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Heart attack (7min, 5min atsakymams) (SKRAIDES) (15MIN)

A heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI), is permanent damage to the heart muscle.
In latin "Myo" means muscle, "cardial" refers to the heart, and "infarction" means death
of tissue due to lack of blood supply.
The heart muscle requires a constant supply of oxygen-rich blood to nourish it. The coronary arteries
provide the heart with this critical blood supply. If you have coronary artery disease, those arteries become
narrow and blood cannot flow as well as they should. Fatty matter, calcium, proteins, and inflammatory
cells build up within the arteries to form plaques of different sizes. The plaque deposits are hard on the
outside and soft and mushy on the inside. When the plaque is hard, the outer shell cracks (plaque rupture),
platelets (disc-shaped particles in the blood that aid clotting) come to the area, and blood clots form
around the plaque. If a blood clot totally blocks the artery, the heart muscle becomes "starved" for oxygen.
Within a short time, death of heart muscle cells occurs, causing permanent damage. This is a heart attack.
Symptoms: There are enough symptoms to recognize an upcoming heart attack that should be
remembered, since it could save yours or someone elses life
chest pain – a sensation of pressure, tightness or squeezing in the centre of your chest
pain in other parts of the body – it can feel as if the pain is travelling from your chest to your arms (usually
the left arm is affected, but it can affect both arms), jaw, neck, back and abdomen
feeling lightheaded or dizzy
shortness of breath
feeling sick (nausea) or being sick (vomiting)
an overwhelming sense of anxiety (similar to having a panic attack)
coughing or wheezing
Although the chest pain is often severe, some people may only experience minor pain, similar to
indigestion. In some cases, there may not be any chest pain at all, especially in women, the elderly and
people with diabetes.
Treatment, as a bystander you can not really do that much
Emergency treatment
If a person is having a heart attack, him or a neaby person should call 03 and ask for an ambulance. It is
important to not hang up since too many people lose their lives because they think they are fine. There is
a high risk of dangerous changes to your heartbeat after the start of a heart attack. The most serious
changes stop your heart beating and cause a cardiac arrest. Ambulance or hospital staff may use a
defibrillator to give your heart a controlled electric shock that may make it start beating again.
In hospital, the patiens will receive treatments that help to reduce damage to their heart, and to help
prevent future problems. They may also need to have a procedure like:
angioplasty and stent implantation
bypass surgery (also known as coronary artery bypass grafts or CABG).
Complications of a heart attack can be serious and possibly life-threatening. These include:
arrhythmia – this is an abnormal heartbeat, where the heart begins beating faster and faster, then stops
beating (cardiac arrest)
cardiogenic shock – where the heart's muscles are severely damaged and can no longer contract properly
to supply enough blood to maintain many body functions
heart rupture – where the heart's muscles, walls or valves split apart (rupture)
These complications can occur quickly after a heart attack and are a leading cause of death.
Many people die suddenly from a complication of a heart attack before reaching hospital, or within the
first month after a heart attack.
The outlook often depends on:
age – serious complications are more likely as you get older
the severity of the heart attack – how much of the heart's muscle has been damaged during the attack
how long it took before a person received treatment – treatment for a heart attack should begin as soon as
Making lifestyle changes is the most effective way to prevent having a heart attack (or having another
heart attack).
There are three main steps you can take to help prevent a heart attack (as well as stroke):
eat a healthy, balanced diet
avoid smoking
try to keep your blood pressure at a healthy level
Eating an unhealthy diet high in fat will make your atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) worse and
increase your risk of heart attack.
Continuing to eat high-fat foods will cause more fatty plaques to build up in your arteries. This is because
fatty foods contain cholesterol.
There are two main types of cholesterol:
low-density lipoprotein (LDL) – this is mostly made up of fat plus a small amount of protein; this type of
cholesterol can block your arteries, so it is often referred to as "bad cholesterol"
high-density lipoprotein (HDL) – this is mostly made up of protein plus a small amount of fat; this type of
cholesterol can reduce deposits in your arteries, so is often referred to as "good cholesterol"
There are also two types of fat – saturated and unsaturated. Avoid foods containing high levels of
saturated fat, as they increase levels of bad cholesterol in your blood.
Smoking is a major risk factor for heart attacks, because it causes atherosclerosis and raises blood
Persistent high blood pressure can put your arteries and heart under extra strain, increasing your risk of a
heart attack.