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SINDHI HIGH SCHOOL HEBBAL KEMPAPUR

BENGALURU
2019-20

CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATORY
PROJECT

TO ESTIMATE TOTAL HARDNESS OF THE


GIVEN SAMPLE OF WATER USING 0.05M
EDTA SOLUTION AND ZINC SULPHATE
CRYSTALS

NAME: SIDDHARTH JUGALE


CLASS: ‘XII’ B
REGISTRATION NUMBER:

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Index

Title Page No

 Introduction

 Experimental Aim

 Materials Required

 Theory

 Procedure

 Observation

 Calculation

 Result

 Conclusion

 Bibliography

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SINDHI HIGH SCHOOL,

HEBBAL

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Siddharth S Jugale of 12th b has

satisfactorily completed the chemistry project on

“Determination of Total hardness of water by using

EDTA solution and Eriochrome black-T indicator” as

prescribed by the central board of Education for the

AISSCE course in the year 2019-20.

Date:

Signature of internal examiner

Signature of external examiner

Registration number

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am thankful to my school, Sindhi High School,

Herbal; our school principal, Mrs. Maithreyi

Satyadev and the teachers who have given me the

opportunity to do this project.

I also take this opportunity to gratefully

acknowledge my chemistry teacher, Mrs. Deepa V

and our Lab assistant Mrs. Sapna Gangal for

providing us valuable support, guidance and advice

on the planning and execution of this project on

“Determination of Total hardness of water by using

EDTA solution and Eriochrome Black-T indicator”

I also wish to thank my parents, friends and

above all the God Almighty for the smooth

completion of this project.

Bangalore

Name:

Date:

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Introduction

Hardness of water is due to the presence of calcium and

magnesium ions. These ions form characteristic colored complexes

with the indicator and colourless complexes with metal ions. The

EDTA – metal ion complex is more stable than the metal ion -

indicator complex. The metal ion -indicator complex is wine red

colour while the free indicator is blue between the pH 7-11. During

the titration of a sample of hard water against EDTA, the color of the

solution changes from wine red to deep blue. Total hardness of water

is calculated from the titre value and expressed in terms of parts per

millions of calcium carbonate equivalent

REACTIONS

Na2H2Y →2Na+ + H2Y2-


M2+ + H2Y2- →M Y2- + 2H+ (M = Ca, Mg, Zn)
Na2H2Y = Disodium salt of EDTA – C10H14N2Na2O8.2H2O
(Molar Mass of Disodium salt of EDTA = 336.21g/mol)

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EXPERIMENTAL AIM

TO ESTIMATE THE TOTAL HARDNESS OF THE

GIVEN SAMPLE OF WATER USING 0.05M EDTA

SOLUTION AND ZINC SULPHATE CRYSTALS

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MATERIALS REQUIRED

Apparatus Required

 50 ml Burette,
 20ml pipette,
 250ml conical flask,
 watch glass,

 funnel etc

Chemicals Required

 Zinc sulphate,
 Dilute sulphuric acid
 Disodium salt of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid
(EDTA),
 Ammonia,
 ammonium chloride,
 Eriochrome black -T indicator

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THEORY

This method, called a complexometric titration, is used to find the total

calcium and magnesium content of milk, sea water and various solid materials.

It can also be used to determine the total hardness of fresh water. The combined

concentration of calcium and magnesium ions is considered to be the measure

of water hardness.

The method uses a very large molecule called EDTA which forms a

complex with calcium and magnesium ions. EDTA is short form of

ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid. A blue dye called Eriochrome Black T (ErioT) is

used as the indicator. This blue dye also forms a complex with the calcium and

magnesium ions, changing colour from pink to blue in the process. The dye–

metal ion complex is less stable than the EDTA–metal ion complex. The solution

containing calcium and magnesium ions is titrated against EDTA solution. During

titration Eriochrome Black-T indicator is added to the sample solution, which

produces pink colour. Titration is continued by adding EDTA solution from the

burette till a steel blue colour is obtained. When all the metal ions are

complexed with EDTA , now excess EDTA forms complex with Eriochrome black-

T indicator changing the colour from wine red to blue.

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The reaction is carried out at pH 7-11 because EDTA is insoluble in water at

low pH, the un ionized EDTA, H4Y is predominant in that pH (less than 2). With

increasing the pH, each hydrogen ion in the carboxyl groups of EDTA will start to

dissociate. ... As we need Y4 (ionized EDTA) to react with the metal ions present in

the titration solution thus we use pH 10 buffer such as ammonia-ammonium chloride.

EDTA or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is a novel molecule for complexing metal

ions. It is apolyprotic acid containing four carboxylic acid groups (acidic hydrogens are red)

and two amine groups with lone pair electrons (green dots). The classic structural formula is

given below.

OR

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The structure of Eriochrome black-T is as under

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The main reaction is

Ca2+ + EDTA4− → [Ca-EDTA]2−

EDTA4− + Mg2+ → [Mg-EDTA]2−

Indicator reaction:

note:- ErioT is blue and ErioT-Mg is pink

ErioT + Mg2+ → ErioT-Mg

Standardisation of the EDTA Solution

1. Pipette a 10 mL sample of the EDTA solution into a conical flask.

2. Add 10 mL of ammonia buffer solution and 1 mL of Eriochrome Black T

indicator solution.

3. Titrate the EDTA with the magnesium chloride solution until the

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endpoint is reached – a permanent colour change from blue to pink.

4. Having determined the average titre of the magnesium chloride

solution, determine the number of moles used.

5. Given the Mg2+ : EDTA ratio of 1 : 1, calculate the concentration of

your EDTA solution.

Titration Method for Seawater, Milk and Solid Samples

1. Pipette 10 mL of the sample solution into a conical flask.

2. Add 20 mL of 0.05 mol L−1 EDTA solution.

3. Add 10 mL of ammonia buffer, 50 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of Eriochrome

Black T indicator solution.

4. Titrate the sample with the standard 0.025 molL−1 magnesium chloride

solution until a permanent pink colour appears.

Titration Method for Fresh or Tap Water Samples

1. Add a 100 mL of the sample solution into a 250 mL conical flask.

2. Prepare a 0.005 mol L−1 EDTA solution by diluting the 0.05 mol L−1 EDTA

solution by a factor of 1/10. Add 20mL of this diluted EDTA to the sample

solution.

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3. Add 10 mL of the ammonia buffer and 1 mL of Eriochrome Black T indicator

solution.

4. Prepare a 0.0025 mol L−1 magnesium chloride solution by diluting the 0.025

mol L−1 magnesium chloride solution by a factor of 1/10.

5. Titrate the sample solution with this 0.0025 molL−1 magnesium chloride

solution until a permanent pink colour appears. Repeat the titration with further

samples until concordant results (titres agreeing within 0.1 mL) are obtained

Result Calculations

1. Calculate the total moles of EDTA added to the sample solution.

2. Calculate the moles of the magnesium chloride solution used in the back

titration from your concordant results. From the equation of the titration below,

the moles of Mg2+ will be equivalent to the moles of excess EDTA. EDTA4− +

Mg2+ → [Mg-EDTA]2− 3. Given the ratio of Ca2+ + Mg2+ : EDTA = 1 : 1, calculate

the moles of Ca2+ and Mg2+ that must have been complexed with EDTA by

subtracting the excess EDTA from the total moles of EDTA added to the sample.

This result is the moles of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the sample solution. Additional

Notes 1. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA is a large molecule which

creates a complex with a metal ion, bonding through six coordination sites.

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nature and source of the sample it may be necessary to vary the concentration

of the EDTA( if the titre volume is too low) or to dilute your solutions (if the titre

volume is too high). The average titre volume should be in the range of 10 – 30

mL.

Safety measures to be taken in chemistry laboratory


Safety Lab coats, safety glasses and enclosed footwear must be worn at all

times in the laboratory. Concentrated ammonia solution used in preparing the

buffer and indicator solutions is highly corrosive − wear rubber gloves and take

care when handling. Both the buffer and indicator (and thus also the titration

solution) will liberate ammonia gas to some extent. This gas may be harmful if

inhaled in large quantities. Work in a fume-hood or well ventilated area.

REACTIONS

Na2H2Y →2Na+ + H2Y2-


M2+ + H2Y2- →M Y2- + 2H+ (M = Ca, Mg, Zn)
Na2H2Y = Disodium salt of EDTA – C10H14N2Na2O8.2H2O
(Molar Mass of Disodium salt of EDTA = 336.21g/mol)

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PROCEDURE
PART-I:

PREPARATION OF STANDARD ZINC SULPHATE SOLUTION AND


STANDARDISATION OF EDTA

About 3.6 g of pure zinc sulphate crystals are weighed accurately, dissolved in

about one test tube dilute sulphuric acid and transferred into 250 ml standard flask

and made upto the mark using distilled water and shaken well for uniform

concentration. 20 ml of the made up solution is pipetted out into a clean conical

flask, 5 ml of ammonia-ammonium chloride (6.75g of ammonia chloride + 20ml

water+ 57ml of ammonia diluted with water upto 100) buffer of pH =10 is added

and a few crystals of Eriochrome Black-T indicator are added. The wine red

solution is titrated against EDTA solution taken in burette till the colour changes

from wine red to blue. The titration is repeated for concordant values.

PART-II: DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS OF WATER


60 ml of the given sample of hard water is pipetted out into a clean conical flask,

5 ml of ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer of pH=10 are added and a few

crystals of Eriochrome Black-T indicator are added. The wine red solution is

titrated EDTA solution taken in burette till the colour changes from wine red to

blue. The titration is repeated for concordant values.

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PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS

EDTA solution is not primary standard, therefore it is to be standardized using a


primary standard solution like zinc sulphate solution

a) Preparation of Standard (M/20) Zinc Sulphate Solution.

Molar mass of Zinc sulphate heptahydrate is = 287.53 g/mol


3.6 g of Zinc sulphate crystals are dissolved in 250 ml of water to get M/20
Zinc sulphate solution.
1. Mass of watch glass = -----------g
2. Mass of ZnSO4.7H2O crystals = 3.6 g

Molarity of ZnSO4 solution (M1) = 3.6g X 4


287.5

b) Preparation of approximately (M/20) EDTA Solution.

Molar mass of Disodium salt of EDTA dihydrate is = 336.21 g/mol


4.2 g of EDTA crystals are dissolved in 250 ml of water to get M/20 EDTA
solution.
1. Mass of watch glass = -----g
2. Mass of Disodium salt of EDTA crystals = 4.2 g

Molarity of EDTA solution = 4.6 X 4


336.21

Buffer:

Dissolve 7.0 g of ammonium chloride in 57 mL concentrated ammonia (see

safety notes). Dilute to 100mL with distilled water in a volumetric flask. The pH

should be 10.5.
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ErioT indicator: Dissolve 0.2 g of Eriochrome Black T indicator in 15 mL of

concentrated ammonia solution (or 15 mL of triethanolamine) (see safety notes)

and 5mL absolute ethanol. Do not store more than one to two days before use.

Method Sample Preparation for samples that are already in solution, such

as freshwater, seawater and milk, no further preparation is needed. For solid

samples such as eggshells and limestone, the samples must first be dissolved in

acid. Accurately weigh about 0.5 g of the solid into a small beaker or conical

flask, add about 20 mL dilute hydrochloric acid and allow the solid to completely

dissolve (this may take several minutes). Neutralise the unreacted acid with

dilute sodium hydroxide solution until the pH of the solution is almost 7

(according to pH indicator paper). For eggshells, the inner membrane will remain

undissolved and may be carefully removed from the solution. Transfer the

solution to a 100 mL volumetric flask and make up to the mark with distilled

water.

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OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS

PART – I:

STANDARDISATION OF EDTA

 In Burette: EDTA solution

 In conical flask: 20 ml zinc sulphate solution + 5 ml

pH=10 buffer solution

 Indicator: a pinch of Eriochrome black -T

 End point: wine red to blue

SL. Volume of Initial reading Final reading Concordant


NO. zinc of the burette of the burette volume of
sulphate (ml) (ml) EDTA (ml)
pipetted in
(ml)
1. 20 0 20
2. 20 0 20 20
3. 20 0

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Calculations
(VM) EDTA = (VM) zinc sulphate

Molarityof EDTA solution = (VM) zinc sulphate


Volume of EDTA

= 20 ml X 1/20 M = M2 M
concordant value

= 20 ml X 1/20 = M2 M
20

M2 = 1/20 = 0.05 M

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PART - II

DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS OF


WATER

 In Burette: Standard EDTA solution

 In conical flask: 60 ml of the given sample of water +

5 ml pH=10 buffer solution

 Indicator: a pinch of Eriochrome Black-T

 End point: wine red to blue

SL. Volume of Initial reading Final reading Concordant


NO. hard water of the burette of the burette volume of
pipetted in (ml) (ml) EDTA (ml)
(ml)
1. 60 0 2.4
2. 60 0 2.4 2.4
3. 60 0

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Calculations
 (VM) Ca2+ = (VM) EDTA
 Molarity of Ca2+ = concordant value X M2= --------M
Volume of hard water

 Molarity of Ca2+ = concordant value X 0.05 = ____ M(M3)


60

= 2.4ml X 0.05M
60 ml

= 0.120 = 0.02 M
60

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RESULT:

Hence mass of CaCO3 present in 250 ml water = 0.02 X 100


g = 0.5 g (Y) 4

(Mass per liter = Molarity X molar mass, Molar mass of


CaCO3 =100)
Therefore, mass of CaCO3 in 106 ml of water = 0.5 X 10 6

= 0.5 X 10 6 g (Z) 250

Amount of CaCO3 in hard water is Z ppm (parts per million)

SO, the hardness of given sample of water is


0.5 X 10 6 ppm of calcium carbonate
equivalent.

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Bibliography

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard water

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_wate

https://www.britannica.com/science/hard-wate

www.water-research.net/hardness.htm

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