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IDENTIFICATION

Name of Equipment Conical Dryer

Code D-3

Type Vacuum Conical Dryer

Mode of Operation Batch

Number of units 1 unit

Materials handle Kojic Acid Crystals, Water

Function To reduce the amount of moisture in the

Kojic Acid Crystals

OPERATING CONDITIONS

Initial Moisture Content 10-15%

Final Moisture Content 2-3%

Maximum Temperature 80°C

Maximum Pressure 49.39psi

Drying Time 198.87 mins

Rate of Drying kg

3.4128

ℎ𝑟 − m2

Batch Per Day 1

Total Feed 389.65kg

Total Product 248.72kg

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

Shell Design Double Conical

Orientation Vertical

Material of Construction SS-316L

Insulation Material Rock wool

Rotation Speed 3.75 rpm

HEATING SYSTEM

Drying Medium Hot air

Temperature of Hot Air 95°C

Temperature of the Product 80°C

Heat Required 230213.85 𝑘𝐽

Power required by the Dryer 15 HP

Power of the Blower 1/6 HP

Power of the Exhaust Fan 1/8 HP

DRYING SHELL DESIGN

Swing Radius 2.13 m

Overall Height 2.60 m

Shell Thickness 44 mm

Insulation Thickness 10 mm

Heating Area 9.43 m2

Illustration:

A = 102.25 in

B = 204.25 in

C = 83.75 in

D = 57 in

E = 36 in

F = 18 in

SUMMARY OF ASSUMPTIONS:

SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS:

1. Rate of Drying

(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p.11-30, Eq.11-64)

𝑑𝑊 ℎ (𝐴)

= (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑤 )

𝑑Ɵ λ

Where:

𝑑𝑊

= rate of water loss (rate of drying), kg/ m2-s

𝑑Ɵ

A = heating area, m2

T – Tw = temperature difference, K

λ = latent heat vaporisation of water per mass, KJ/kg

𝑄 𝑋𝐶

Ѳ𝐷 = ((𝑋1 − 𝑋𝐶 ) + (𝑋𝐶 𝑙𝑛 ))

𝐴R 𝐶 𝑋2

Where:

Ѳ𝐷 = time of drying, s

Q = mass of bone dry solid, kg

𝑅𝐶 = rate of drying, kg/s−m2

𝑋1 = initial moisture content

𝑋2 = final moisture content

𝑋𝐶 = critical moisture content

(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p. 5-5, Eq.5-10)

𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀 =

𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟

Where: d = diameter of the shell, m

4. Volume of Dryer

1 2

𝑉= 𝜋𝑟 ℎ

3

Where:

V = volume of dryer, m3

r = swing radius of dryer, m

h = overall height of dryer, m

𝐴 = 𝜋(𝑟1 𝑟2 ) (√(𝑟1 − 𝑟2 )2 + ℎ2 )

Where:

A = cross-sectional area of dryer or lateral area, m2

r1 = larger radius, m

r2 = smaller radius, m

h = height

Ptotal=Poperating+(ρgh)feed+Pair

(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p. 5-3, Eq. 5-1)

2πL (𝑇𝑜 − 𝑇𝑖 )

Q=

𝑅 𝑅

ln( 𝑅𝑜 ) ln( 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 )

𝑖 𝑜

+

𝑘𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑠

Where:

Q = rate of heat transfer, W

k = thermal conductivity, 𝑤𝑚−𝐾

L = length, m

Ro, Ri= radius of the outside and inside, respectively, m

T0, Ti = temperature of the outside and inside of the shell, respectively, K

8. Calculation of Shell Thickness for Conical Vessel

(𝑃)(𝑅)

𝑡= + 𝐶𝑟

(2𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑎)(𝑆𝐸 + 0.4𝑃)

Where:

t = shell thickness, in

P = pressure, psi

R = larger diameter, in

a = slant degrees

S = allowable material stress, psi

E = seam efficiency

Cr = corrosion allowance factor

(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p. 10-51, Eq. 10-83)

Power (KW) = 2.72𝑥10−5 𝑄𝑝

Where:

Q= Volumetric flow rate of air, m3/hr

p = 𝞢 static Pressure and Velocity head

= Total discharge pressure, cm H2O

𝑃𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜

𝜂=

𝑃𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙

Where:

PTHEO = theoretical power, KW

𝜂 = efficiency

PACTUAL= actual power, KW

DETAILED COMPUTATIONS

Materials Handled

*From mass balance

Kojic Acid 1542 210 0.14

Glucose 1540 4.28 0.0028

Water 999.7 288.18 0.29

Xylose 1520 6.44 0.0042

Sulfuric Acid 1840 10.04 0.0055

Oxalic Acid 1900 4.20 0.0022

Sodium Sulfate 2660 0.66 0.00025

Zinc Sulfate 3540 0.13 0.000037

Soluble Hemicellulose 1520 0.38 0.00025

Soluble Lignin 1330 0.66 0.0005

Peptone 490 0.04 0.000082

Total 525.01 0.45

(Reference: Chemicals and Reagents 08-10, Merck)

TF = 10oC

T = 80oC

TW= 74.16oC

Average Density:

𝑚𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

ρ𝑎𝑣𝑒 =

𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

525.01

ρ𝑎𝑣𝑒 =

0.45

𝒌𝒈

𝛒𝒂𝒗𝒆 = 𝟏𝟏𝟔𝟔. 𝟔𝟕

𝒎𝟑

Calculation for drying rate and heating area

𝑑𝑊

Solving for Drying Rate ( 𝑑Ɵ )

W

h=40 m2 K (Force Convection)

(Ref:http://www.engineersedge.com/heat_transfer/convective_heat_transfer_coefficients__13

378.htm)

TW = 74.16oC

A = heating area = 9.43 m2 (Reference: VCD-105 from brochure McGill Air Pressure LLC)

𝑑𝑊 ℎ (𝐴)

= (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑤 )

𝑑Ɵ λ

J 1kJ 2

𝑑𝑊 40 m2 K s (1000J) (9.43m )

= (80 − 74.16 )K

𝑑Ɵ kJ

2323.555

kg

𝒅𝑾 𝐤𝐠 𝐤𝐠

=0.000948 𝒔−𝐦𝟐 ≈ 3.4128 𝒉𝒓−𝐦𝟐

𝒅Ɵ

Water Content Total Mass

Wet Kojic Acid Crystals 288.18 kg 525.01 kg

Dry Kojic Acid Crystals 13.18 kg 249.99 kg

𝑋1 = = = 1.21

mass of water − free wet kojic acid crystals 525.01kg − 288.18kg

𝑋2 = = = 0.056

mass of water − free dry kojic acid crystals 249.99kg − 13.18kg

Solving the Drying Time:

𝑄 𝑋𝐶

Ѳ𝐷 = ((𝑋1 − 𝑋𝐶 ) + (𝑋𝐶 𝑙𝑛 ))

𝐴R 𝐶 𝑋2

Where:

Q = mass of bone dry solid = 210kg

A = heating area = 9.43 m2 (Reference: RVD-5000 from the brochure NSI Equipments PVT. LTD)

X1 = initial moisture content = 1.21(Wet basis) = 0.55 (Dry basis)

X2 = final moisture content = 0.056

Xc = critical moisture content = 0.10 (Ref: Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Doran)

210𝑘𝑔 0.10

Ѳ𝐷 = ((0.55 − 0.10) + (0.10 𝑙𝑛 ))

kg 0.056

9.43m2 (0.000948 )

𝑠 − m2

The area of the dryer will be approximately 9.43 𝐦𝟐 and the approximate size of the dryer shell

will be 2127.25mm for the swing radius and 2597.15mm for the height of the dryer. (Reference:

VCD-105 from brochure McGill Air Pressure LLC)

Calculating Drying Area ≤ Expected Vessel Area

9.43m2 ≤ 46m2

Therefore, 2127.25mm for the swing radius and 2597.15mm for the height of the dryer is valid.

Speed of Rotation:

𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀 =

𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟

The speed of rotation for the vacuum conical dryer is already given from the brochure of McGill

Air Pressure LLC

1 2

𝑉= 𝜋𝑟 ℎ

3

1

𝑉= (𝜋)(2.12725𝑚)2 (2.59715𝑚) = 12.31𝑚3

3

𝑉 = 12.31𝑚3

Vacuum conical dryers have a working capacity of 70% according to the standard specifications

for McGill air pressure vacuum conical dryer. (Reference: Vacuum Drying Systems Brochure

McGill Air Pressure LLC)

Capacity = 8.617𝑚3 (computed value)

From brochure:

Capacity = 347.9 𝒇𝒕𝟑 or 9.85 𝒎𝟑

Therefore, the computed value is acceptable wherein the capacity of 9.85m3 is attained if the factor

of safety is considered.

Operating pressure inside the dryer:

𝑘𝑔

ρ𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑 = 1166.67

𝑚3

𝑘𝑔 𝑚

(ρgh)𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑 = 1166.67 3

x 9.81 2 x 2.59715m = 29724.47Pa = 4.31 psi

𝑚 𝑠

𝑙𝑏

62.43 3

𝑘𝑔 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 𝑝𝑠𝑖 − 𝑓𝑡 3

0.9996 3 ( ) (2.2 ) (10.73 ) (176 + 460)𝑅

𝑚 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 − 𝑅

1000 3

𝑚

𝑃𝑎𝑖𝑟 = = 32.31𝑝𝑠𝑖

𝑙𝑏

29

𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒

Material of Construction

Shell Thickness:

For conical shell thickness under pressure of 49.39 psi, the following formula is applied to a conical

section based on VIII-1 and UG-32 from ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code where UG-16(b)

minimum thickness requirement has not been taken into consideration.

(𝑃)(𝑅)

𝑡= + 𝐶𝑟

(2𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑎)(𝑆𝐸 + 0.4𝑃)

Where:

t = shell thickness, in

P = pressure, psi

R = larger diameter, in

a = slant degrees

S = allowable material stress, psi

E = seam efficiency

Cr = corrosion allowance factor

(49.39𝑝𝑠𝑖)(83.75𝑖𝑛)

𝑡= +0

(2𝑐𝑜𝑠45°)[(16,700𝑝𝑠𝑖)(0.10) + 0.4(49.39𝑝𝑠𝑖)]

t = 1.73 in or 43.942mm

The shell Thickness will be approximately 44mm. For SS-316L, the allowable material stress is

16,700 psi.

Insulation Design:

2πL (𝑇𝑜 − 𝑇𝑖 )

Q=

𝑅 𝑅

ln( 𝑅𝑜 ) ln( 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 )

𝑖 𝑜

+

𝑘𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑠

Q = 3749132.77 𝑘𝐽 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥

1.5ℎ𝑟𝑠 3600𝑠 1𝑘𝐽

Q = 694283.85W

𝑊

Krock wool = 0.038𝑚−𝑘

𝑊

𝐾𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 (𝑆𝑆−304) = 16. 3 𝑚−𝑘

(Reference:http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/heat-exchanger-material-thermal-conductivities-

d_1488.html)

𝑅𝑜 = 2.127𝑚

𝑅𝑖 = 2.083𝑚

694283.85W =

2.127m 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠

ln(2.083m) ln(2.127m )

𝑊 + 𝑊

16.3 0.038

𝑚−𝑘 𝑚−𝑘

𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 = 2.128𝑚

𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑠 = 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 − 𝑅𝑂

Calculation of blower power, exhaust fan and power to drive a dryer

The power required for the agitator motor is 15 HP. (Reference: VCD-105 from the brochure

McGill AirPressure LLC)

Power (KW) = 2.72𝑥10−5 𝑄𝑝

(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p. 10-51, Eq. 10-83.)

Where:

7065.28𝑘𝑔

Q=

13.26ℎ𝑟𝑠

𝑘𝑔

Q = 532.83

ℎ𝑟

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/velocity-head-d_916.html)

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/fan-types-sizes-d_910.html)

𝑘𝑔 𝑚3

𝑃𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜 = 2.72𝑥10−5 (532.83 )( )( 5.5 𝑐𝑚H2O)

ℎ𝑟 0.9996𝑘𝑔

Handbook 8th Ed.; p. 10-51)

Assuming efficiency of 80%:

0.11𝐻𝑃

𝑃𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 =

0.80

𝑷𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟑𝟕𝟓 𝑯𝑷 ≈ 𝟏/𝟔𝑯𝑷

Since the computed power requirement is 0.1375 HP, the standard fan to be used is 1/6 HP

based on the table shown above.

Power (KW) = 2.72𝑥10−5 𝑄𝑝

(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p. 10-51, Eq. 10-83.)

Where:

7065.28𝑘𝑔

Q=

13.26ℎ𝑟𝑠

𝑘𝑔

Q = 532.83

ℎ𝑟

𝑘𝑔 𝑚3

𝑃𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜 = 2.72𝑥10−5 (532.83 )( )( 5.5 𝑐𝑚H2O)

ℎ𝑟 1.164𝑘𝑔

𝑃𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜 = 0.0685𝐾𝑊 ≈ 0.09𝐻𝑃

Handbook 8th Ed.; p. 10-51)

Assuming efficiency of 80%:

0.09𝐻𝑃

𝑃𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 =

0.80

𝑷𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝟐𝟓 𝑯𝑷 ≈ 𝟏/𝟖𝑯𝑷

Since the computed power requirement is 0.1125HP, the standard fan to be used is

1/8 HP based on the table shown above.

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