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Accepted Manuscript

Preliminary design and performance analysis of a radial inflow turbine for ocean
thermal energy conversion

Do-Yeop Kim, You-Taek Kim

PII: S0960-1481(17)30048-4
DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2017.01.038
Reference: RENE 8477

To appear in: Renewable Energy

Received Date: 18 November 2015


Revised Date: 16 December 2016
Accepted Date: 19 January 2017

Please cite this article as: Kim D-Y, Kim Y-T, Preliminary design and performance analysis of a
radial inflow turbine for ocean thermal energy conversion, Renewable Energy (2017), doi: 10.1016/
j.renene.2017.01.038.

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

1 Preliminary Design and Performance Analysis of a Radial Inflow Turbine for Ocean

2 Thermal Energy Conversion

4 Do-Yeop Kim1), You-Taek Kim2)*

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5

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6 1) Nuclear Power Equipment Research Center, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro,

7 Yeongdo-Gu, Busan , South Korea

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8 2) Division of Marine System Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro

9 Yeongdo-Gu, Busan, South Korea

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*Corresponding author: kimyt@kmou.ac.kr, Tel.: +82-51-410-4258
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12 Highlights

13 1) This study presents the preliminary design process of a 200kW class radial inflow turbine for ocean thermal
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14 energy conversion.
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15 2) A new approach that can calculate the appropriate flow and loading coefficients for the target efficiency is

16 proposed.
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17 3) The meanline analysis and three-dimensional viscous simulations for the designed turbine are conducted in
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18 order to verify the proposed model.


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19 4) The results demonstrate that the optimum radial inflow turbine for design conditions can be designed

20 through applying the proposed model.

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23 Abstract

24 Ocean thermal energy conversion is an organic Rankine cycle for generating power using the temperature

25 difference between surface seawater and deep seawater. The potential of ocean thermal energy is significant, and

26 it is an environmentally friendly power system. However, its thermal efficiency is very low due to the low

27 temperature difference between surface seawater and deep seawater. Hence, it is essential to develop a high

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28 efficiency turbine in order to improve the thermal efficiency of ocean thermal energy conversion. The precise

29 preliminary design for the high efficiency radial inflow turbine requires selection of the appropriate flow and

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30 loading coefficients for the target efficiency. A new approach for the appropriate choice of flow and loading

31

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coefficients is proposed in this study. The meanline analysis and three-dimensional viscous simulations for the

32 designed turbine are conducted in order to verify the proposed approach in design and off-design conditions.

33 The results demonstrate that the optimum radial inflow turbine for the design conditions can be designed

34 through applying the proposed model.


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35
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36 Keywords

37 Radial Inflow Turbine; Preliminary Design; Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.


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38
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39 Nomenclature
A Area [mm2] Subscripts
C Absolute velocity [m/s] 0 Stagnation state
C0 Spouting velocity [m/s] 00 Stagnation state at position 0
Nr Rotor blade number [-] 1 Volute inlet
NBP Normal Boiling Point 2 Volute exit or Nozzle inlet
P Pressure [kPa] 3 Nozzle exit or Interspace inlet

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R Radius [mm] 4 Interspace exit or Rotor inlet
T Temperature [℃] 5 Rotor exit or Diffuser inlet

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U Circumferential velocity [m/s] 6 Diffuser exit
W Relative velocity [m/s] m Meridional component


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Power [kW] n Nozzle
Zr Rotor overall height [mm] r Rotor
b Blade height [mm] s Shroud or isentropic

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h Enthalpy [kJ/kg] h Hub
 Mass flow rate [kg/s] ts Total-to-static
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t Blade thickness [mm] tt Total-to-total
y +
Non-dimensional grid spacing at the wall [-] θ Tangential component
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Greek symbols
Π Pressure ratio [-]
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α Absolute flow angle [degree]


β Relative flow angle [degree]
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Blade angle [degree]
η Efficiency [-]
ν
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Total-to-static velocity ratio [-]


ξ Meridional velocity ratio [-]
ϕ Flow coefficient [-]
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ψ Loading coefficient [-]


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42 1. Introduction

43 Oceans, which cover over 70% of the Earth’s surface, are a significant medium that absorbs solar energy. The

44 temperature of surface seawater that absorbs the solar energy is approximately 25~30 ℃ in tropical regions,

45 while the deep seawater temperature at a depth of 1000 m is 4~5 ℃. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

46 is a power generating system that uses the temperature difference between surface seawater and deep seawater.

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47 For the minimum temperature difference of approximately 20 ℃, the economics of OTEC are sufficient [1]. Its

48 potential is significant and ocean thermal energy is sustainable [2]. Furthermore, it is an environmentally

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49 friendly power system because OTEC does not use fossil fuels. However, OTEC requires large seawater flow

50

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rates for power generation, and the thermodynamics efficiency of OTEC is only 3~5% due to the low

51 temperature difference between the surface seawater and deep seawater [3, 4].

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52
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53 Considerable research has been conducted in order to improve the thermal efficiency of OTEC. Studies on the

54 thermodynamic optimization of Rankine cycles have been performed in order to obtain higher efficiency of
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55 OTEC [5~7], and the thermodynamic cycles, such as Kalina [8] and Uehara cycles [9], were proposed for large-

56 scale OTEC plants on the order of 4 MW or more. Several studies have focused on the fluid selection of OTEC
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57 because the working fluid is a key parameter in the performance of the organic Rankine cycle [10, 11].
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58 Ammonia, which is named R717, has been widely used in the OTEC system in the past. However, R134a, R32,

59 and R152a have been considered recently as working fluids for OTEC according to environmental and safety
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60 considerations. In addition, the OTEC systems [3, 12~14] that integrate additional heat sources such as solar

61 energy and geothermal energy, or the waste heat of a nuclear power plant, have been proposed because the rise

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in the temperature difference between the heat source and sink could assist in improving the cycle efficiency.
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64 Meanwhile, a component that has a significant impact on the cycle efficiency is the turbine [15~17]. Therefore,

65 the design and development of high efficiency turbine is required for OTEC systems due to their low efficiency.

66 Whitfield et al. [18] and Aungier [19] have emphasized the importance of the preliminary design for the radial

67 inflow turbine. Furthermore, Pasquale et al. [20] and Harinck et al. [21] highlighted the need for three-

68 dimensional viscous computational simulations to investigate the performance of pre-designed turbines.


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69 However, few studies have conducted the precise design of radial inflow turbines and investigated the

70 performance of the designed turbines with numerical analyses for design and off-design conditions [15, 22]

71 Recently Sauret and Gu [15] performed a pioneering study on the preliminary design and performance analysis

72 of an organic Rankine cycle radial inflow turbine. However, the inadequate radial inflow turbine for the target

73 efficiency was pre-designed due to the lack of investigation of the input variables for the preliminary design of

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74 the radial inflow turbine. The flow and loading coefficients are the most important variables for the preliminary

75 design of radial inflow turbines [23]. Therefore, appropriate flow and loading coefficients for the target

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76 efficiency should be selected in order to develop high efficiency radial inflow turbines.

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78 This study propose a simple approach that can determine appropriate flow and loading coefficients for the target

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79 efficiency, and the preliminary design of a 200 kW radial inflow turbine for OTEC was performed according to

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the proposed model for verification of the proposed approach. The designed turbine performance was

81 investigated in order to determine whether it satisfies the target efficiency using meanline analyses and 3D

82 viscous computational simulations. Moreover, simulations for the off-design conditions were also conducted in
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83 order to understand the characteristics of the designed turbine. As a result, the designed radial inflow turbine

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was in good agreement with the target efficiency, and it was confirmed that the turbine optimized in the design

85 conditions could be designed through applying the proposed approach.


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87 2. Preliminary Design

88 2.1 Thermodynamic cycle and working fluid

89 The simple closed Rankine cycle presented in Figure 1 was used in this study. The simple closed Rankine cycle

90 for OTEC consists of a pump, an evaporator, a turbine, and a condenser. In the evaporator, the working fluid

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absorbs heat from the warm surface seawater and reaches a saturation temperature, after which the working fluid

92 continues to be heated and becomes a saturated or superheated vapor at the evaporator exit. The vapor expands

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93 at the turbine and produces power. The low-pressure vapor through the turbine enters the condenser cooled by

94 the cold deep seawater. After condensation, the liquid working fluid is pumped into the evaporator to complete

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95 the cycle.

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97 Figure 1. Schematic of a simple ORC.


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Table 1. Basic properties of R152a.


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Properties Values

Molar mass [kg/kmol] 66.051

Temperature at NBP [℃] -24.02

Critical temperature [℃] 113.26

Critical pressure [kPa] 451.68

Critical density [kg/m3] 368.0

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Acentric factor 0.2751


100 Yang and Yeh [10] used the ratio of net power output to total heat exchanger area to analyze the performance of

101 the OTEC system for variable working fluids. At the nominal OTEC conditions, the best working fluids were

102 ammonia and R152a. Due to the environmental and safety problems of ammonia, R152a was adopted as the

103 working fluid in this study. The basic properties of R152a are presented in Table 1.

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105 The temperature-entropy diagram for OTEC thermodynamic cycle in this study is presented in Figure 2. The

106 temperatures of the surface and deep seawater were assumed to be 28 ℃ and 5 ℃ respectively. The seawater

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107 temperature difference between the inlet and outlet were assumed to be 3 ℃ in the evaporator and condenser.

108 The pinch point temperature difference (PPTD) is defined as the minimum temperature difference between the

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109 working fluid and seawater [24], and it was set to 2 ℃ for the evaporator and condenser in this study. The R152a
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110 temperature at the turbine outlet determined by the condenser PPTD was 10 ℃. At this temperature, the

111 saturation pressure of R152a was 372.71 kPa, where the entropy was 2.11 kJ/kg-K. If the expansion
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112 process of the turbine is adiabatic, the entropy of the turbine inlet will also be 2.11 kJ/kg-K. The turbine

113 inlet temperature was determined as 26 ℃ by the evaporator PPTD. Note that the adiabatic expansion
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114 process of the turbine stays in the superheated vapor region. These assumptions were the measure to
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115 prevent turbine damage by the droplets. In consideration of these thermodynamic requirements, the design

116 conditions of a radial inflow turbine for a 200 kW OTEC system using R152a are defined in Table 2 for this

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study. The R152a properties for turbine design are shown in the Table 3.

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120 Figure 2. Temperature-Entropy diagram of the thermodynamic cycle

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121 Table 2. Thermodynamic requirements for the turbine design.

P01 [kPa] P5 [kPa] T01 [℃]  [kW]

545.89 372.71
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123 Table 3. Properties of the design conditions


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Positions (Fig. 3) Temperature [ ] Pressure [kPa] Density [kg/m3] Entropy [kJ/kg-K]


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01 26 545.89 16.56 2.11


5s 10 372.71 11.65 2.11
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124
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126
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2.2 Flow and loading coefficients

127 In order to design the ORC turbine for the geothermal plants, Sauret and Gu [15] selected the flow and loading
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128 coefficients to 0.215 and 0.918, respectively, giving approximately 90% total-to-static efficiency according to
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129 the Flow and Loading Coefficient Correlation Chart for gas turbines proposed by Moustapha et al. [23].

130 However, the total-to-static efficiency of the turbine designed with the commercial software RITAL was only

131 76.8%. The performance analysis results of Sauret and Gu [15] show that it is not desirable to use the

132 performance chart for gas turbines in the design of an ORC turbine. This is because the organic compounds as

133 working fluid of ORC turbines undergo extreme changes in properties on the expansion process, unlike gas

134 turbines.

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135

136 A reasonable choice for the flow and loading coefficients is required for the precise design of a high efficiency

137 radial inflow turbine because the flow and loading coefficients are the most important input variables for the

138 preliminary design of the radial inflow turbine using Moustapha et al. procedure [23]. However, it is difficult to

139 assume reasonable coefficients for ORC turbine from the Flow and Loading Coefficient Correlation Chart for

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140 gas turbines. Therefore, a new approach to determine the appropriate flow and loading coefficients for the target

141 efficiency is required in order to develop the high-efficiency ORC turbine. In the design process proposed in this

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142 study, the performance chart for gas turbines is no longer used in order to design ORC turbines.

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144 The optimum angle of the relative flow at the rotor inlet is between -20 and -40 degrees [18, 19, 23]. The

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145 number of rotor vanes and relative flow angle at a rotor inlet has a close relationship. When determining the
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146 number of rotor vanes, the relative flow angle at the rotor inlet could be calculated using equation (1), which

147 was proposed by Whitfield et al. [18], as follows:


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0.63?
cos ; = 1 − (1)
@A
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148
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149 The optimization model of the rotor inlet velocity triangle [23] is described in equation (2) to (6). Using the

150 relative flow angle calculated from equation (1), the loading coefficient can be calculated. Furthermore, the
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151 ratio for each side of the rotor inlet velocity triangle depicted in Figure 3 can be determined using optimization

152 model for the rotor inlet velocity triangle.


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153
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tan ; = −B(1 − D)/D (2)

sinF; = BD (3)

; ⁄G; = B1 − D (4)

I; ⁄G; = BD (5)

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IJ; ⁄G; = BD(1 − D) (6)

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155
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156 Figure 3. Rotor inlet velocity triangle.
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158 Figure 4. Enthalpy-entropy diagram for a radial inflow turbine.

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161 From Figure 4, the total-to-total efficiency and the total-to-static efficiency are defined as in equation (7) and

162 (8), respectively. The total-to-static efficiency in equation (8) can be approximated with the loading coefficient

163 obtained using equation (2) or equation (3) because the optimum value of the total-to-static velocity ratio

164 (K = G; ⁄IL ) is 0.7 for an ideal turbine [18, 19, 23].

165

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166 The relationship between the spouting velocity and the circumferential velocity at the rotor inlet is defined in

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167 equation (9), and the spouting velocity is defined from the isentropic total-to-static enthalpy drop in equation

168 (10). The circumferential velocity at the rotor inlet can be calculated when the total-to-static velocity ratio is 0.7

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169 and the isentropic total-to-static enthalpy drop has been obtained from the design conditions. Thus, the rotor

170 inlet velocity triangle can be fully defined using equation (4) to (6).

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MNN = ∆ℎL ⁄(ℎLQ − ℎLRS ) (7)

MNS = ∆ℎL ⁄(ℎLQ − ℎRS ) ≈ 2DU V (8)


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G; = IL × U (9)
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IL = B2(ℎLQ − ℎRS ) (10)


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173 Figure 5. Rotor exit velocity triangle.

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175 The velocity triangle at the rotor exit is depicted in Figure 5. The meridional velocity ratio in equation (11) has

176 a value near unity for a radial inflow turbine. The flow coefficient defined in equation (12) and the meridional
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177 velocity at the rotor exit can be calculated when the meridional velocity ratio is 1.

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ξ = IJ; ⁄IJR (11)


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ϕ = IJR ⁄G; (12)

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180 The flow and loading coefficients can be determined using this approach, in which these coefficients are
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181 dependent on the number of rotor vanes and isentropic total-to-static enthalpy drop. The isentropic total-to-static

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enthalpy drop from the thermodynamic requirements in Table 2 is 12.4 kJ/kg. When the rotor has 20 vanes, the

183 estimated total-to-static efficiency in this approach is approximately 79.6%, and the flow and loading coefficient

184 are described in Table 4.

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186 Table 4. Total-to-static efficiency, flow, and loading coefficient in this approach.

@A ψ ϕ MNS
20 0.812 0.391 0.796
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188 2.3 Preliminary design variables

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189 In order to obtain total-to-static efficiency of 79.6%, the rotor vane number was set to 20. Some additional

190 variables should be determined in this approach. The same number of nozzle vanes with the number of rotor

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191 vanes was selected in order to prevent chocking according to Ventura et al.’s study [16]. The appropriate ratio

192 for the nozzle inlet radius to nozzle exit radius is in region of 1.1~1.7 [25], and the ratio was selected to be 1.4 in

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193 this study.

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195 The rotational speed is an important parameter for determining the dimensions of the rotor parts, and the

196 XRS ⁄X; of the rotor designed by selecting the rotational speed should be in the appropriate region proposed by
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197 Rohlik et al. [26], and it is described in equation (13). And, the rotational speed has a close relationship with the

198 specific speed (YS ) defined in equation (14). Many experimental results show that the specific speed of a radial
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199 inflow turbine operating at optimal efficiency is in the range of 0.4~0.8 [23]. When the rotational speed is 5600
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200 rpm, the XRS ⁄X; and YS values of the turbine designed in this study are 0.675 and 0.65 respectively. These

201 values are in proper range. The rotational speed was determined at 5600 rpm in this study. The inputs for the
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202 preliminary design are described in Table 5, except for the thermodynamic requirements described in Table 2.

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XRS ⁄X; ≤ 0.7 (13)


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[B/\LR
YS = (14)
(ℎLQ − ℎRS )]/;

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206 Table 5. Inputs for the preliminary design.

Variables Values

RPM [rev/min] 5,600

Ψ [-] 0.812

Φ [-] 0.391

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MNS [-] 0.796

@A [-] 20

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XV ⁄X] [-] 1.4

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208 3. Preliminary design results

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209 As with the study of Sauret and Gu [15], the preliminary design was performed using the commercial software

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RITAL following the Moustapha et al. procedure [23]. The overall dimensions of the turbine, blade, and flow

211 angles for the nozzle and rotor were determined using the preliminary design. Furthermore, the turbine

212 performance was investigated using the meanline analysis of RITAL [27]. Real gas formulations using the basic
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213 thermodynamic properties are a fundamental part of the program and the NIST Refprop database was applied in

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the preliminary design of the radial inflow turbine in this study.


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216 Table 6 presents the overall dimensions of the designed turbine. The value of XRS ⁄X; which is dependent on
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217 the rotational speed is 0.675, and this value is in appropriate range proposed by Rohlik et al. [26]. The

218 appropriate rotational speed was selected in this study.


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220 The results of the meanline analysis for the designed turbine are presented in Table 7. In this study, the flow and

221 loading coefficient that provide the targeted total-to-static efficiency of 79.6% were selected with the proposed

222 approach, and the total-to-static efficiency of the designed turbine using these coefficients was 79.8% as a result

223 of the meanline analysis. Therefore, it was confirmed that it is possible to perform an accurate preliminary

224 design using the proposed approach.

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225 Table 6. Overall dimensions of the designed turbine.

Parameters Values
`Q [mm2] 50,551
XV [mm] 276.37
aV [mm] 27.63

,V [degrees] 54.29

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X] [mm] 197.41
b] [mm] 2.57

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,] [degrees] 67.84
X; [mm] 188.00
a; [mm]

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27.63
XRc [mm] 56.40
XRS [mm] 126.95

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,Rc [degrees] -29.86

,RS [degrees] -52.21
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bR [mm] 3.76
dA [mm] 109.70
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227 Table 7. Results of the meanline analysis.


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Parameters Values
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 [kg/s] 20.198
ΠNS [-] 1.465
ΠNN [-] 1.419
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MNS [-] 0.798


MNN [-] 0.869
 [kW] 199.755
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G; ⁄IL [-] 0.731


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229 4. Numerical Simulations

230 The performance of the designed turbine can be precisely verified using experiments. However, experiments for

231 the performance analysis of the turbomachinery require the significant cost and time. Therefore, additional

232 validation of the proposed approach was first undertaken using numerical simulations. Ansys CFX, which is a

233 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program, was used in this study.

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235 4.1 3D geometry

236

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The commercial software Axcent was used to define the 3D geometry of the turbine. Sauret and Gu [15]

237 excluded the volute domain in the performance analysis of the turbine. However, the enthalpy drop due to the

238 volute in Figure 4 has an effect on the turbine efficiency. In this study, the nozzle and rotor, as well as the volute,

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were considered in the numerical analyses. Optimization for the 3D geometry was not performed for the
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240 validation of the preliminary design accuracy. Figure 6 presents the 3D geometry of the turbine.

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243 Figure 6. The full 3D geometry of the designed turbine.
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245 4.2 Mesh

246 The structured grid was constructed in domains for the nozzle and rotor using the Ansys TurboGrid V13.0, and

247 the unstructured grid was constructed in volute domain using AnsysMeshing V13.0. The grid number were

248 determined by conducting the grid convergence study as shown in Figure 7. The information of the final grid

249 created in each domain is presented in Table 8. Sauret and Gu [15] constructed mesh of which the non-

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250 dimensional grid spacing next the wall (y+) was approximately 700 above the recommended range (<500) [28].

251 In this study, dense meshes of less than y+ 60 were created in compliance with the recommendations in the CFX

252 V13.0 modeling guide [29].

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254
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255 Figure 7. Grid convergence study
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259 Table 8. Mesh information.

Domains Mesh type Element number Max. y+


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Volute Tetra. & Prism 1,415,071 55.46


Nozzle Hex. 4,539,000 37.90
Rotor Hex. 4,732,380 41.89
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260
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261 4.3 Boundary conditions and numerical simulation models

262 The boundary conditions were the same as the preliminary design conditions described in Table 2. The inlet

263 total temperature and pressure was set to inlet boundary condition, and the static pressure was set to outlet

264 boundary conditions. The rotational speed of the rotor domain was 5600 rpm identical to the design condition.

265 All walls were set with a no-slip boundary condition. The frozen rotor models were applied at the interface

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266 between the rotational and stationary domains. The shear stress transport equation and the Aungier-Redlich-

267 Kwong equation [30] among the cubic equations of state (EOS) were used in this study. The Ansys CFX solver

268 calculated the enthalpy and entropy using the relationships between the ideal gas specific heat capacity and the

269 derivatives from the EOS. The ideal gas specific heat capacity was obtained using a fourth order polynomial

270 whose coefficients were defined by Poling et al. [31].

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271

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272 5. Numerical Analysis Results

273 5.1 Analysis results at the design condition

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274 Table 9 compares the results from the meanline analysis and the numerical 3D turbulent simulation. The CFD

275 results are in relatively good agreement with the meanline analysis results, particularly regarding the pressures,

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the mass flow rate, and the power. However, the total-to-static efficiency and the total-to-total efficiency of the
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277 CFD results have differences of 5.9% and 7.7%, respectively. The over-estimation of the turbine efficiencies in

278 the CFD results has already been highlighted [15, 32], and it is resulted from the slight temperature variations in
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279 the CFD results. For improvements of the CFD accuracy in a radial inflow turbines working with high-density

280 fluids, the application of accurate EOS using non-statistical state-of-the-art uncertainty quantification methods
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281 or direct use of the Refprop database for the real gas properties in the CFD solver is highly recommended [15].
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282

283
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The current CFD solver cannot precisely calculate the state quantity and derivatives such as the enthalpy and

284 entropy from the EOS. Therefore, the CFD reliability regarding the turbine efficiencies based on these

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derivatives is insufficient. Meanwhile, more accurate enthalpy and entropy values could be calculated using Nist

286 Refprop database. Based on the pressures and temperatures of the CFD results, the enthalpy drops and
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287 efficiency calculated by Nist Refprop are presented in Table 10, and these Nist Refprop results are closer to the

288 meanline analysis than the CFD results.

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290 Table 9. Comparison between the results of the meanline analysis and CFD simulation.

Variables Meanline analysis results CFD results

MNN [-] 0.869 0.931


MNS [-] 0.798 0.845
 [kg/s] 20.198 19.123

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 [kW] 199.755 205.056
eLQ [kPa] 545.89 545.89

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eLR [kPa] 384.81 386.35
eR [kPa] 372.71 372.71

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fLQ [℃] 26.00 26.00
fLR [℃] 12.60 12.46
fR [℃] 11.29 11.01

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ℎLQ − ℎLR [kJ/kg] 9.89 10.72
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ℎLQ − ℎR [kJ/kg] 10.92 11.91
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292 Table 10. Efficiencies and enthalpy drops of the designed turbine from the Refprop.
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Variables Meanline analysis result CFD results Refprop results

ℎLQ − ℎR [kJ/kg] 10.92 11.91 11.24


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ℎLQ − ℎLR [kJ/kg] 9.89 10.72 10.11

MNS [-] 0.798 0.845 0.815


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MNN [-] 0.869 0.931 0.899


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295 Figure 8. Static pressure distribution of the stator.

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296
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297 Figure 9. Relative velocity vectors at the rotor.


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299 Figure 10. 3D streamline of the designed turbine

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301 Figure 11. Blade loading at the different rotor blade heights.

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303 Figure 8 depicts the distribution of the static pressure for the stators from the CFD results. This distribution is

304 nearly uniform over the entire azimuth angle, which indicates that the preliminary design for the stators was

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performed adequately. Figure 9 and Figure 10 present the velocity field of the turbine designed in this study,
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306 and the remarkable flow separation and recirculation was not found. The structural problems could result from

307 the significant pressure difference between the pressure side and the suction side of the rotor, or the sharp
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308 pressure change along the flow. However, any issues cannot be found in Figure 11, which depicts the pressure

309 distribution of the rotor.


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310
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311 Although the numerical analysis results slightly over-estimated the efficiency of the turbine, the variations were

312 very small, and most simulation results were in good agreement with the meanline analysis results. Furthermore,
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313 problems regarding the internal flow of the turbine were not found in the CFD results. Therefore, in the CFD

314 analysis, it was confirmed again that appropriate turbine for the design requirements could be developed using
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315 the proposed approach.


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316

317 5.2 Analysis results in the off-design conditions

318 The numerical simulations were also performed in the off-design conditions for various rotational speeds, inlet

319 total temperatures, and pressure ratios. The off-design conditions were limited because the designed turbine is

320 for OTECs that have nearly constant working conditions throughout the year, and the temperature difference

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321 between the heat source and heat sink is only approximately 20 ℃ for the OTEC.

322

323 The inlet total pressure of the turbine was 545.89 kPa in the design conditions and the saturated temperature

324 corresponding to this total pressure was 22.04 ℃. Liquid droplets could be formed in this saturated temperature

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325 and might cause damage to the high-speed rotor blades. Therefore, the turbine inlet total temperature was

326 limited to remain above 23 ℃ in the simulations for the off-design conditions. The total-to-static efficiencies (Eq.

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327 8) for the three different total inlet temperatures are depicted in Figure 12. The efficiencies for the changes of

328 the inlet total temperature were found to be nearly constant at the designed rotational speed. Meanwhile, under a

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329 lower rotational speed, the efficiency was reduced consistently when the inlet total temperature increased. In

330 contrast to the results, the efficiency under higher rotational speeds increased consistently with the rise in the

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331 inlet temperature.
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333

334
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Figure 12. Total-to-static efficiency versus turbine inlet total temperature for the three different rotational

335 speeds.
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336

337 Figure 13 presents the total-to-static efficiency for various rotational speeds. The maximum efficiency was

338 obtained in the design condition, and the inlet total temperature changes had a very small impact on the turbine

339 efficiency near the designed rotational speed. This indicates that the optimum rotational speed was selected in

340 the preliminary design in this study.


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341

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342 Figure 13. Total-to-static efficiency versus rotational speed ratio for the three different turbine inlet total

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343 temperatures.

344

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345

346 Figure 14. Total-to-static efficiency versus pressure ratio (P01/P5) for the three different turbine inlet total
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347 temperatures.

348
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349 Figure 14 presents the total-to-static efficiencies for the various pressure ratios (P01/P5). The inlet total

350 temperature was 26 ℃ in the design conditions and the saturated pressure of R152a was 614.28 kPa under this

351 temperature condition. The pressure ratio corresponding this saturation pressure was 1.64, and liquid droplets

352 could be formed above this pressure ratio. Therefore, the pressure ratio was limited to remain below 1.64 in the

353 simulations. The pressure ratio for the design condition was 1.46, and the maximum efficiency is exhibited at

354 the design pressure ratio in Figure 14. The efficiency of the turbine was reduced when the pressure ratio moved

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355 away from the design point, and this tendency was more prominent in low pressure ratios. Under high pressure

356 ratios, the decrease of the efficiency was prominent for the high inlet temperature, while the decrease of the

357 efficiency was pronounced under a low pressure ratio and low inlet temperature.

358

359

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As depicted in Figure 12 to 14, the moderate changes of the turbine working conditions did not have a

360 significant effect on the efficiency, and any flow conditions that were above the efficiency in the design

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361 conditions were not found in the off-design performance analyses conducted in order to understand the

362 characteristics of the designed turbine. This indicates that the turbine was optimized for the design conditions

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363 using the proposed approach and it is expected that the designed turbine will be stable and efficient in the

364 vicinity of the design conditions.

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366 6. Conclusion

367 A high-efficiency turbine and accurate design of high-efficiency turbines is required in OTEC systems because

368 the cycle efficiency is low and the component that has a significant effect on the cycle efficiency is a turbine.

369 The loading and flow coefficients are the most important parameters in the preliminary design of high-efficiency

370 radial inflow turbines. However, it is difficult to assume reasonable coefficients from the Flow and Loading

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371 Coefficient Correlation Chart. This study proposed a simple and accurate approach to determine the appropriate

372 flow and loading coefficients for the target efficiency, in which these coefficients are only dependent on the

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373 number of rotor vanes and the isentropic total-to-static enthalpy drop for the design requirements.

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374

375 For verification of the proposed approach, a 200kW radial inflow turbine using R152a for OTEC was designed

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376 by using the proposed approach, and the performance of the designed turbine was measured using the meanline
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377 analysis and three-dimensional CFD. It was confirmed that it is possible to perform an accurate preliminary

378 design by using the proposed approach because the results of the meanline analysis and three-dimensional CFD
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379 were similar to each other, and these results met the aims that were the turbine design conditions. Simulations

380 for the off-design condition were also performed in order to understand the characteristics of the designed
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381 turbine. Any flow conditions that were above the efficiency in the design condition were not found in the off-
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382 design performance analyses, which means that the suitable radial inflow turbine for the design conditions could

383 be optimized and designed using the model proposed in this study.
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384

385 However, due to the sensitivity of real gas properties to temperature variations in CFD, the efficiencies of the
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386 designed turbine were slightly over-estimated in the CFD results. Experiments of the turbine designed by using
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387 the proposed approach will be undertaken for further verification of the proposed approach because the

388 performance of the designed turbine can be precisely verified with experiments. Furthermore, based on the

389 turbine experimental results, the investigations on CFD algorism and applications of the sophisticated EOS will

390 be studied in order to estimate the accurate performance of a radial inflow turbine for the organic Rankine cycle

391 working with high-density fluids by using CFD.

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392 Acknowledgment

393 This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and

394 the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20133030000110).

395

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396 References

397

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