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SPECIFICATION SHEET

IDENTIFICATION
Name of Equipment Conical Dryer
Code D-3
Type Vacuum Conical Dryer
Mode of Operation Batch
Number of units 1 unit
Materials handle Kojic Acid Crystals, Water
Function To reduce the amount of moisture in the
Kojic Acid Crystals
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Initial Moisture Content 10-15%
Final Moisture Content 2-3%
Maximum Temperature 80°C
Maximum Pressure 49.39psi
Drying Time 198.87 mins
Rate of Drying kg
3.4128
ℎ𝑟 − m2
Batch Per Day 1
Total Feed 389.65kg
Total Product 248.72kg
CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
Shell Design Double Conical
Orientation Vertical
Material of Construction SS-316L
Insulation Material Rock wool
Rotation Speed 3.75 rpm
HEATING SYSTEM
Drying Medium Hot air
Temperature of Hot Air 95°C
Temperature of the Product 80°C
Heat Required 230213.85 𝑘𝐽
Power required by the Dryer 15 HP
Power of the Blower 1/6 HP
Power of the Exhaust Fan 1/8 HP
DRYING SHELL DESIGN
Swing Radius 2.13 m
Overall Height 2.60 m
Shell Thickness 44 mm
Insulation Thickness 10 mm
Heating Area 9.43 m2
Illustration:

A = 102.25 in
B = 204.25 in
C = 83.75 in
D = 57 in
E = 36 in
F = 18 in

SUMMARY OF ASSUMPTIONS:

1. Rock wool will be used as insulating material

2. The temperature of the surface of rock wool is 30°C

3. Material for construction is SS-316L


SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS:
1. Rate of Drying
(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p.11-30, Eq.11-64)

𝑑𝑊 ℎ (𝐴)
= (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑤 )
𝑑Ɵ λ

Where:
𝑑𝑊
= rate of water loss (rate of drying), kg/ m2-s
𝑑Ɵ

h =heat transfer coefficient from air to water surface, KW/ m2-K


A = heating area, m2
T – Tw = temperature difference, K
λ = latent heat vaporisation of water per mass, KJ/kg

2. Drying Time (Ɵ)

𝑄 𝑋𝐶
Ѳ𝐷 = ((𝑋1 − 𝑋𝐶 ) + (𝑋𝐶 𝑙𝑛 ))
𝐴R 𝐶 𝑋2
Where:
Ѳ𝐷 = time of drying, s
Q = mass of bone dry solid, kg
𝑅𝐶 = rate of drying, kg/s−m2
𝑋1 = initial moisture content
𝑋2 = final moisture content
𝑋𝐶 = critical moisture content

3. Calculation for RPM


(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p. 5-5, Eq.5-10)
𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑
𝑅𝑃𝑀 =
𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟
Where: d = diameter of the shell, m
4. Volume of Dryer
1 2
𝑉= 𝜋𝑟 ℎ
3

Where:
V = volume of dryer, m3
r = swing radius of dryer, m
h = overall height of dryer, m

5. Heating Area of Dryer

𝐴 = 𝜋(𝑟1 𝑟2 ) (√(𝑟1 − 𝑟2 )2 + ℎ2 )

Where:
A = cross-sectional area of dryer or lateral area, m2
r1 = larger radius, m
r2 = smaller radius, m
h = height

6. Working Pressure Inside the Dryer


Ptotal=Poperating+(ρgh)feed+Pair

7. Rate of Heat Transfer for Insulation Thickness


(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p. 5-3, Eq. 5-1)
2πL (𝑇𝑜 − 𝑇𝑖 )
Q=
𝑅 𝑅
ln( 𝑅𝑜 ) ln( 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 )
𝑖 𝑜
+
𝑘𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑠
Where:
Q = rate of heat transfer, W
k = thermal conductivity, 𝑤𝑚−𝐾
L = length, m
Ro, Ri= radius of the outside and inside, respectively, m
T0, Ti = temperature of the outside and inside of the shell, respectively, K
8. Calculation of Shell Thickness for Conical Vessel

(𝑃)(𝑅)
𝑡= + 𝐶𝑟
(2𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑎)(𝑆𝐸 + 0.4𝑃)
Where:
t = shell thickness, in
P = pressure, psi
R = larger diameter, in
a = slant degrees
S = allowable material stress, psi
E = seam efficiency
Cr = corrosion allowance factor

9. Calculation of the Power required by the Blower /Fan


(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p. 10-51, Eq. 10-83)
Power (KW) = 2.72𝑥10−5 𝑄𝑝
Where:
Q= Volumetric flow rate of air, m3/hr
p = 𝞢 static Pressure and Velocity head
= Total discharge pressure, cm H2O

10. Pump Efficiency

𝑃𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜
𝜂=
𝑃𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙

Where:
PTHEO = theoretical power, KW
𝜂 = efficiency
PACTUAL= actual power, KW
DETAILED COMPUTATIONS

Materials Handled

Feed Density (kg/m3) Mass (kg) Volume (m3)


*From mass balance
Kojic Acid 1542 210 0.14
Glucose 1540 4.28 0.0028
Water 999.7 288.18 0.29
Xylose 1520 6.44 0.0042
Sulfuric Acid 1840 10.04 0.0055
Oxalic Acid 1900 4.20 0.0022
Sodium Sulfate 2660 0.66 0.00025
Zinc Sulfate 3540 0.13 0.000037
Soluble Hemicellulose 1520 0.38 0.00025
Soluble Lignin 1330 0.66 0.0005
Peptone 490 0.04 0.000082
Total 525.01 0.45
(Reference: Chemicals and Reagents 08-10, Merck)

Basis for computation:

TF = 10oC
T = 80oC
TW= 74.16oC

Average Density:
𝑚𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
ρ𝑎𝑣𝑒 =
𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
525.01
ρ𝑎𝑣𝑒 =
0.45
𝒌𝒈
𝛒𝒂𝒗𝒆 = 𝟏𝟏𝟔𝟔. 𝟔𝟕
𝒎𝟑
Calculation for drying rate and heating area
𝑑𝑊
Solving for Drying Rate ( 𝑑Ɵ )
W
h=40 m2 K (Force Convection)

(Ref:http://www.engineersedge.com/heat_transfer/convective_heat_transfer_coefficients__13
378.htm)
TW = 74.16oC

λ at 74.16oC = 2323.555 kJ/kg

A = heating area = 9.43 m2 (Reference: VCD-105 from brochure McGill Air Pressure LLC)

𝑑𝑊 ℎ (𝐴)
= (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑤 )
𝑑Ɵ λ

J 1kJ 2
𝑑𝑊 40 m2 K s (1000J) (9.43m )
= (80 − 74.16 )K
𝑑Ɵ kJ
2323.555
kg

𝒅𝑾 𝐤𝐠 𝐤𝐠
=0.000948 𝒔−𝐦𝟐 ≈ 3.4128 𝒉𝒓−𝐦𝟐
𝒅Ɵ

From Material Balance of Rotary Dryer in chapter 5:


Water Content Total Mass
Wet Kojic Acid Crystals 288.18 kg 525.01 kg
Dry Kojic Acid Crystals 13.18 kg 249.99 kg

Solving for X1 and X2:

mass of water in wet kojic acid crystals 288.18kg


𝑋1 = = = 1.21
mass of water − free wet kojic acid crystals 525.01kg − 288.18kg

mass of water in dry kojic acid crystals 13.18kg


𝑋2 = = = 0.056
mass of water − free dry kojic acid crystals 249.99kg − 13.18kg
Solving the Drying Time:
𝑄 𝑋𝐶
Ѳ𝐷 = ((𝑋1 − 𝑋𝐶 ) + (𝑋𝐶 𝑙𝑛 ))
𝐴R 𝐶 𝑋2
Where:
Q = mass of bone dry solid = 210kg
A = heating area = 9.43 m2 (Reference: RVD-5000 from the brochure NSI Equipments PVT. LTD)
X1 = initial moisture content = 1.21(Wet basis) = 0.55 (Dry basis)
X2 = final moisture content = 0.056
Xc = critical moisture content = 0.10 (Ref: Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Doran)

210𝑘𝑔 0.10
Ѳ𝐷 = ((0.55 − 0.10) + (0.10 𝑙𝑛 ))
kg 0.056
9.43m2 (0.000948 )
𝑠 − m2

Ѳ𝑫 = 𝟏𝟏𝟗𝟑𝟐. 𝟑𝟎 𝒔 ≈ 𝟏𝟗𝟖. 𝟖𝟕 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒔

The area of the dryer will be approximately 9.43 𝐦𝟐 and the approximate size of the dryer shell
will be 2127.25mm for the swing radius and 2597.15mm for the height of the dryer. (Reference:
VCD-105 from brochure McGill Air Pressure LLC)

(Reference: McGill Air Pressure LLC)

Expected Vessel Area = 2 𝜋rl + 2 𝜋r2

Expected Vessel Area = 2(𝜋)(2.12725m)(1.298575m) + 2(𝜋)(2.12725m)2 = 45.79m2 ≈ 46m2


Calculating Drying Area ≤ Expected Vessel Area

9.43m2 ≤ 46m2

Therefore, 2127.25mm for the swing radius and 2597.15mm for the height of the dryer is valid.

Speed of Rotation:

𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑
𝑅𝑃𝑀 =
𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟

(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p. 5-5, Eq.5-10)

The speed of rotation for the vacuum conical dryer is already given from the brochure of McGill
Air Pressure LLC

Speed of Rotation = 3.75 dryer revolutions per minute or 3.75 RPM

Capacity of the dryer:


1 2
𝑉= 𝜋𝑟 ℎ
3

1
𝑉= (𝜋)(2.12725𝑚)2 (2.59715𝑚) = 12.31𝑚3
3

𝑉 = 12.31𝑚3

Vacuum conical dryers have a working capacity of 70% according to the standard specifications
for McGill air pressure vacuum conical dryer. (Reference: Vacuum Drying Systems Brochure
McGill Air Pressure LLC)

Capacity = 12.31𝑚3 (0.70)


Capacity = 8.617𝑚3 (computed value)

From brochure:
Capacity = 347.9 𝒇𝒕𝟑 or 9.85 𝒎𝟑

8.617m3 < 9.85m3


Therefore, the computed value is acceptable wherein the capacity of 9.85m3 is attained if the factor
of safety is considered.
Operating pressure inside the dryer:

Pvacuum = 100 torr ≈ 13.33Kpa

(Reference: “How to Choose a Vacuum Dryer” by Fuller and Abbe)

𝑃𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 − 𝑃𝑣𝑎𝑐𝑢𝑢𝑚

𝑃𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 101.325𝐾𝑝𝑎 − 13.33𝐾𝑝𝑎

𝑷𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌𝒊𝒏𝒈 = 𝟖𝟕. 𝟗𝟗𝟓𝑲𝒑𝒂 ≈ 𝟏𝟐. 𝟕𝟕𝐩𝐬𝐢

Total working pressure inside the dryer, PT:

𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 + (ρgh)𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑 + 𝑃𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑘𝑔
ρ𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑 = 1166.67
𝑚3

𝑘𝑔 𝑚
(ρgh)𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑 = 1166.67 3
x 9.81 2 x 2.59715m = 29724.47Pa = 4.31 psi
𝑚 𝑠

Density of air at 80oC = 0.9996 kg/m3

𝑙𝑏
62.43 3
𝑘𝑔 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 𝑝𝑠𝑖 − 𝑓𝑡 3
0.9996 3 ( ) (2.2 ) (10.73 ) (176 + 460)𝑅
𝑚 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 − 𝑅
1000 3
𝑚
𝑃𝑎𝑖𝑟 = = 32.31𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑙𝑏
29
𝑙𝑏𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒

𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 12.77𝑝𝑠𝑖 + 4.31𝑝𝑠𝑖 + 32.31𝑝𝑠𝑖

𝑷𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 = 𝟒𝟗. 𝟑𝟗𝐩𝐬𝐢 = 𝟑𝟒𝟎𝟒𝟑𝟖. 𝟐𝟏 𝑷𝒂


Material of Construction

Shell Thickness:
For conical shell thickness under pressure of 49.39 psi, the following formula is applied to a conical
section based on VIII-1 and UG-32 from ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code where UG-16(b)
minimum thickness requirement has not been taken into consideration.

(𝑃)(𝑅)
𝑡= + 𝐶𝑟
(2𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑎)(𝑆𝐸 + 0.4𝑃)
Where:
t = shell thickness, in
P = pressure, psi
R = larger diameter, in
a = slant degrees
S = allowable material stress, psi
E = seam efficiency
Cr = corrosion allowance factor

(49.39𝑝𝑠𝑖)(83.75𝑖𝑛)
𝑡= +0
(2𝑐𝑜𝑠45°)[(16,700𝑝𝑠𝑖)(0.10) + 0.4(49.39𝑝𝑠𝑖)]

t = 1.73 in or 43.942mm

The shell Thickness will be approximately 44mm. For SS-316L, the allowable material stress is
16,700 psi.
Insulation Design:

Rock wool as an insulating material

2πL (𝑇𝑜 − 𝑇𝑖 )
Q=
𝑅 𝑅
ln( 𝑅𝑜 ) ln( 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 )
𝑖 𝑜
+
𝑘𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑠

Q = 3749132.77 𝑘𝐽 (from energy balance)

1𝑑𝑎𝑦 1ℎ𝑟 1000𝐽


Q = 3749132.77 𝑘𝐽 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥
1.5ℎ𝑟𝑠 3600𝑠 1𝑘𝐽

Q = 694283.85W
𝑊
Krock wool = 0.038𝑚−𝑘

(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Ed.: Fig. 11-65: p. 11-71)

𝑊
𝐾𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 (𝑆𝑆−304) = 16. 3 𝑚−𝑘

(Reference:http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/heat-exchanger-material-thermal-conductivities-

d_1488.html)

𝑅𝑜 = 2.127𝑚

𝑅𝑖 = 2.083𝑚

2π(2.597m) (30 − 80)


694283.85W =
2.127m 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠
ln(2.083m) ln(2.127m )
𝑊 + 𝑊
16.3 0.038
𝑚−𝑘 𝑚−𝑘

𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 = 2.128𝑚

𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑠 = 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 − 𝑅𝑂

𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑠 = 2.128𝑚 − 2.127𝑚 = 0.01𝑚 ≈ 10mm

The insulation thickness is 10mm


Calculation of blower power, exhaust fan and power to drive a dryer

Power that drives the dryer (BHP):


The power required for the agitator motor is 15 HP. (Reference: VCD-105 from the brochure
McGill AirPressure LLC)

Calculation of the Power required by the Blower:


Power (KW) = 2.72𝑥10−5 𝑄𝑝
(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p. 10-51, Eq. 10-83.)
Where:
7065.28𝑘𝑔
Q=
13.26ℎ𝑟𝑠
𝑘𝑔
Q = 532.83
ℎ𝑟

P = Σ Static pressure and Velocity head

- At velocity of air = 0.05m/s, velocity head = 0.02cm H2O (Reference:


http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/velocity-head-d_916.html)

- For Centrifugal fan/blowers, static pressure= 5.48 cm H2O (Reference:


http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/fan-types-sizes-d_910.html)

𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 5.48𝑐𝑚H2O + 0.02𝑐𝑚H2O = 5.5 𝑐𝑚H2O

Density of air at 80oC = 0.9996 kg/m3

𝑘𝑔 𝑚3
𝑃𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜 = 2.72𝑥10−5 (532.83 )( )( 5.5 𝑐𝑚H2O)
ℎ𝑟 0.9996𝑘𝑔

𝑃𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜 = 0.08𝐾𝑊 ≈ 0.11𝐻𝑝

- Operating efficiencies of the fan/blower range 40 to 80 percent. (Reference: ChE


Handbook 8th Ed.; p. 10-51)
Assuming efficiency of 80%:
0.11𝐻𝑃
𝑃𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 =
0.80
𝑷𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟑𝟕𝟓 𝑯𝑷 ≈ 𝟏/𝟔𝑯𝑷

(Reference: Chemical Process Engineering: Design and Economics by Silla)


Since the computed power requirement is 0.1375 HP, the standard fan to be used is 1/6 HP
based on the table shown above.

Calculation of the Power required by the Exhaust Fan:


Power (KW) = 2.72𝑥10−5 𝑄𝑝
(Reference: ChE Handbook 8th Edition; p. 10-51, Eq. 10-83.)
Where:
7065.28𝑘𝑔
Q=
13.26ℎ𝑟𝑠
𝑘𝑔
Q = 532.83
ℎ𝑟

P = Σ Static pressure and Velocity head

𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 5.48𝑐𝑚H2O + 0.02𝑐𝑚H2O = 5.5 𝑐𝑚H2O

𝑇𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 30℃

Density of air at 30oC = 1.164 kg/m3

𝑘𝑔 𝑚3
𝑃𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜 = 2.72𝑥10−5 (532.83 )( )( 5.5 𝑐𝑚H2O)
ℎ𝑟 1.164𝑘𝑔
𝑃𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜 = 0.0685𝐾𝑊 ≈ 0.09𝐻𝑃

- Operating efficiencies of the fan/blower range 40 to 80 percent. (Reference: ChE


Handbook 8th Ed.; p. 10-51)
Assuming efficiency of 80%:
0.09𝐻𝑃
𝑃𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 =
0.80
𝑷𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝟐𝟓 𝑯𝑷 ≈ 𝟏/𝟖𝑯𝑷

(Reference: Chemical Process Engineering: Design and Economics by Silla)


Since the computed power requirement is 0.1125HP, the standard fan to be used is
1/8 HP based on the table shown above.
CONICAL DRYER