
-20 -20
0.5 s
-20 -20
Figure 9.
Figure Experimental results
9. Experimental results of
of the
the proposed
proposed indirect generator speed control.
Figure 9. Experimental results of the proposed indirect generator speed control.

Diode
Rectifier PWM
Diode Inverter
Rectifier PWM
Inverter

DC link
DC link

DSP Control Board


DSP Control Board

(a) (b)
(a) (b)
Figure 10. Experimental setup for the actual ORC power generation system: (a) Gird-connected
Figure
Figure10.10.
electric Experimental
Experimental
power setup
conversionsetupfor
for the
system; actual
andactual ORC
(b) 23ORC power
kW power
ORC generation
generation
power system:
system:
generation (a) Gird-connected
(a) Gird-connected
system. electric
electric
power power conversion
conversion system;
system; and23(b)
and (b) kW 23ORC
kW ORC power
power generation
generation system.
system.
The experimental results of the proposed indirect speed control are presented in Figure 11a–d.
The
It showsThe experimental
experimental
the waveforms results
results
for the of
of themassthe proposed
proposed
flow rate ofindirect
indirect speed
the workingspeed control
control
fluid areare
and thepresented
presented in Figure
turbineinin/outlet
Figure 11a–d.
11a–d.
pressure
It
It showsshows the the waveforms
waveforms for thefor the
mass mass
flow flow
rate of rate
the of the
working working
fluid
(a), the pressure ratio and the turbine output power (b), the rotation speed and torque of the turbine- and fluid
the and
turbine the turbine
in/outlet in/outlet
pressure
pressure
(a),generator
the pressure (a),
(c), the
andpressure
ratio the ratio
andDC-link
the turbine and theand
output
voltage turbine
power output
(b),
the grid-side power
torque(b),
the rotation speed theand
component rotation
torque speed
(q-axis)of the and torque
turbine-
current (d) in
of the turbine-generator
generator
detail. (c), andthe
During the DC-link
experiment, (c), voltage
and
thethe DC-link
and
turbine the
output voltage
grid-side
power and
torque the component
grid-side
is increased fromtorque to 1.4component
0(q-axis) kWcurrent (q-axis)
(d)
to confirm inthe
current
detail. (d)
During in
control performance.the detail. During
experiment, the experiment,
turbine outputthe turbine
power isoutput
increased power from is increased
0 to 1.4 kW from
to 0 to
confirm1.4 kW
the to
confirm
control Initially the
performance. control performance.
(before 80s), when the turbine output power is supplied, the turbine and generator
Initially
Initially
speeds increase (before
(before until 80s),
80s), when
reaching when thethe
the startturbine
turbine
point output
output
of thepower power
‘Generation is supplied,
is supplied,
Region’.the the
At turbine
turbine
this pointand and generator
generator
(from 80s), the
speeds
speeds
rotation increase
increase
speeduntil until reaching
reaching
control the
the start
is started, start
and point point of the ‘Generation
of the ‘Generation
the generator starts supplying Region’.
Region’. theAt At this
this point
power point
to the(from (from80s),
grid system 80s),
thethe
and
rotation
rotation
the constantspeed
speed control
control
speed is started,
is started,
control and and
thethe
is implemented generator
generator
(3000RPM). starts
starts Assupplying
supplying
presented thethe power
power
in Figure to the
to 11d,
the bygrid
grid system
system
controlling andand
the
the
theDC-linkconstant
constant speed speed control
control is is implemented
implemented (3000RPM).
(3000RPM). As As
presentedpresented
voltage, the injection of the generated q-axis torque component current gets regulated, in in
Figure Figure
11d, by11d, by controlling
controlling the
the DC-link
DC-link voltage,
accordingly. voltage, thegenerator
the injection
Then, the injection ofgenerated
of thetorque the generated q-axis
is indirectly q-axis
torque torque
controlled component
component thecurrent
through current getsgets
injection ofregulated,
regulated,
grid-side
accordingly.
accordingly. Then, Then, the the generator
generator torque
torque is is indirectly
indirectly
current, which further maintains the rotor speed, as shown in Figure 11c. controlled
controlled through
through the the injection
injection of of grid-side
grid-side
current,
current, At which
which
time further
further
1050s, the maintains
maintains
turbinethe the rotor
rotor
output speed,
speed,
power as as shown
shown
increases in in
due toFigure
Figurethe11c. 11c.
increase in the mass flow rate of
At At
timetime 1050s,
1050s, thethe turbine
turbine output
output power
power increases
increases
the working fluid as shown in Figure 11a,b. For the generator speed to be controlled due dueto to
the the increase
increase in in the
the massmassflowflowrate
constantly rate of
of in
the
thethis working
working fluidfluidas as shown
shown in in Figure
Figure 11a,b.
11a,b. For Forthe the generator
generator speed
region, the DC-link voltage is controlled to have a lower value, and the grid-side q-axis current speed to to
be be controlled
controlled constantly
constantly in in
thisthis region, the
region, the DC-link
correspondingly DC-link voltage
voltage
increases is controlled
is controlled
(Figure to have
to have a lower
11d). Accordingly, a lower value,
value, and
the generator and the grid-side
the grid-side
(load) q-axis
q-axis current
torque increases, current
and the
correspondingly
correspondingly increases
increases (Figure
(Figure 11d).11d). Accordingly,
Accordingly,
generator speed is controlled to maintain constantly (Figure 11c). the the generator
generator (load)
(load) torque
torque increases,
increases, and andthethe
generator
generator speedspeed is is controlled
controlled to to maintain
maintain constantly
constantly (Figure
(Figure 11c).
11c).
In conclusion, as observed in the experimental waveforms, the proposed speed control system
can In conclusion,
Inachieve
conclusion, as as
the desired observed
observed in
thethe
controlinperformance experimental
experimental waveforms,
underwaveforms,
various thethe
supplied proposed
proposed
turbine speed
outputspeed control
control
due system
system
to the power
can achieve
canfluctuation
achieve theofthe desired
desired control
control performance
performance under
under various
various supplied
supplied
the ORC system. Since the noise and vibration of turbine-generator are caused by turbine
turbine output
output duedueto to
the the power
power the
fluctuation of the ORC system. Since the noise and vibration
speed ripple from the ORC power output ripple, constant speed control reduces noise and vibration.of turbine-generator are caused by the
speed
Thisripple
meansfrom that,the ORC power
without the useoutput ripple,
of indirect constant
speed speed
control, thecontrol
ORC outputreduces noisecause
ripple and vibration.
to the noise
This means that, without the use of indirect speed control, the ORC output ripple cause to the noise
Energies 2019, 12, 200 10 of 13

fluctuation of the ORC system. Since the noise and vibration of turbine-generator are caused by the
speed ripple from the ORC power output ripple, constant speed control reduces noise and vibration.
Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 10 of 13
This means that, without the use of indirect speed control, the ORC output ripple cause to the noise
and vibration of the generator. Therefore, from the experimental results shown in Figure 11, the ORC
and vibration of the generator. Therefore, from the experimental results shown in Figure 11, the ORC
turbine
turbineoutput
output ripple
ripplewaveform
waveformand
andthe
the indirectly controlledspeed
indirectly controlled speedwaveform
waveformcan
canbebe considered
considered as as
thethe
performance
performance comparison.
comparison.

(a)

(b)

Shaft Speed

Shaft Torque

Turbine Output Power Increase

(c)

(d)
Figure
Figure 11.11.Experimental
Experimental results
results of
of proposed
proposed speed
speed control
controlininthe
theactual
actualORC
ORCgeneration
generation system:
system:
(a)(a) Mass
Mass flow
flow rate
rate ofofworking
workingfluid
fluidand
andturbine
turbine in/outlet
in/outlet pressure;
pressure;(b)
(b)pressure
pressureratio
ratioand
andturbine
turbine
output
output power;(c)(c)Rotation
power; Rotationspeed
speedand
and torque
torque of
of the
the turbine-generator;
turbine-generator; and
and(d)
(d)DC-link
DC-link voltage and
voltage and
grid-side torque component (q-axis)
grid-side torque component (q-axis) current.current.

5. Conclusions
This paper presented an indirect speed control method for a turbine-generator in a grid-
connected electric power conversion system of an ORC power generation system. The rotor speed
Energies 2019, 12, 200 11 of 13

5. Conclusions
This paper presented an indirect speed control method for a turbine-generator in a grid-connected
electric power conversion system of an ORC power generation system. The rotor speed information for
proper speed control was estimated from the positive-sequence voltage of the generator by using the
state observer PLL method. Additionally, the constant speed control could be guaranteed by controlling
the grid-side generated electrical power. Accordingly, the proposed control method improves stability
and durability of the ORC generation system by making it possible to estimate the rotating speed
under the distorted generator terminal voltage due to the diode rectifier. It also realizes the constant
rotation speed control despite the ripple or fluctuation of the turbine power. This paper also presented
the information about the configuration mechanism and control techniques that are required in the
grid-connected generation system. For the experimental verification, 10 kW and 23 kW grid-connected
ORC power generation experimental systems with a turbine simulator and actual turbine, respectively,
were designed and manufactured. The field test was conducted in the installed actual grid-connected
ORC system. The effectiveness of the proposed control system has been verified through extensive
experimental results. As a future plan, the proposed control system will be applied to the 220 kW
large-scale ORC power generation system (photographs in Figure 1), which was manufactured and
installed previously in Reference [46].

Author Contributions: Methodology, H.-S.P., H.-J.H. and J.-M.K.; Software, H.-S.P.; Validation, H.-J.H.; Formal
analysis, H.-S.P. and H.-J.H.; Data Curation, B.-S.C. and K.C.K.; Writing-Original Draft Preparation, H.-S.P.;
Writing-Review and Editing, H.-S.P., K.C.K. and J.-M.K.; Visualization, B.-S.C.; Project Administration, J.-M.K.
Funding: This research was funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the
Korean government (MSIT) through GCRC-SOP (No. 2011-0030013).
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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