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NAKEDMENTALISM

u
Secrets of the Primes

Jon Thompson

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:

NAKED MENTALTSM _ STRIPPED OF METHOD

THE FULLY SCRTPTED NAKED BOOK TEST

THE STRIPPER DECK

STRIPPED AND STACKED

POKER FACED
This book and its contents copyright (c 2008, Jon Thornpson.

All rights resenred. No parl of this book may be reproduced


in any manner whatsoever without written permission of the
author.

NOT FOR RESALE

If you didn't pay for this book, in whatever form you're


reading these words, you have stolen it. I wish you nothing
less than a life filled with pain, failure and frustration. ending
with a lingering, agonising death.
I'm profoundly grateful to the following people past and
present, either for helping shape this book by providing
inspiration, advice, or by generally keeping me fairly sane.

As ever, Celia, Penny and Ricky


Theodore Annemann
Paul Brook
Iain "Abraxus" Dunford
Enrique Enriquez
Bruce Frey
Jerome "TT2" Finley
Ian Harling & Martin Nyrup
Lewis Jones
Thomas Korelin
Dr Todd Landmar.r
Joe Riding
Ian Rowland
Steve "Banachek" Shaw
Tony "Corinda" Simpson
Matthew "Malchat" Sl-routen

Thank you. ['m profbundly grateful to you all.


"Well, I could call out when the goittg gets tttugh'
enough'
The thtings that we've learnt are no longer
all we need know'
No language, iust sound, that's
ro ,irriroiise lo,'e to the beat of'the shotv'"

.Ian Curtis
Tarr,r or ConrENTs
Dere Tasr.ss AND Draen AMs
Table I Geometry and shapes ...........36
Table 2 Shapes... .............36
Table 3 Combining geometry and shape.. ...........37

Tiifi8lf]ll :
Table 6 Milk....... .............40
13

Diagram: The "Milk" Force....... .......40


Table 7 Parts of an egg... ...................41
Tabfe 8 Vegetables.............. ..............42
Table 9 Salad ingredients ..................43
Table l0 Fruit..... .............43
Table 11 Liquids. .............44
Table 12 Drinks.. .............44
Table 13 Drink + Liquid.... ................44
Table 14 Soft drinks........ ..................45
Table 15 seafood. ............45
Table 16 Sandwiches............ .............45
Table 17 Meals... .............46
Table 18 Meats... .............46
Table 19 Ice Cream Flavours.... ........46
Table 20 Planets. .............46
Table 21 Continents............. .............47
Tabfe 22 On the farm.... ....................47
Table 23 Crops... .............48
Table 24Inthe garden....... ................49
Table 25 Contents of a Meadow............. ............50
Table 26 Rooms. .............50
Table 27 Kilchen contents.... .....,.......50
Table 28 Living room contents............. ..............51
Table 29 Bathroom contents .............51
Table 30 Bathroom contents .............51
Table 3l Beach... .............52
Diagram: Negative Childhood Memories.. .........98
Diagram: Positive childhood memories.. ............98
Table 68 Celebrations.......... ..............99
Table 69 Continents............. ............105
Table 70 Colours - Red......... ..........109
Table 7l Colours - 81ue....... ...........109
Table 72 Colours - Purple..... ..........109
Table 73 Colours - Black...... ........... I 10
Table 74 Colours - Pink........ ...........110
Table 75 Colours - Green...... ..........110
Table 76 Colours - Yellow.... ..........110
Table 77 Colours - White..... ..........1 10
Table 78 Colours - Violet..... ..........1 10
Table 79 Colours - Orange... ...........1 I I
Table 80 Colours - Gold....... ..........1 I 1
r. INrtoDUcrroN
elcome to Naked MentalismII. The philosophy
underpinning this and the previous book in the series
concems creating mentalism that as far as possible plays out
like a genuine paranonnal ability - but with vastly improved
results.

Naked effects deliberately abandon all the usual physical


apparatus available to the mentalist. There's nothing up your
sleeve, nothing to peek, crib, write down, bum, tear, or erase.
There's no pre-show work, no stooges and no other
confederates. Your only prop is your mind, meaning that if
necessary, you could perform naked to prove there's no
subterfuge.

Psychology says that what someone experiences as genuine


paranorrnal ability is actually their personal interpretation of
answers emerging from their subconscious mind. In turn, the
subconscious takes everything it knows about the world as its
starting point for producing those answers. In situations
where there's plenty of detailed knowledge to draw upon,
such inferences can be astonishingly accurate without you
ever being consciously aware of accumulating the underlying
knowledge. But when there's little or no such "heuristic"
knowledge to call upon, the answers that emerge are no better
than guesswork.

Subconscious guesswork is no basis for constructing a


reliable psychic-like ability. So, when performing Naked
effects, you instead call upon accurate, purpose-built mental
models of specific parts of the world. These data models you

21
carry around in your head - hence both the learning aspect When used in Naked priming effects, pragmagrams are a
and the irnpromptu. propless nature of Naked effbcts. particularly powerful method of registering at least a partial
hit where none would normally exist. I used them to develop
After completing the previous volume, I soon realised there a number of presentations in the previous volume (including
was much more I could write about one specific data model the Naked Book and Coin Tests), but the technique is
I'd begun to cover. I showed how to exploit it using the described here in t-ull and in depth for the first time.
concept of "priming" the mind to have certain thoughts on
demand. This second volume is the result. Feel free to skip forwards to Chapter 6, which contains a
selection of effects, but they may not make as much sense as
Priming gives the spectator a seemingly free choice of they will once you've taken in the preceding chapters. I
thought while actually working to make that choice conclude the book with an appendix containing more analysis
predictable. 'Ihis book takes as its starting point the 27-pages of the data covered in the main body of the book.
devoted to priming that appeared in the previous volume and
greatly expands on it, including examples of delivering To conclude this introduction, let me reiterate what I stressed
priming forces so powerful that some people actually find it at the end of the introduction to the first volume: I encourage
physically difficult not to deliver the desired answer despite you to read, learn, and finally perform using my techniques.
themselves. and create effects that play out the way the real thing claims
to do. Many of the techniques contained in this book are the
For most readers, the meat of this book will be the chapter result of studying the ways in which genuine "shut eye"
called "Priming Data". As you can see from the index of psychics interact and reveal information. Being conscious,
tables and diagranrs, this introduces and explains a large deliberate techniques, however, those found in this book
storehouse of priming categories. I've included the well- bring far greater accuracy and success than the real thing can
known classics from the previous volume, and I explain in ever hope to achieve. All I ask is that you do nothing
depth why they work. I also give a model for why the downright ugly or cynical with my work. such as exploiting
powerful psychological forces discussed in the first chapter the vulnerable.
work so well, and give a template for discovering new ones.
Jon Thompson
I then discuss and develop uses for this priming data by Darkest Cheshire
showing how to select and prepare spectators to obtain July 2008
maximum participation. I then introduce the concept of a
"pragmagram", which is a technique for finding and
developing a wide range of psychic-like effects that enable
you, amongst other things, to begin giving the spectator
information about her choices be.fore she says a word.

22 23
z. How Pn,rrrarNc Wonxs
l\ /ft first serious exploration of priming began by reading
IYIa short piece in "statistics Hacks"t by Bruce Frey. In
this 4-page section fucked away at the back of the book, Frey
explains that some words naturally hold particularly strong
associations for us:

"The human brain is so ellicient that it processes


words or ideas in the context o.f'whatever words
or concepts have been previously over-learned.
Research studies have found that when people are
asked to state whether a series of letters is a
word, they respond more quickly to words that
have been primed or preactivated by words that
were shown to them just prior to the identification
task. For example, if "stripes" is shown, and then
either "tiger" or "lemon", people will respond
more quicklyJbr "tiger" than.for "lemon".

By talking about words or topics that are closely


related to other words or topics, you hegin a
thought process in your .fiiend's brain in which
activation of neurons spreads to neurons that
generally Jire at the same time. Your brain has
learned that certain words and topics almost
always occltr together, so it knows that when one
of the associated words or topics is activated, it
should also ./ire the regions where those
associated words or topics are activated. That
way, your thought process can proceed
smoothlv. "

I
2006, O'Reilly Books, ISBN 0-596-10t 64-3, page 290.

24 25
This pre-emptive activation process is priming in action, and Shaw showed that if you ask a spectator to quickly give you a
its automatic nature nrakes it predictable and therefbre random colour, red will very probably flash through her mind
exploitable. The skill in using it rests on presenting it as a feat first. According to Frey, this is because the word "Clolour"
of creativity, either consciously, when we have the spectator primes neurons dedicated to the concept of diffbrent colours.
believe she has generated a random thought, or
unconsciously, when we wish her to believe a thought has It just so happens that the neurons that represent the concept
been transmitted to her and has popped into her conscious of red fire most strongly. However, with slightly different
mind. Here's an example to get the ball rolling. If I ask you to wording and just a few seconds thinking time, Shaw says that
think of a yellow fruit, which one pops into your mind first? the spectator will probably change her choice to blue. The
problem is that if you give her slightly too long to ponderher
As I said in the previous volurne, befbre thinking consciously choice. if the wording is wrong, or if she sirnply decides to
about which to select, you almost certainly had an image of a deliberately step through other options to trip you up. she
banana flash into your mind, and if not that, then in a almost certainly won't be thinking of blue either after a
significantly smaller number of cases, an impression of a further second or so.
lemon popped up instead.
For some performers. a mix of wilfully bad choices and
Your brain pre-empted the need to recall a banana from genuine mistakes make psychological forces too unreliable
reading the words "yellow" and "firrit" and provided you for practical use. I agree that making a psychological force
with the rnost likely choice, thereby smoothing the thought the sole focus of a major effect (in other words, making it
process just as Frey suggests. The question is why didn't an absolutely vital that the spectator retums the correct thought
image of a melon, a pineapple, a grapefruit, or even a star before you can continue successfully) could set you up for a
fiuit appear in your mind first'? Why can I conf-rdently say bad fall. Sorne basic tests, such as guessing a colour, are little
that it's a "significantly" smaller number of readers who will more than the force itself, so what do you do if it goes
think of a lemon first than a banana? wrong?

In a sirnple effect (a colour test, for instance, which I use a lot


Fn ou Mrssss ro Hms in this book as a demonstration force). one classic method of
overcoming this is to write "red" on a card, then cross it out
In his seminal book Psychological Subtleties2, Steve and write "blue" instead to cover both possibilities. This can
"Banachek" Shaw collected a number of examples of
psychological forces spaming several areas, including help you appear to have predicted the change, but the
problem remains of the spectator choosing and sticking with
colours, numbers, shapes and drawings. Many of these forces
a third, seemingly random choice, in which case both "red"
are explainable in tenns of priming. A good example is
and "blue" are both complete misses. Or are they?
forcing an apparently fiee choice of colour.
: http:/i'wrvrr'.banachek.conr. There's nor.v a seconcl volunre, too.

26 27
By exploiting the concept of priming, we can turn thrs necessary for you to do so in this
unknown thought into a strong and possibly even shockingly experiment. lt's your intuition that's
accurate hit by seeming to access the hidden string of choices important here, okay?"
made by the spectator. This is knowledge that has never left
her mind. Here's a simple example I gave in the previous This is, in fact, the summary of a conversation I had with a
volume: spectator as I began to explore why and how priming works. I
remember that this style of interaction felt unwieldy and
Performer: "Keep hold of the first colour that flashes almost confrontational at the time (it was certainly borne of
through your mind. Got it?" frustration!), but looking back, it's still quite convincing. The
spectator was certainly convinced that something strange had
Spectator: After a couple of seconds pause, "Yes." just happened. I was apparently aware of her private
thoughts. That makes a powerful statement in itself.
Performer: "You're not thinking of red any more are
you." The practical upshot of this dialogue was that if I hadn't
found her colour, I could still have recorded a very good hit
Spectator: fSlightly surprised] "No." at an unexpected, deeper level. It occurred to me much later
that in doing so, l'd also hinted at the true strength of my
Performer: "No, from red it feels like you quickly went supposed ability to reach inside minds, which also makes a
to blue, then found your way to purple. Is powerful statement.
that the colour you've stopped on?"
From my perspective, however, what happened was that her
Spectator: "Yes!" eyes flicked to the side, and she paused fbr a second or two
before answering, indicating that she was actively selecting a
Performer: "Yes, I think you started very briefly with a choice of colour rather than simply accepting the first answer
spontaneous flash of red, didn't you. Then her subconscious gave to her3. The colours I named for her
you deliberately went to blue for a second. lt were simply the first few entries of a memorised sequence.
gets a httle hazy now because your thoughts
are fading, but you were led to purple from I've used the above mini-effect plenty of times since,
there, weren't you?" especially when I've been presented with a wilful spectator I
know will deliberately discard red or blue. The fact that this
Spectator: "Yes I was!" mechanism is reliable also poses a question, which we need
to answer before moving on to the main section of the book.
Performer: "And the fact that you took this path shows If the spectator's train of thought is so predictable, why does
me that you're an independent thinker. You it include something as seemingly obscure as purple so early,
don't simply take what people tell you to do .=--further
'I'll explore thc use of eye movements in giving away dcliberatc
at face value. That's good, but it's not selections latcr.

29
7-

and why does the spectator not tend to go from red and blue What's interesting about the FSG is that if you sorl the targets
to green, yellow, orange and so on? for a single cue word by this value, you get both the
spectator's most likely first choice followed by a highly
To explain, allow me to recap the work of the psychologists predictable order in which she's is likely to make subsequent
Bruce Frey references in "Statistics Hacks", and which led choices if she discards the first, just as we saw in the example
me to the sudden realisation that their work could be the basis colour dialogue above.
for a whole approach to creating new psychological forces.
The fact that the FSGs in a list might be small overall doesn't
matter. All that does is the size of each FSG relative to others
Inrn oDUcING THE Fr.on IDIAN in the list. The closeness in size of the FSGs also gives a good
indication as to whether the spectator's choices will be clear
DarasAsE and reliable. or whether there could be some troublesome but
genuine ambiguity involved. In other words, it gives a
In 1973, researchers Douglas L. Nelson and Cathy L. measure of the robustness of a priming force.
McEvoy of the University of South Florida, along with
Thomas A. Schreiber of the University of Kansas, started a
This also suggests that to find new categories, all we need do
research project to build a rich database offree associations.a
is search this database for interesting or relevant subject areas
amongst the mass of cues, obtain the list of targets they relate
The project involved 6,000 volunteers and produced nearly
to and sort them by FSG to discover the order in which the
750,000 responses (called targets) to 5,019 trigger words spectator is highly likely to work through them. Such
(called cues). The volunteers wrote the flrst thing that came
extracted lists form the data model underpinning the use of
into their minds upon seeing each cue word, followed by the priming in Naked effects.
second choice, the third, and so on. What the resulting
database shows is that each cue word "primes" the After the release of Naked Mentalism, people asked if a
subconscious to deliver the associated targets, beginning with
database constructed in Florida isn't mostly irrelevant to
the strongest first, just as the phrase "yellow fruit" primes those living in other parts of the world. Happily, by carefully
most people to imagine a banana first and not a lemon or a selecting only concepts common to most people, these can be
grapefruit.
avoided. For instance, when asked to name a crop, some
subjects quite naturally chose "oranges" as their first target,
The great beauty of exploring the Floridian database is that which are grown in abundance in Florida.
each relationship between cue and target word has an
associated decimal number ranging from zero and one. This
statistic is the "forward strength" or FSG of the association
between cue and target. THs ttMrlxtt Foncr,
Pre-activating the target before delivering the cue is an
excellent way of making it as sure a thing as possible. Ideally,

30 3r
we'd like its activation to blot out all other possible choices
for a while. Luckily, there are plenty of ways to do this. Here I'll discuss why these two forces work so powerfully in terms
are a few well-known and yet curiously strong examples of priming in the next chapter. In the meantime, here's a third
using different activation rnethods. You may remember using example that denronstrates another very irlportant concept.
the first as a trick to play on each other at school, but it's no
less a valid as a demonstration, and shows the almost
physical power that priming can have over us. Tnr ttSrucxtt Sonc
How nrany times have yor"r heard a snatch of a song you know
Simply ask someone to say "milk" quickly ten times while
well, and have instantly heard very clearly in your rnind what
counting off the number of times they say the word on their
comes next when the music suddenly stops again? You may
fingers. Now immediately ask what a cow drinks. Even when
even have heard the music continuing quite strongly for a
anticipating something unusual happening, the spectator will
while.
still find it very difficult indeed to keep fiom answering
"milk". Here's the really curious thing: sometimes, if you
Put simply, our brains record memories using each of the
simply ask someone what a cow drinks without having them
senses, (technically each sense is called a "modality").
repeat the word first, a very large number of people will still
Hearing the first few notes primed you using tlre same
reply. "Milk".
rnodality as was used to fonn the original memory. lJsing the
same modality to prime a memory (which is all a target really
Try it with "toast" and ask, "What do you put in a toaster?"
is) has the curious effect of turbo charging the activation
I'd never heard this version before until a couple of years ago process.
when the son of a friend tried it on me. Even anticipating the
trick question, I had already said the "T" of "toast" belbre I
ln the case of a song, the activation will be far stronger when
could stop myself. It was a very interesting experience.
activated by a snippet of the original sound than if someone
simply speaks the lyrics, and will be far stronger still than if
Given the correct situation, even the look and sound of a cue
you only seen them written down'. In some cases, if
when written down and read aloud can callse a parlicularly
sufficiently activated, it's actually quite difficult to get the
strong pre-activation of a target, as this second example
song "unstuck" from inside your head. even if it's one you
amply dcmonstrates.
dislike.
Write down the word "folk" on a piece of paper. Ask This idea of using the same modalities as the memory or
someone to say the word aloud. and then immediately ask,
concept you wish the spectator to recall overlaps the concept
"What's the white of an egg called?" Most people will
immediately answer "yolk" without thinking about it. Even if t I once saw a talent-based quiz
you subsequently ask if they're sure, many people will quite show here in the UK where a fen.ralc Star
Trek fan had devcloped the ability to name thc star date mentioncd in any
reasonably look ben'rused and reiterate that the white of an episode in response to a mere snippet of Kirk's opening dialogue, which
egg is called the yolk - not the white, or the albumen. hints at the power of using the correct modalitics.

32 JJ
of creating and triggering multi-modal anchors in NLP. And
in the book "Pure Effect", Derren Brown describes an
interesting multi-modal psychological force fbr a playing 3. PnrMrNG Dera
card, invoked using both hand gestures and careful wording This chapter is the result of extensively searching the
about its colour6. Floridian database for as many useful priming categories as I
could find. For consistency, it reproduces the original 22
So, when designing a new priming force, it pays to think categories from the previous volume.
about the modalities over which the spectator would have
originally experienced the target concept. Those are the best The database is huge. There are probably many. many more
ones to use to have her recall it.
categories and connections left to discover. Most of those
presented here use one cue. There's certainly scope for also
So, if you want to invoke targets associated with the developing ones that use more. Let's begin with a classic that
kindergarten, for instance, the odour of a certain disinfectants demonstrates very clearly the use of multiple subtle cues to
will do so far more powerfully than asking the spectator to increase the activation level of the primed target.
relax, close her eyes, and imagine the sights and sounds
associated with being a pre-schooler again. Ask her to do so
while very subtly introducing the relevant odour, however, Tnr Cr,assrc Snars Tssr
and the overall effect could be alanningly strong.
RuvrsrrED
For decades now, mentalists have asked spectators to
visualise a sir.nple geometric shape, to mentally place a
different shape inside it, and to draw the resultant assembly.
The mentalist then immediately describes or draws it himself.

Many readers will remember Uri Geller famously making this


test his own on TV in the early 1970s to tlre stunned
amazement of chat show hosts and their audiences alike. No
one, it seemed, simply tried copying what Geller said and didT
verbatim to see what happened. If they'd done so, there's a
good chance that they'd have obtained the same results.

7 "suggestion" may be a better worcl to usc. You're mcrcly inrplying the


target concept using the cue words. This is like using a euphemism or
metaphor to generate a thought in the spcctator's mind. If I say that
somcone is "coming in on three engines". for instaltcc, you know instantly
what I mean based on your knowledge of acroplancs without mc having
6
"Pure Effect, 3'd Edition, H&R publishing, page 155. to say "hc's a bit stupid".

34 35
What happens if we combine the terms "geometry" and
A good handling of this classic psychological design "shape" into a single phrase, like we did with "yellow" and
duplication test is described in Chapter 4 of Psychological "fruit"? We can express this in terms of FSGs by adding them
Subtleties, but it's also worthy of explanation in terms of together to get the following derived information:
priming because it serves to demonstrate how to increase the
target activation in the mind of the spectator. GROMETRY+SHAPE TRIANGLE 0.092
GROMETRY+SHAPE CIRCLE 0.055
Why, in the original test, do most people tend to draw a GROMETRY+SHAPE SOUARE 0.042
triangle containing a circle? More importantly, why do a few Tasr,r t ConsrNrNG GEoMETRv AND sHApE
choose to draw a square instead of a circle? To understand
the reasons, we need to split the patter into two separate From this table, it's easy to see why a combination of the
requests and analyse each separately. cues "geometry" and "shape" (formed by asking for a
"geometric shape") is statistically almost twice as likely to
Starting with the demand for a simple geometric shape, produce a triangle in the spectator's mind than a circle.
consider the following tables extracted from the Floridian Reality bears out this hypothesis, too.
database. The first shows the FSGs between the concept of
"geometry" and various shapes. When you subsequently ask for a second, dffirent shape,
though the FSGs of the two remaining targets in the "shape"
GEOMETRY TRIANGLE 0.081 table are both 0.28, the residual effect of having just brought
GEOMETRY CIRCLE 0.027 the concept of geometry into the spectator's mind might be
GEOMETRY SOUARE 0.014
why most people tend to favour "circle" over "square".
Maybe this activation occurs partly because the concepts of
Tasr,E, r GsousrRY AND sHAPEs circles and geometry were associated from an early age when
All the tables I present in this book are sorted by FSG, learning about lt in school, whereas squares are more to do
highest first. The FSG is the rightmost column. This table with area.
shows that the volunteers whose answers formed the database
linked the concept of geometry 3 times as closely with the Shapes are understood visually, as Shaw, Brown and others
concept of a triangle than with a circle. The following table all say. By casually and vaguely indicating the shapes you
links the cue concept "shape" with different types of shape: want chosen in the air in front of the spectator, you can also
subliminally boost the activation level of the desired target.
SHAPE CIRCLE 0.028
SHAPE SOUARE 0.028 For a triangle, you might hold our hands apart as if grasping
SHAPE, TRIANGLE 0.011 an imaginary basketball, with your hands forming the corners
Tesr,E, z Snerss of the triangle's base. These gestures aren't for the conscious
mind, however. so be VERy subtle.

36 J/
that applies the colour to an object traditionally associated
THs PnsorcrABrr,rrY oF with it can work wonders. For instance, in the UK, "red card"
is a familiar term meaning to punish or forbid an activity. It's
Cor.ouRs derived from soccer. Asking a spectator to imagine a blank
In tlie previous chapter, I asked why spectators tend to think card, and have her give it a colour is likely to generate the
of colour choices in a certain order. To answer that question, image of a red card in her rnind with no further prompting.
the table for colours appears below, and may explain the
reason for the predictability of the sequence. How THr'.Mrr,xtt Foncr
COLOR
COLOR
RED
BLUE
0.242
0.215
Wonxs
Do you remember the trick of having someone repeat the
COLOR PURPLE 0.1 54
word "milk" aloud in Chapter 2, and then quickly asking
COLOR BLACK 0.074 what a cow drinks'/ The tbllowing mechanism rnight well be
COLOR PINK 0.047
why people find it diflcult to say anything but "milk" in
COLOR GREEN 0.040 response. First, here's the table for a cue of "cow".
COLOR YELLOW 0.01 3
COLOR WHITE 0.013 cow MILK 0.352
Tasr,E, 4 Coloun s cow CALF 0.194
I think this table also shows how closely FSGs tend to model cow BULL 0.097
reality. It gives a reason fbr a legitimate situation Shaw wams cow MOO 0.061
about in Psychological Subtleties. Red has the highest FSG, cow HORSE 0.06 r

but when asked to simply blurt out the first colour that enters cow FARM 0.055
their heads, some spectators will quite reasonably say "blue", cow PASTURE 0.042
possibly because its FSG is 87Yo that of red. What is cow PIG 0.024
surprising is not that something as seemingly obscure as cow ANIMAL 0.018
purple appears next, but that it has an FSG of over twice that cow FAT 0.012
of the fourth choice, which is also surprising for being Tasls 5 Cow
"black". Conversely, both green and yellow have surprisingly
low FSGs. For convenience, the Appendix at the end of this
book contains tables for the target colours above, as well as a
cross-reference chart.

It's vital to remember that colours don't exist in abstract


isolation. ln the real world, they're applied to objects. This is
how we've grown accustomed to thinking about them. Patter

38 39
And here's the table for "milk" This also provides circumstantial evidence of how powerful a
grip on us our subconscious minds really have. What they
MILK cow 0.388 say, we believe by default. It's difficult to dismiss milk and
MILK DRINK 0.r03 think about what other fluids a cow might drink. After all,
MILK HONEY 0.073 have you ever seen a cow drinking? The logic of answering
MILK WHITE 0.06r "Milk" to the question is exposed as clearly flawed when laid
Tasls 6 Mrlx out and explained as above, and yet, after saying "Milk" ten
times, it can take a will of iron to not blurt out "Milk" again.
Here's a graphical representation of the FSGs involved: What's worse is that we may also believe we've just actively
thought about our answer logically, further adding to the
Mitk conviction that we're giving the right answer.

Remember the trick of writing down "Folk" on a piece of


paper, asking someone to read it aloud then asking what the
white of an egg is called? Look at the FSGs for "yolk" and
"white" in relation to a cue of "egg". The FSG for "Yolk" is
Drink Cow over 3.25 times higher than that of "White".

Dracn au: Tnr ttMrlx" ForcE EGG YOLK 0.079


There's no statistically significant FSG from "Drink" and EGG WHITE 0.024
"Cow" or vice versa. However, the FSGs between "Cow" and Terr,t 7 Panrs oF AN EGG
"Milk" are the strongest, and the second strongest target for ln the next chapter, we'll examine the concept of limiting the
"Milk" is "Drink".
spectator's mental "reach" by mentioning some of the choices
open to her. This has the curious effect of eliminating them as
On hearing the question, what may be happening is that the
viable options. By mentioning the "white of an egg" in the
spectator finds no answers popping up automatically because
question, maybe this also removes it as an option for her, as
there's no link between "Cow" and "Drink". She has to ask
well as the word "folk" priming her by looking and sounding
her subconscious what she knows about cows. By far the so similar to "yolP"r.
strongest association (which therefore pops up first) is
"Milk", especially after repeating the word so much. The
second strongest FSG from "Milk" is to "Drink" (the only
one stronger is back to "Cow"!), and so, under unexpected
pressure, the spectator's subconscious mind finds it difficult
not to fill with the idea of milk.
8
I strongly suspect that there's an untapped arca ofpsychological forcing
that uses rhyming words to pre-activate target thoughts.

40 4l
SALAD LETTUCE 0.299
Fooo AND DruNr SALAD TOMATO 0.039
Food and drink rnake popular forcing categories. Along with SALAD POTATO 0.016
the classics expressed in terms of FSGs, here are some new Tasr,s 9 Sar,ao rNG&EDTENTS
categories.
In this table, the FSG for lettuce is by far the largest, making
it an ideal force from a seemingly open choice of vegetables
VrcsraBr.Esr Ser.ao AND Fnulr found in the average salad. Here's the table fbr fmit:
Vegetables and other salad ingredients are a particularly
popular source of psychological forces. Here's their table: FRUIT APPLE 0.223
FRUIT ORANGE 0.174
VEGETABLE CARROT 0.r29 FRUIT BANANA 0.065
VEGE,TABLE LETTUCE 0.076 FRUIT GRAPE 0.016
VEGETABLE BROCCOLI 0.0s3 Tasr,r ro Fn urr
VEGETABLE TOMATO 0.0s3
0.023 What concems many people when they begin to explore the
VEGETABLE CORN
0.015
use of psychological forces in their mentalism is people
VEGE,TABLE PEAS
genuinely picking the wrong thing. Asking for a fmit
Tasr,t 8 Vparraslrs highlights a classic example of this anxiety. The FSGs for
It's a playground joke to ask someone to perform a set of apple and orange might give some peace of mind to those
trivial mental calculations at speed, and then to suddenly worrying about such things. In fact, in a straight mind reading
catch her off guard by asking for the name of a vegetable' effect, why not follow the advice in the last chapter if you're
with carrot being having a much higher FSG than the rest of worried, and write down then cross out orange and replace it
the table, as long as you can guarantee that the spectator will with apple to cover both bases?
answer with the first vegetable she thinks of, she should tell
you it's a carrot. In the case of the playground joke, the job of ln the previous chapter. I also used the example of a "yellow
the rnental arithmetic puzzles is to both throw the spectator fiuit", which should have primed most readers to think of a
banana. The fiuit with the highest FSG fbr a cue of "yellow"
off the scent and to prime her to deliver answers quicklye'
is, in fact, "banana", with an FSG of 0.020. Adding the FSGs
Here's the table for salad ingredients.
for cues of yellow and fiuit and a target of "banana" gives an
overall FSG of 0.085. While weaker than the FSGs for
"apple" or "orange", these latter fruits aren't yellow, which
excludes them as possible choices.

' There's that word again. Priming isn't just about accessing mcmorles.
You can also prittre PcoPlc to act by establislring a
pattern of bchaviour
for thcm to foilon'.

42 43
]OFT DRINK COKE ).338
Lreutos AND Duxxs JOFT DRINK SODA t.236
I-IOUID WATER 0.423 JOFT DRINK PEPSI .101
LIOUID BEER 0.028 JOFT DRINK COCA-COLA ).07 4
LIOUID MILK 0.0r4 Taslr 14 Som DRTNKs
Taslr rr Ltqulos This table represents a win-win situation. You can take Coke,
The overwhelming strength of the FSG for water makes it a Pepsi and Coca-Cola as the same thing. Sirnilarly, soda, in
useful force for a liquid. What about shoring it up even the American sense of the word, is usually syrlonymous with
further by combining "liquid" with "drink" into the phrase "a these trademarked beverages, and can just as easily cover
liquid you can drink"? Here's the table for "drink"' lemonade, tonic water, soda water, and so on.

DRINK WATER 0.t52 MrscsLLANEous Fooos


DRINK BEE,R 0.r03
SEAFOOD FISH 0.2s2
DRINK COKE 0.060
SEAFOOD SHRIMP 0.245
DRINK ALCOHOL 0.049
SEAFOOD LOBSTER 0.r43
DRINK LIOUOR 0.033
SEAFOOD CRAB 0.082
DRINK SODA 0.033
SEAFOOD CLAM 0.014
DRINK WINE, 0.027
VODKA 0.016 SEAFOOD OYSTER 0.014
DRINK
Tasln 12 DRINKS
Tasr,r rJ sEAFooD
The FSGs for "fish" and "shrimp" are close, but if you use
Adding the FSGs gives us the following derived data:
Shaw's principle of limiting the spectator's mental reach by
mentioning "fish" to remove it as an option, you basically
DRINK + LIOUID WATER 0.575
only have shellfish left to choose from. These all have a shell,
DRINK + LIOUID BEER 0.t31
which is useflil, and most have claws.
DRINK - LIOUID MILK 0.014
Taslr rr DRINK + Lrqulo SANDWICH HAM 0.111
So, a liquid you can drink is highly likely to be water. The SANDWICH TURKEY 0.059
Floridian database also includes entries for soft drinks: SANDWICH TLINA 0.030
SANDWICH CHICKEN 0.01 s
Tasr,r 16 SaNowrcHEs
Ham has an FSG nearly twice that of turkey. What's
surprising is that tuna and chicken are so low.

44 45
CoNTTNENTs
MEAL DINNER 0.213
MEAL EAT 0.063 CONTINENT AFRICA 0.169
MEAL LUNCH 0.063 CONTINENT ASIA 0.115
MEAL SUPPER 0.063 CONTTNENT USA 0.0s4
CONTINENT NORTH AMERICA 0.041
Tesr,s r7 Mrar,s
CONTINE,NT EUROPE 0.041
In some local dialects of English, including my own, dinner CONTINENT ANTARCTICA 0.02
can refer either to what others call lunch.
Tasr,u zr ConrlNENTs
MEAT STEAK 0.t8t The above table might go some way to explaining why
MEAT CHICKEN 0.067 people tend to name Africa when asked to think of a
MEAT BEEF 0.060 continent (and sometimes even a country).
MEAT FISH 0.034
MEAT HAM 0.020 ON rHs Fanu
Tasr,r 18 Mrars FARM ANIMAL 0.316
ICE CREAM CHOCOLATE 0.100 FARM cow 0.176
ICE CREAM VANILLA 0.021 FARM BARN 0.042
ICE CREAM STRAWBERRY 0.014 FARM HOUSE 0.042
FARM RANCH 0.036
Taslp rg Icr CrEau Fr,avoun s
FARM CHICKEN 0.024
FARM CROPS 0.024
Pr,acgs AND LocarroNs Tasr,n zz ON THE FARM
Asked to think of something you'd find on a farm, being
Pr,exgrs prepared with a bit of clever patter will subsequently enable
PI,ANET EARTH 0.606 you to turn "animal" into at least a convincing partial hit for
PLANET MARS 0.1 03 "cow", "chicken", and so on. Ranch appears because the
PLANET PLUTO 0.024 original database was compiled in the USA. In the UK, use
PLANET MOON 0.024 "farmhouse".
PLANET VENUS 0.012
PLANET SATURN 0.012 This idea of having patter ready to cover all eventualities is a
very strong one, and enables you to easily cover the word
TasLs zo Pr,aNrrs "crops". If our spectator is being deliberately awkward, you
can use her rogue answer to simply segue into the next effect

46 47
by telling her it reveals something of who she is, so it literally The FSG for com is nearly 9 times as strong as that lbr
doesn't matter. All you need do is to build branches into your wheat, making it a safe bet. lf you're worried about the
patter for such eventualities and you can carry on without the spectator not understanding the different crops that grow on a
telltale flicker in your response that indicates you stumbling farm, you could predict that she'll choose a "cereal crop" or
over unexpected answers. make a sketch of something that could be wheat or corn.
Surprisingly, oranges make an appearance in Table I 1. As I
By appearing to seem interested in a non-committal response mentioned in the previous chapter, this is an artefact of the
of "crops", you can modify your prediction dynamically by database that has to do with it being created in Florida, whicli
asking: "Yes. but what kind of crop?" if you're using a slate is a part of the world known for orange production. This
to write your predictions on, by not revealing too much about anomaly also highlights an important idea. tf you're trying to
where the process of asking the questions leads, you could apply priming to an effect in an area of the world known for
sirnply write the name of a crop before asking which and breeding horses, an animal that lives on a farm is perhaps less
show it to the audience after she speaks. likely to be a cow.

As we'll see in Chapter 5, even if you seemed to have missed


by writing down "animal" or a type of animal, you can
IN rHs Genosx
anticipate the spectator giving an answer of "crops" (or even GARDEN FLOWER 0.39 r

of her naming one directly), by perhaps saying up front that GARDEN HOSE 0.132
you're getting a strong hurnanitarian f.eel fiom her. When she GARDEN PLANT 0.1 l9
delivers a crops-based target, asking if she's particularly GARDEN VEGETABLES 0.086
concemed for animal welfare may tell you if she's a GARDEN ROSE 0.073
vegetarian. If she is, it will give you an opportunity to patter T,rsr,r z4 IN THE GA&DEN
furtlier about that feeling you had of her being humanitarian.
You could say that her natural fondness for animals made you
A response of "weeds", even as a flippant or resigned reply,
can most certainly be taken as a type of flower or plant. If
want to write the word but that it wasn't clear why it
you've written down or have drawn a flower as a prediction,
presented itself in your mind quite so forcefully (a decent
partial hit on a conceptual level if ever there was one. After
you instantly cover different types. If you're drawing a
flower, however. be careful to have some patter ready in case
all, we're aiming for the illusion of a significant natural
the spectator thinks your flower isn't sufticiently like the one
ability, not a guaranteed trick). Here's the data for crops.
she imagined.

CROPS CORN 0.301


CROPS WHEAT 0.034
CROPS ORANGE 0.021
CROPS VEGETABLES 0.014
Tesr,r zt Cnors

48 49
Ix rHs Mreoow Ix rsr Lrvrxa Roou
ME,ADOW GRASS 0.219 -TVING ROOM COTJCH 0,144
MEADOW FLOWER 0. r03 IVING ROOM TELEVISION 0.111
MEADOW GREEN 0.027 IVING ROOM SOFA 0.052
MEADOW cow 0.014 IVING ROOM CHAIR 0.033
MEADOW SHEE,P 0.014 IVING ROOM TABLE 0.026
Tasr,r z5 CoNrrNTs oF a Mraoow Taslr z8 LrvrNc RooM coNTENTs

Roous IN THE Houss Ix ftrs Barsn oou


You can use the mental scenes that rooms conjure up by ]ATHROOM TOILET 0.33 8
littering them with detail supplied by other lists, or by asking ]ATHROOM SHOWER 0.1s I
what objects the spectator can see in her mind's eye. As for ]ATHROOM STNK 0.094
rooms themselves, these are the only two recorded as targets ]ATHROOM TOWEL 0.050
in the Floridian database, but there's no reason why you can't ]ATHROOM BATHTUB 0.043
specify the room yourself and have the spectator fuinish it. 3ATHROOM MIRROR 0.014
3ATHROOM SOAP 0.014
ROOM BEDROOM 0.150
Tasr,r zg BarnnooM coNTENTs
ROOM I,IVING ROOM 0.047
T,rsls z6 Roous
Ix rHg Brpn oott
IN rnr Krrcsrx BEDROOM
BEDROOM
BED
SLEEP
0.353
0.t87
(ITCHEN SINK 0.173 BEDROOM SEX 0.079
<ITCHEN FOOD 0.t62 BEDROOM BATHROOM 0.050
(ITCHEN STOVE 0.056 BEDROOM HOUSE 0.043
(ITCHEN UTENSIL 0.025 BEDROOM WINDOW 0.036
(ITCHEN CABINET 0.020 BEDROOM DOOR 0.022
<ITCHEN COLINTER 0.020 BE,DROOM LIVING ROOM 0.022
(ITCHEN KNIFE 0.015 BEDROOM FURNITURE 0.014
<ITCHEN POT 0.0r5 BEDROOM HOME, 0.014
(ITCHEN TABLE 0.01 5 BEDROOM LIGHT 0.014
(ITCHEN DISH 0.010 BEDROOM MASTER 0.014
Tasr,r z7 KrtcuEN coNTENTs Taslr 3o Barun ooM coNTENTs

50 5l
Ox Tns BsacH HuuaNSr Pms AND Orurn
BEACH SAND 0.394
BEACH SLTN 0.145 ANruar,s
BE,ACH OCEAN 0.073 The data for pets throws up an interesting surprise. The FSG
BEACH WATER 0.073 between pet and dog is very high indeed.
BEACH TOWE,L 0.042
BEACH BALL 0.024 Prrs
BEACH SUMMER 0.024
0.024
PET DOG 0.637
REACH SURF
0.024 PET CAT 0.082
BE,ACH SWIM
PET FISH 0.021
BEACH FLIN 0.0 8
WAVE 0.0 8
PET HAMSTER 0.014
BEACH
BEACH RLANKET 0.0 2 Taslr 3t Psrs
BEACH BUM 0.0 2 For a cue of"pet", the FSG for "dog" is over seven and a half
BEACH COAST 0.0 2 times than that for "cat". This implies that even if you ask an
BEACH GIRLS 0.0 2 avid cat lover to name a type of domestic pet, she's likely to
BE,ACH SHORE 0.0 2 say "dog". By way of completeness, here are the tables for
Tasr,E tr BracH dog and cat:

HoussHoLD FunxrruRE Doa


TURNITURE CHAIR 0.r76 DOG CAT 0.667
URNITURE COUCH 0.r49 DOG PUPPY 0.1 1s
URNITURE, BED 0.034 Tasls 34 Doc
FURNITURE SOFA 0.020
Tesr,n rz Fun Ntrun r Car
The difference between a chair and a couch might be the CAT DOG 0.s 13
difference between wanting to be alone and sitting with CAT MOUSE 0.256
others. You could also use the similarity between chairs and CAT KITTEN 0.1 60
couches to gain a near hit in cases where the spectator seems Tasr,s Car
35
not to be taking the first choice her subconscious hands her.
A pet is an animal of some description, so let's examine the
table for "animal".

52 53
It's interesting that most respondents thought of sea-dwelling
Axruar. (srxaur,an ) mammals as well as humans.
ANIMAL DOG 0.293
ANIMAL CAT 0.t20 ON Sarau
ANIMAL LION 0.022
ANTMAL BEAR 0.016 SAFARI LION 0.078
ANIMAL BIRD 0.016 SAFARI GIRAFFE 0.033
ANIMAL HORSE 0.016 SAFARI ELEPHANT 0.026
ANIMAL PIG 0.011 SAFARI TIGER 0.013
ANIMAL RABBIT 0.011 Tasr,s lg Ar.rrMar,s oN SAFART

Tasls t6 ANruar,
Surprisingly, this differs somewhat from the table for Ar rHs Zoo
"animals" (plural). zoo ANIMAL 0.649
zoo LION 0.062
Axruer.s (rr.un ar.) zoo ZEBRA 0.0s2
zoo MONKEY 0.041
ANIMALS DOG 0.1 28
zoo BEAR 0.031
ANIMALS CAT 0.074 zoo ELEPHANT 0.031
ANIMALS MONKEY 0.027
ANIMALS TIGER 0.027
Tasr,r 4o Zoo ANTMALs

ANIMALS LION 0.020 Lions, it seems, are iconic, both in the wild and at the zoo.
ANIMALS PUPPY 0.020
ANIMALS cow 0.013 Ar rsr Crn cus
Tegr,s 37 ANrrvrar,s CIRCUS CLOWN 0.594
CIRCUS ANIMAL 0.056
Mauuer.s CIRCUS ELEPHANT 0.028
MAMMAL WHALE 0.212 CIRCUS PARADE 0.011
MAMMAL HUMAN 0.068 CIRCUS LION 0.011
MAMMAL DOLPHIN 0.062 Tasr,r 4r Ar rHE crRcus
MAMMAL MAN 0.048 Despite inducing a deep-seated and irrational fear in some
MAMMAL DOG 0.041 people, the most memorable aspect of a trip to the circus by
Tasls t8 Mauuar,s far is the clown. Maybe for some this is because of those
fears.

54 55
Gn anopaRENTs Tyms or An rrsr
CRANDPARENTS GRANDMOTHER 0.0s4 ARTIST PAINTER 0.431
GRANDPARENTS GRANDFATHER 0.027 ARTIST MUSICIAN 0.015
Teslr 4z GnaNopARENTs ARTIST WRITER 0.010
Tasls 4J Tyrus oF aRTrsr
OrHsR, Rslerrvgs
RELATIVE AUNT 0.1 69 Jrwrr.s AND Jnwu.LERY
RELATIVE COUSIN 0.074 Whether you like it or think it's gaudy, we live in "bling"
a
RELATIVE MOTHER 0.074 society, so jewellery and jewels make an interesting set of
RELATIVE SISTER 0.061 priming categories.
RELATIVE PARENT 0.034
RELATIVE BROTHER 0.027
RELATIVE GRANDMA 0.027
Jrwrr,s
RELATIVE JEWEL DIAMOND 0.3s4
UNCLE 0.027
JE,WEL RT]BY 0.07 r

JEWEL GOLD 0.0s 1

rhe above ,,," ,"0,I^,1""*T,i::il* tendency to choose JEWE,L E,ME,RALD 0.04s


female relatives. The male relatives all have ,"uk psc, Tasr,r 46 Jnwrr.s
in
comparison, so patter building up a picture of a selected
relative beginning with the gender of the person being
imagined can get you a succession of partial hits. Jrwrr.r.ERY
JEWELLRY GOLD 0.309
Fraunrs oF AurnoRrry JEWELLRY DIAMOND 0.140
JEWELLRY RTNG 0.1 18
AUTHORITY POLICE 0.206 JEWELLRY NECKLACE 0.074
AUTHORITY TEACHER 0.106 JEWELLRY NONE 0.037
AUTHORITY BOSS 0.064 JEWELLRY WIlAR 0.029
AUTHORITY PARENT 0.064 JEWELLRY CHAIN 0.015
AUT}IORITY PRIIICIPAL 0.03s JEWELLRY EARRING 0.015
AUTHORITY MOM 0.021 JEWET,LRY WATCH 0.0t5
AUTHORITY DAI) 0.014
AUTHORITY Tesr,r 47 JzwzrLERY
PRESIDENT 0.014
Tenr,s 44 Frcun rs or AursoRrry Asking the spectator for an item ofjewellery should eliminate
the top two choices. The target "None" is a curious anomaly,

56 57
but the same patter eliminates it. If you get, say, a necklace other ring and jewel combination, so when asked to name the
when you thought it would be a ring, note that both are jewel in an imagined ring, there's a very good chance that the
circles. So is a watch, and you can even say that a chain is a spectator will answer "diamond".
circle when fastened. This is a form of pragmagram, which
we'll cover in depth in a later chapter. Rings play a pivotal MrscsLLANEous CarsaoRrEs
parl in our culture, especially for women, so here's the table
for them:
Fr.owgn s
Rtxas FLOWER ROSE 0.248
RING FINGER 0.1 95
FLOWER DAISY 0.06r
RING WEDDING 0.101 FLOWER TULTP 0.012
RING BELL 0.10t Tarls 5o Fr.owun s
RING ENGAGEMENT 0.081
In this table, daisy is interesting for being five times more
RING DIAMOND 0.081 popular than tulip. This surprised me, as did the severe drop
RING MARRIAGE 0.067 in FSG between the first two entries.
RING GOLD 0.067
RING PHONE 0.054
RING .IEWELRY 0.054
Moxrss
TasI,s 48 Rnrc MONTH MAY 0.060
MONTH JI]LY 0.0s4
And for the sake of completeness, here's the data for "Gold": MONTH AUGUST 0.040
MONTH JUNE 0.034
Gor,o MONTH MARCH 0.034
MONTH SEPTEMBER 0.034
GOLD SILVER 0.472
MONEY 0.t02 MONTH DECEMBER 0.027
GOLD
MONTH APRIL 0.020
GOLD JEWEL 0.096
MONTH JANUARY 0.020
GOLD RICH 0.046
MONTH NOVEMBER 0.020
GOLD DIAMOND 0.030
MONTH OCTOBER 0.020
GOLD METAL 0.025
Tesr,r 5r MoNrHs
Tesr,E 4s GoLo lnterestingly, the warrner months are near the top of this
table, and the colder ones are near the bottom. If the spectator
According to the Floridian database, adding "diamond" to discards "May" and works through several others, it's likely
"ring" gives an FSG of 0.435, which his far higher than any that she'll still be in a "warm" part of the year.

58 59
footprint, or perhaps doesn't use a car on a regular basis.
Maybe she cannot afford one or doesn't drive. It's not much,
'Wraroxs but when combined with other information, it might form the
basis of a remarkable insight into her life.
WEAPON GUN 0.s92
WEAPON KNIFE 0.075 Similarly, an answer of "train" could indicate that she
Tasr,r Jz WsaroNs cornmutes. It also implies that she has a job that pays well
enough for commuting to be viable. By asking casual follow-
Given the overwhelming strength of FSG for gun, a choice of up questions as you offer patter indicating what her choices
"knife" could be very revealing. It also means that if you're mean, you can get even more snippets of information to use
performing an intuitive routine that involves a murder later.
weapon, it's highly likely that the spectator will pick the
correct one. Here's the top of the table for a cue of
"violence". See how "grn" has an FSG of just over 25% CgR gI\doNIEs
more than that for "crime". CEREMONY WEDDING 0.439
CEREMONY FUNE,RAL 0.072
Vtor.gxcg CEREMONY MASS 0.022

VIOLE,NCE GUN 0.1 05


Tasr,r JJ CEREMoNTES
VIOLENCE, CRIME 0.078 I've updated this table to include "mass". Though you could
VIOLE,NCE FIGHT 0.072 twist the answer into "wedding mass", some readers of the
VIOLENCE DEATH 0.052 previous volume reported that a few spectators had indicated
Tasr,r Jt YToLENcE that they meant a Catholic mass. This could be useful if you
give the spectator time to make a choice of ceremony in order
to then reveal her discarded choices.
Tn axsroRT
TRANSPORTATION CAR 0.595 At just over 6 times more likely than "funeral", "wedding" is
TRANSPORTATION BUS 0.1 89 quite a safe bet for the top choice. Maybe we don't like to
TRANSPORTATION TRAIN 0.020 think about funerals, or maybe a wedding is the only time
TRANSPORTATION AIRPLANE 0.014 many of us go to church, in which case "Funeral" could
reveal much about the spectator's recent past.
Tasr,r J4 MrrnoDs oF TRANsPoRT
Answers to questions about transpott could hold the key to Given that her religion might also affect the spectator's
unlocking the spectator's social attitude to global watming, or choice, how can we eliminate ceremonies such as bar
even her place in society. Someone who immediately says mitzvahs? Using a form of words such as, "a ceremony you'd
"bus" may be consciously trying to reduce her carbon

61
attend in a church" should increase the likelihood of getting a Taking another approach, and anticipating the spectator
hit for "wedding" from people of many faiths. discarding "television", )ou could build patter that anticipates
this using the idea of simply seeing her in front of a screen.
CsusrMAs
HRISTMAS TREE 0.337 Toor,s
HRISTMAS NEW YEAR 0.042 TOOL HAMMER 0.402
HRISTMAS PRESENT 0.042 TOOL SCREWDRIVER 0.0s2
HRISTMAS EVE, 0.021 TOOL WRENCH 0.052
HRISTMAS SANTA 0.021 TOOL SAW 0.021
HRISTMAS VACATION 0.021 TOOL SHOVEL 0.021
Tasr,r 56 Cnn rsruas Tasr,s 58 Toor,s
This table surprised me both because of the drop in FSG "Hammer" has an FSG of 0.402, which is over seven-and-a-
between the first two entries and by having no religious half times higher than "screwdriver".
aspect to it. As well as ours being a "bling" society, it also
seems to be a predominantly secular one. CHsss Prscss
CHESS KING 0.092
ExTsnTAINMENT CHESS KNIGHT 0.033
NTERTAINMENT TELEVISION 0.216 CHESS BISHOP 0.01 3
NTERTAINMENT MOVIE 0.1 69 CHE,SS PAWN 0.01 3
NTERTAINMENT MI]SIC 0.09s Tasr,r J9 CHrss Prrcss
]NTERTAINMENT SHOW 0.027
What surprised me about this category was the absence of the
Taslr 57 ENTnnTAINMENT queen.
The FSGs for the top two entries in the above table are quite
similar, but think a little deeper and they represent the Mexr Ur
difference between sitting passively and being in control.
You might use the spectator's response as the basis for a mini MAKE UP LIPSTICK 0.04s
reading about the difference between controlling what's MAKE UP BLUSH 0.023
being given to enjoy (television), and passively watching MAKE UP EYE SHADOW 0.015
(movie). MAKE UP MASCARA 0.01 s
MAKE UP POWDER 0.015
Taslr 6o Maxr [Jp

62 63
Sran, Srcxs Basxsrs
HOROSCOPE AOUARIUS 0.056 BASKET FRUIT 0.084
HOROSCOPE PISCES 0.042 BASKET F'LOWER 0.049
HOROSCOPE ARIES 0.035 BASKET EASTER 0.042
HOROSCOPE CAPRICORN 0.035 BASKET WICKER 0.042
HOROSCOPE LE,O 0.035 BASKET PICNIC 0.03s
HOROSCOPE SCORPIO 0.028 BASKET STRAW 0.028
HOROSCOPE TAURUS 0.021 BASKET BOWL 0.021
HOROSCOPE VIRGO 0.021 BASKET BREAD 0.0 4
HOROSCOPE LIBRA 0.014 BASKET CARRY 0.0 4
Tasr,p 6r Sran sIGNs BASKET EGGS 0.0 4
BASKET GARBAGE 0.0 4
What's immediately interesting about this table is the lack of BASKET LALINDRY 0.0 4
Gemini, Cancer, and Sagittarius. Maybe like funerals, the BASKET TRASH 0.0 4
concept of "cancer" isn't something people like to think BASKET WASTE 0.0 4
about and so the association with anything but death is weak.
BASKET wooD 0.0 4

Gemini and Sagittarius are harder to explain as there's no real Tasr,r 6z Basxrrs
statistical significance in the number of people born in
different months other than a very slight increase in DrrscrroNs
September and less so in October'n. Also interesting is that
DIRECTION NORTH 0.t64
the four most popular choices of star sign are associated with
DIRECTION UP 0.086
the winter months. Getting people to stop simply choosing
DIRECTION LEFT 0.0s0
their own star sign could be as easy as asking for a "random
DIRECTION RIGHT 0.043
star sign, not your own".
DIRECTION SOUTH 0.036
DIRECTION EAST 0.029
DIRECTION WEST 0.029
DIRECTION FORWARD 0.014
Tasln 6t Drn scrroNs

r0
Somcthing to do with cold wintcrs?

64 65
Cgr.rgRATIoNs
CELEBRATION
CELEBRATION
PARTY
BIRTHDAY
0.6s8
0.072
4. SmrrNG Ths ScrNs
CELEBRATION HAPPY 0.039
CELEBRATION HOLIDAY 0.020 \tr/. have a robust working explanation for why priming
Y Y forces work, data for a wide range of categories, and
CELEBRATION FUN 0.020
we know where to go online to get more. We now need some
CELEBRATION FIREWORKS 0.0r3
interesting, subtle and convincing ways of using them. We
CELEBRATION BEER 0.013
can do a lot better than the crude usage examples from the
CELEBRATION JOY 0.013 previous chapter, however. After all, we're not playing
Tagls 64 Crr,EnrATroNs "Family Fortunes".

AccrosNTs There are three classic types of test we can perform. In the
first, the spectator is the transmitter of the thought to be
ACCIDENT CAR 0.358 received by the performer. The second reverses the roles and
ACCIDENT CRASH 0.1 28 has the spectator as the receiver of the performer's
ACCIDENT MISTAKE 0.074 transmitted thought. The third is between spectators.
ACCIDENT WRECK 0.054
ACCIDENT FALL 0.014 Along with being able to get the spectator's co-operation,
ACCIDENT MISHAP 0.014 we'll also need to anticipate genuine misses that will
ACCIDENT TRAGEDY 0.014 inevitably occur, hopefully to tum them into at least partial
Tasls 65 Accrornrs hits. This requirement means using every tiny and seemingly
inconsequential scrap of information as completely as
possible. Let's begin by examining ways of selecting the
Ssesoxs spectator and gaining her cooperation as fully as possible.
SEASON SUMMER 0.211
SEASON FALL 0.1 91 SrucrAToR CooruRATroN
SEASON WINTER 0.171
ln his book "The Alchemical Tools",t' UK mentalist and
SEASON SPRING 0.086 psychologist Paul Brook discusses the "paralanguage" people
Tasr,s 66 SsesoNs use and how it gives away their thoughts and attitudes to a
situation. He first describes how to spot different types of
person you might want to avoid using in your demonstrations.
Analytical people, he says, are too concerned with how
something is done to pay attention to you and to go along
I I
Availabic directly from www.paulbrook.co.uk

66 67
with your instructions. They will think nothing of trying to her advantage is being offered, and also gives her an
break an effect during your performance to see how it works. understandable method of possibly bringing it into being.
Paul says that these people tend to be quiet but very
obserant. If she's to be a transmitter, I like to emphasize that the first,
spontaneous choice that emerges is the "strongest" and
Bored people, or those not particularly interested in joining in therefore best for transmission. Adding something about how
as spectators, are another problematic group. Paul says this shows it has "energy" and will travel well also helps.
they're easily distracted and I agree wholeheartedly, making
them unsuitable. As a performer, I'm sure you'll have come In"The Alchemical Tools", Paul Brook also gives excellent
across these people regularly. advice on how to enhance spectator buy-in. In the section
about "demonstrative conformity" (beginning on page 79),he
Egotists are people who want to be the focus of attention, explains that showing the spectator what you require from her
want to control the situation, or to influence others to their can help her to conform to your wishes. It might be as simple
way of thinking. Paul details methods of spotting and as demonstrating how you want her to relax by taking a deep
handling these types of people with techniques that are easily breath yourself. If you really think about what you need the
adapted to Naked work. Start seeing potential spectators as spectator to do, you can bring extremely fine control to the
stereotypes such as these and they'll become easier to spot. situation through such demonstrations.

Once we have a spectator who is attentive, happy to help, and By seeming to hand responsibility for the success or failure of
is comfortable that nothing bad is going to happen, we need the experiment over to the spectator, you also create an in-
to be as sure as we can be that she will play her part honestly built, pre-emptive "out" in cases where she's secretly
and deliver initial, spontaneous choices. Simply demanding analytical and is merely playing along until it's time to gather
this happens, however, is likely create defiance at just the her own proof that you're not really reading her mind. If she
moment when we need compliance - even from a willing does so, you can easily explain that she failed to transmit fbr
participant. the reason that the energy level of her consciously selected
thought was too low to escape her mind. When she
The method I favour for achieving this deeper level of cooperates by taking her natural first choice, however, results
cooperation is to use patter that includes what appears to be flow without problems. If you still miss when naming the
vital information about what's about to happen, and which target with the highest FSG, you also have scope for
gives her a legitimate way of testing whether you're doing explaining that you could feel it fighting to transmit because
what you say you are. it was the strongest. Be imaginative, but be prepared!

One example is to explain that the more she enters into the It would take a very deceitful spectator indeed to
experience and just goes with her first hunch each time, the subsequently argue that she was following your instructions.
better will be the results. Something curious and possibly to In an informal setting, a suitably sorry spectator (or one that

68 69
will quite often groundbreaking work with these kind o.f group
genuinely did give the wrong first choice) dvnamics on his DVD'Something'."
iequest a chance to redeem herself'
stresses the The rest of your audience can literally come to your rescue if
It also pays to introduce the etfect in a way that but a real the spectator is deliberately trying to trip you up when
i*p"nun". of takin; it seriously' This isn't a trick real performing a spectator-as-receiver effect. Here's some
demonstratiou of ail technique in .mind
""pe'i*ental poor results' and will example patter taking in these principles:
;;;g. Any skylarking'will lead to
watching'
Oir"ppii* nlt onty you,*bot also her and the others "llow, I knov, you'll be able to do this per./bctly so
also act as the I'm going to ask you to simply take a tleep breath, like
As Itnentioned earlier, the spectator can this [here the pe{ormer takes a deep breath himselJ
so that whatever pops
receiver. We just need to recast things through his nose and raises his upturned palms to
you're
uf nrrt into her conscious mind is whatever thought s1'mbolise the ./illing o/ his lungsJ, and to relax .vour
the, side tllt::. "t
supposedly transmitting Thil also .has mind as vou let it oLtt again [here he turns his palms
you to tell the audience that the better recelvers down and let.s them sink as he slowly and silently
"*tling
u*ong it'tem migtrt also be able to pick up
your transmissions
where the spectator allows the air to escape through his noseJ. It's that
which is a very good "out" for instances /beling of a calnt, quiet mind yotr need ./br this,
Shouten explains:
herself is wrong.-Dutch mentalist Matthew okay? "

"When performing J'or an audience' you hat;e


acces's
will be Paul Brook notes in "The Alchemical Tools" that while both
to a very po*"r-1ut'out: most of'the audience
mentalists and magicians initially leam to demonstrate what
your ctred target word even if
^oJ' the
thinking they require of a spectator to gain compliance like this, they
good rappor.t
volunteer tlenies it. Usually, i.f you have later seem to forget how powerful a technique it can be' It's
people
witlt yotrr ,spectators, ))ou'can see this because useful for our purposes because it reassures the spectator that
even spelk
stta'rito ,t ift i, their'seats ancl some may she's not about to be made a to look foolish, be hypnotized'
ul fuot they 'got it' aJier the volunteer decluresbethe to or get into something she may subsequently regret.
Jxp,eriment to be a.fa'ilure' A .simple o.ttt
could
the
ort p, a show of hancls; f' you printed fbrce
corr:ectly, the majoritlt o/-hancls should go up, which RrJscrrNc a Srr,crAToR
is u clranratic and ,'isual entling to a failed ffic't' There will come a tirne when, for whatever reason, you have
to reject a spectator. To help with this potentially
volunteer antl uncomfortable experience, it pays to handle rejecting as a
However, tlon't alienate the originul
they did
send them to their seat with the idea that kind of out. Whatever the circumstances (and logically, there
them in
sontetlting wrotlg. Be polite' try to involve must be as many potential reasons for rejection as there are
on their
another demonstration, or compliment them spectators to reject), your task is to still make the spectator
intiividtrcIlrQ antl unique u'ay o.f thi.nking'
It's also
worth noting that Jim Callahan has done some

7l
feel good about herself - even if she's volunteered just to simply need mention those you wish to eliminate by using
make your life hell for her own amusement. them as examples just before you ask for her choice. Here's
an examPle:
Primarily, your performance persona dictates how you handle
rejecting unsuitable spectators. The important thing to "Think of a geometric shape, something like a
remember is to fiame the rejection as positively as possible. square."
If you're presenting a believable display of psychic ability,
your patter must be in character fiom word one. This includes The effect is to remove "square" as an option fiom the
rejection. Framing the rejection positively, you might say you spectator's nrind. Giving a reason is also a good tactic:
sense the spectator has more psychic ability than is usual in
the population, which is a problem for you because it's "Think of a geometric shape, like a square, but prefer-
untamed: ably not a square because I've already mentioned it
now and I don't want you to think I'rn trying to influ-
"I'rn sensing something about you, I hope you don't ence you."
mind me saying so. I do apologise for this. There's an
impressive amount of psychic energy coming fiom Beware, however, because you may remove it from
your direction, but because you're not aware of it, I'm subsequent choices too. Matthew Shouten also suggests that
seeing it as an overwhelming jumble. lt'd be great to giving the third entry in the list as the exarnple works very
see if I can't show you something using that ability well in completely limiting the choices on offer to iust the
later. For now, can I ask you to take your seat again? first two and no more. This may be because the removal of
Ladies and gentlemen, a big round of applause please the third option causes a break in the expected pattem of
for one of the most naturally strong transmitters of choices. Forced to think quickly, the spectator only has a
psychic energy I've met in a long tirne." couple from which to choose.

It's vital that you spend time crafting outs for when you get Another method is to eliminate a potential choice for being
genuine misses, but it's equally important to pay attention to too obvious to really test your2:
the outs you use to reject unsuitable spectators.
"Think of a geometric shape, but not a sqLrare. It's just
LuttrrtNc SrucrAToR Csorcs that everyone picks a square and it's really too obvi-
ous, so think another simple geometric shape."
gY ExAMPLE
ln "Psychological Subtleties 11', Steve Shaw discusses the
idea of "mental reach". The spectator's "rsach" is the list of
choices on offer to her rnind when asked to think of
something. Shaw says that to remove ceftain options you 't I have troublc locating the ace of spades in irn Invisiblc Deck and usc
this technique to eliminate it and a couplc of other cards.

72 73
Supposing you've asked her to think of, say, a colour. If she's
Exrr,oITING Evs Accrss Curs really giving you the flrst one that f'lashes up from her
Though over the years some parts of the neuro-linguistic subconscious, her eyes will usually continue to regard you as
programming (NLP) world might have developed a she immediately answers. They might flicker for a slight
sourewhat negative reputation, at its heart are some useful moment as she "goes inside" momentarily to request an
evidence-based techniques. One is the Erickson handshake answer frour her subconscious.
induction. Another is the setting and triggering of anchors.
Ifshe discards the initial choice in favour of another choice.
Reading eye access cues is one area of NLP that has her eyes will tend to dart off to the side to some degree. She
particular significance for priming forces. We don't need to may overplay the length of time she takes to finish saying
go into the theory and use of eye access cues in any real she's made a choice to hide changing her mind. Knowing this
depth here'r. They're not generally as accurate as some would we can select a different line of patter that takes this into
have you believe without first carrying out sorne careful account
calibration of the spectator's responses to different types of
question. However, they are somewhat consistent in that they
tend to occur in response to requests for information where
Fnona Mrss ro Colp RTADTNG
The idea of keeping the spectator in the dark about why
the spectator has to actively think of an answer, regardless of you're asking her to think of something is the basis of a
whether that answer is remembered or consttucted in reliable method of ensuring that only you know you've
response to a question. missed. You just claim a hit! Here's how it works.

Ask a spectator to remember something (an object she saw Suppose you're performing a simple routine using priming,
during the journey to see you, perhaps, or what she had for but the spectator either innocently or maliciously gives
breakfast) and her eyes will usually dart briefly to one side as offbeat answers. What do you do? In his book ,,The
she recalls it. Ask her to construct an answer, however (where Encyclopaedia of ImpromptLt Card.force.s"r4, in the section on
she wants to go on holiday next year, for example), and her equivocation, Lewis Jones has an answer that can be adapted
eyes will usually dart in the opposite direction as she does so. to Naked effects, and which allows you to continue as if
nothing had gone wrong.
The direction her eyes dart isn't important to us. It's the fact
that they dart to the side at all and for how long they do so Always remember that in essence, the spectator's actions and
that's important. 'fhis is because it inrplies that the spectator answers should only have a meaning when you supply one,
is engaged in consulting her subconscious repeatedly rather and not befbre. In the case of choosing between two objects
than accepting its first choice. or piles of cards, for instance, you'd never say, ..take one and
keep it" because this deflnes the meaning of the two piles,
13
See "Sleight of Mind" by Ian Harling and Marlin Nyrup. ISBN: 9- and she rnay take the one you want for yourself. ln such a
788799-04t3106, page 26, for a clear and concisc description ofeye access ra
cues. www.hutch.demon.co.uk/lcwis

74 75
of tlie pile scripting. If you prepare for failure, everything's a success,
situation, you can't suddenly redefine the meaning
by changing your mind and asking to swap' and you might discover new snippets of information about
the spectator along the way. Here's an example frorn the
to point to a previous volume:
To avoid this situation' you might ask her simply
you take it
pile without saying wtry. ff it's the one you want'
yours.tf. Otherwise, you tell her to.pick it up and take the
Performer: "Now, name a type of fruit, like a
banana or something." (expecting
tther yourself without drawing attention to it'
"Apple")
Similarly, it would be fbolish to define the meaning
of the
qu"r,io* you're about to ask by saying that you've.written Spectator: Ianswersimmediately]"Alemon."
quite
do*n what the spectator \s going to say' This could Performer: "A lemon? That's very interesting. Can
silently
,"aronaUty pro,rok" a challenge' Instead, you nright
write sori"thing down (or if you're being completely
Naked' I tell you why? I sensed a jolt of
emotion fiom you to do with a memory
whispJr it to a second spectator)' and if it's what
the
f.rhup,
'first tum the card involving the idea of fruit. Did you feel
spectatoi subsequently says, you can simply
your it'J"
or slate over, or hive the second spectator confirm-
prediction and thereby produce a minor miracle of
preco gnitiorVthought control/whatever'
Spectator: "I suppose so."

If the spectator manages to give you genuine misses-


in this Performer: "I want to say that there's an element
situation, you call handle them in many ways.
[f your of conflict attached to this memory,
pr"r"ntuiion style is psychologic-al, a very good out is to isn't there. Fruit's not your first choice
people tend to of food, is it?"
explain that what you'u. written dgwn is what
,"ply, using Matthew Schouten's idea of including the "No, it's not."
Spectator:
audience asieceivers to add weight to that claim'

could nlove swiftly into a Performer: "You were made to eat it when you
In a more psychic presentation' you
and why wanted something else, weren't you, a
cold reading to explain the significance of the choice
you're long time ago."
you thoughi it would be what you wrote' In doing so'
iefining ilre meaning of her answer in terms of an interesting "Yes."
to being Spectator:
extra piece of personal information, thereby adding
in your presence rather than simply presenting the miss
and
Performer: "But you'd rather have eaten other
taking awaY lronr the exPerience'
things."
and of
As with all Naked techniques, the key is adaptability' "Yes."
Spectator:
thinking on your feet ai much as careful planning
and

76 77
Performer: "This was when you were a lot Ifyou have to reject a spectator, ensure you have a
younger, during childhood. It feels like positively framed out to cover the situation.
there was a tendency to turn it into a
battle. Was it with Mum'/ There Limit the spectator's choices if needs be by providing
certainly felt like a f-eminine presence examples that break the chain of choices.
in that jolt."
Use eye access cues to monitor for conscious thoughts
Spectator: "Yes, she didn't like me eating as she retrieves her reply.
sweets!"
o Always have an out up your sleeve.
Someone who associates lemons with fruit (especially when
the FSG for apple is so high) probably hasn't enjoyed many
nice juicy apples in their time.

Just as tarot readers will memorise a detailed meaning for


each card, you can script a detailed meaning for the top few
choices in different priming categories including how they
relate to the spectator. You can then freely cold read your
way out of a miss and into a more advantageous situation.
The important thing is that the spectator never suspects that
you've missed. Even when you do get a direct hit, you can
still deliver the extra information you've rehearsed about her
choice as and when it comes through.

IN SUMMARY
Choose the spectator wisely, and reject her if you
have any doubts as to her buy-in or integrity.

Make the spectator aware that she's responsible for


the outcome of the test.

Give her a set of instructions she can believe in, and


which also explain why she fails if she doesn't follow
them.

78 79
5. Pn,aGMAGRAMS
f ne*t want to introduce you to a pet idea of mine. I call it a
I"prug-ugram". and while I've seen nothing like it in print,
it's something for which I've found many uses, from card
tricks to the Naked Book Test. It's also very useful in
creating effects that make use of priming forces where we
need to be prepared to use an out that creates a believable
partial hit. It gives us the ability to impart cryptic information
about the spectator's choice beJbre she even makes it, and
which later resolves itself into at least a partial hit for her
subsequent choice.

Pragmagrams are in essence the opposite of progressive


anagrams. Think of how a progressive anagram works. Given
a subject, the spectator makes a mental choice. You then very
subtly probe for enough unique letters in its name to identify
it. While progressive anagrams can be astounding when
presented well, their presentation is a skill in itself. It struck
me that any collection of things you care to imagine has
plenty of other useful attributes way beyond just the letters in
the names. By using whatever attributes the choices have, (in
other words, by being pragmatic), a powerful and yet subtle
technique emerges.

So, like a progressive anagram, a pragmagram is both the


analysis of the choices on offer to the spectator beforehand,
and a method of identifying the spectator's choice during
performance. But while a progressive anagram is about
finding the spectator's choice by discovering what makes it
unique within the group of possible choices, a pragmagram is
about finding common factors that could apply to any of the
possible choices. This is what I mean by pragmagrams being

80 81
the opposite of progressive anagrams. But what good are also one-way, from me to her, which is also significant.
they? There's no fishing involved.

Well, as I mentioned above, being pragmatic and using all ln a priming force effect, you miglrt use the pragmagram
and any attributes available gives us the ability to create approach to tell the spectator that you're receiving a bizarre
patter we can use be/bre the spectator even makes a choice, image early on in your patter; something not obviously
which later resolves into a partial hit regardless of the associated with the concept you've asked the spectator to
subsequent choice. If we miss. this pre-imparted, cryptic think of, but still embodying it in a way that only comes clear
knowledge can be very useful indeed in helping to rescue the later. Here's a basic example using that old perennial, the
situation. colour force:

If you've read either the Naked Book Test section of the first Performer: "Keep hold of the first colour that flashes
volume of Naked Mentalism or the Fully Scripted Naked through your mind. Got it?"
Book Test, you'll already be familiar with the use of
pragmagrams. I used them in some instances to tease out Spectator: [immediately] "yes."
attributes common to the different word possibilities. The
subsequent patter then describes these attributes before I Performer: "It's strange, but as you answered, I got an
finally make a definite choice of word. This way, if I'm image of a flag coming through for some
wrong, I can still score a partial hit, but on a deeper, reason. It's indistinct. but I think it's a
conceptual level. Here's what I mean. Union Jack. I can see two bright colours, but
they're somewhat blurred and almost
Take the 4-letter "T" words from the Naked Book Test: They blending together. I can't tell which is
are: this. that, they, and them. Being pragmatic instead ofjust brightest. I feel I'm being asked to choose
taking the four words at face value, we can see that a very between them. Is it red you were thinking
strong but subtle comrnon attribute is that they all point to ofl"
something, either singularly or in a group. It's THIS thing,
THEM over there, and so on. Spectator: "No, it's blue."

The patter I use for 4-leter T words has to do with someone in Performer: "Ah, now, that's interesting. Before you
my mind pointing to something, but me not being able to see spoke, I got a red white and blue Union
clearly how far away it is (whether it's THIS or THAT, in Jack coming through, didn't I?"
other words), or whether it's one thing or a number of things
(THEY or THEM). That's all four possibilities covered on a Spectator: "Yes."
conceptual level. The spectator can see nle trying to interpret
a cryptic image I've received clearly describing the concept Performer: "And I nearly said blue immediately because
underlying her choice of word. The flow of information is it's a Union Jack, and that's associated with

82 83
royal blood, which is blue blood. I receive tkely to remember the experience as a hit purely because we
these insights in symbolic form, you see. talked about the flag bet'bre she said any'thing'
The way I do this is to interpret what I'm
seeing, but the image was fading and I If well that's just red and blue mixed
she decides on purple,
wasn't sure about which was brightest (taken care of pre-emptively by telling her it's a blurred
colour any louger. Both colours were i'rnug" coming through). The same goes for pink (red blurring
standing out vividly, as if giving lne a into wtrite). To handle black, we could have added something
choice between just those two and no about waftime to the initial patter. The best thing with
others. It felt like red to me rather than blue, creating these bizarre images is that you can put in as nruch
but there were only those two choices. strange detail as you need to cover the options the spectator
rather than yellow or orange or whatever." might choose. when it comes time to match the aspects of the
image with the spectator's choice, simply forget the other
As I said in the previous chapter, one of the great axioms of details and concentrate on the ones that map ottto her choice.
magic and mentalism is to keep the element of surprise. Done well, it becomes very difficult to fail-
Suddenly giving details of a seemingly abstract vision you've
received is certainly surprising. Never defitre what you're Another useful aspect of the pragmagram approach is that it
introducing into the situation until it's too late and you're enables us to use priming categories where the most popular
already in a position to score at least a significant partial hit. targets all have FSGs that are so close they'd be difficult to
The above patter does just that. Befbre the spectator names ur" in other ways. Don't worry if this makes your brain
her colour, we already appear to have received something in bleed. Here's another simple example that should clarify
synbolic form. When her choice becomes apparent, we can things.
use the image to fill in the details. That, in essence, is a
pragmagram in action. TEr,r,rNa CaRRors Fnou
Depending on whether she subsequently confirms the colour LsrrucEs
or not, we have either a direct hit, or enough leeway in the Supposing you're forcing a carrot, but want to cover other
image to deliver a near hit for the colour. Eitlier way, we can poitiUititGs including a lettuce. The first common factor that
subsequently elaborate on the image of the flag to reveal springs to mind between a carrot and a lettuce is that the top
details of how these strange visions manifest themselves and end of a carrot is much wider than the bottom. This could
our interpretation of them. feasibly apply to a lettuce too; the tight base contrasting with
the mass of leaves above it. Also. in both cases, there's
The great thing about this approach is that if we hit trouble, evidence that something has been cut from the object' [n the
there's still a good chance we'll be able to move on without case of a carrot, it's the leaves and possibly the root' in the
registering a complete miss if we pick the wrong colour. case of a lettuce, it's been cut from the ground, and may have
What's more, if we impress the spectator sufficiently, she's

84 85
vegetables are also too. I'm not sure. but because it has a
some outer leaves missing too' Both f-eeling of being a vivid colour even though
cooking'
Lrigftt in colour, and can be eaten without the colour's not coming through yet, I want
..Psycrets,', the British to say, and it's a close choice between this
Dr Todd Landman, co-fbunder of and letturce, I want to say that it's a carrot."
that these and very
Society of Mystery llntertainersr5, notes
a wide
,i-itui comlrlon factors could also be used to cover you could If the choice was a lettuce, we can still point to the
discarded
range of root vegetables' With careful
wording'
etc. and choice and elaborate on the image to show how we arrived at
cover items such as radishes, parsnips, tumips, the choice we did. As a second quick exantple, let's take
;;f; ; the local supermarkei.where the spectator could another look at the data for "garden":
huu. o"""rs to a wide range of choices'
between a GARDEN FLOWER 0.391
ln summary then, the colnmon factors identified GARDEN HOSE 0.132
carrot and a lettuce above are:
GARDE,N PLANT 0.1 l9
GARDEN VEGETABLES 0.086
o Wider at the toP than the bottom
GARDEN ROSE 0.073
o Something cut from at least one end
. BrightlY coloured TaslE o7 Ix rHE GARDEN
o Edible raw Suddenly, "Hose" being the second entry isn't the problem it
could be. It's directly related to plants, so what common
Hete's one idea for using these attributes to weave a
attributes could we weave into a simple, brzane image
pragmatic image: covering all options? Maybe it could include the concept of
thirst. Flowers and plants grow in summer, so maybe it's
Performer:..Keepholdofthefirstvegetablethatflashes thirst caused by the sun. If the spectator chooses a garden
through Your rnind' Got it?" hose, thirst is covered, as are the thirsty plants. Let your
imagination run wild in finding such pragmatic attributes to
Spectator: [inrmediately] "yes'" exploit and you'll soon leam to create very deceptive in-rages
covering many possibilities at once.
Performer: "I'm picking up sonething now' more a
feeling than anyhing' It's wide at one end Performer: "l feel very thirsty when I try to think of
and rmrch naffower at the other' I can't
tell
this. I feel the sun in the sky and how I need
if it's had something cut otf or if it's been to drink. I think water is coming, however.
cut from something itself' but there's There's no drought, just a delay. I'm seeing
something missing or cut away' I
get the
the garden from the point of view of some
distinct iJea that it's edible without cooking' form of plant waiting in the sun for
watering, a flower, I think."
s
' http://wlvw.PsYcrets'org'uk/
87
86
If the image is anything from a prize marrow to a rose or
even a watering can. there's enough to correct yourself and 6. PtrMrNG Errscrs
resolve the irnage in temrs of whatever the spectator gives as Finally, here's a selection of efTects r"rsing what we've learned
her choice. Any fonn of plant, flower, vegetable and so on is about priming in the preceding chapters. The key in
covered, as is the idea of watering them. performing Naked effects well. and certainly ones that rely on
priming forces, is to be subtle. Bury the underlying
mechanism as deeply as possible and keep it as far from sight
as you can. Naked effects have no physical component, and
that helps, but presentation plays the major part. As
Annemann said over half a century ago, "Audiences are far
from being as dumb as some perfonners seem to think." That
advice is becoming ever more relevant, even prophetic, as we
settle into a new rnillennium.

As T.A Waters says in the introduction to "New 'Ihoughts


For Old" in his serninal work Mind, Myth and Magicr":

"Mystery, you see, is supposed to be rare and


special; that's part of what makes it
mysterious. For you to be special as a mystery
performer you must be - or appear to be -
unique. You must do your best to make thern
think they have never seen anything like you
before, and accornplishing that is worth
whatever it takes."

With access to the Intemet and cynicism levels rising, it's


more important than ever to leave no trail for the spectator to
backtrack along. Simply presenting priming forces as an
effect in the fbrm: "think of, this, think of that, think of the
other... You thought of A, B and C" will quite rightly make
the spectator think of statistics as an explanation. You should
aim to make your priming fbrces feel like free choices. To
r"
Available at any good n-ragic shop-

88 89
begin then, here's a nice "quickie" that might be of use as environmental influences as the audience to supposedly make
either a general out or an extra small kicker at the e1d of a sure you're funed in fbr the rest of the performance.
successful routine.
Bernstein used a couple of the better known prinring forces
Tnr Psycslc Cn lg SHEEr from years gone by and wove patter that showed the audience
how the number, shape and juxtaposition of certain objects in
Supposing that before you begin a routine that uses priming the room influence them to make certain choices.
forces, you present the spectator with a sealed envelope'
After you've brought the routine to a conclusion, you instruct Of course. Bemstein didn't know about the rich wealth of
her to open the envelope. She reads a prediction: a set of priming categories in the Floridian database and so had to
brzarre images you say were brought to mind when you rely on old standards. We have no such restrictions and can
imagined how the routine you've iust performed would go expand on his original use of priming. Here's one idea.
(one for each fbrce), along with what you believed them to
mean. If your perfonnance persona is a master of the psychological
afis, you could present a set of priming forces in the form of a
This is obviously a use of the pragmatic approach from talk about your ability and how you developed it, during
Chapter 5. The question is how to effectively present it- Why which you ask fbr the first thoughts entering the audience's
not wrap the meaning of the envelope in the idea of a single heads when you say certain words.
dream or vision you had before the performance'?
You could also litter such a talk with lower FSG choices from
A more hybrid style might see you framing the content of the the categories you then force. If these choices stick out
envelope in tetms of an unusual ability you're learning' slightly in the patter by being slightly unusual, then some
Perhaps it's an interesting by-product of the process of spectators will claim you were trying to make them think of
preparing for your performance today, but one that you those choices and so avoided them, or even claim to t'eel your
believed you were ready to test it out in front of others. l'm influence over them. which all adds to the fun. With a talk
sure there are plenty of other approaches you call use. As that puts the audience at their ease about what's coming up in
with all aspects of how you present your mentalism' let your your act, this approach also fosters an air of acceptance.
imagination run free. Using a show of hands, it's easier for individual audience
members to allow themselves to join in and enjoy the
Gnour SuaGEsrIoN I experience.
In "Perception is Everyt\ft\nr"r], Bruce Bernstein details an
interesting efl-ect he calls simply "The Opetter". This is a Such an aggregation also presents an excellent opportunity to
routine using the idea of picking up the same subtle exploit a natural quirk in our thinking called Pareidolia. This
is the mistaken belief that vague pattems are stronger than
they actually are. By talking up the significance of each show
It Available from scvcral online magic shops, and wcll worlh buying of hands, Pareidolia is simple to induce - especially by

9l
adding extra facts that point to the significance of the overall randomness, in other words, and yet we got 3 times
emerging pattern. The facts you give don't have to be real. more than that. The more you relax and just let your
They just need to conle across as real to the audience. Here's first thought cross your mind, the easier it is. Let's see
an example of the introduction to such a talk built around how much higher we can score when I ask you to
these ideas: think of a fruit.

"I've been asked here today to perform for you, but The first image you got was of an orange, right'? Let's
perform what, you may be asking? Well, people have a show of hands. Good, that was even higher this
sometimes describe what I do as psychological time.
manipulation, but that's wrong. [n fact, I do anything
but manipulate people. so please don't worry. What I It's not just the things people say that can have this
do is simply to spot and incotporate the subtle kind of effect on us. Get a simple shape in your mind
influences that wash around us all the tirne into what I for me and put your hand up if it's a square?"
say.
And so on. Another approach here is to use a printed
Now, the influences that form and shape our thoughts questionnaire that audience members fill in at appropriate
are all around us and can be both far subtler and more points during your talk giving possible choices for each
plentiful than you'd imagine. They say that all named category. You could hand out index cards and pens
communication changes the receiver, and that's instead. Wren complete, the audience members then swap
certainly true. Communicatiou happens over all five these sheets and see that they're all predominantly the same.
senses. We're not like other animals. Our
subconscious records every'thing we experience in
great detail, which provides a mery-go-round of
Gnour SuacrsrroN II
You can easily invert the previous test by using the idea of
meaning fbr us. it also explains why cerlain smells, the group delivering a certain thought to you. One idea for
sounds and so on call make vivid memories and presenting this efl-ect is to hand out pieces of paper with
sometimes even powerful emotions tlood back numbered categories. Someone throws a dice or otherwise
uncontrollably. Speaking of childhood, when I say the generates a random number. Each audience member transmits
word circus, how many people, on a slrow of hands, the image that comes naturally to rnind when they read the
have the image of a clown flash into their minds? associated category.

That's about 60o/o ot so. Statistically, it should be To pre-empt audience members thinking of the wrong thing,
around 20Yo, which is known in paranormal research explain that you're getting more than one signal. and name
circles as mean baseline chancer8. Complete the top target as the one that seems to be coming from the
'* This may sound likc a fact, but it's notl That docsn't lnatter. As
long as most minds. You can then confirm it beyond reasonable
it sounds like a tirct, it'll back up what you say ancl gi"'c it validity in the doubt using a slrow of hands. The fact that some people really
spectator's minds.

92 93
didgetthewrongtargetcanhelptoreinforcetheideathat
Performer: "I'd like to try something now involving
youi. not forcing the thought on them and that they're free
two of you. I want to see if you can
communicate a simple thought between
io think of any they like. By making sure that the participants
your minds. Is that okay?"
know that the image that flashes into their minds first is the
strongest and therefore most suitable for transmission, you
Spec #1: "Sure."
can ensure that you get the most hits'

Spec #2: "Okay."


Two-PERsoN TTmTATHY
what could be more impressive than two spectators, one the Performer: "Who would like to be the transmitter'/"
transmitter, the other the receiver, achieving an apparently
extrasensory exchange of information? The problem is'
how #l: "I will."
Spec
do we create a situation where both have the same thought
without our priming activities becoming obvious to--either Performer: [to Spec #1] "I'm going to give you a
party or the other spectators? Clearly, for such an effect to category in a moment and what I'd like you
huu. u.ry power, we need to keep the information we give the to do is to keep hold of the first thought that
transmitter private from that we give to the receiver and vice comes to mind when I give to you. The
versa, so first let's prime the transmitter' reason for asking you to do this is that the
thought that pops up first is the most
We can do this simply by, for instance, writing down the energetic and will transmit the best. It's
instructions we give to the transmitter and having her read called the Ward Effectre. Is that okay?"
them silently, or by either taking her to one side and
explaining what we need her to do, or by simply whispering Spec #1: "Sure."
those instructions in her ear.
Performer: lto Spec #1] "Good. Let's keep it simple. I
This is a situation in which spectator buy-in is vital, and again want you to get the first instance of a colour
the idea that the best word for transmission is the one that in your mind. Got it?"
occurs to her first can help achieve this'
Spec #1: "Yes."
Next, we need to instruct the receiver. we need to explain
that she's not to consciously think of anything, but instead to Performer: fto Spec #1] "Excellent. Okay, keep saying
allow a thought to form in her mind when she hears the target the name of the colour over and over again,
category. Here's an example using that old standard the as if shouting it at your friend here. But
colour force. don't say anything aloud. Okay?"
'' Of course, thcrc's no such cff'ect, but if it gcts spcctator br-ry-in it's a
"fact".

94 95
Spec #1: "Yes." PnacuATrc Cor.o RsaorNa
A "Barnum Statement" is a basic ingredient in cold reading.
Performer: fto Spec #2] "Okay, your friend is now It's a statement that while being general enough to apply to
transn-ritting something to you. Don't try to practically anyone also has a tendency to invoke a
consciously make a selection at all. Just let psychological "mistake" in people's thinking called the
the transmitted thought enter your rnind. personal validation fallacy2o. This causes the spectator to
You might be getting a lot of noise or even think the statement is specific to them.
nothing, so I'll help you tune in. Take a
moment to let your mind become nice and The problem with Barnum statements lies partly in their
still. and when I tell you the category of superficial nature. They don't really contain any specific
thing she's transmitting, simply say the information. Another problem is that the traditional ones are
rvord that becomes apparent in your nrind. becoming well known to an increasingly sophisticated public.
Relax and tell me when you're happy?" Simply stating that, "You have a need for other people to like
and admire you, and yet you tend to be critical of yourself'
Spec #1: [after a brief pause] "Okay." won't fool a modern. alert spectator for long without you
miraculously producing specific details to back it up.
Performer: [to Spec #2] "Good. Try to feel the name of
the colour your friend is transmitting to you. Because Barnum statements still work when the spectator
What colour is it'/" hasn't heard them befbre, a good use for the pragmagram
technique is in helping you find new ones that no one has
Spec #1: "Red." ever heard. This isn't difficult to do. and the results can be
very efficient at invoking the personal validation fallacy.
Performer: [to Spec #l] "And what colour were you
transmitting?" The diagram below gives a very basic hierarchy of types of
negative childhood rnemories:
Spec #1: "Ited."
Emba r ra s smen 1-

Foolrshness at being observed


And the crowd goes wild. A variation here is to ask spec #l E:<posure of a secret
to think of, say, a colour, a flower, and a vegetable. You then Bu L lying
cross to spec #2 and ask her to write down what she believes Agalnst you
Aqainst others
Spec #1 will have thought of for each. You then ask Spec #l Loss
to give her thoughts for each category aloud, and have Spec Deat-h
#2 confirm them. ReLat-ive
2"
Sometimes called thc "Forer Effcct" aftcr psychologist Bertram R Forer
who first studied the effbct in 1948.

96 97
Fr re nd CELEBRATION PARTY 0.658
Sepa ral, ion
Movrng house CELEBRATION BIRTHDAY 0.072
Losing something' CELEBRATION HAPPY 0.039
Having something stofen
Inj ury CELEBRATION HOLIDAY 0.020
I llness CELEBRATION FUN 0.020
Acc i dent FIREWORKS
CE,LEBRATION 0.0r3
Dracn an: Nrcerrvs Csrr,onooD MEMoRTEs CELEBRATION BE,ER 0.013
At just a couple of levels of decomposition, the memories CELEBRATION JOY 0.013
have a good deal in comnron with each other, which you can Tanr,r, 68 Crr,r,snATroNS
exploit to build new Barnum statements. Let's quickly also
Judging by the FSGs, a memory of a party is by far the most
do the same for memories of celebrations:
likely to be invoked by a suggestion of a celebration:
Ce lebra io n
1-

Bi rt hda y Performer: "Try not to give anything away, okay. but


Presents I'm picking up a memoly now. [t's of a
Cards
Par ty bright colour linked to a celebration. You
can feel a memory of a particular
c;r,t.=tnlultPrise celebration too, can't you?"
Pre sen t s

:::*= Spectator: "Yes."


Tr-oe
Dracnau: Posrrrvn cHrLDHooD MEMoRTEs Performer: "There's cake involved."
Neither of these sirnple diagrams is at all exhaustive by any
means. Even so, both second level categories on the positive
Spectator: "Yes."
childhood memories diagram already contain memories of
pafties. What to these have in comlnon? One thing is presents
Performer: "It's a birthday cake. Is it your birthday'?"

and cards. A Barnum statement exploiting this comrnon


factor might also take in the idea that almost everyone has a
Spectator: "Yes it is!"
favourite birthday or Christmas present from childhood.
Performer: "Yes, a birthday. It's too hazy to see why,
but your birthday was special this particular
How might this link back into priming? Well, here's the table
year, more special than usual?"
for the cue "celebration" again:
Spectator: "It was the year I got my first two-wheeled
bike."

98 99
Performer: "Ah, that's where the colour must come in. amount by which it could invoke the personal validation
lt was a bright colour, wasn't it?" fallacy was still impressive. For instance, after being
challenged to read a friend's mind at a party, I respolded
Spectator: "Yes, bright pink." with patter along the lines of the following:

And so on. Contrast this approach with simply announcing "I'm getting o memory. I think this was some time
that, "You have a favourite birthday frorn childhood." Most ago. lt's 4 a.fi'iendship. A meaninglirl one, or it wa.s
kids' bicycles are bright in colour (as are most toys for at the time. Some.friendships are more important than
children), so the link to a bright colour at the start of the others, but this is one I.fbel ltou plac:ed too much em-
patter easily resolves itself. We could have taken another step phasis on. Another ./riendship sul/bred becattse of it,
back and asked ourselves what happens at both birthdays and didn't it? You kns1,1t you'd made tlrc wrong c:hoice and
Christmas? Kids receive presents, so we could also add some quickly regretted it, but vou reulisetl too late that
pre-emptive patter at the start about seeing the spectator you'd hurt someone."
receiving something, befbre even exploring the idea of a
"Celebration". I thought this would remind my friend of a time when she
was a small girl and decided to be friends (possibly best
If the spectator was thinking of another celebration entirely. friends) with someone she thought would be more exciting
we could simply say the colour was confusing us and apply it than whoever was already her best friend. I think we've all
to whatever she clairns the celebration actually was. After all, made that mistake in childhood, and my friend was indeed
there's still the pre-emptive patter about seeing the spectator grinning with recognition as I began to hit the mark.
r-eceiving something to fall back on. Maybe the vivid colour
referred to the lights on the Christmas tree. After all, "tree" I asked her to clarify things for me. To my surprise, however,
has a curiously strong FSG fbr a cue of "Christmas". A rather than describing a scene from childhood, she said that a
suitably ambiguous pre-emptive image will enable you to couple of years ago she'd been trying to decide between
easily map whatever the spectator says onto it. dating one of two men and that she felt she'd nrade a
mistake.2r To her, I was bang on the money with a personal
Don't forget to use any and all details the spectator gives you insight into her past despite actually being well off target in
to dig deeper. For example, the fact that it was a bicycle and my assumptions and actually remaining quite vague in my
not a tricycle gives a probable age for the birthday or patter. Try it yourself and see what unexpected hits it gives
Christmas, and the opportunity to explore her rnemories of you.
riding it, falling off, scars, adventures, etc. Wlratever
happens, you'll add value for the spectator by jogging
pleasant memories.
2'
When I initially began using the pragmagrarn technique in In the prcvious volume of Naked Mentalism (pagc 95 to be cxact). I hacl
to apologise to my fricnd Hazel for practicing hot rcading on hcr. This
this way, I used it in very simple, generic situations, but the time I need to apoiogisc to Sue for cold reading her. Sorry, Sue!

100 101
see what you've drawn." The performer waits for the
Exrrn rMENT No. ztt z6 spectator to finish.
This effect, using both priming and the one-ahead principle,
comes fronr the very fertile mind of British mentalist Iain "Now, really scream the name of the image you've drawn in
"Abraxus" Dunford - a man who has more interesting ideas your mind. Don't say it aloud. Just mentally shout it at me.
in a week tlian any reasonable person has a right to expect in Keep going. ['ll try to draw it."
a yeat.
What the performer actually draws is a very rough outline of
"l want to warm up nly mind a little," explains the performer, the continent of Africa in the third position on his pad.
glancing round. Selecting a willing spectator he asks politely,
"May we try this little exercise together'/ It'lljust be between "Now," continues tlie perfomrer, "in case some people can't
our two minds as it were." see at the back, or either your drawing or mine isn't that
clear, can you please tell the audience what you transmitted
The perfonner produces two notepads. The spectator selects to me."
one. The performer produces two pens from his pocket. "To
make it easier to conduct this experiment," he explains, "l The spectator calls out the name of her drawing. The
want you to write the numbers one through three down the performer looks slightly worried. For this example, let's say
side of the pad, like this." The performer writes the numbers the spectator announces that she's drawn cannon. a
in a vertical column on the left hand side of the top page of Remember this.
his pad.
Without showing his duplicate drawing, the perfotmer frowns
"Now, I need you to draw something," he says. "Anything and says, "I didn't do brilliantly there, but I was kind of
you like, as long as it's not abstract. Abstract images are too close. Lets try it again, but this time, if you feel as if l'm still
difficult to transmit, or rather, if I'm completely honest - too taking advantage of the choices you're going to make, f-eel
difficult to receive clearly. Oh and please, don't draw free to pick someone here to pick a general category for you,
something obvious; a house, matchstick man, or flower, and and then you can choose sornething related to that. For
not the sun either, or a star or tree. Why not these? People instance. if someone had said garden - you could pick tree,
usually pick these, and I already feel someone in the audience flower, shed, dead pet buried in a shoebox. See what I mean?
is picking one. By a show of hands, who thought of one of Good."
those images?" If someone puts up their hand in response,
milk it baby! The spectator makes another choice and draws a second
image. She again mentally screams it at the performer, who in
"So, just to be clear," continues tlre performer, "please draw fum draws a cannon (whatever the spectator announced she'd
A different image now in the first position. When you're drawn originally, in fact) in position I on his pad.
done, please place the pen down. Don't let me or anyone else
The performer places his pad face down again and asks the

102 103
spectator to announce what she drew in the number 2
position. ln this example, let's assume she says it's a pistol. The perfomer watches the spectator tear off her page, trying
Again, the pertbnner looks puzzled and remembers this word. to see what she's drawn as the continent choice.
If it's Afiica, keep that revelation until the end.
"Thank you fbr everything so far," says the performer. "Now,
I would like to take this final drawing one stage further. This What if you miss with the continent question? Here's the data
time, I shall draw something, and you will try to pick it up. for continents again:
Are you happy to try that'?"
CONTINENT AFRICA 0.169
The performer picks up his pad again and in position 2 draws CONTINENT ASIA 0.115
whatever item the spectator announced last (in this case a CONTINE,NT USA 0.054
pistol). He also writes the word "Africa" next to the map he CONTINENT NORTH AMERICA 0.041
drew. CONTINENT EI]ROPE 0.041
CONTINENT ANTARCTICA 0.020
Once complete, the perfonner says: "Now, this time, t shall Tasr-r 6g CoNTTNENTs
attempt to transmit to you the image I've just committed to
paper. I'll give you a slight hint though, not a massive one, Africa is statistically very likely to be thought of first. The
what I've drawn is a continent, like America or Asia ok? performer limits the spectator's choices by mentioning
Now, this is the way I transmit images. I imagine a huge America (read: USA or North America) and Asia, and on top
white board in front of me. and in thick black ink I draw the of that, he's also rnimed the outline of Africa.
outline of the image and then fill in the details afterwards."
Being pragmatic, you could also design patter and even draw
Whilst describing the nature of the transmission, the images focusing on Asia and Africa both having the same
performer casually mimes with his fingertips the huge white initial letter, and South America has the same basic inverted
board, and most imporlantly, very briefly shapes the rough triangle shape as Aliica.
outline of Afiica between his hands. Remember, you'll be
doing this in front of the spectator, so rnake the image a
min'or image of Africa's outline so that the your subtle mime
comes out the right way around.

"You can write the word rather than draw if you pref-er,"
explains the performer. "Okay, l'm transmitting now. When
you get something, write it down or draw it."

The spectator writes something down and the perfotmer says,


"Now, please tear off the sheet with your drawings . . ."

104 l0s
ArrrNDrx

106 t07
Cn oss-&EFE&ENcED Colou&s
RED BLIJE 0.260
RED WHITE 0.126
RED BLACK 0.039
RE,I) YELLOW 0.024
RED ORANGE 0.024
RED GREEN 0.024
Tasrr 7o Cor,ouns - Rs,o
Not surprisingly, blue has a high inverse association with red,
so asking for "a colour like red" is likely to get you blue.
Here are the data tables for all the colours referenced by other
colours:

BLUE GREE,N 0.135


BLUE RED 0.1 06
BLUE BLACK 0.028
BLUE WHITE 0.014
Taslr 7r Coloun s - Br,ur
PURPLE BLUE 0.103
PURPLE PINK 0.093
PURPLE VIOLET 0.0s2
PURPLE RED 0.041
PURPLE ORANGE 0.041
PURPLE GREEN 0.041
PURPLE YELLOW 0.021
Tasr,n T2 CoLouns - Pun rr,r

BLACK IWHITE 10.5.57

108 109
Tast,r 7l Cotovn s - Br,acx
ORANGE RED 0.03 r

ORANGE YELLOW 0.020


PINK BLUE 0.109
PINK RED 0.082
Taslr 7o Cotovn s - On aNcs
PINK PURPLE, 0.033
PINK WHITE 0.027 GOLD IYELLOW IO.OI5
PINK GREEN 0.022 Tasls 8o Cor,ours - Gor,o
Tasr,r 74 Corovns - PrNx Overleaf is a single chart, cross-referencing all these colours.

GREEN YELLOW 0.12s


GREEN BLUE 0.118
GREEN RED 0.03s
Tasr,s 75 Cotovns - Gn rsN

YELLOW GREEN 0.176


YELLOW BLUE 0.068
YE,LLOW GOLD 0.061
YELLOW BLACK 0.047
YELLOW REI) 0.047
YELLOW PURPLE 0.027
YELLOW ORANGE, 0.020
Tasr,r T6 CoLovn s - Ysr,r,ow

WHITE BLACK 0.655


WHITE RED 0.01 7
Taslr 77 Cotovn s - Wsnr,
VIOLET PURPLE 0.403
VIOLET RED 0.062
VIOLET BLUE 0.042
Tesr,s 78 Colouns - Vrolsr
ll0 111
FSGs ArovE, .Joo
GOLD There are a large number of cue/target pairs with incredibly
o robust FSGs. Perhaps some, like "Moo" and "Cow", began to
o form at the very point at which we began to deliberately learn
ORANGE * c]
language and make sense of the world.
c -i
h
a VIOLET al
q
O
Son rro BY FSG
tt cow
*. MOO 0.960
O WHITE \o
cl
$
q
O
t-r
at
i
IN
LEFT
oUT
RIGHT
0.940
0.939
lrl
o YELLOW +
ol al c] cl
CHE,DDAR CHEESE, 0.922
7 o o i
O
WEEP CRY 0.917
lq TROUT FISH 0.913
a
lrl
GREEN *cl * d
c.]
\o
FT
HALT STOP 0.906
o
fr -i -i o
TARDY LATE 0.899
lrl c.'l

dI PINK
;
d
&
A
OFF
EXHAIISTED
ON
TIRED
0.897
0.895
(n EAST WE,ST 0.886
CN BLACK o-\ 6 tr'
t \o
o O
ai HUSBAND WIFE 0.885
t O A o
KEG BEER 0.88s

O PUR?LE
:
t-r
a]
n
COB
TEXT
CORN
BOOK
0.882
0.88
il €
A C

ON OFF 0.878
r

,) BLUE O
\t O
@
\o
cl
d DILL PICKLE 0.869
o
rt
cl
A o a ; o
BRIDE GROOM 0.865
o RED \o
al s tr-
+ FT c]
\o BEFORE AFTE,R 0.8s9
U ; O o O MARGARINE
COBWEB
BUTTER
SPIDER
0.856
0.849
A lrl sl
ll X X z F Irl t (,lrl
Fh
F<(,
r{
d tr. C) z rq o H lq
d ra a 3 F{ & Ll T o z o
sl rl
3 PEPPERONI PIZZA 0.849
va (, rJ (, ITCH SCRATCH 0.848
FA lJI F &
t tr{ o TROUSERS PANTS 0.846
UP DOWN 0.845

113
WEB SPIDER 0.845 TTJNA FISH 0.808
ASSIST HELP 0.842 BROTH SOUP 0.806
CRIB BABY 0.842 OUT IN 0.804
WICK CANDLE 0.841 PHYSICIAN DOCTOR 0.804
MEOW CAT 0.839 MTGRAINE HE,ADACHE 0.803
YOLK EGG 0.839 AFFECTION LOVE 0.800
PERSPIRE SWEAT 0.837 BRAWL FIGHT 0.800
.IIGSAW PUZZLE 0.836 HAMMER NAIL 0.800
OMELET EGGS 0.836 BANK MONEY 0.799
PANE WINDOW 0.833 DESPISE HATE 0.197
COBRA SNAKE 0.831 FLIPPER DOLPHIN 0.797
TAPIOCA PUDDING 0.831 HOUND DOG 0.795
YES NO 0.830 OAK TREE 0.795
COMPREHEND UNDERSTAND 0.829 LIBRARY BOOK 0.794
BOUOUET FLOWERS 0.828 BT]MBLE BEE 0.793
TOAD FROG 0.828 CINEMA MOVIE 0.793
ILL SICK 0.824 OUIZ TEST 0.792
LOBE EAR 0.824 RYE RREAD 0.791
DAY NIGHT 0.819 KITTEN CAT 0.789
PLASMA BLOOD 0.818 BULB LTGHT 0.788
OUACK DUCK 0.818 CLOROX BLEACH 0.787
THLINDER LIGHTNING 0.818 AUTO CAR 0.784
FIBER I,IE 0.816 CHIRP BIRD 0.784
DENIM .TEANS 0.815 FRIGHTENED SCARED 0.784
OUENCH THIRST 0.815 REMAIN STAY 0.784
CASH MONEY 0.814 JOG RUN 0.783
TELLER BANK 0.814 TULIP FLOWER 0.782
FOIJND LOST 0.813 CRAYOLA CRAYON 0.780
ICING CAKE 0.812 GIGGLE LAUGH 0.780
FRAME PICTURE 0.811 WARDROBE CLOTHES 0.780
HILARIOUS FUNNY 0.fi11 WEST EAST 0.780
HIM HER 0.81 1 EXAM TEST 0.778
HIVE BEE 0.809 LOW HIGH 0.777
BLAZE FIRE 0.80u MARROW BONE 0.777

Lt4 115
HE SHE 0.776 CASHEW NUT 0.745
PISTOL GUN 0.77 4 REPLY ANSWER 0.745
KING OUEEN 0.772 BLUEJAY BIRD 0.743
NORTH SOUTH 0.772 THERE HERE 0.743
PAL FRIEND 0.772 HOG PIG 0.741
LAMP LIGHT 0.769 DASHBOARD CAR 0.740
OPENER CAN 0.768 MARE HORSE 0.740
OUESTION ANSWER 0.767 POSTAGE STAMP 0.740
XEROX COPY 0.763 VEI]ICLE CAR 0.740
NO YES 0.761 ROW BOAT 0.739
MOM DAT) 0.759 GTRL BOY 0.738
THRONE KING 0.7s9 UNHAPPY SAD 0.738
GOOD BAD 0.7s8 BUNNY RABBIT 0.735
THREAD NEEDLtl 0.758 TANGERINE ORANGE 0.733
AIRPORT PLANE 0.757 CHILL COLD 0.732
ARTTHMETIC MATH 0.7 57 HARE RABB]T 0.732
WIN LOSE 0.7s7 PILOT PLANE 0.731
TABLE CHAIR 0.756 BASHFUL SHY 0.730
TRIBE INDIAN 0.756 FUND MONEY 0.730
CHOWDER CLAM 0.75s NAP SI,EEP 0.730
WASHER DRYER 0.755 ORCHID FLOWER 0.730
ASTRONOMY STAR 0.753 OUEEN KINC 0.730
PONY HOI{SE, 0.752 TEPEE INDTAN 0.727
PUPPY DOG 0.7s2 NEW OLD 0.725
BAD GOOD 0.750 GLACIER IC]E 0.723
INEXPENSIVE CHIIAP 0.750 GRIZZLY BEAR 0.723
ATTEMPT TRY 0.149 ILLNESS SICK 0.723
PETALS FLOWER 0.748 OPEN CLOSE, 0.723
BE,GINNING END 0.747 WRONG RiGHT 0.723
CONVENT NUN 0.747 CABOOSE TRAIN 0.721
I-OST FOUND 0.747 DIGIT NUMBER 0.720
ALINT UNCLE 0.746 DOE DEER 0.719
BROTHER SISTER 0.746 CATHEDRAL CHURCH 0.717
INFANT BABY 0.746 TINCOOKE,D RAW 0.1t1

116 tt7
RECTANGLE UARE 0.716 OAR BOAT 0.69s
F'RONT BACK 0.7 5 PEPPER SALT 0.695
REFLECTION MIRROR 0.7 5 CHALK BOARD 0.694
INTELLIGENT SMART 0.7 FILTH DIRT 0.693
RIP TEAR CANARY BIRD 0.692
0.7
DAD MOM 0.7 0 FEATHE,RS BIRD 0.692
AUTOMOBILE ADDICT DRUGS 0.691
CAR 0.709
BACKWARD FORWARD DIFFICULTY HARD 0.691
0.709
CALCULUS MATH 0.709 LABOR WORK 0.690
NOUN VERB 0.690
CAP HAT 0.709
KIWI FRUIT 0.709 ADORABLE CUTE 0.689
ANNUAL YEARLY BRTTANNICA E,NCYCLOPE,DIA 0.689
0.701
FATIGUE MOTHER 0.706 CABLE TELEVISION 0.689
UNCLE AUNT DAISY FLOWER 0.689
0.706
GUMS TEETH 0.705 DISCUSS TALK 0.689
ELDERLY OLD 0.703 RACOUET BALL 0.689
FAME TRUE 0.703 TIMID SHY 0.689
ONE BANNE,R FLAG 0.687
TWO 0.703
BOY BUDDY FRIE,ND 0.687
GIRL 0.701
TRIGGER NIGHT DAY 0.686
GUN 0.701
UMBRELLA RAIN ADD SUBTRACT 0.68s
0.701
YOU ME OCCUPATION JOB 0.683
0.701
FILTHY PLUS MINUS 0.683
DIRTY 0.700
PUPIL STUDENT 0.683
OUARREL FIGHT 0.699
VANISH DISAPPEAR 0.699 BARTENDE,R DRINK 0.682
ZENITH DOZE SLEE,P 0.682
TELEVISION 0.698
CAI-F cow 0.697 HOBO BUM 0.682
ODOR PORTRAIT PICTURE, 0.682
SMELL 0.697
ASSISTANCB HELP THICK THIN 0.682
0.696
TALL SHORT 0,696 NEST BIRD 0.681
TOP BO'TTOM 0.696 CHIMPANZE,E, MONKEY 0.680
YOKE EGG 0.696 WAG TAIL 0.680
INK PEN 0.695 DE,PUTY SHERIFF 0.679
INTOXICATED DRUNK 0.695 ERROR MISTAKE 0.619

I l8 lt9
GLOBE WORLD 0.679 JET PLANE 0.662
AROMA SMELL 0.678 REGULATIONS RULES 0.662
AVENUE STREET 0.678 RICH POOR 0.662
CLOSED OPEN 0.678 TWTNKLE STAR 0.662
CRADLE BABY 0.678 MAN WOMAN 0.660
LOOK SEE 0.678 TUSK ELEPHANT 0.660
WIFE HUSBAND 0.677 CELEBRATION PARTY 0.6s8
BLACKBOARD CHALK 0.676 MOWER LAWN 0.658
DONE FINISH 0.676 NIE,CE NEPHEW 0.658
HOT COLD 0.676 BOULDER ROCK 0.6s6
ACRE LAND 0.67s ALGEBRA MATH 0.65s
MEATBALLS SPAGHETTI 0.675 HIGH LOW 0.6s5
ANTIOUE OLD 0.673 JUICE ORANGE 0.655
ARM LEG 0.673 WHITE BLACK 0.655
INCORRECT WRONG 0.673 COLT HORSE 0.654
LATHER SOAP 0.673 RESPIRATION BREATHE 0.654
TOUCH FEEL 0.673 DANDELION F LOWER 0.6s3
YOURS MINE 0.673 I ME 0.653
KNOB DOOR 0.672 TRUTHFUL HONEST 0.6s3
NOISY LOUD 0.671 UPSTAIRS DOWNSTAIRS 0.653
FLIGHT AIRPLANE 0.669 CLOCK TIME 0.6s2
ROB STEAL 0.669 COMMUNICATE TALK 0.6s2
BUCKLE BELT 0.667 FEUD FIGHT 0.652
DOG CAT 0.667 ATTIRE CLOTHES 0.651
JOYOUS HAPPY 0.667 CREDIT CARD 0.651
ADDICTION DRUG 0.664 HALO ANGEL 0.651
CHLORINIl POOL 0.664 TINY SMAt-L 0.6s0
E,TE,RNITY FOREVER 0.664 AGONY PAIN 0.649
FUEL GAS 0.664 GHOUL GHOST 0.649
PEPSI COLD 0.664 zoo ANIMAL 0.649
PLAYTHING TOY 0.664 MALE FEMALE, 0.648
ANCIENT OLD 0.662 BLOUSE SHIR'T 4.647
ASTROLOGY STAR 0.662 BRACES TEETH 0.647
GALLOP HORSE 0.662 BUMPER CAR 0.647

t20 t21
DUPLICATE COPY 0.647 VACATE LEAVE 0.633
EOUATION MATH 0.647 HERE THERE 0.632
PIGEON BIRD 0.646 TOUCHDOWN FOOTBALL 0.632
ANTLERS DEER 0.64s DIAMOND RING 0.630
COMPANION FR IEND 0.643 FOLLOW LEAD 0.630
FAMISHED HI]NGRY 0.643 HINGE DOOR 0.630
OUILL PEN 0.643 MORE LESS 0.630
ARCTIC COLD 0.642 PASTE GLUE 0.630
CONVERSATION TALK 0.642 WALLET MONEY 0.630
LEAF TREE 0.642 BAIT FISH 0.629
PINE TREE 0.642 CROCODILE ALLIGATOR 0.629
VERB NOUN 0.642 ESCARGOT SNAIL 0.629
ERUPT VOLCANO 0.641 LE,SS MORE 0.629
HIJSK CORN 0.640 FOREST TREE 0.628
REPAIR FIX 0.640 HAPPY SAD 0.628
FORGIVE FORGET 0.639 PARROT BIRD 0.628
HELLO GOOD-BYE 0.639 MORSE CODE 0.627
ATOMIC BOMB 0.638 POSITIVE NEGATIVE 0.627
BED SLEEP 0.638 O-TIPS EAR 0.627
OFFENSE DEFENSE 0.638 UNSOLVED MYSTERY 0.62s
PET DOG 0.637 RAYS SLIN 0.624
COMB BRUSH 0.636 FROSTING CAKE, 0.623
FRIGHT SCARE 0.636 CHEF COOK 0.622
PEANUT BUTTER JELLY 0.636 FLOOD WATER 0.622
BIG SMALL 0.635 NAIL HAMMER 0.622
CIRCLE SOIJARE 0.63s RAKE LEAVES 0.622
GLANCE LOOK 0.635 ADDITION SUBTRACTION 0.621
HARM HURT 0.635 CHAPET- CHURCH 0.621
OPTION CHOICE 0.635 EVEN ODD 0.62r
POACH EGGS 0.63s FLTINK FAIL 0.621
EIGHT NINE 0.634 GROOM BRIDE 0.620
ALTER CHANGE 0.633 HONK HORN 0.620
BULLETIN BOARD 0.633 DEPART LEAVE 0.619
ROBIN BIRD 0.633 ALMIGHTY GOD 0.61 8

t22 123
AWAKE ASLEEP 0.618 WAGER BET 0.606
ELM TREE 0.6 8 EMPLOYME,NT JOB 0.60s
TOSS THROW 0.6 8 FOLLOWER LEADER 0.605
BEETLE BUG 0.6 6 TOE FOOT 0.605
ANTLER DEER 0.6 5 VINE, GRAPE 0.605
CLEVER SMART 0.6 5 WEARY TIRED 0.605
ENTRANCE EXIT 0.6 5 AFRAID SCARE 0.604
FAUCET WATER 0.6 5 ISOLATED ALONE 0.604
OUIVER SHAKE 0.6 5 CE,LEBRATE PARTY 0.603
CHAPTER BOOK 0.6 4 CLIMBER MOLINTAIN 0.603
DAGGER KNIFE 0.6 4 NEGATIVE POSITIVE, 0.603
DILEMMA PROBLEM 0.6 4 PRIM PROPE,R 0.603
MEN WOMEN 0.6 4 RODENT RAT 0.603
ROAR LION 0.6 4 VASE FLOWER 0.603
ROMANCE LOVE 0.6 4 PELICAN BIRD 0.602
a 0.601
NAUSEOTJS SICK 0.6 -) LILY FLOWER
CONCLUSION ENDING 0.6 2 DISLIKE HATE 0.600
.IOKE LAUGH 0.6 2 WINNE,R I-OSER 0.600
KINETIC ENERGY 0.6 2 MUD DIRT 0.599
ONCE TWICE 0.6 2 NEED WANT 0.s99
EMPTY FULL 0.6 l FAST SLOW 0.598
DESIRE WANT 0.6 0 HANDBAG PURSE 0.597
BUBBLE GUM 0.609 MOTHER FATHER 0.s97
DUSK DAWN 0.609 PEDESTRIAN WALK 0.597
GIFT PRESENT 0.609 INTERSTATE HIGHWAY 0.596
IMMEDIATE NOW 0.609 LUMBE,R wooD 0.s96
NOVEL BOOK 0.608 MACARONI CHEESE 0.596
PROFIT MONEY 0.608 TRANSPORTATION CAR 0.595
ANATOMY BODY 0.607 WOMAN MAN 0.595
CONSTRUCT BUILD 0.607 YOIJNG OLD 0.s95
BREEZE WIND 0.606 CIRCUS CLOWN 0.s94
CRACKLE POP 0.606 DiFFICULT HARD 0.594
LARGE SMALL 0.606 MITTEN GLOVE 0.594
PLANET EARTH 0.606 PEN PENCIL 0.s94

t24 125
PORK PIG 0.594 APOLOGY SORRY 0.578
PULL PUSH 0.s94 HEAD & SHOULDERS SHAMPOO 0.578
YACHT BOAT 0.594 TICKLE LAUGH 0.578
BLOOM FLOWER 0.s93 TILE FLOOR 0.578
CAFETERIA FOOD 0.593 YELL SCREAM 0.578
DOORBELL RING 0.592 FULL EMPTY 0.577
FLEE RUN 0.592 PHOTO PICTURE 0.577
WEAPON GUN 0.s92 PURCHASE BI]Y 0.577
DTAPER BABY 0.591 COD FISH 0.576
DOWNSTAIRS UPSTAIRS 0.591 GROWN-UPS ADULTS 0.576
GROCERTES FOOD 0.s90 NOW LATER 0.576
BULLET GUN 0.589 COME GO 0.57 5
EMBRACE HUG 0.589 FLESH SKIN 0.575
TALE STORY 0.s89 KITE FLY 0.575
BLUBBER FAT 0.588 LAST FIRST 0.575
BOULEVARD STREET 0.587 PUN JOKE 0.575
TNSIDE OUTSIDE 0.587 URANUS PI,ANET 0.575
JAWS SHARK 0.587 ZEST SOAP 0.s74
POWERFUL STRONG 0.587 LIME LEMON 0.573
REPUBLICAN DEMOCRAT 0.587 BTJYE,R SELLER 0.572
ATOM BOM B 0.s86 AFTER BEFORE 0.571
FOLINTAIN WATER 0.586 BRT]NETTE, BLONDE 0.571
TEST TUBE BARY 0.s86 TNTOXICATE DRUNK 0.571
CHEERFUL HAPPY 0.585 PEEL ORANGE 0.571
CUB BEAR 0.585 FRIGID COLD 0.570
FLU SICK 0.585 BARK DOG 0.569
ESTEEM SELF 0.584 OUAIL RIRD 0.s69
MUSTARD KETCHUP 0.s84 DUNE SAND 0.568
BRIEF SHORT 0.s82 ENTER EXIT 0.568
EASY HARD 0.582 NUMEROUS MANY 0.s68
HOUSE HOME 0.582 JOB WORK 0.567
DOWN UP 0.581 ABDOMEN STOMACH 0.566
TUG PULL 0.580 INSTRUCTOR TEACHER 0.s66
ACTOR ACTRESS 0.578 NINE TEN 0.566

126 127
PROTON NEUTRON 0.566 DEMON DEVII, 0.553
RAPID FAST 0.s66 GRANDPA GRANDMA 0.553
ADORE LOVE 0.56s LENS GLASSES 0.553
BLEND MIX 0.565 FEMALE MALE, 0.552
INFINITY FOREVER 0.565 GLOVE HAND 0.552
LOOSE TIGHT 0.565 LOAF BREAI) 0.552
ABOVE BELOW 0.s64 DINE EAT 0.551
BOUNCE BALL 0.564 DROWSY SLEEP 0.551
HARD SOFT 0.564 LEAGUE BASEBALL 0.551
JACKET COAT 0.s64 PAIN HURT 0.551
MURDER KILL 0.564 COMEDIAN FUNNY 0.550
GUM CHE,W 0.s63 DISCUSSION TALK 0.550
THIN FAT 0.563 DRAPES CT]RTAINS 0.550
CONE ICE CREAM 0.s62 ARMS LEGS 0.549
CRAFTS ART 0.562 GLAD HAPPY 0.549
HERD cow 0.s62 FINISHED DONE 0.547
INDOORS OUTDOORS 0.561 HUE COLOR 0.547
CARDBOARD BOX 0.559 NETWORK TELEVISION 0.s4'7
DOCK BOAT 0.559 NURSE DOCTOR 0.547
FRANKENSTEIN MONSTER 0.559 PERCH BIRD 0.547
VELOCITY SPEED 0.559 PRINCESS PRINCE, 0.547
BULL cow 0.558 RECLTNER CHAIR 0.547
ODD EVEN 0.558 BUTCHER MEAT 0.546
BLACK WHITE 0.557 CAREER JOB 0.546
RELY DEPEND 0.557 TRIGONOMETRY MATH 0.546
WEAK STRONG 0.s57 WATT BULB 0.s46
HELIUM BALLOON 0.556 RIFLE GI]N 0.s45
MONOPOLY GAME 0.556 CLARIFY CLEAR 0.544
MTNE YOURS 0.555 PEDAL BIKE 0.s44
AT-IVE DEAD 0.554 TUMBLE FALL 0.544
CORRECT WRONG 0.554 CAVITY TOOTH 0.543
FRACTURE BREAK 0.554 FAIRY TALE 0.543
LEND BORROW 0.5s4 FILM MOVIE 0.543
PUCK HOCKEY 0.554 INCOME MONEY 0.543

t28 t29
MOIST WET 0.s43 OUNCE POUND 0.s33
MOUSE CAT 0.543 PUBLISHER BOOK 0.s33
NAVY ARMY 0.s43 TOES FE,E,T 0.s32
OI]TFIT CLOTHES 0.543 WHOM wHo 0.531
OVER T]NDER 0.542 TRUE FALSE 0.531
BTJDGET MONEY 0.54 t ARROW BOW 0.530
LEGS ARMS 0.s41 HAWK BIRD 0.s29
POVERTY POOR 0.541 INSTRUCT TEACH 0.529
RAGE ANGER 0.541 TOWN CITY 0.529
VENT AIR 0.541 BRANCH TRE,E 0.528
ANSWER OUESTION 0.540 GRAMMAR ENGLISH 0.528
DEMOLISH DESTROY 0.s39 RE,CALL REMEMBER 0.s28
GO STOP 0.s39 ATLAS MAP 0.s21
MATTRESS BED 0.s39 CALORIES FAT 0.527
CROW BIRD 0.s38 CHECKBOOK MONEY 0.s21
ETERNAL FOREVER 0.538 CLEAN DIRTY 0.527
GRANDMA GRANDPA 0.s38 DEPRESSED SAD 0.s27
MINOR MAJOR 0.538 DIME NICKEL 0.527
CORPSE DEAD 0.531 FORGET REME,MBER 0.527
TAXI CAB 0.537 TOMORROW TODAY 0.527
BEST WORST 0.536 ASTRONAUT SPACE 0.s26
GUARDIAN PARENT 0.s36 AUTUMN FALL 0.526
LONG SHORT 0.536 CONCLUDE E,ND 0.526
LOTTERY MONEY 0.s36 DUMB STUPID 0.526
DINNER SUPPER 0.535 TRASH GARBAGE 0.s26
NEAR FAR 0.535 CAVERN CAVE 0.525
COP POLICE 0.534 NICOTINE, CIGARETTE 0.525
DONKEY ASS 0.534 VOLCANO E,RUPT 0.s25
FAWN DEER 0.s34 CRESCENT MOON 0.524
GEOMETRY MATH 0.s34 DONOR BLOOD 0.524
CONDOM SEX 0.s33 FAIRYTALE STORY 0.524
DOLLARS MONEY 0.533 DE,CRE,ASE INCREASE 0.523
GRASP HOLD 0.533 INSANE, CRAZY 0.s23
HOLLER YELL 0.s33 LE,AP JUMP 0.522

130 131
BT]ZZ BEE 0.521 ENVY JEALOI]SY 0.513
END BEGIN 0.s2 INEBRIATED DRUNK 0.5 13
HANGER CLOTHES 0.52 MOTIONLESS STILL 0.513
HURT PAIN 0.s2 REGION AREA 0.512
MARSH SWAMP 0.52 FLAME FIRE 0.51 1

ANGRY MAD 0.s20 PROFE,SSOR TEACHE,R 0.51 1

BACK FRONT 0.s20 ARCHITE,CTURE, BUILDING 0.510


BRILLIANT SMART 0.520 GOODBYE HELLO 0.510
DICTIONARY WORDS 0.520 IMPLODE EXPLODE, 0.510
FLINERAL DEATH 0.s20 POCKETBOOK PIJRSE 0.510
MINUS PLUS 0.520 POOR RICH 0.510
COMPASS DIRECTION 0.5 9 UMPIRE BASE,BALL 0.510
GARAGE CAR 0.5 9 VENOM POISON 0.s09
BALLOT VOTE 0.5 8 LOSER WINNER 0.508
PIJB BEER 0.5 8 ACHE PAIN 0.507
THIGH LEG 0.5 8 ACTRESS ACTOR 0.507
BACON E,GGS 0.5 7 ARGUE, FIGHT 0.507
CORK WINE 0.5 7 BOTTOM TOP 0.507
FREEZER COLD 0.5 7 CIGAR SMOKE 0.507
FUDGE CHOCOLATE 0.5 7 DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN 0.s07
KNIGHT ARMOR 0.5 7 EARLY LATE 0.507
MINK COAT 0.5 7 ERASER PENCIL 0.s07
MEDICAL DOCTOR 0.5 6 FREOUENT OFTEN 0.507
REMINISCENCE REMEMBER 0.5 6 HAMPER CLOTHES 0.507
ARGUMENT FIGHT 0.5 4 HUMILIATE EMBARRASS 0.507
DRAFT BEER 0.5 4 NEIGHBOR FRIEND 0.s07
FLEET SHIPS 0.5 4 OPENING CLOSING 0.s07
PRECISE EXACT 0.5 4 REFLE,CT MIRROR 0.507
REFRAIN STOP 0.5 4 VOCABULARY WORDS 0.507
REPTILE SNAKE 0.5 4 LISTEN HEAR 0.s06
REOUEST ASK 0.5 4 BROOM SWEE,P 0.504
WEAR CLOTHES 0.5 4 RACKET TENNIS 0.504
CAT DOG 0.5 J WORST BEST 0.504
CAUTIOUS CAREFUL 0.5 J- BELOW ABOVE 0.s03

t32 133
CREATOR GOD 0.503
DAM
DRENCH
WATER 0.503 Sonrso sv Cus
WET 0.s03
FAR ABDOMEN STOMACH 0.566
NEAR 0.503
GIRLS ABOVE BELOW 0.564
BOYS 0.s03
LEG ACITE PAIN 0.507
ARM 0.s03
THANKSGIVING ACRE LAND 0.67s
TURKEY 0.503
ACTOR ACTRESS 0.578
TIN CAN 0.503
TODAY ACTRESS ACTOR 0.507
TOMORROW 0.s03
ADD SUBTRACT 0.685
UNTRUE FALSE 0.503
ADDICT DRUGS 0.691
VICTOR WINNER 0.s03
ADDICTION DITUG 0.664
WHISKERS BEARD 0.s03
ADDITION St]BTRACTION 0.621
ARIGHT OKAY 0.500
ADORABLE CUTE 0.689
ARMY NAVY 0.500
BOYS ADORE LOVE 0.565
GIRLS 0.s00
AFFECTION LOVE 0.800
CONSIDE,R THINK 0.500
AFRAID SCARE 0.604
DRIVEWAY CAR 0.s00
AFTER BEFORE, 0.571
EVACUATE LEAVE 0.500
AGONY PAIN 0.649
FLAVOR TASTE 0.500
FORWARD AIRPORT PLANE 0.7 s]
BACKWARD 0.s00
KILOME,TE,R ALGEBRA MATH 0.655
MILE 0.s00
ME ALIVE DEAD 0.554
YOU 0.s00
MINER ALMIGHTY GOD 0.61 8
COAL 0.500
ALTER CHANGE 0.633
MIST FOG 0.s00
OBSERVE ANATOMY BODY 0.607
WATCH 0.500
PAIL ANCIENT OLD 0.662
BUCKET 0.500
RAILROAD ANGRY MAD 0.520
TRAIN 0.500
TINITED ANNUAL YEARLY 0.701
STATES 0.500
ANSWER OUESTION 0.540
ANTIOTJE, OLD 0.613
ANTLER DETIR 0.615
ANTLERS DEER 0.645
APOLOGY SORRY 0.578
ARCHITE,CTURE BUILDING 0.510
ARCTIC COLD 0.642

134 13s
ARGUE FIGHT 0.507 BARTENDER DRINK 0.682
ARGUMENT FIGHT 0.s 14 BASHFUL ST{Y 0.730
ARIGHT OKAY 0.500 BED SLEEP 0.638
ARITHMETIC MATH 0.757 BEETLE BUG 0.616
ARM LEG 0.673 BEFORE AFTER 0.859
ARMS LEGS 0.549 BEGINNING END 0.7 47
ARMY NAVY 0.500 BELOW ABOVE 0.503
AROMA SMEI-L 0.678 BEST WORST 0.536
ARROW BOW 0.530 BIG SMALL 0.635
ASSIST HELP 0.842 BLACK WHITE 0.5s7
ASSIS'TANCE HELP 0.696 BLACKBOARD CHALK 0.676
ASTROLOGY STAR 0.662 BLAZE FIRE 0.808
ASTRONAUT SPACE 0.526 BLEND MIX 0.565
ASTRONOMY STAR 0.753 BLOOM FLOWER 0.s93
ATLAS MAP 0.527 BLOUSE, SHIRT 0.647
ATOM BOMB 0.586 BLUBBER FAT 0.588
ATOMIC] BOMB 0.638 BLUEJAY BIRD 0.743
ATTEMPT TRY 0.749 BOTTOM TOP 0.507
ATTIRE CLO'fHES 0.651 BOULDER ROCK 0.656
AUNT TJNCLE 0.746 BOULEVARD STREE,T 0.587
AT]TO CAR 0.184 BOLINCE RALL 0.s64
AUTOMOBILE CAR 0.709 BOUOUET FLOWERS 0.828
AUTUMN FALI- 0.s26 BOY GIRL 0.701
AVE,NUE STREET 0.678 BOYS GIRLS 0.500
AWAKE ASLEEP 0.618 BRACES TEETH 0.647
BACK FRONT 0.s20 BRANCH TRE,E 0.s28
BACKWARD FORWARD 0.709 BRAWL FIGHT 0.800
BACON EGGS 0.5t7 BREEZE WIND 0.606
BAD GOOD 0.750 BRIDE, GROOM 0.865
BAIT FISH 0.629 BRIEF SHORT 0.s82
BALLOT VOTE, 0.51 8 BRILLIANT SMART 0.,s20
BANK MONEY 0.799 BRITANNICA ENCYCLOPEDIA 0.689
BANNER F'LAG 0.687 BROOM SWEEP 0.504
BARK DOG 0.s69 BROTH SOUP 0.806

136 r37
BROTHER SISTER 0.746 CELEBRATION PARTY 0.658
BRLINETTE BLONDE, 0.571 CHALK BOARD 0.694
BUBBLE GT]M 0.609 CHAPEL CHURCH 0.621
BUCKLE BELT 0.667 CHAPTER BOOK 0.614
BUDDY FRIE,ND 0.687 CHECKBOOK MONEY 0.527
BUDCET MONEY 0.541 CHEDDAR CHEESE 0.922
BULB LIGHT 0.788 CHEERFUL HAPPY 0.585
BULL cow 0.558 CHEF COOK 0.622
BULLET GUN 0.589 CHILL COLD 0.732
BULLETIN BOARD 0.633 CHIMPANZEE, MONKEY 0.680
BUMBLE BEE 0.793 CHIRP BIRD 0.784
BUMPER CAR 0.647 CHLORINE POOL 0.664
BT]NNY RABBIT 0.73s CHOWDER CLAM 0.75s
BUTCHIlR MEAT 0.546 CTGAR SMOKE 0.507
BUYER SELLER 0.572 CINEMA MOVIE 0.793
BUZZ BEE 0.521 CTRCLE SOUARE 0.63s
CABLE TELEVISION 0.689 CIRCUS CLOWN 0.594
CABOOSE TRAIN 0.721 CLARIFY CLEAR 0.544
CAFETERIA F'OOD 0.s93 CLEAN DIRTY 0.527
CALCULUS MATH 0.709 CLEVER SMART 0.61 5
CALF cow 0.697 CLIMBE,R MOUNTAIN 0.603
CALORIE,S FAT 0.527 CLOCK TIME 0.652
CANARY BIRD 0.692 CLOROX BLEACH 0.787
CAP HAT 0.709 CLOSED OPE,N 0.678
CARDBOARD BOX 0.5s9 COB CORN 0.882
CAREER .IOB 0.s46 COBRA SNAKE 0.831
CASH MONEY 0.814 COBWEB SPIDER 0.849
CASHEW NUT 0.74s COD FISH 0.576
CAT DOG 0.5 13 COLT HORSE 0.654
CATHEDRAL CHURCH 0.717 COMB BRUSH 0.636
CAUTIOUS CAREFTJL 0.513 COME GO 0.575
CAVERN CAVE 0.525 COME,DIAN FUNNY 0.550
CAVITY TOOTH 0.543 COMMTINICATE TALK 0.6s2
CELEBRATE PARTY 0.603 COMPANION FRIEND 0.643

r38 t39
COMPASS DIRECTION 0.5 19 DEMOLISH DESTROY 0.539
COMPREHEND T]NDERSTAND 0.829 DEMON DEVIL 0.553
CONCLI]DE END 0.526 DENIM JEANS 0.815
CONCLUSION ENDING 0.612 DEPART LEAVE 0.619
CONDOM SEX 0.533 DEPRESSED SAD 0.527
CONE ICE CREAM 0.562 DEPUTY SHE,RIFF 0.679
CONSIDER THINK 0.s00 DESIRE WANT 0.610
CONSTRUCT BUILD 0.607 DESPISE HATE 0.797
CONVENT NUN 0.7 47 DIAMOND RING 0.630
CONVERSATION TALK 0.642 DIAPER BABY 0.s91
COP POLICE 0.534 DICTIONARY WORDS 0.520
CORK WINE 0.5i7 DIFFICULT HARD 0.s94
CORPSE DEAD 0.537 DIFFICULTY HARD 0.691
CORRECT WRONG 0.554 DIGIT NTJMBER 0.720
CRACKLE POP 0.606 DILEMMA PROBLEM 0.614
CRADLE BABY 0.678 DILL PICKLE 0.869
CRAFTS ART 0.562 DIME, NICKEL 0.527
CRAYOLA CRAYON 0.780 DINF, EAT 0.551
CREATOR GOD 0.s03 DINNER SUPPER 0.535
CREDIT CARD 0.651 DISCUSS TALK 0.689
CRESCENT MOON 0.s24 DISCUSSION TALK 0.550
CRIB BABY 0.842 DISLIKE HATE 0.600
CROCODILE ALLIGATOR 0.629 DOCK BOAT 0.559
CROW BIRD 0.s38 DOE DE,ER 0.719
CUB BEAR 0.585 DOG CAT 0.667
DAD MOM 0.710 DOLLARS MONEY 0.533
DAGGER KNIFE 0.6t4 DONE FINISH 0.616
DAISY FLOWER 0.689 DONKEY ASS 0.s34
DAM WATER 0.503 DONOR BLOOD 0.s24
DANDELION FLOWER 0.6s3 DOORBELL RING 0.592
DASHBOARD CAR 0.740 DOWN UP 0.581
DAY NIGHT 0.81 9 DOWNSTAIRS UPSTAIRS 0.591
DECREASE INCREASE 0.523 DOZE SLEEP 0.682
DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN 0.507 DRAFT BEER 0.514

t40 141
DRAPES CURTAINS 0.550 FAIRYTALE STORY o.s24
DRENCH WET 0.503 FAME TRUE 0.703
DRIVEWAY CAR 0.s00 FAMISHE,D HUNGRY 0.643
DROWSY SLEEP 0.551 FAR NEAR 0.s03
DUMB STUPID 0.s26 FAST SLOW 0.s98
DI]NE SAND 0.s68 FATIGUE MOTHER 0.706
DUPLICATE COPY 0.647 FAUCE,T WATER 0.6r5
DUSK DAWN 0.609 FAWN DE,ER 0.s34
EARLY LATE 0.507 FEATHERS BIRD 0.692
EAST WEST 0.886 FEMALE MALE 0.552
EASY HARD 0.s82 FEUD FIGHT 0.6s2
EIGHT NINE 0.634 FIBER LIE 0.816
ELDERLY OLD 0.703 FILM MOVIE 0.543
ELM TREE 0.6r8 FILTH DIRT 0.693
EMBRACE HUG 0.s89 FILTHY DIRTY 0.700
EMPLOYMENT JOB 0.605 FINISHED DONE 0.547
EMPTY FULL 0.611 FLAME FIRE 0.51 I
END BEGTN 0.521 FLAVOR TASTE 0.s00
ENTER EXIT 0.568 FLEE, RUN 0.s92
ENTRANCE EXIT 0.615 FLEET SHIPS 0.514
ENVY JEALOI]SY 0.5 13 FLESH SKIN 0.575
EOUATION MATH 0.647 FLIGHT AIRPLANE 0.669
ERASER PENCIL 0.507 FLIPPER DOLPHIN 0.797
ERROR MISTAKE 0.679 FLOOD WATER 0.622
ERUPT VOLCANO 0.641 FLU SICK 0.s85
ESCARGOT SNAIL 0.629 FLUNK FAIL 0.621
ESTEEM SELF 0.584 FOLLOW LEAD 0.630
ETERNAL FOREVER 0.538 FOLLOWER LEADER 0.605
ETERNITY FOREVER 0.664 FOREST TREE 0.62u
EVACUATE LEAVE 0.500 FORGET REMEMBE,R 0.521
EVEN ODD 0.621 FORGIVE FORGET 0.639
EXAM TEST 0.178 FORWARD BACKWARD 0.s00
EXHAUSTED TIRE,D 0.895 FOUND LOST 0.813
FAIRY TALE 0.s43 FOUNTAIN WATER 0.s86

142 t43
GR ASP HOLD 0.533
FRACTURE BREAK 0.554
GRTZZLY BE,AR 0.723
FRAME PICTURE 0.81 I
GROCERIES FOOD 0.590
FRANKENSTEIN MONSTER 0.559
GROOM BRIDE 0.620
FREEZER COLD 0.511
GROWN-UPS ADULTS 0.576
FREOUENT OFTEN 0.507
PARENT 0.536
FRIGHT SCARE 0.636 GUARDIAN
CHEW 0.563
FRIGHTEN ED SCARED 0.784 GUM
GUMS TEETH 0.705
FRIGID COLD 0.570
ANGE,L 0.651
FRONT BACK 0.715 HALO
HALT STOP 0.906
FROSTING CAKE 0.623
NAIL 0.800
FUDGE CHOCOLATE 0.517 HAMME,R
CLOTHES 0.507
FUEL GAS 0.664 HAMPE,R
PURSE 0.597
FULL EMPTY 0.577 HANDBAG
CLOTHES 0.521
FTIND MONEY 0.730 HANGE,R
SAD 0.628
FUNERAL DEATH 0.s20 HAPPY
HARD SOFT 0.s64
GALLOP HORSE 0.662
HARE RABBIT 0.732
GARAGE CAR 0.519
GEOMETRY MATH 0.534 Hanu I HURT 0.63s
0.529
GHOUL GHOST 0.649 HAWK BIRD
SHE 0.776
GIFT PRESENT 0.609 HE,
SHAMPOO 0.578
GIGGLE LAUGH 0.780 HE,AD & SHOULDERS
BALLOON 0.556
GIRL BOY 0.738 HELIUM
GIRLS BOYS HE,LLO cooD-BYE, 10.63e
GLACIER ICE
0.s03
0.723 HE,RD cow I o.soz
0.632
GLAD HAPPY 0.s49 HERE, THERE
LOW 0.655
GLANCE LOOK 0.635 HIGH
FUNNY 0.811
GLOBE WORLD 0.679 HILARIOUS
HER 0.811
GLOVE HAND 0.552 HIM
DOOR 0.630
GO STOP 0.539 HINGE
HIVE BEE, 0.809
GOOD BAD 0.758
HOBO BUM 0.682
GOODBYE HELLO 0.510
HOG PIG 0.741
GRAMMAR ENGLISH 0.528
HOLLE,R YE,LL 0.533
GRANDMA GRANDPA 0.538
HONK HORN 0.620
GRANDPA GRANDMA 0.553

144 r45
HOT COLD 0.676 JAWS SHARK 0.587
HOUND DOG 0.795 JET PLANE o.662
HOUSE HOME 0.582 JIGSAW PUZZLE 0.836
HI]E COLOR 0.s47 JOB WORK 0.567
HUMILIATE EMBARRASS 0.s07 .IOG RUN 0.783
HURT PAIN 0.521 JOKE LAUGH 0.612
HUSBAND WIFE 0.88s JOYOUS TIAPPY 0.667
HUSK CORN 0.640 JUICE ORANGE 0.655
I ME 0.653 KE,G BEER 0.88s
ICING CAKE, 0.812 KILOMETER MILE 0.500
ILL SICK 0.824 KINETIC ENERGY 0.6t2
ILLNESS SICK 0.723 KING OUEEN 0.772
IMMEDIATE NOW 0.609 KITE FLY 0.515
IMPLODE EXPLODE 0.510 KITTEN CAT 0.789
]N OUT 0.940 KIWI F-RUIT 0.709
INCOME MONEY 0.543 KNIGHT ARMOR 0.517
INCORRECT WRONG 0.673 KNOB DOOR 0.672
INDOORS OUTDOORS 0.561 LABOR WORK 0.690
INEBRIATED DRUNK 0.513 LAMP LIGHT 0.769
INEXPENSIVE CHEAP 0.750 LARGE SMALL 0.606
INFANT BABY 0.746 LAST FIRST 0.575
INFINITY FOREVER 0.56-5 LATHER SOAP 0.673
INK PEN 0.695 LEAF TREE 0.642
INSANE CRAZY 0.s23 LEAGUE BASEBALL 0.5s 1

INSIDE OUTSIDE 0.587 LEAP JUMP 0.522


INSTRUCT TEACH 0.529 I,EFT RIGHT 0.939
INSTRUCTOR TEACHtrR 0.566 LEG ARM 0.503
TNTELLIGENT SMART 0.711 LEGS ARMS 0.,s41
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY 0.596 LEND BORROW 0.554
INTOXICATE DRLINK 0.571 LENS GLASSE,S 0.553
TNTOXICATED DRUNK 0.695 LESS MORE 0.629
ISOLATED ALONE, 0.604 LIBRARY BOOK 0.794
ITC}I SCRATCH 0.848 LLY FLOWER 0.601
JACKET COAT 0.564 LIME I-E,MON 0.s73

t46 147
Tr\D.\I V GAME 0.556
LISTEN HEAR 0.506
cow 0.960
LOAF BREAD 0.ss2 MOO
f,a\() fl LESS 0.630
LOBE EAR 0.824
ar\ntr 621
I-ONG SHORT 0.s36 MORSE, 0.597
F.A I HI,K
LOOK SEE 0.67u MOTHER 0.s 13
STTLL
LOOSE TIGHT 0.565 LVI\-,,
0.543
LOSER WTNNER 0.508 IV I\-' LJ
crD
JL
CAT
I A \IN{ 0.658
LOST FOUND 0.747 N/Tf)\VFR
NIDT 0.599
LOTTERY MONEY 0.536 Nfr tl-)
I/T T I 0.564
LOW HIGH 0.777
I.trT(-I{I ]P 0.584
LUMBER wooD 0.596 MUSTARD 0.622
HAMMh,K
MACARONI CHEESE 0.s96 NATL 0.730
SLEE,P
MALE FEMALE 0.648 NAP 0.613
WOMAN I TC Er\I Tq SICK
MAN 0.660 0.543
ARMY
MARE HORSE 0.740 1\ aa
0.s35
FAR
MARGARINE BUTTER 0.856 L\ l-rar\ 0.599
MARROW
WANT
BONE 0.777 NE,ED
DN C,ITT\/tr 0.603
MARSH SWAMP 0.521 NEGATIVE, 0.507
rrn r/ lI IDrlP FRIEND
MATTRESS BED 0.539 0.681
R,TR D
ME YOIJ 0.s00 NEST 0.541
T'tr,I,EVISION
MEATBALLS SPAGHETTI 0.675 NETWORK 0.72s
\l/ OLD
MEDICAL DOCTOR 0.516
r-I(-l-AR trTTF 0.s75
MEN WOMEN 0.6t4 NICOTINE 0.658
NEPHEW
MEOW CAT 0.839
nav 0.686
MIGRAINE HEADACHE 0.803 NIGHT 0.566
TE,N
MTNE YOURS 0.555 I\ lr'
vtrq 0.76
MINER COAL 0.500 NO 0.671
I OIID
MINK COAT 0.517 NOISY 0.172
S0IJIH
MINOR MAJOR 0.s38 NORTH 0.690
Vh,RB
MINUS PLUS 0.s20 NOUN 0.608
NOVEL BOOK
MIST FOG 0.500 0.516
GLOVE 0.594 LATER
MITTEN 0.568
N/ ANY
MOIST WET 0.s43 NUME,ROUS 0.54',7
DAD 0.759 NURSE,
DOC I UK
MOM

149
148
OAK TREE 0.795 PEPPERONI PtzzA I 0.849
BOAT PE,PSI COLD 0.664
OAR 0.695
OBSERVE WATCH 0.s00 PERCH BIRD 0.547
PERSPIRE, SWEAT 0.837
OCCUPATION .IOB 0.683
PET DOG 0.631
ODD EVE,N 0.558
PETALS FLOWER 0.748
ODOR SMELL 0.697
PHOTO PICTURE 0.577
OFF ON 0.897
PHYSICIAN DOCTOR 0.804
OFFENSE DEFENSE 0.638
PIGEON BIRD 0.646
OMELE,T E,GGS 0.836
ON OFF 0.tt78 PILOT PLANE 0.731
PINE TRE,E, 0.642
ONCE TWICE 0.612
PISTOL GUN 0.774
ONE TWO 0.703
PLANE,T E,ARTH 0.606
OPEN CLOSE 0.723
CAN 0.768 PLASMA BLOOD 0.81 8
OPENER
PLAYTHING TOY 0.664
OPENING CLOSING 0.507
PLUS MINUS 0.683
OPTION CHOICE 0.63s
POACH EGGS 0.635
ORCHID FLOWER 0.730
POCKETBOOK PURSE 0.s 10
OTINCE POUND 0.s33
PONY HORSE, 0.752
OUT IN 0.804
POOR RICH 0.510
OUTFIT CLOTHE,S 0.s43
OVER UNDER 0.s42 PORK I PIG 0.594
PAIL BUCKET 0.s00 PORTRAIT I PICTURE 0.682
POSITIVE NEGATIVE 0.627
PAIN HTJRT 0.55 r
POSTAGE STAMP 0.740
PAL FRIEND 0.772
POVERTY POOR 0.541
PANE wrNDow 0.833
POWERFUL STRONG 0.587
PARROT BIRD 0.628
PRECISE E,XAC]T 0.514
PASTE GLUE 0.630
PRIM PROPER 0.603
PEANUT BUTTER JELLY 0.636
PRTNCESS PRINCE 0.547
PEDAL BIKE 0.s44
WALK 0.591 PROFESSOR TE,ACHER 0.slI
PEDESTRIAN
PROFIT MONEY 0.608
PEEL ORANGE 0.571
PROTON NE,UTRON 0.566
PELICAN BIRD 0.602
PUB BE,ER 0.518
PEN PENCIL 0.s94
PUBLISHER BOOK 0.533
PEPPER SALT 0.695

150 l5l
PUCK HOCKEY 0.554 REPAIR FIX 0.640
PULL PI]SH 0.s94 RE,PLY ANSWER 0.745
PUN JOKE 0.575 REPTILE SNAKE 0.514
PUPIL STUDE,NT 0.683 RE,PUBLICAN DE,MOCRAT 0.587
PI]PPY DOG 0.752 REOUE,ST ASK 0.514
PURCHASE BUY 0.577 RESPIRATTON BREATHE 0.6s4
O-TIPS EAR 0.627 RICH POOR 0.662
OUACK DIJCK 0.8r8 RIFLE GUN 0.545
TEAR 0.71 I
OUAIL BIRD 0.569 RIP
OUARREL FIGHT 0.699 ROAR LION 0.614
KING 0.730 ROB STEAL 0.669
OUEEN
THTRST 0.815 ROBIN BIRD 0.633
OUENCH
ANSWER 0.767 RODENT RAT 0.603
OUESTION
OUILL PEN 0.643 ROMANCE, LOVE, 0.614
SHAKE 0.61s ROW BOAT 0.739
OUIVER
RYE BREAD 0.791
OUIZ TEST 0.792
RACKET TENNIS 0.504 TABLE CHAIR 0.756
RACOUET BALL 0.689 TALE STORY 0.589
RAGE ANGER 0.541 TALL SHORT 0.696
RAILROAD TRAIN 0.500 TANGERTNE ORANGE 0.133
RAKE LEAVES 0.622 TAPIOCA PUDDINC 0.831
RAPID FAST 0.566 TARDY I L41E 0.899
SUN TAXI CAB 0.s37
RAYS 0.624
RECALL REMEMBER 0.528 TE,LLER BANK 0.8 t4
RECLTNER CHAIR 0.547 TEPE,E INDIAN 0.727
RECTANGLE SOUARE 0.716 TEST TUBE BABY 0.586
REFLECT MIRROR 0.507 TEXT BOOK 0.881
REFLECTION MIRROR 0.715 THANKSGIVING TURKEY 0.s03
REFRAIN STOP 0.s 14 THERE HE,RE 0.743
REGION AREA 0.5t2 THICK THIN 0.682
THIGH LE,G 0.5 18
REGULATIONS RTJLES 0.662
RELY DEPEND 0.557 THIN FAT 0.s63
REMAIN STAY 0.784 THREAD NEEDLE 0.758
RE,MINISCENCE REMEMBER 0.516 THRONE, KING 0.759

152 t53
THT]NDER LIGHTNING 0.81 8 T]NHAPPY SAD 0.738
TICKLE LAUGH 0.578 UNITED STATES 0.500
TILE FLOOR 0.578 TJNSOLVED MYSTE,RY 0.625
TIMID SHY 0.689 UNTRUE FALSE 0.s03
TIN CAN 0.s03 UP DOWN 0.845
TINY SMALL 0.650 UPSTAIRS DOWNSTAIRS 0.6s3
TOAD FROG 0.828 URANUS PLANET 0.575
TODAY TOMORROW 0.s03 VACATE LEAVE 0.633
TOE FOOT 0.60s VANISH DISAPPEAR 0.699
TOES FEET 0.532 VASE FLOWER 0.603
TOMORROW TODAY 0.527 VEHICLE, CAR 0.740
TOP BOTTOM 0.696 VELOCITY SPEED 0.559
TOSS THROW 0.61 8 VENOM POISON 0.s09
TOUCH FEEL 0.673 VENT AIR 0.541
TOIJCHDOWN FOOTBALL 0.632 VERB NOUN 0.642
TOWN CITY 0.529 VICTOR WINNER 0.503
TRANSPORTATION CAR 0.595 VINE GRAPE, 0.60s
TRASH GARBAGE 0.s26 VOCABULARY WORDS 0.507
TRIBE TNDIAN 0.756 VOLCANO ERUPT 0.525
TRIGGER GUN 0.701 WAG TAIL 0.680
TRIGONOMETRY MATH 0.s46 WAGER BET 0.606
TROUSERS PANTS 0.846 WALLE,T MONEY 0.630
TROUT F'ISH 0.913 WARDROBE CLOTHES 0.780
TRUTHFUL HONEST 0.653 WASHER DRYER 0.755
TUG PULL 0.580 WATT BULB 0.546
TULIP F'LOWER 0.782 WE,AK STRONG 0.55',7
TUMBLE FALL 0.544 WEAPON GUN 0.s92
TUNA FISH 0.808 WE,AR CLOTHES 0.s 14
TUSK EI,EPHANT 0.660 WEARY TIRED 0.605
TWINKLE STAR 0.662 WER SPIDER 0.845
UMBRELLA RAIN 0.701 WEEP CRY 0.917
UMPIRE BASEBALL 0.510 WEST E,AST 0.780
UNCLE ATINT 0.706 WHISKERS BEARD 0.503
UNCOOKED RAW 0.717 WHITE BLACK 0.6s5

t54 155
WHOM wHo 0.531
WICK CANDLE 0.841
SonrEo gy TaR GET
WIFE HI]SBAND 0.677
BELOW ABOVE 0.503
WIN LOSE 0.7 57
ACTRESS ACTOR 0.507
WINNER LOSER 0.600
ACTOR ACTRESS 0.578
WOMAN MAN 0.595
GROWN-UPS ADULTS 0.576
WORST BEST 0.504
BEFORE AFTER 0.859
WRONG RIGHT 0.723
VENT AIR 0.54i
XEROX COPY 0.763
FLIGHT AIRPLANE, 0.669
YACHT BOAT 0.594
CROCODILE ALLIGATOR 0.629
YELL SCREAM 0.,s78
ISOLATED ALONE 0.604
YES NO 0.830
HALO ANGEL 0.651
YOKE EGG 0.696
RAGE ANGER 0.s41
YOLK EGG 0.839
zoo ANIMAL 0.649
YOU ME 0.701
OUESTION ANSWER 0.761
YOUNG OLD 0.59s
REPLY ANSWER 0.745
YOURS MINE 0.673
REGION ARE,A 0.512
ZENITFi TELEVISION 0.698
LE,G ARM 0.s03
ZEST SOAP 0.574
KNIGHT ARMOR 0.51 7
zoo ANIMAL 0.649
0.541
LEGS ARMS
TRUE, FALSIl 0.531
NAVY ARMY 0.s43
CRAFTS ART 0.562
REOUE,ST ASK 0.514
AWAKE ASLEEP 0.6r8
DONKEY ASS 0.534
TJNCLE AUNT 0.706
CRADLE BABY 0.678
CRIB BABY 0.842
DIAPER BABY 0.s91
INFANT BABY 0.746
TEST TUBE, BABY 0.s86
FRONT BACK 0.715
FORWARD BACKWARD 0.500
GOOD BAD 0.758

156 t57
BOUNCE BALL 0.564 AIL BIRD 0.569
RACQUE,T BAI,L 0.689 ROB]N BIRI) 0.633
HELIUM BALLOON 0.5s6 WHITE BLACK 0.655
TELLER BANK 0.814 CLOROX BLEACH 0.787
LEAGUE BASEBALL 0.551 BRTINETTE BI,ONDE 0.571
UMPIRE BASE,BALL 0.510 DONOR BLOOD 0.524
CUB BEAR 0.s85 PLASMA BLOOD 0.818
GRIZZLY BEAR 0.723 BULLETTN BOARD 0.633
WHISKERS BEARD 0.s03 CHALK BOARD 0.694
MATTRESS BED 0.s39 DOCK BOAT 0.5s9
BUMBLE, BEE 0.793 OAR BOAT 0.69s
BUZZ BE,E 0.s21 ROW BOAT 0.739
HIVE BEE 0.809 YACHT BOAT 0.s94
DRAFT BEER 0.514 ANATOMY BODY 0.607
KEG REER 0.885 ATOM BOMB 0.s86
PUB BEER 0.518 ATOMIC BOMB 0.638
AFTER BE,FORE 0.571 MARROW BONE 0.777
END BEGIN 0.52 r CHAPTER BOOK 0.6t4
ABOVE BELOW 0.564 LIBRARY BOOK 0.794
BUCKLE BELT 0.667 NOVEL BOOK 0.608
WORST BEST 0.50,1 PUBLISHER BOOK 0.s33
WAGER BET 0.606 TEXT BOOK 0.88 r

PEDAL B KE 0.544 LE,ND BORROW 0.554


BLTIE.IAY B RD 0.743 TOP BOTTOM 0.696
CANARY B RD 0.692 ARROW BOW 0.530
CHIRP B RD 0.784 CARDBOARD BOX 0.559
CROW B RD 0.538 GIRL BOY 0.738
FEATHERS B RD 0.692 GIRLS BOYS 0.503
HAWK B RD 0.s29 LOAF BREAD 0.5s2
NEST BIRT) 0.68 t RYE BREAD 0.791
PARROT BIRD 0.628 FRACTURE BREAK 0.554
PELICAN BIRD 0.602 RESPIRATION BREATHE 0.654
PERCH BIRD 0.s47 GROOM BRIDE 0.620
PIGE,ON BIRD 0.646 COMR BRUSH 0.636

t58 r59
PAIL BUCKET 0.500 CHEDDAR CHEESE 0.922
BE,ETLE, BUG 0.616 MACARONI CHEESE 0.596
CONSTRUCl- BUILD 0.607 GUM CHEW 0.563
ARCHITECTURE BUILDING 0.510 FUDGE CHOCOLATE 0.5t7
WATT BULB 0.s46 OPTION CHOICE 0.635
HOBO BTJM 0.682 CATHEDRAL CHURCH 0.717
MARGARINE BUTTER 0.856 CHAPEL CHURCH 0.621
PURCHASE BI]Y 0.577 NICOTINE CIGARETTE 0.525
TAXI CAB 0.537 TOWN CITY 0.529
FROSTING CAKF, 0.623 CHOWDER CLAM 0.755
ICING CAKE 0.812 CLARIFY CLEAR 0.544
OPENER CAN 0.768 OPEN CLOSE 0.723
TIN CAN 0.503 OPENING CLOSING 0.507
WICK CANDLE 0.84 r ATTIRE CLOTHES 0.651
AUTO CAR 0.784 HAMPER CLOTHES 0.507
AUTOMOBILE CAR 0.109 HANGER CLOTHES 0.52t
BUMPER CAR 0.647 OUTFIT CLOTHES 0.s43
DASHBOARD CAR 0.740 WARDRORE CLOTHES 0.780
DRIVEWAY CAR 0.500 WEAR CLOTITES 0.514
GARAGE CAR 0.519 CIRCUS CLOWN 0.s94
TRANSPORTATION CAR 0.595 MINER COAL 0.s00
VE,HICLE CAR 0.740 JACKET COAT 0.564
CREDIT CARD 0.651 MINK COAT 0.517
CAUTIOUS CAREFUL 0.5r3 MORSE CODE 0.627
DOG CAT 0.667 ARCTIC COLD 0.642
KITTEN CAT 0.789 CHILL COLD 0.732
MEOW CAT 0.839 FREE,ZER COLD 0.s17
MOUSE CAT 0.543 FRIGII-) COLD 0.570
CAVERN CAVE 0.52s HOT COLD 0.676
RECLINI]R CHAIR 0.547 PEPSI COLD 0.664
TABLE CHAIR 0.756 HUE COLOR 0.s47
BLACKBOARD CHALK 0.676 CHEF COOK 0.622
ALTER CHANGE 0.633 DUPLICATE COPY 0.647
INEXPENSIVE CHEAP 0.750 XEROX COPY 0.763

160 l6l
COB CORN 0.882 PHYSICIAN DOCTOR 0.804
HUSK CORN 0.640 BARK DOG 0.s69
BULL cow 0.558 CAT DOG 0.5 13
CALF cow 0.697 HOUND DOG 0.795
HERD cow 0.562 PET DOG 0.631
MOO COW 0.960 PUPPY DOG 0.752
CRAYOLA CRAYON 0.780 FI,IPPER DOLPHIN 0.797
INSANE CRAZY 0.s23 FINISHED DONE 0.547
WEEP CRY 0.917 HINGE DOOR 0.630
DRAPES CURTAINS 0.550 KNOB DOOR 0.672
ADORABLE CUTE 0.689 UP DOWN 0.845
MOM DAD 0.759 UPSTAIRS DOWNSTAIRS 0.653
DUSK DAWN 0.609 BARTENDER DRINK 0.682
NIGHT DAY 0.686 ADDICTION DRUG 0.664
ALTVE DEAD 0.554 ADDICT DRUGS 0.691
CORPSE DEAD 0.537 INEBRIATED DRTINK 0.513
FUNERAL DEATH 0.520 TNTOXICATE DRLINK 0.571
ANTLER DEER 0.61 5 INTOXICATE,D DRUNK 0.695
ANTLERS DEER 0.64s WASHER DRYER 0.7 55
DOE DEER 0.7 t9 OUACK DUCK 0.81 8
FAWN DEER 0.s34 LOBE EAR 0.824
OFFENSE DEFENSE 0.638 O-TIPS EAR 0.627
REPI]BLICAN DEMOCRAT 0.587 PLANET EARTH 0.606
RELY DEPEND 0.557 WEST EAST 0.780
DEMOLISH DESTROY 0.s39 DINE EAT 0.551
DEMON DEVIL 0.553 YOKE EGG 0.696
COMPASS DIRECTION 0.s 19 YOLK EGG 0.839
FILTH DIRT 0.693 BACON EGGS 0.517
MUD DIRT 0.599 OMELET EGGS 0.836
CLEAN DIRTY 0.527 POACH EGGS 0.635
FILTHY DIRTY 0.700 TUSK E,LEPHANT 0.660
VANISH DISAPPEAR 0.699 HTJM]LIATE EMBARRASS 0.507
MEDICAL DOCTOR 0.516 FI]LL EMPTY 0.571
NURSE DOCTOR 0.s47 BRITANNICA ENCYCLOPEDIA 0.689

162 163
BEGINNING END 0.747 BAIT FISH 0.629
CONCLUDE END 0.s26 COD FISH 0.s76
CONCLUSION ENDING 0.612 TROUT FISH 0.913
KINETIC ENERGY 0.6t2 TTINA FISH 0.808
GRAMMAR ENGLISH 0.s28 RE,PAIR FIX 0.640
VOLCANO ERUPT 0.525 BANNER FLAG 0.687
ODD EVEN 0.558 TILE FLOOR 0.s78
PRECISE EXACT 0.s 14 BLOOM FLOWER 0.593
ENTER EXIT 0.568 DAISY FLOWER 0.689
ENTRANCE EXIT 0.615 DANDELION FLOWER 0.653
IMPLODE EXPLODE 0.510 LILY FLOWER 0.601
FLUNK FAIL 0.621 ORCHID FLOWER 0.730
AUTUMN FALL 0.526 PETALS FLOWER 0.748
TI]MBLE FALL 0.s44 TULIP FLOWER 0.782
UNTRUE, FALSE 0.503 VASE FLOWER 0.603
TRUE FALSE 0.s31 BOUOUET FLOWERS 0.828
NEAR FAR 0.535 KITE FLY 0.575
RAPID FAST 0.s66 MIST FOG 0.s00
BLUBBER FAT 0.s88 CAFETE,RIA FOOD 0.s93
CALORIES F'AT 0.527 GROCERIES FOOD 0.590
THIN FAT 0.563 TOE FOOT 0.60s
MOTHER FATHER 0.597 TOUCHDOWN FOOTBALL 0.632
TOUCH FEEL 0.673 E,TERNAL FOREVER 0.s3 8
TOE,S FEET 0.532 ETERNITY FOREVER 0.664
MALE FEMALE 0.648 INFINITY FOREVER 0.565
ARGUE FIGHT 0.507 FORGIVE FORGET 0.639
ARGUMENT FIGHT 0.514 BACKWARD FORWARD 0.709
BRAWL FIGHT 0.800 LOST FOUND 0.747
F'EUD FIGHT 0.652 BUDDY FRIE,ND 0.687
OUARREL FIGHT 0.699 COMPANION FRIENI) 0.643
DONE FINISH 0.676 NEIGHBOR FRIENI) 0.507
BLAZE FIRE 0.808 PAL FRIEND 0.772
FLAME FIRE 0.51 1 TOAD FROC 0.828
LAST FIRST 0.575 BACK FRONT 0.520

164 165
KIWI FRUIT 0.709
trrr-rnTY IunRP 0.69i
EACV HARD 0.582
EMPTY FULL 0.61 I 0.709
CAP HAT
COMEDIAN FUNNY 0.550 0.797
DCDfQE HATE,
TTILARIOUS FUNNY 0.81 I 0.600
ICI TI<ZE HATE
MONOPOLY GAME 0.556 0.803
A tNItr HE,ADACHE,
TRASH GARBAGE 0.526 'T^D 0.506
HEAR
FUEL GAS 0.664 L'
0.510
HE,LLO
GHOUL GHOST 0.649 0.842
HELP
BOY GIRL 0.701
IIFI P 0.696
BOYS GIRLS 0.500 ASSTSTANCE
HER 0.81i
LENS GLASSES 0.553 HtM 0.743
HtrRF,
MITTEN GLOVE 0.594 THERE,
HI( iH 0.771
PASTE GLUE 0.630 LOW 0.596
WAY
H I( iH
COME GO 0.575 INTERSTATE,
H( X ]KbY 0.554
ALMIGHTY GOD 0.618 PUCK 0.533
HOLL)
CREATOR GOD 0.503 GRASP
HOME 0.582
BAD GOOD 0.750 0.6s3
TRUTHFUL HONE,ST
HE,LLO GOOD-BYE 0.639
t]ORN 0.620
GRANDPA GRANDMA 0.s53 HONK 0.654
COLT HORSb
GRANDMA GRANDPA 0.538 0.662
HORSE
VINE GRAPE 0.60s GALLOP 0.740
HORSE,
BRIDE GROOM 0.865 MARE 0.752
HORSb,
PONY
BUBBLE GUM 0.609
HUG I o.saq
BULLET
PISTOL
GUN
GUN
0.589
0.77 4
EMBRACE
r T
f aLlvrr J
^ 'IC'UDT)
a-uxcnY
IRT
LIt
I o'o+:
0.635
RIFLE GUN 0.545 HARM 0.s51
PAIN HURT
TRIGGER GUN 0.701 0.617
WIFE HUSBAND
WEAPON GUN 0.592 0.723
ICF
NAIL HAMMER 0.622 GLACIER 0.562
ICH ( ]Kb,AIVI
GLOVE HAND 0.552 CONE 0.804
T'T. IN
CHEERFUL HAPPY 0.585 fi{ap tr astr 0.52
GLAD HAPPY 0.s49 DECRE,ASE,
INDIAN 0.727
JOYOUS HAPPY 0.667 0.756
TRIBE INDIAN
DIFFICULT HARD 0.594

t67
166
ENVY JEALOUSY 0.513 LAMP LTGHT 0.769
DENIM JEANS 0.81s THUNDER LIGHTNING 0.81 8
PEANUT BUTTER JELLY 0.636 ROAR LION 0.614
CAREER .IOB 0.546 GLANCE LOOK 0.635
EMPLOYMENT JOB 0.60s WIN LOSE 0.7 51

OCCUPATION JOB 0.683 WINNER LOSER 0.600


PUN JOKE 0.575 FOUND LOST 0.813
LEAP JUMP 0.522 NOISY LOUD 0.67 |
MUSTARD KETCHI]P 0.584 ADORE LOVE 0.565
MURDER KILL 0.564 AFFECTION LOVE 0.800
OUEEN KING 0.730 ROMANCE LOVE, 0.614
THRONE KING 0.759 HIGH LOW 0.6s5
DAGGER KNIFE 0.614 ANGRY MAD 0.520
ACRE LANI) 0.675 MINOR MAJOR 0.538
EARLY LATE 0.507 FEMALE MALE 0.552
TARDY LA'fE 0.899 WOMAN MAN 0.595
NOW LATER 0.s76 NUMEROUS MANY 0.568
GIGGLE LAUGH 0.780 ATLAS MAP 0.527
JOKE LAUGH 0.6t2 ALGEBRA MATH 0.655
TICKLE LAUGH 0.578 ARITHMETTC MATH 0.157
MOWER LAWN 0.658 CALCULUS MATH 0.709
FOLLOW LEAD 0.630 EOUATION MATH 0.641
FOLLOWER LEADE,R 0.60s GE,OMETRY MATH 0.534
DIlPART LEAVE 0.619 TRIGONOMETRY MATH Q.546
EVACUATI] LEAVE 0.500 I ME 0.653
VACATE LEAVE 0.633 YOU ME, 0.701
RAKE LEAVES 0.622 BUTCHER MEAT 0.546
ARM LEG 0.673 KILOMIITER MILE 0.s00
TTIIGH LEG 0.5 18 YOURS MINE 0.673
ARMS LEGS 0.549 PLUS MINUS 0.683
LIME LEMON 0.573 REFLECT MIRROR 0.507
MORE LESS 0.630 REFLECTION MTRROR 0.715
FIBER LIE 0.816 ERROR MISTAKE 0.619
BULB LIGHT 0.788 RLE,ND MIX 0.s65

r68 t69
DAD MOM 0.710 CONVENT NUN 0.747
BANK MONEY 0.799 CASHEW NI]T 0.745
BUDGET MONEY 0.54 r EVEN ODD 0.62t
CASH MONEY 0.8 r4 ON OFF 0.878
CHECKBOOK MONEY 0.527 FREOUENT OFTEN 0.507
DOLLARS MONEY 0.533 ARIGHT OKAY 0.s00
FTIND MONEY 0.730 ANCIENT OLD 0.662
INCOME MONEY 0.s43 ANTIOUE OLD 0.673
LOTTERY MONEY 0.536 ELDERLY OLD 0.703
PROFIT MONEY 0.608 NEW OLD 0.725
WALLET MONEY 0.630 YOTING OLD 0.595
CHIMPANZEE MONKEY 0.680 OFF ON 0.897
FRANKENSTEIN MONSTER 0.559 CLOSED OPEN 0.678
CRESCENT MOON 0.s24 JUICE ORANGE 0.655
LESS MORE 0.629 PEEL ORANGE 0.571
FATIGUE MOTHER 0.706 TANGERINE ORANGE 0.733
CLIMBER MOUNTAIN 0.603 IN OUT 0.940
CTNEMA MOVIE 0.793 INDOORS OUTDOORS 0.561
FILM MOVIE 0.543 INSIDE OUTSIDE 0.587
LINSOLVED MYSTERY 0.62s ACHE PAIN 0.507
HAMMER NAIL 0.800 AGONY PAIN 0.649
ARMY NAVY 0.s00 HURT PAIN 0.52r
FAR NEAR 0.503 TROUSERS PANTS 0.846
THREAD NEEDLE 0.758 GUARDIAN PARE,NT 0.536
POSITIVE NEGATIVE 0.627 CELEBRATE PARTY 0.603
NIECE NEPHEW 0.658 CELEBRATION PARTY 0.658
PROTON NEUTRON 0.566 INK PEN 0.695
DIME NICKEL 0.527 OUILL PEN 0.643
DAY NIGHT 0.819 ERASER PENCIL 0.507
EIGHT NINE 0.634 PEN PENCIL 0.s94
YES NO 0.830 DILL PICKLE 0.869
VERB NOUN 0.642 FRAME PICTURE 0.81 1

IMMEDIATE NOW 0.609 PHOTO PICTURE 0.577


DIGIT NUMBER 0.720 PORTRAIT PICTURE 0.682

t70 t7l
HOG PIG 0.741 RECALL REMEMBER 0.528
PORK PIG 0.594 REMTNISCENCE, RE,MEMBER 0.516
PEPPERONI PIZZA 0.849 DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN 0.507
AIRPORT PLANE 0.757 POOR RICH 0.510
JET PLANE 0.662 LEFT RIGHT 0.939
PILOT PLANE 0.731 WRONG RIGHT 0.723
URANUS PLANET 0.s75 DTAMOND RING 0.630
MINUS PLUS 0.520 DOORBELL RING 0.592
VE,NOM POISON 0.s09 BOULDER ROCK 0.6s6
COP POLICE 0.534 REGULATIONS RIJLES 0.662
CHLORINE POOL 0.664 FLEE RUN 0.592
POVERTY POOR 0.541 JOG RUN 0.783
RICH POOR 0.662 DEPRESSED SAD 0.521
CRACKLE POP 0.606 HAPPY SAD 0.628
NEGATIVE POSITIVE 0.603 IINHAPPY SAD 0.738
oLTNCE POUND 0.533 PE,PPER SALT 0.695
GIFT PRESENT 0.609 DLINE SAND 0.s68
PRINCESS PRTNCE 0.s47 AFRAID SCARE 0.604
DILEMMA PROBLEM 0.6t4 FRIGHT SCARE 0.636
PRTM PROPER 0.603 FRIGHTENED SCARED 0.784
TAPIOCA PUDDING 0.831 ITCH SCRATCH 0.848
TUG PULL 0.s80 YELL SCREAM 0.578
HANDBAG PURSE 0.597 LOOK SEE 0.678
POCKETBOOK PURSE 0.s 10 ESTE,EM SELF 0.584
PULL PUSH 0.s94 BI]YE,R SELLER 0.572
JIGSAW PUZZLE 0.836 CONDOM SEX 0.s33
KING OUEEN 0.772 OUIVER SHAKE 0.61 5
ANSWER OUESTION 0.s40 HEAD & SHOULDERS SHAMPOO 0.578
BUNNY RABBIT 0.735 JAWS SHARK 0.587
HARE RABBIT 0.732 HE SHE 0.776
UMBRELLA RAIN 0.701 DEPUTY SHERIFF 0.679
RODENT RAT 0.603 FLEET SHIPS 0.5 14
T]NCOOKED RAW 0.717 BLOUSE SHIRT 0.647
FORGET REMEMBER 0.527 BRIEF SHORT 0.s82

t72 t73
LONG SHORT 0.536 MEATBALLS SPAGHETTI 0.675
TALL SHORT 0.696 VELOCITY SPEED 0.5s9
BASHFUL SHY 0.730 COBWEB SPIDER 0.849
TIMII) SHY 0.689 WEB SPIDER 0.84s
FLU SICK 0.s85 CIRCLE SOUARE 0.635
TLL SICK 0.824 RE,CTANGLE SOUARE 0.7t6
ILLNESS SICK 0.723 POSTAGE STAMP 0.740
NAUSEOUS SICK 0.613 ASTROLOGY STAR 0.662
BROTHTR SISTER 0.746 ASTRONOMY STAR 0.7s3
FLESH SKIN 0.s75 TWINKLE STAR 0.662
BED SLEEP 0.638 UNITET) STATES 0.500
DOZE SLEEP 0.682 RE,MAIN STAY 0.784
DROWSY SLEEP 0.551 ROB STEAL 0.669
NAP SLEE,P 0.730 MOTIONLESS STILL 0.5 13
FAST SLOW 0.598 ABDOMEN STOMACH 0.566
BIG SMALL 0.635 GO STOP 0.539
LARGE SMAT-I- 0.606 HALT STOP 0.906
TINY SMALL 0.650 REFRAIN STOP 0.s 14
BRILLIANT SMART 0.520 FAIRYTALE STORY 0.s24
CLEVER SMART 0.615 TALE STORY 0.589
INTELLIGENT SMART 0.71t AVENLJE STREET 0.678
AROMA SMELL 0.678 BOULEVARD STREET 0.587
ODOR SMELL 0.697 POWERFUL STRONG 0.587
CIGAR SMOKE 0.507 WEAK STRONG 0.557
ESCARGOT SNAIL 0.629 PUPIL STUDENT 0.683
COBRA SNAKE 0.831 DUMB STUPID 0.s26
REPTILE SNAKE 0.514 ADD SUBTRACT 0.685
LATHER SOAP 0.673 ADDITION SUBTRACTION 0.621
ZEST SOAP 0.574 RAYS SI]N 0.624
HARD SOFT 0.564 DINNER SUPPER 0.53s
APOLOCY SORRY 0.578 MARSH SWAMP 0.s21
BROTH SOUP 0.806 PERSPIRE SWEAT 0.837
NORTH SOUTH 0.772 BROOM SWEEP 0.504
ASTRONAUT SPACE 0.s26 WAG TAIL 0.680

174 175
FAIRY TALE 0.543 RAILROAD TRAIN 0.500
COMMLINICATE TAI,K 0.652 BRANCH TREE 0.528
CONVERSATION TALK 0.642 ELM TREE 0.61 8
DISCUSS TALK 0.689 FOREST TREE 0.628
DISCUSSION TALK 0.550 LEAF TREE 0.642
FLAVOR TASTE 0.500 OAK TREE 0.79s
INSTRUCT TEACH 0.s29 PTNE TREE 0.642
INSTRI]CTOR TEACHER 0.566 FAME TRUE 0.703
PROFESSOR TEACHER 0.sl1 ATTEMPT TRY 0.749
RIP TE,AR 0.711 THANKSGIVING TURKEY 0.503
BRACES TEETH 0.647 ONCE TWICE 0.612
GUMS TEETH 0.705 ONE TWO 0.703
CABLE TELEVISION 0.689 ALINT UNCLE 0.746
NETWORK TELEVISION 0.547 OVER UNDER 0.542
ZENITH TE,LEVISION 0.698 COMPREHEND LINDERSTAND 0.829
NINE TEN 0.566 DOWN UP 0.581
RACKET TENNTS 0.504 DOWNSTAIRS UPSTAIRS 0.591
EXAM TEST 0.778 NOLIN VERB 0.690
OTJIZ TEST 0.792 ERUPT VOLCANO 0.641
HERE THE,RE 0.632 BALLOT VOTE 0.518
THICK THIN 0.682 PEDESTRIAN WALK 0.597
CONSIDER THINK 0.500 DES]RE WANT 0.610
OUENCH THIRST 0.815 NEED WANT 0.599
TOSS THROW 0.618 OBSERVE WATCH 0.500
LOOSE TIGHT 0.565 DAM WATER 0.503
CLOCK TIME 0.6s2 FAUCET WATER 0.615
E,XHAI]STED TIRED 0.895 FLOOD WATER 0.622
WEARY TIRED 0.60s FOLINTATN WATER 0.s86
TOMORROW TODAY 0.527 EAST WEST 0.886
TODAY TOMORROW 0.503 DRENCH WET 0.503
CAVITY TOOTH 0.543 MOIST WET 0.543
BOTTOM TOP 0.507 BLACK WHITE 0.557
PLAYTHING TOY 0.664 WHOM wHo 0.531
CABOOSE TRAIN 0.721 HUSBAND WIF'E 0.885

176 177
I

RREEZE WIND 0.606


PANE WTNDOW 0.833
CORK WINE 0.5 17
LOSER WINNER 0.508
VICTOR WINNER 0.503
MAN WOMAN 0.660
MEN WOMEN 0.6r4
LUMBER WOOD 0.s96
DICTIONARY WORDS 0.520
VOCABULARY WORDS 0.s07
JOB WORK 0.567
LABOR WORK 0.690
GLOBE WORLD 0.679
BEST WORST 0.536
CORRECT WRONG 0.554
INCORRECT WRONG 0.673
ANNUAL YEARLY 0.707
HOLLER YELL 0.533
NO YES 0.761
ME YOU 0.500
MINE YOURS 0.555

t78 179

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