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INVESTIGATING AND MINIMIZING WASTE

THROUGH VALUE STREAM MAPPING (VSM): CASE


OF ALTEX

PREPARED BY
SAMUEAL G/HER
MEARG KAHASAY
KIBROM G/HER

ETHIOPIAN INSTIUTE OF TEXTILE AND


FASHION TECHNOLOGY (EITEX)

BAHIR DAR UNIVERSITY

ETHIOPIA

BAHIR DAR

2017

i
INVESTIGATING AND MINIMZING WASTE
THROUGH VALUE STREAM MAPPING (VSM): CASE
OF ALTEX
This thesis submitted to the Ethiopian institute of textile and fashion
technology (EITEX) for in partial fulfillment of the REQUIREMENT for
the degree of Science/Technology in
GARMENT ENGINEERING
prepared by
SAMUEAL G/HER
MEARG KAHASAY
KIBROM G/HER
Under the Guidance of

MR. TESFU BERHANE.

ETHIOPIAN INSTIUTE OF TEXTILE AND FASHION


TECHNOLOGY (EITEX)

BAHIR DAR UNIVERSITY


BAHIR DAR , ETHIOPIA
JUNE ,2017
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DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY

We hereby certify that we are the sole author of this thesis and that no part of this thesis
has been published or submitted for publication.

we certify that, to the best of our knowledge, our thesis does not infringe upon anyone’s
copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques, quotations, or
any other material from the work of other people included in our thesis, published or
otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referencing practices.
Furthermore, to the extent that we have included copyrighted material that surpasses the
bounds of fair dealing within the meaning of the Canada Copyright Act, we certify that we
have obtained a written permission from the copyright owner(s) to include such material(s)
in our thesis and have included copies of such copyright clearances to my appendix.

we declare that this is a true copy of our thesis, including any final revisions, as approved
by our thesis committee and the Graduate Studies office, and that this thesis has not been
submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution.

KIBROM G/HER
Name Signature

SAMUEAL G/HER
Name Signature

MEARG KAHASAY
Name Signature

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APPROVAL BY ADVISOR
To the best of my knowledge and as understood by the student in the Research Integrity
and Copyright Disclaimer, this thesis/project adheres to the provisions of guidelines,
policies and legislations of the Institute of Technology for Textile, garment and fashion
design during his research work and use of copyrighted material. The thesis is complete
and can be presented to the thesis evaluation committee.

MR. TESFU BERHANE


_______________ ________________ ________________
Advisor Name Signature date

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ABSTRACT
This project is aimed to use and apply lean tools as ways of improving manufacturing
systems that lead to reduction of wastes and reduction of lead time. The focus of this study
is to investigate and to minimize different waste by using a lean tool which called VALUE
STREAM MAPPING on a PANT in ALMEDA TEXTILE P.L.C
The main objective of the project paper is to identify various wastes occurs in the
production system. Additionally, it tries to find out some areas for improvement and
propose some improvement strategies. In this concern, this case study has been conducted
focusing cutting, finishing and on a particular production line of sewing section in a
selected garments factory. Value adding, non-value adding (necessary and unnecessary)
processes and different types of wastes have been identified by drawing the current state
map for cutting, sewing and finishing sections.
The project conducted in ALMED TEXTILE P.L.C in pant style no P4582 using personal
interviews, secondary data and observations. Quantitative data were analyzed by using
tables and graphs. directly observing the flow of information and material as they occur.
The current state map was developed after making necessary observations and calculations.
We use 5 WHY? analysis in order to developed and to identify key causes behind wastes
Then various improvement proposals had been identified based on Lean Manufacturing
theories and the future state map is developed by recommending some lean tools towards
some future improvement.

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ACKNOWLEDEMENT
At the very beginning we would like to express our sincere gratitude to the
Almighty God whose blessings made us capable of accomplishing this project
work.
We are greatly indebted to our supervisor Tesfu B. Department of garment
engineering for his constant guidance, cordial suggestion, help and care for the
completion of the project work. Without his continuous attention and care it
would never have been possible to accomplish our project paper.
We would like to express our gratitude to Tadese, mikiyas, Abraham, and all
Altex Garment department employee for their support and kindness.
In addition, thanks are due to those who helped us directly and indirectly
during the different stages of the project work.
Finally, we record with deep appreciation the patience, understanding and
encouragement shown by our family and friends throughout the period of our
study.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY ............................................................................ i
APPROVAL BY ADVISOR ............................................................................................ ii
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... iii
ACKNOWLEDEMENT .................................................................................................. iv
Table of Contents .............................................................................................................. v
LIST OF TABES ............................................................................................................. vii
LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................... viii
List of acronyms ............................................................................................................... ix
CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Research Background ............................................................................................... 1
1.2 Problem of The Statements ....................................................................................... 3
1.3. Objective of The Study ............................................................................................ 4
1.3.1. Main Objective.............................................................................................. 4
1.3.2. Sub Objective ................................................................................................ 4
1.4. Scope of The Study .................................................................................................. 4
1.5 Limitations of The Study .......................................................................................... 4
1.6 Benefit of The Study ................................................................................................. 5
1.7 Beneficiary of The Study .......................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER TWO .............................................................................................................. 6
REVIEW OF LITERATURE .......................................................................................... 6
2.1 Lean Manufacturing .................................................................................................. 6
2.1.1 What Is Lean .................................................................................................. 6
2.1.2 History of Lean Manufacturing ..................................................................... 6
2.2 wastes in lean manufacturing .................................................................................... 6
2.2.1. Types of Lean Waste .................................................................................... 7
2.3. Value Stream Mapping (VSM) ................................................................................ 8
2.3.1 Considerations for Waste Elimination ........................................................... 8
2.4. Different Literature Review On Different Company ............................................... 9
2.4.1 Case Study 1 .................................................................................................. 9
2.4.2 Case Study 2 ................................................................................................ 10
2.4.3. Case Study 3 ............................................................................................... 11
CHAPTER THREE ........................................................................................................ 12
3.1. Research Methodology .......................................................................................... 12

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3.1 Data Collection Method .......................................................................................... 13
3.1.1 Primary Data Collection .............................................................................. 13
3.1.2. Secondary Data Collection ......................................................................... 13
3.2. Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation ...................................................... 14
3.2.1. Procedure .................................................................................................... 14
3.2.2. Product Information from The Customer View and Manufacturer Capacity
............................................................................................................................... 16
3.2.3 Cutting department analysis ......................................................................... 17
3.2.4. Sewing department...................................................................................... 18
3.2.5. Packing department ..................................................................................... 22
Drawing current value stream mapping ........................................................................ 24
CURRENT VALUE STREAM MAPPING.................................................................. 25
3.2.6. CUTTING DEPARTMENT ANALYSIS .................................................. 25
3.2.7. SEWING DEPARTMENT ANALYSIS .................................................... 26
3.2.8. PACKING DEPARTMENT ANALYSIS .................................................. 27
3.2.9 Profit loss ..................................................................................................... 28
3.3. Current waste in the ATEX.................................................................................... 30
3.3.1 Overproduction: ........................................................................................... 30
4.3.2. Inventory ..................................................................................................... 30
3.3.3. Transportation ............................................................................................. 31
3.3.4. Excess Motion:............................................................................................ 34
3.3.5. Rework and defect ...................................................................................... 35
3.3.6. Defect analysis ............................................................................................ 36
PROPOSED VALUE STREAM MAPPING................................................................ 41
CHAPTER FOUR ........................................................................................................... 42
4.1 Result and Discussion ............................................................................................. 42
CHAPTER FIVE ............................................................................................................ 45
Conclusion and Recommendation ................................................................................ 45
5.1 Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 45
5.2 Recommendation .................................................................................................... 47
Reference ......................................................................................................................... 49
Appendix .......................................................................................................................... 50
Value stream mapping icons and meaning ................................................................... 50

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LIST OF TABES
Table 1 product matrix...................................................................................................... 14
Table 2 cutting department value stream chart ................................................................ 17
Table 3 time study sheet p4582 ......................................................................................... 18
Table 4 Sewing Department value stream chart ............................................................... 19
Table 5 packing time study ............................................................................................... 22
Table 6 packing department value stream chart............................................................... 22
Table 7 Cutting Department Analysis ............................................................................... 25
Table 8 Sewing Department Analysis ............................................................................... 26
Table 9 PACKING DEPARTMENT ANALYSIS ............................................................... 27
Table 10 Profit loss ........................................................................................................... 28
Table 11 overproduction five why analysis ...................................................................... 30
Table 12 inventory five why analysis ................................................................................ 31
Table 13 transportation five why analysis ........................................................................ 32
Table 14 layout comparison current and new .................................................................. 33
Table 15 waste of motion five why analysis ...................................................................... 34
Table 16 Table 16 defect and rework five why analysis .................................................. 35
Table 17 company report quality control report .............................................................. 36
Table 18 Cause and effect broken stich ............................................................................ 37
Table 19 Cause and effect skip stich ................................................................................. 38
Table 20 Cause and effect slip out .................................................................................... 39
Table 21 Cause and effect uneven stich ........................................................................... 39
Table 22 Cause and effect open seam ............................................................................... 40

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2 pant style noP4582 ............................................................................................. 15
Figure 3 Drawing current value stream mapping ............................................................. 24
Figure 4 current value stream mapping ............................................................................ 25
Figure 5 cutting lead time ................................................................................................. 25
Figure 6 cutting production ............................................................................................... 26
Figure 7 sewing lead time ................................................................................................. 26
Figure 8 sewing production .............................................................................................. 27
Figure 9 packing lead time ................................................................................................ 27
Figure 10 packing production ........................................................................................... 28
Figure 11 profit loss due to variation in smv .................................................................... 29
Figure 12 waste of overproduction ................................................................................... 30
Figure 13 waste of inventory ............................................................................................ 31
Figure 14 current layout ................................................................................................... 32
Figure 15 proposed layout ................................................................................................ 33
Figure 16 waste of motion ................................................................................................ 34
Figure 17 waste of Rework and defect .............................................................................. 35
Figure 18 pareto chart ....................................................................................................... 36
Figure 19 Cause and effect diagram broken stich ............................................................ 37
Figure 20 Cause and effect diagram skip stich ................................................................ 37
Figure 21 Cause and effect diagram of slip out ............................................................... 38
Figure 22 Cause and effect diagram of uneven stich ....................................................... 39
Figure 23 Cause and effect diagram of t open seam ........................................................ 40
Figure 24 Proposed value stream mapping ....................................................................... 41

Figure 3. 1. Research Methodology .................................................................................. 12

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LIST OF ACRONYMS

TPS…………………………………………………………Toyota production system


VSM ……………………………………………………….Value Stream Mapping
ALTEX……………………………………………….………almeda textile plc.
WIP…………………………………………………...………...work in progress
C/O………………………………………………………….…Change over time
C/t………………………………………………………………. Cycle time
EPE ……………………………………………………………. Every Part Every
SNLS…………………………………………….……. single needle lockstitch machine
Np Activities……………………………..............non -productivity activates

T--transportation
I--inventory
M--unnecessary motion
W--waiting
O--overproduction
O--over processing
D--defect

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Research Background


In our day to day life the change of the world is very quick, at the same time
the consumer expectations are also high, so organizations should be striving
and survive to adapt it quickly. A firm should have to have a proven concept
to reduce the lean wastes and the tools to do so, if the company to remain
competitive in the global market. One of the begs concept is to use lean tool.
Value stream mapping is a process designed to reduce lead time, to make
product flow, and to eliminate waste (nonvalue added operations or activities),
all for the purpose of meeting customer demand at the lowest cost, and with
the highest quality. since it originated in the Toyota production system (TPS),
many researchers have discussed the application of value stream mapping
(VSM) in different industries. value stream mapping is a lean manufacturing
technique used to analyze and design the flow of material and information
required to bring a product or service to a consumer (rother & shook, 2003).
value stream mapping is a powerful tool that provides a visual view of work
processes, improves work strategies and deepens an understanding of
eliminating waste and delivering value.
In the garment industry, there are so many value added and non -value added
activities during the whole production flow from trim to shipment of the
product. Those non-value added activities somehow or the other affect the
whole process flow of the industry These activities should either be eliminated
or should be improved by implementation of innovative a nd more user friendly
processes. Then finally the best process should be taken and should be
standardized across all the units.
Waste is unnecessary for any kind of industry because it raises the
manufacturing cost of products. For the customer waste is an ything that cannot
create any value. By effective lean production system, it becomes possible to

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decline the generation of wastes and increase the productivity in any industries.
So, it became very significant to identify lean wastes and its effects on
productivity and manufacturing cost of products. According to lean
manufacturing these wastes overproduction, more waiting time and
bottlenecks, over transportation, excess inventory, more processing (re -
works), excess motion and defects (Wilson, 2009). These lean wastes could
not contribute in adding value of different products.
This research is an attempt to identify the applicability of one of the most
important Lean Manufacturing tool called “Value Stream Mapping (VSM)” in
ALTEX garment production floor.

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1.2 Problem of The Statements
Waste is unnecessary for any kind of industry because it raises the
manufacturing cost of products. lean wastes of “TIMWOOD”. These wastes
cannot be dedicated as they are not visual for our naked eyes but increasing
the lead time of the production and it also increase the production cost of the
product. Which leads to increase non -value added time simultaneously
decrease the value-added time. ALTEX also have different type of waste that
increase the lead time of the production if they investigated and minim izing
those wastes we can reduce the production time and production cost in order
to investigated and minimizing we have to use one of lean tool “VALUE
STREAM MAPPING” of the products. The Target is to minimize those wastes
in the production floor and investigating the lean waste also to minimizing lean
wastes by using leans tools.

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1.3. Objective of The Study

1.3.1. Main Objective


The main aim of this project is to investigate and minimize lean waste through
value stream mapping in ALTEX garment production floor

1.3.2. Sub Objective


 To introduce a new concept of VSM in ALTEX
 To investigating production time and cost of the product
 To improve the method and productivity of garment department through
waste reduction
 To better visualizing the production lead time of different department in
one time

1.4. Scope of The Study


The study is conducted in ALTEX textile and addresses the scope of value
stream mapping (VSM) application in a selected Ethiopian garment industry.
The core idea behind the project work is to examine the existing condition of
production system where there is no application of VSM techni que and to
analyze the scope of VSM technique application in the studied production line.

1.5 Limitations of The Study


 VSM is not a one-time event but a cyclic process. It takes time to
implement and then get the final result.
 Garment industry has a decent ralized setup. The professionalism of each
industry is dependent on its managers. Therefore, the decision and extent
of on implementation depends on them.
 The resistance in the attitude of the responsible authorities also is a
major setback in the implementation process. They tend to slide back to
the traditional setup.
 Lack of long term support and drive by Top Management VSM is a
methodology which aids continuous improvement. Top management

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must acknowledge the fact that lean manufacturing is a long-term
philosophy, and at the end of the day, it WILL give the desired goals.

1.6 Benefit of The Study


 It creates understanding of how value is created for customer
 It helps to identified the key area of waste
 It links planning and scheduling processes to mate rial flow
 It gives clue to the root cause of waste in order to minimize or eliminate
 Helps to the company to visualize more than the single process level
 Helps to see linked chain of processes and to envision future Lean value
streams.
 Provides a common language and understanding so that everyone has the
same vision.

1.7 Beneficiary of The Study


ALTEX company are the primary beneficiary from this project if they
use properly
It can help to study for further research on the different lean tools
especially on VSM
It can help to standardize the study and in order to implement to other
company

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CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Lean Manufacturing

2.1.1 What Is Lean


Lean Manufacturing can be defined as "A systematic approach to identifying
and eliminating waste through continuous improvement by flowing the product
at the demand of the customer." Taiichi Ohno once said that “Lean
Manufacturing is all about looking at the t ime line from the moment the
customer gives us an order to the point when we collect the cash. And we are
reducing that time line by removing the non – value added wastes” (Ohno,
1988).

2.1.2 History of Lean Manufacturing


After World War II, Japanese manufacturers were faced with the dilemma of
vast shortages of material, financial and human resources. The problems that
Japanese manufacturers were faced with differed from those of their Western
counterparts. These conditions resulted in the birth of the “le an” manufacturing
concept. According to Rameez and Inamdar in the 1950’s Toyota Motor
Corporation created Toyota Production System (TPS), then it formatted a new
kind of management concept 'Lean thinking'(Rameez and Inamdar 1950)

2.2 wastes in lean manufacturing


When thinking about wastes, there are three types of activities that should be
defined within organizations (Ana 2008):
a) Value adding activity: those activities that, in the eyes of the final
customer, make a product or service more valuable. A value adding activity is
simple to define; industries can ask themselves if they as a customer would be
happy to pay for it.
b) Necessary non-value adding activity: those activities that, in the eyes of
the final customer, do not make a product or service more valuable but are

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necessary, in the event the existing supply process is radically changed. Such
waste is more difficult to remove in the short term and should be a target for
longer term or radical change.
c) Non-value adding activity: those activities which, in the eyes of the final
customer, do not make a product or service more valuable and are not necessary
even under present circumstances. These activities are clearly ‘wastes’ and
should therefore be the target of immediate or, at least, short term removal.

2.2.1. Types of Lean Waste


The waste can be categorized into seven types which is commonly referred to
as the “Seven wastes” “TIMWOOD”. Taii chi Ohno suggests that these account
for up to 95% of all costs in non – Lean Manufacturing environments. These
wastes are:
1. Overproduction Producing too much or too soon, resulting from poor
flow of information
2. Defects Frequent errors, product quality prob lems, or poor delivery
performance
3. Unnecessary inventory Excessive storage and delay of information or
products, resulting in excess inventory
4. Inappropriate processing Going about the work process using the
wrong set of tools, procedures or systems, often when a simpler
approach may be more effective
5. Excessive motion Excessive movement of people, information or goods,
resulting in wasted time, effort and cost
6. Waiting Long periods of inactivity for people, information or goods
7. Unnecessary motion Poor workplace organization, resulting in poor
ergonomics, for example excessive bending or stretching and frequently
lost items

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2.3. Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
A Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is a tool of lean manufacturing that helps to
understand the flow of material and information as products make their way
through the value stream. The value stream includes the value adding and non -
value adding activities that are required to bring a product from raw material
through delivery to the customer. In other words, Value Stream Mapping is an
outline of a product's manufacturing life cycle that identifies each step
throughout the production process. It represents a visual information of
material flow for a particular product family (Rother and Shook, 1999).

A value stream, as the name implies, flows to some specific end. This end is a
set of requirements, as expressed by the customers of the value stream. When
the value stream fails to meet the requirements it is intended to serve, it must
be improved. Customers have three simple requirements – price, quality and
delivery. In today’s market, competitive price and quality are basic
requirements for staying in business. On time delivery a t a cost that allows for
profitability is therefore the key to competitiveness. (Rother and Shook,
1999).

2.3.1 Considerations for Waste Elimination


Value stream mapping is a process designed to reduce lead time, to make
product flow, and to eliminate waste (nonvalue added operations or activities),
all for the purpose of meeting customer demand at the lowest cost, and with
the highest quality. Lean thinking relies on recognizing the “seven wastes” –
over-production, over-processing, inventory, motion, scrap, waiting, and
transportation. Target maps reveal which of these wastes can be eliminated
now, and where. With simulation, it is easy to avoid the t raditional problem of
eliminating waste at an operation where there is no net gain. That is because
the revised system’s performance can be compared to the current state, to see
the impact of the proposed change. The key to producing useful target maps is
to look for low-cost improvements that encourage flow, reduce inventory, and
test the organization’s ability to manage in a lean environment. The challenge

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of developing the attitudes, systems and communication necessary for a true
pull system operating at customer takt should not be underestimated. A high
inventory system hides a multitude of problems, which will slowly be exposed
as batch sizes and WIP are reduced. The level of organization and
standardization required for one-piece flow are rarely found in companies with
traditional production planning and traditional management (Anders 2008).

2.4. Different Literature Review On Different Company

2.4.1 Case Study 1


These case study is conducted on the Bangladesh RMG industry in two
organizations This research paper is based on case study approach. This case
study research has been carried out in a selected garments industry. Several
lean tools such as Value Stream Mapping, Cellular Manufacturing and Kanban
are used in sewing, cutting and finishing section to identify the existing wastes.
Case study methodology has been applied to collect and analyze data by direct
observation. Wastes are identified by using value stream mapping.
Root-cause analysis is developed to identify key causes behind wastes. Th en
Cellular Manufacturing and Kanban have applied to reduce wastes and improve
productivity. Cellular Manufacturing refers to a manufacturing system wherein
the equipment and work-stations are arranged in an efficient sequence that
allows continuous and smooth movement of inventories and materials to
produce from start to finish in a single process flow, while incurring minimal
transport or waiting time, or any delay for the matter. In this research raw
material Kanban has been used.
Raw material Kanban method is a calculation that determines the optimal
amount of raw material goods to be placed in a buffer. It assures there is always
just enough material on hand to make what is needed. This research extracts
the common scenario of the garments sector of Ba ngladesh by depicting the
existing pictures of the value stream.
The improvement overall performance and wastes of existing system and
proposed system they find that there is huge scope to improve

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for Case- A, workforce is reduced 47.05%., Required space is reduced 63.26
%, Over transportation is reduced 54.58 %., Inventory is reduced 97.64 %. In
which raw material inventory is reduced 100 %, a WIP is reduced 98.54 %. ,
Lead time is reduced 95.35 %., Efficiency is improved 58.86 %., Labor
productivity is improved 62 %.
For Case- B, workforce is reduced 47.05%, Required space is reduced 63.26
%, Over transportation is reduced 38.97 %., Inventory is reduced 97.64 %. In
which raw material inventory is reduced 100 %, WIP is reduced 98.54 %. Lead
time is reduced 95.35%. Efficient-cy is improved 58.86 %, Labor productivity
is improved 62 % (Masudul, Mohammad, Abdur and Mohdn, 2013).

2.4.2 Case Study 2


This paper addresses the scope of value stream mapping (VSM) application in
a selected garments factory of Bangladesh. The main objective of the research
paper was to identify various wastes occurs in the production system.
Additionally, it tries to find out some areas for improvement and propose some
improvement strategies. In this concern this case study has been conducted
focusing cutting, finishing and on a particular production line of sewing
section in a selected garments factory. During the investigation, attention has
been concentrated how non- value adding activity hampers daily production
rate and how to improve the productivity. Value adding, non -value adding
(necessary and unnecessary) processes and different types of wastes have been
identified by drawing the current state map for cutting, sewing and finishing
sections.
The methodology of this research work was a case study research. This case
study is conducted in selected a garments industry located in Dhaka. The study
gives an idea about the existing scenario of the different section of the
garments industry. The information and data collected were sorted and
arranged so that further study and analysis could be performed. Quantitative
data were analyzed by using tables and graphs. Various types of information
were given as a profile. Some analysis has been shown by Pareto Diagram and

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Cause Effect Diagram. After completion of the data processing, the analysis
has been performed.
The result has significantly been improved over the current state map. By using
VSM on the company they improve.
Through this thesis work,
 Value added activity has been increased from 0.62% - 1.1%
 Waiting time has been reduced from 283.58 min. to 115.26 min.
 Productivity has been increased 31.94 %
 Lead time has been decreased 7.74 days to 4.42 days
 Bottleneck point has been reduced from 0.72 min. to 0.49 min.
(Mostafizur and Chowdury 2015).

2.4.3. Case Study 3


In this study value stream mapping has been done in an apparel manufacturing
unit at sewing section, as sewing room the most swarming room comparing
with any other departments. Here on a specific product value stream has been
done in current state and nonvalue added activity was separated and a future
state mapping is proposed for that style of product
The methodology used VSM includes a step by step approach to transform a
current manufacturing state into a lean future state, which is the basis of its
success in practice
For doing so, at first a specific style is selected to run pilot project. Then for
that product operation breakdown is done cumulatively; number of worker,
required equipment, cycle time for each job or operation is listed.
RESULT AND ANALYSIS for the studied style cycle time for current state
mapping is 8.267 minute where the proposed state mapping cycle time required
for that style of product is 4.684 minute. This reduction of time is done by
eliminating the non-value added jobs or activities. In this case number of
worker is also reduced to a number of 19 from total number of 32.
From this study, it is apparent that by applying VSM in an apparel industries
sewing floor, labor (Farhatun and Rezwan 2014).

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CHAPTER THREE

3.1. Research Methodology

Gathering different literature review on VSM

General observation the production flow

Select a garment to be mapped

Data collection

observe observe Drawing the process Identify type of


Material flow flow of the floor waste
information flow

Draw the current VSM

Data Analysis

Eliminating or minimizing those


Identifying main problems and possible waste
improvement in each process flow

Draw the future VSM and Result and Discussion


compare with the previous

Figure 3. 1. Research Methodology

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3.1 Data Collection Method

3.1.1 Primary Data Collection


 Observing and by asking different departments
The primary data collected from the floor by direct observation. and this data
starter from cutting, sewing and finishing department.
 Interview
we used an informal interview to collect the primary data from the floor

3.1.2. Secondary Data Collection


The secondary data includes the extensive study, with the help of published
and unpublished articles, journals and books, of the various Lean tools and
their implementation in different industries. Collecting or Gathering different
literature review on VSM concept and its application in other industry and
Garment industry

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3.2. Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
In Alameda textile p.l.c of garment department from temporary fabric storage
up to finished department huge inventory and high lead time between the
departments so decide to analyses the lead time through one of lean
manufacturing tool called “value stream mapping “by choosing on e product or
style

3.2.1. Procedure
Step 1 select the product to be mapped – by using simple matrix to identify the
product they use the same process in garment section. Value stream maps are
created for a single product, or a family of products. A family is a group of
products with similar routings, similar process times, and customers with
similar needs and demand rates. ‘Similar’ means that while there may be some
variation, it is recognizable that all members of the group have a core set of
operations that are the same. Products may vary by color, size, minor features,
or one or two steps in the production process.
Table 1 product matrix
Process steps
Cut Band Fusing Embroidery Printing Washing Packing
knife
Pants X x x Family A x
Shirt X x x x
Woven
Products

Over all X x x Family B x x

Polo t- X x x x x
shirt
Knitted

t-shirt X x Family C x x
Singlet x x Family D x

Step 2 choosing the product based on this product family I choose family A
because of highest volume production also they have a high SMV when we
compare to other products. Those pants are produced to export and their
customer called DUNGUNAME it’s a Korean priv et company that produce a
different garment in different country. The pants are used in hospitals and

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clinics. Their fabric property has difficult to handle for the operators during
sewing production because of the smoothness and other properties of the fa bric

Back Front

Figure 1 pant style noP4582

Step 3 understanding pant production flow from cutting up to wear house


Step 4 separating each activates performing in each departments
Step 5 collecting a process data in each department that contains the
information
Cycle Time (C/T). Rate at which a part or product is completed by a process.
Changeover Time (C/O). Amount of time to switch from one product type to
another.
Every Part Every (EPE). Measure of batch sizes and changeover cycles.

15
Available Work Time. Per shift of a process (in seconds, minus break,
meeting, and cleanup times.)
Number of Operators. Required personnel for a process

3.2.2. Product Information from The Customer View and Manufacturer Capacity
Customer DONGUNAME
Style no P4582
Total order quantity 35000
Delivery date June 15-2017

Total available time for production 26 days

𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑚𝑛𝑎𝑑


Customer demand pcs/day = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ
21320 𝑝𝑐𝑠
Customer demand pcs/day = 26
= 820 𝑑𝑎𝑦
820 𝑝𝑐𝑠
Customer demand pcs/shift = = 410
2 𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑓𝑡
𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
Takt time =
𝑐𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑛𝑑
440 𝑚𝑖𝑛
Takt time = = 1.07
410 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡

Sewing capacity
NO Operator 33
Smv 36
Working hr. 440
target @ 100 p/day 407
target @ 85% p/day 346
target @80% p /day 326
target @80% p /hr. 44
target @85% p /hr. 47
target @100% P/hr. 56 Style no p4582

16
3.2.3 Cutting department analysis
Table 2 cutting department value stream chart

roll no 21 Length (M) 100M


Style no 4285 Ration 3
Customer DONGNAM No of layers 200
Color Blue
Activates No Starting and Min Operation Transport Inspection Delay Storage
operat finishing time ation
ors

Temporary 2880 min


storage
Transportin 2 2:30:23-2:40:48 00:10:25
g
machine set 2:40:38-2:43:42 00:03:04
up time
loading 2 2:43:42-2:44:45 00:01:02
time
spreading 2 2:44:45-3:10:45 00:30:00
time per roll
Waiting 3:10:45-3:14:02 00:03:17
time
Marking 1 3:14:02-3:17:12 00:03:12
checking
and ironing
Inspection 1 3:17:12-3:18:19 00:01:17
cutting 3:18:19-3:47:07 00:29:07

Waiting 3:47:07-3:52:45 00:05:34


Bundle 2 3:52;45-3:56:32 00:03:32
Numbering
Bundling 3 3:56:32-4:05:45 00:10:11
ticketing
Inspection 3 4:05:45 4:10:34 00:05:09
Transportati 4:10:34-4:15:22 00:05:12
on
Temporary
storage
Total lead 231.33
time min

17
3.2.4. Sewing department
Table 3 time study sheet p4582

CUSTOMER DONG NAM ARTICLE Trouser STAYLE NO 4285P DATE 26/ 04/2017

no Name of operation Op machi Attac 1 2 3 4 5 total average actual


era ne hmen time time smv
tor t
1 Back pocket mark 1 table Patte 11 10 14 10 13 58 0.19
rn 0.16
2 o/l side vent 1 3TH 24 22 26 27 23 122 0.34 0.41
3 attach side pocket 1 SNLS 52 47 52 50 54 255 0.85
lining 0.71
4 hem back pocket 1 DNLS Guid 17 19 21 15 17 89 0.30
e 0.25
5 press front Waist 1 iron patte 55 53 51 58 53 270 0.90
rn 0.75
6 back pocket press 1 iron patte 44 46 50 47 45 232 0.77
rn 0.64
7 back pocket 1 SNLS CR- 45 49 52 45 47 238 0.79
attach 1/16 0.66
8 back pocket top 1 SNLS CR1/ 46 49 44 48 43 230 0.77
s/t 8 0.64
9 top s/t side pocket 1 DNLS 52 64 60 54 56 286 0.95
mouth 0.79
10 close side pocket 1 5th 86 94 88 84 82 434 1.45
bag 1.21
11 sew back rise 1 5th 67 66 64 60 62 319 1.06
&front rise 0.89
12 top s/t back rise & 1 MH 42 44 42 47 41 216 0.72
front rise 0.60
13 tack side pocket 1 SNLS 40 38 38 36 42 194 0.65
side Waist 0.54
14 cut mark and tack 1 SNLS sizer 73 79 72 70 75 369 1.23
elastic Waist 1.03
15 prepare Waist belt 1 SNLS folde 39 41 35 44 42 201 0.67
r 0.56
16 cut &tack Waist 1 SNLS 33 37 35 40 35 180 0.60
belt 0.50
17 attach elastic with 1 5th 38 41 43 37 43 202 0.67
Waist 0.56
18 mark&make 1 BH patte 50 54 48 52 52 256 0.85
button hole Waist rn 0.71
19 attach front Waist 1 SNLS 64 56 59 61 61 301 0.84 1.00
20 tack belt &close 1 SNLS 99 97 93 10 94 484 1.61
front Waist 1 1.34

18
20 top s/t front Waist 1 SNLS 23 20 23 25 21 112 0.31 0.37
21 sew side seam 1 5th 86 90 92 87 95 450 1.25 1.50
23 close in seam 1 5th 56 58 64 59 63 300 0.83 1.00
24 tack corner Waist 1 SNLS 49 43 46 43 47 228 0.63 0.76
25 close back Waist 1 SNLS guide 57 61 53 55 58 284 0.79 0.95
26 tack back Waist 1 SNLS 56 51 54 50 53 264 0.88
&lable 0.73
27 hem side vent 1 SNLS guide 99 96 103 95 10 494 1.65
1 1.37
28 bottom hem 2 SNLS guide 164 167 159 16 16 820 2.73
8 2 2.28
29 Bartak 1 barta 61 65 66 63 60 315 1.05
k 0.88
30 Trimer 3 table trim 295 290 287 29 28 1455 4.85
ming 6 7 4.04
31 Qc 205 209 214 20 21 1047 3.49
Table 7 2 2.91
33 35.68

Table 4 Sewing Department value stream chart

CUSTOMER DONG NAM ARTICLE Trouser STAYLE NO 4285P DATE 26/ 04/2017

no Name of operation operator Machine attachme Starting Finishing Time in minute


nt time time
1 Waiting on bundle shelf 3:30 8:10 05:20:00
2 Back pocket mark 1 table pattern 8:10:32 8:14:00 0:03:28
3 Waiting 8:14:00 8:17:43 0:03:43
4 o/l side vent 1 3TH 8:17:43 8:25:00 0:07:17
5 Waiting 8:25:00 8:28:43 0:03:43
6 attach side pocket lining 1 SNLS 8:28:43 8:41:32 0:12:49
7 Waiting 8:41:32 8:43:11 0:01:39
8 hem back pocket 1 DNLS Gide 8:43:11 8:48:00 0:04:49
9 Waiting 8:48:00 8:49:18 0:01:18
10 press front Waist 1 iron pattern 8:49:18 9:03:28 0:14:10
11 Waiting 9:03:28 9:05:45 0:02:17
12 back pocket press 1 iron pattern 9:05:44 9:16:28 0:10:44
13 Waiting 9:16:28 9:18:22 0:01:54
14 back pocket attach 1 SNLS CR-1/16 9:18:22 9:29:16 0:10:54
15 Waiting 9:29:16 9:31:21 0:02:05

19
16 back pocket top s/t 1 SNLS CR1/8 9:31:21 9:42:15 0:10:54
17 Waiting 9:42:15 9:45:17 0:03:02
18 top s/t side pocket mouth 1 DNLS 9:45:17 9:59:56 0:14:39
19 Waiting 9:59:56 10:01:02 01:01:02
20 close side pocket bag 1 5th 10:01:02 10:22:09 0:21:07
20 Waiting 10:22:09 10:23:41 0:01:32
21 sew back rise &front rise 1 5th 10:23:41 10:39:00 0:15:19
23 Waiting 10:39:00 10:41:49 0:02:49
24 top s/t back rise & front 1 MH 10:41:49 10:52:29
rise 0:10:40
25 Waiting 10:52:29 10:53:59 0:01:30
26 tack side pocket side 1 SNLS 10:53:59 11:03:29
Waist 0:09:30
27 Waiting 11:03:29 11:04:32 0:01:03
28 cut mark&tack elastic 1 SNLS sizer 11:04:32 11:23:17
Waist 0:18:45
29 Waiting 11:23:17 11:26:19 0:03:02
30 preper Waist belt 1 SNLS folder 11:26:19 11:36:24 0:10:05
31 Waiting 11:36:24 11:37:21 0:00:57
32 cut &tack Waist belt 1 SNLS 11:37:21 11:46:21 0:09:00
33 Waiting 11:46:21 11:47:42 0:01:21
34 attach elastic with Waist 1 5th 11:47:42 11:57:43 0:10:01
35 Waiting 11:57:43 11:59:06 0:01:23
36 mark&make butten hole 1 BH pattrn 11:59:06 12:12:24
Waist 0:13:18
37 Waiting 12:12:24 12:15:41 0:03:17
38 attach front Waist 1 SNLS 12:15:41 12:30:46 0:15:05
39 Waiting 12:30:46 12:31:53 0:01:07
40 tack belt &close front 1 SNLS 12:31:53 12:56:13
Waist 0:24:20
41 Waiting 12:56:13 12:59:17 0:03:04
42 top s/t front Waist 1 SNLS 12:59:17 13:05:17 0:06:00
43 Waiting 13:05:17 13:06:19 0:01:02
44 sew side seam 1 5th 13:06:19 13:29:09 0:22:50
45 Waiting 13:29:09 13:32:06 0:02:57
46 close in seam 1 5th 13:32:06 13:47:06 0:15:00
47 Waiting 13:47:06 13:49:08 0:02:02
48 tack corner Waist 1 SNLS 13:49:08 14:00:48 0:11:40
49 Waiting 14:00:48 14:01:51 0:01:03
50 close back Waist 1 SNLS gaid 14:01:51 14:16:11 0:14:20

20
51 Waiting 14:16:11 14:17:19 0:01:08
52 tack back Waist &lable 1 SNLS 14:17:19 14:30:39 0:13:20
53 Waiting 14:30:39 14:32:41 0:02:02
54 hem side vent 1 SNLS gaid 14:32:41 14:57:11 0:24:30
55 Waiting 14:57:11 14:59:41 0:02:30
56 bottom hem 2 SNLS gaid 14:59:41 15:40:41 0:41:00
57 Waiting 15:40:41 15:43:43 0:03:02
58 Bar tak 1 bartak 15:43:43 15:59:18 0:15:35
59 Waiting 15:59:18 16:01:26 0:02:08
60 Trimer 3 table triming 16:01:26 17:14:41 1:13:15
61 Waiting 17:14:41 17:16:45 0:02:04
62 Qc Table 17:16:45 18:09:20 0:52:35
63 Waiting table 18:09:20 18:11:51 0:02:31
33 585MIN per
bundle

21
3.2.5. Packing department
Table 5 packing time study
No Operation Machine Man Cycle time Average Allowance SMV
power 1 2 3 4 5 min
1 Press pocket, back Ironing 2 50 50 52 48 50 0.8 1.2 1
and front rise
2 Press side seam &all Ironing 6 82 85 82 85 86 1.4 1.2 1.7
seam parts
3 QC Manual 5 82 78 83 80 81 1.3 1.2 1.6
4 Tag Manual 1 21 23 20 19 19 0.3 1.2 0.4
5 Folding Manual 1 29 31 28 32 31 0.5 1.2 0.6
6 Insert poly bag Manual 1 14 13 15 14 16 0.2 1.2 0.3
Total 5.31

Table 6 packing department value stream chart


No Operation Machine Man Starting time Finishing Time in
power time minute
1 Waiting 2:30 3:00 0:12:50
2 Press pocket ,back and front rise Ironing 2 3:00:00 3:12:50 0:01:50
3 Waiting 3:12:50 3:14:40 0:21:00
4 Press side seam &all seam parts Ironing 6 3:14:40 3:35:40 0:01:15
5 Waiting 3:35:40 3:36:55 0:20:20
6 QC Manual 5 3:36:55 3:57:15 0:02:01
7 Waiting 3:57:15 3:59:16 0:05:10
8 Tag Manual 1 3:59:16 4:04:26 0:01:03
9 Waiting 4:04:26 4:05:29 0:07:55
10 Folding Manual 1 4:05:29 4:13:24 0:01:31
11 Waiting 4:13:24 4:14:55 0:03:20
12 Insert poly bag Manual 1 4:14:55 4:18:15 0:00:46
13 Waiting 4:18:15 4:19:01
Total 79.2 min

22
Drawing current value stream mapping

Figure 2 Drawing current value stream mapping

24
CURRENT VALUE STREAM MAPPING

Figure 3 current value stream mapping

25
3.2.6. CUTTING DEPARTMENT ANALYSIS
Table 7 Cutting Department Analysis
Total lead time 231.33 min
Total value added time 194.4 min 84.92%
Total non-value added time 36.3 min 15.69%
Inventory 2280

cutting lead time


Total non-value added time

Total value added time

Total lead time

0 50 100 150 200 250

Figure 4 cutting lead time

Actual a SAM of cutting = 2.09 MIN per pieces


Cycle time per pieces =2.59 min per pieces
No of operator=14
SMV (MIN) EXCLUDING NP ACTIVITIES
𝐓𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 𝐚𝐯𝐚𝐢𝐥𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐦𝐚𝐧 𝐦𝐢𝐧𝐮𝐭𝐞𝐬
= (𝐓𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 𝐧𝐨. 𝐨𝐟 𝐨𝐩𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐨𝐫’𝐬 𝐱 𝐖𝐨𝐫𝐤𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐡𝐨𝐮𝐫𝐬 𝐢𝐧 𝐚 𝐝𝐚𝐲 )
Total available man minutes = (14 x 440 ) = 6160 min
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒂𝒏 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒖𝒕𝒆𝒔 𝒂𝒗𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒅𝒂𝒚
𝑑𝒂𝒊𝒚 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒅𝒖𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 =
𝑺𝑨𝑴 𝑿 𝑨𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝑳𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝑬𝒇𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒚
6160
𝑑𝑎𝑖𝑦 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑋 60% = 1768.42𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑒𝑠/𝑑𝑎𝑦
2.09
SMV (MIN) INCLUDING NP ACTIVITIES
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒂𝒏 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒖𝒕𝒆𝒔 𝒂𝒗𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒅𝒂𝒚
𝑑𝒂𝒊𝒚 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒅𝒖𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 =
𝑺𝑨𝑴 𝑿 𝑨𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝑳𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝑬𝒇𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒚
6160
𝑑𝑎𝑖𝑦 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑋 60% = 1455.18 𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑒𝑠/𝑑𝑎𝑦
2.54

25
PRODUCTION
SMV (MIN) INCLUDING NP ACTIVITIES 873
SMV (MIN) EXCLUDING NP ACTIVITIES 1455.18

0 200 400 600 800 1000120014001600

Series 1

Figure 5 cutting production

3.2.7. SEWING DEPARTMENT ANALYSIS


Table 8 Sewing Department Analysis

Per bundle (no of pieces 15) Per pieces Per pieces


Total lead time 600.5 min 40
Total value added time 540 min 36 90%
Total non-value added time 60.5 min 4 10 %
Inventory 320 min

sewing lead time


Total non-value added time 36.3
Total value added time 36
Total lead time 40

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

Total lead time Total value added time Total non-value added time

Figure 6 sewing lead time

Actual a SAM of sewing = 36 MIN per pieces


Cycle time per pieces =40 min per pieces
No of operator=33
SMV (MIN) EXCLUDING NP ACTIVITIES
𝐓𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 𝐚𝐯𝐚𝐢𝐥𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐦𝐚𝐧 𝐦𝐢𝐧𝐮𝐭𝐞𝐬
= (𝐓𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 𝐧𝐨. 𝐨𝐟 𝐨𝐩𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐨𝐫’𝐬 𝐱 𝐖𝐨𝐫𝐤𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐡𝐨𝐮𝐫𝐬 𝐢𝐧 𝐚 𝐝𝐚𝐲 )
Total available man minutes = (33 x 440 ) = 14520 min
𝐓𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 𝐦𝐚𝐧 𝐦𝐢𝐧𝐮𝐭𝐞𝐬 𝐚𝐯𝐚𝐢𝐥𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐢𝐧 𝐚 𝐝𝐚𝐲
d𝐚𝐢𝐲 𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 =
𝐒𝐀𝐌 𝐗 𝐀𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐠𝐞 𝐋𝐢𝐧𝐞 𝐄𝐟𝐟𝐢𝐜𝐢𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐲

26
14520
daiy production = X 60% = 242.2 pices/day
36
SMV (MIN) INCLUDING NP ACTIVITIES
𝐓𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 𝐦𝐚𝐧 𝐦𝐢𝐧𝐮𝐭𝐞𝐬 𝐚𝐯𝐚𝐢𝐥𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐢𝐧 𝐚 𝐝𝐚𝐲
d𝐚𝐢𝐲 𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 =
𝐒𝐀𝐌 𝐗 𝐀𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐠𝐞 𝐋𝐢𝐧𝐞 𝐄𝐟𝐟𝐢𝐜𝐢𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐲
14520
daiy production = X 60% = 217.8 pices/day
40

sewing production
260 243
240 218
220
200
SMV (MIN) EXCLUDING NP SMV (MIN) INCLUDING NP
ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES

Series 1

Figure 7 sewing production

3.2.8. PACKING DEPARTMENT ANALYSIS


Table 9 PACKING DEPARTMENT ANALYSIS
Per bundle(no of pieces 12) Per pieces Per pieces
Total lead time 79.02 6.58
Total value added time 70.77 min 5.8975 89.62%
Total non-value added time 8.43 min 0.7025 10.67%
Inventory 450 min
Actual a SAM of PACKING = 5.8975 MIN per pieces
Cycle time per pieces = 6.58 min per pieces
No of operator=16

PACKING lead time


Total non-value added time 36.3

Total value added time 36

Total lead time 40

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

Figure 8 Total leadlead


packing time
time Total value added time Total non-value added time

27
SMV (MIN) EXCLUDING NP ACTIVITIES
𝐓𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 𝐚𝐯𝐚𝐢𝐥𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐦𝐚𝐧 𝐦𝐢𝐧𝐮𝐭𝐞𝐬
= (𝐓𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 𝐧𝐨. 𝐨𝐟 𝐨𝐩𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐨𝐫’𝐬 𝐱 𝐖𝐨𝐫𝐤𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐡𝐨𝐮𝐫𝐬 𝐢𝐧 𝐚 𝐝𝐚𝐲 )
Total available man minutes = (16 x 440 ) = 7040 min
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒂𝒏 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒖𝒕𝒆𝒔 𝒂𝒗𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒅𝒂𝒚
𝑑𝒂𝒊𝒚 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒅𝒖𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 =
𝑺𝑨𝑴 𝑿 𝑨𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝑳𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝑬𝒇𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒚
7040
𝑑𝑎𝑖𝑦 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑋 60% = 717.4 𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑒𝑠/𝑑𝑎𝑦
5.8975
SMV (MIN) INCLUDING NP ACTIVITIES
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒂𝒏 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒖𝒕𝒆𝒔 𝒂𝒗𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒅𝒂𝒚
𝑑𝒂𝒊𝒚 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒅𝒖𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 =
𝑺𝑨𝑴 𝑿 𝑨𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝑳𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝑬𝒇𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒚
7040
𝑑𝑎𝑖𝑦 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑋 60% = 641.94 𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑒9𝑠/𝑑𝑎𝑦
6.58

p ackin g p r od u ction
720 714.4

700

680

660
641.94
640

620

600
SMV (MIN) EXCLUDING NP ACTIVITIES SMV (MIN) INCLUDING NP ACTIVITIES

Series 1

Figure 9 packing production

3.2.9 Profit loss


production loss due to variation of SMV excluding non -productive activities
and SMV (min) including non-productive activities
Table 10 Profit loss
Departments SMV (min) Output pcs SMV (min) including Output Variation
excluding NP /shift(A) NP Activities pcs/shift (B) (A-B)
Activities
Cutting 2.09 1768.42 2.54 1455.18 313pices
Sewing 36 242.2 40 217.8 25 pieces
Packing 5.8975 717.4 6.58fvu 641.94 76 pieces
Average 138pices
/shift
28
In ALTEX per day (8 hr. shift) average CM cost for the above style is
considered or estimation as per piece cutting 23 birr, sewing 75 and finishing
18-birr total cost as estimate 116birr
CUTTING
Profit loss due to variation in SMV = product (pieces/shift) X product price
=313X 23birr
=7199 birr
SEWING
Profit loss due to variation in SMV = product (pieces/shift) X product price
=25X 75birr
=1875birr
PACKING
Profit loss due to variation in SMV = product (pieces/shift) X product price
=76X 18birr
=1368birr

profit loss
profit loss

8000
7000
7179
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000 1875
1368
0
Cutting Sewing PACKING

Figure 10 profit loss due to variation in smv

29
3.3. Current waste in the ATEX

3.3.1 Overproduction:
To produce sooner, faster or in greater quantities than the absolute customer
demand. Overproduction can occur with individual processes or across the
entire value stream

Over
production

Figure 11 waste of overproduction


Table 11 overproduction five why analysis
why analysis
WASTE TYPE Reason Possible solution or
recommendation
Why 1? Miss communication Establish a visual link between
between the departments cutting and production departments
Overproduction

Why 2? Unlevelled scheduling Using modernize technology or


ERP(enterprise resource planning)
Why 3? Because of large batch size Minimizing the batch size of the
product
Why 4? Un balanced work load Cut only next day sewing
requirement
Why 5? They use push production They must be use mixed production
rather than pull system

4.3.2. Inventory
This refers to inventory that is not directly required to fulfill current customer
orders. Inventory includes raw materials, work -in-process and finished goods.
All types of Inventory require additional space and handling equipment

30
WIP

RAW MATERIAL
Figure 12 waste of inventory
Table 12 inventory five why analysis

why analysis
WASTE Reason Possible solution or
TYPE recommendation
Why 1 Miss communication between the Establish a visual link between
Inventory

departments cutting and production


departments
Why 2 No formal set of procedures to KANBAN
handle inventory
Why 3 Un balanced work load on cutting Reduce fabric inventory by having
proper fabric in date
Why 4 On sewing they use progressive Single piece flow
bundling system

Total inventory time =cutting +sewing +finishing


=2280 min+320min+450min
=3050 min
𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑦 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
Inventory %=
𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
3050 𝑚𝑖𝑛
= 𝑥100
3099.28 𝑚𝑖𝑛

=98.40%

3.3.3. Transportation
This is unnecessary motion or movement of materials; such as work -in-process
(WIP) is being transported from one operation to another.

31
Figure 13 current layout
Table 13 transportation five why analysis
why analysis
WASTE TYPE Reason Possible solution or recommendation

Why 1 Because of poor layout Re-layout of


Transportation Why 2 Distance between work Shortening the distance between the
stations departments
In the current layout, there is more distance travel which is unnecessary and it
does not care for principles of materials must travel the right distance and must
arrive at the right time. But the layout forced to travels the following distance
between work centers
 From knit fabric store to knit cutting section 129 meters.
 From woven cutting section to Edward sewing section 100 meters.
 From military sewing section to finishing section 46.5meter.

32
Therefore, it travels 275.5-meter distance between work centers and the 263
meter is unnecessary but happened due to poor layout and this unnecessary
transportation is one of the wastes in lean manufacturing principle thereby
leads to work in progress.
Transportation time between works centers are:
 From knit fabric store to knit cutting section 180 second.
 From woven cutting section to Edward sewing s ection 124 second.
 From military sewing section to finishing section 65 second.
Proposed layout

Figure 14 proposed layout


Table 14 layout comparison current and new
No Travel Current layout New layout distance
, distance
1 From knit fabric store to knit cutting 129 meter 2 meter
section
2 From woven cutting section to Edward 100 meter 6 meter
sewing section
3 From military sewing section to finishing 46.5 meter 4.5 meter
section
Total 275 meter 12.5 meter

33
3.3.4. Excess Motion:
Motion is the movement of “Human or human body parts. This term refers to
the extra steps taken by employees and equipment to accommodate inefficient
process layout, defects, reprocessing, overproduction or excess inventory

Excess
motion

Figure 15 waste of motion


Table 15 waste of motion five why analysis
why analysis
WASTE Reason Possible solution or recommendation
TYPE
Why 1 No standard Preparing a standard operater procedure (SOP) for
operating every operation
procedure
motion

Why 2 Not proper Use of folding boards & tools to reduce folding &
work study packing time

Why 3 Inadequate Giving operator training how to handle a product


training

34
3.3.5. Rework and Defect
A defect is a component, which the customer would deem unacceptable to pass
the quality standard and will not pay for it .

Figure 16 waste of Rework and defect

Table 16 Table 16 defect and rework five why analysis


why analysis
WASTE TYPE Reason Possible solution or recommendation

Why 1 Lack of motivation & training Training & motivation for workers
Rework
Defects

Why 2 Due to absence of maintenance Applying total productive maintenance


and

Why 3 Lack of skilled worker, Training

35
3.3.6. Defect analysis
Table 17 company report quality control report
type of Dates
defect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 total Cumu Cumulat
lative ive %
Skipping 15 8 15 16 15 5 12 9 16 14 125
stich 125 19.26
Slip out 8 10 15 12 11 15 10 9 14 9 113 238 36.67
Puckering 14 11 7 12 9 15 9 13 13 8 111
stich 349 53.78
Broken 11 7 8 10 15 13 15 8 12 11 110
stich 459 70.72
Open stich 15 11 8 9 7 10 9 10 11 12 102 561 86.44
Uneven 8 9 12 12 11 12 9 4 3 8 88
stich 649 100
defect 71 56 65 71 68 70 64 53 69 62 649
Checked 65 790 800 670 900 840 710 690 810 732 7592
pieces 0

Defect percentage
𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝑫𝑬𝑭𝑬𝑪𝑻𝑰𝑽𝑬 𝑷𝑰𝑪𝑬𝑺
𝐷𝐸𝐹𝐸𝐶𝑇 𝑃𝐸𝑅𝐶𝐸𝑁𝑇𝐴𝐺𝐸 =
𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒄𝒉𝒆𝒄𝒌𝒆𝒅 𝒑𝒊𝒄𝒆𝒔
649
= 𝑥 100=8.54%
7592

pareto chart
140 120.00

120 100 100.00


100 86.44
80.00
80 70.72
60.00
60 53.78

36.67 40.00
40

20 19.26 20.00

0 0.00
Skipping stich Loss stich Puckering stich Broken stich Open stich Uneven stich

cumme

Figure 17 pareto chart

36
Cause and effect diagram broken stitch
Machine
Man

needle plate pressure needle In appropriate thread


pressure hole may have tenision

Broken
stich
Weak thread

Material Method
Figure 18 Cause and effect diagram broken stich
Table 18 Cause and effect broken stich
Cause Cause Suggested Solutions
Type
Machine inappropriate thread tension Tension of the thread properly adjusted
Needle plate, pressure foot, Inspect the needle point at regular intervals and
needle check for sharp or burred points.
holes may have sharp edges Sharp edges should be removed.
Method Wrong needle size and thread Needle size and thread size should be
size synchronized

Excessive abrasion or chemical Special care should be taken during washing.


degradation of the thread
Material Weak thread Select good quality thread which is free from flaw

Figure 19 Cause and effect diagram skip stich

37
Table 19 Cause and effect skip stich
Cause Type Causes Suggested Solutions
Man Operator inefficiency Provide adequate training to the operators
Machine Hook, lopper or needle is not able to Timing of hook or lopper with needle should
hold the thread loop in proper time be adjusted Properly
the thread take up spring is not adjust Adjust the thread take up spring correctly
correctly
Needle deflection or bending adjust the needle height and testing before
bulk sewing
Tension variation in lopper and Adjust tension properly
needle thread Choice of sewing thread in accordance with
the needle size.
Select good quality thread which is free from
flaws.
Method Loop size needle is small Adjust needle and thread size

Improper handling of cut pieces Reduce gap between presser foot and the
hole of needle plate

Cause and effect diagram for slip out

Figure 20 Cause and effect diagram of slip out

38
Table 20 Cause and effect slip out
No Causes Remedies
1 If hook looper and needle are not  Examine the setting and timing between
needle and hook or looper
interested in loop of thread in time
 Placing of needle properly
 More secure needle should be used
2 Irregular thread tension on upper or  The tension of thread should agin be adjusted
lower loop
3 Due to needle deflection  Needle to be changed
4 If needle thread loop size is too small  Needle size and thread size must be adjusted

Figure 21 Cause and effect diagram of uneven stich


Table 21 Cause and effect uneven stich
Cause Causes Suggested Solution
Types
Operator speeding up machine Control the speed of machine, use right
Man too rapidly needle and correct
feed control
operator holding back or Never pull on the fabric while sewing, let it be
pulling fabric through in taken up by the machine.
variance with correct machine
fee

39
Figure 22 Cause and effect diagram of t open seam
Table 22 Cause and effect open seam

TROUBLE(problem) CAUSE Solution


Miss alignment of the fabric layers Align the fabric correctly
Open seam Operator carelessness during
stitching Operators must be take carful during s/t
Thread braking during stitching Use the correct thread type

40
PROPOSED VALUE STREAM MAPPING

Figure 23 Proposed value stream mapping

41
CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Result and Discussion


From this proposed VSM the result of the project is significant but when we
see it as the company view every second as its value. during t his project we try
to minimize those wastes majorly on transportation, inventory, waste of motion
and defect rate.
Inventory
as we see on this project the 98.4% of the non -value added time caused by
inventory this means the inventory cost of the product is high, for this we
proposed to reduce those inventory by using those things Kanban system and
tags after resaving the fabric and putting that information on the VSM board.
The layout of Altex garment production floor it has transportation wastes and
those wastes are we try to minimize those wastes by proposing new layout.
sewing they have high WIP between operators as we know the company uses
progressive bundling system and this pro duction system leads to high WIP
between operators and that means to increase the lead time of the production
so we have proposed to use single pieces’ flow system
Transportation
The current layout does not care how much the material handling travelled and
the material travel covers 275.5-meter distance. From this distance 263 meter
is unnecessary material handling travel but the rest of 12.5 meter is acceptable
distance travel in the new layout.
The operators work as they want there is no standard operating procedure this
go to decrease the comfort and waste of motion so this problem should be
solved through preparing standard operating procedure(sop) and by training
the operators.
Production loss
Because the difference time in SMV without excluding and including NP
(nonproductive time) reducing in production due to the variation in lead time
of the product.

42
Departments SMV (min) Output pcs SMV (min) Output Variation
excluding NP /shift(A) including NP pcs/shift (B)
(A-B)
Activities Activities
Cutting 2.09 1768.42 2.54 1455.18 313pices
Sewing 36 242.2 40 217.8 25 pieces
Packing 5.8975 717.4 6.58 641.94 76 pieces
Average 138pices /shift

production loss due to varation in SMV PER


SHIFT
2000 1768.42
1445
PRODUCTION

1500
1000 717.4 641.94
500 242.2 217.8
0
Cutting Sewing Packing

SMV (min) excluding NP Activities SMV (min) including NP Activities

PROFIT LOSS
Because of the production loss due to variation of SMV excluding non -
productive activities and SMV (min) including non -productive activities the
company loss a profit when we investigate the total profit loss per shift was
10,442 birr/shift
Defect and rework
To prevent the defect generation and minimize occurrence of defect it is
necessary to study and analyze them in this direction, we have realized a
presentation of defects typology with a classification of defects and causalities.
All are necessary to establish solution. After implementation of the solution
the positive results are overcome. The major defects were identified and
partially reduced in some amount. Based the solutions provided by this project,
some corrective actions were taken

43
Proposed value stream mapping
As we see from the above investigation we have found different waste in order
to minimizing those lean wastes we have been proposed a new VALUE
STREAM MAPPING
1. Transportation: Re-layout of the production floor in order to reduce the
distance between the departments
2. Inventory; reducing by using Kanban system and pull production rather
than push and creating a visual link between the departments
3. Defect: by collecting the quality control department and analyzing the
defect through pareto chart in order to know the highest percentage
defect and we identify the cause and effect for the defect and providing
a new solution
4. Waste of motion: there is no standard operating procedure this go to
decrease the comfort and waste of motion so this problem should be
solved through preparing standard operating procedure(sop) and by
training the operators
Waste Existing Proposed
Inventory 3050 500
Lead time 3099.28 549.28
Lead time / pcs 84 46
Transportation 275.5-meter 12.5 meter
Waste of motion No standard operating Preparing standard operating
procedure procedure
Profit loss 10,442 birr/shift
Production system Progressive bundling system Single piece flow system
Defect percentage 8.54%

44
CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Conclusion
A value stream includes all activities required to transform a product from raw
material into the finished goods. Value Stream Mapping scrutinizes business
processes from beginning to end and a visual representation map is drawn of
every process involved in the material and information flows. Then a future
state map is drawn to show how things should work for best competitive
advantage. Value Stream Mapping helps to identify the current flow of material
and information in processes for a family of products, highlighting the
opportunities for improvement that will most significantly impact the overall
production system.
The main goal of this thesis was to find out the scope of VSM technique
application in garments factory. On a selected product of the studied garments
factory VSM was implemented to find out the amount of wastes in cutting,
sewing and finishing section; because the selected product had a long lead time
and was unable to meet the expected production rate.
In this study the suitable lean tools an d principle are used to analyzed the
(TIMWOOD) waste through VALUE STREAM MAPING and which minimize
the process wastages such as work in progress(WIP), through put time, change
over time, transportation, production space and loss of productivity in ALTEX
P.LC.
The problem of higher WIP is addressed through single piece flow principle.
In addition to this, VSM can indirectly supports for minimizing the working
area transportation, through put time, setup time, and waste of motion.
From this study 99.58% of the production lead time is spent in unnecessary
inventory from this result it also increases the production cost and production
lead time. if minimizing the unnecessary inventory and other waste it
minimizes the production lead time and it also increase the productivity of the

45
company. In this current production l ead time for one pcs it takes 84 minute if
applying the proposed VSM it almost takes 46 minute.
From this result if changing the production system from progressive bundling
system in to single piece flow system it increases the production rate on the
sewing section
From this study if the defect rate also can be minimizing on the future by
implementing total quality management (TQM) through the entire
manufacturer procedure

46
5.2 Recommendation
Modern managers find it difficult to identify the key areas and practices, which
can be used to eliminate waste in their processes. Based on the practical
validation conducted, it can be seen that VSM can be effectively applied to
apparel industry as the initial step of waste identification. Using this tool, it is
possible to map the current status and subsequently analyze to achieve waste
elimination
The case study presented in this paper, has shown that the wastes such as
transport, inventory and defects can be reduced which in turn improves the
productivity of the organization. In order to accomplish this task, the managers
of the case company have to implement approaches l ike 5S, One-piece flow,
etc. Thus, VSM helps the managers to visualize the present level of wastes
occurring in the organization and the future possibilities of reducing or
eliminating them. In order to continuously reduce or eliminate waste,
management of companies need to apply different Lean tools and techniques
accordingly while giving adequate training to their employees.
Therefore, organizations of similar type can use the research outcomes as a
knowledge base to identify their wastes and come up with suitable remedies.
Findings of this research can be valuable to other organizations of Ethiopia
garment industry, which hope to implement Lean Manufacturing in the near
future.
For improvement of production system of the selected garments industry,
below some recommendations are proposed:
 Value stream mapping should be applied to determine the current
scenario of production and to identify various types of wastes.
 Kanban supermarket pull system should be implemented to reduce
unnecessary raw material inventory and waiting time.
 To reduce other waste various technique such as zero defects, setup time
reduction, line balancing, SMED, 5S, and Poke-Yoke can be applied.
 Layout needs to be improved to reduce unnecessary transportation
wastes.

47
 Bottleneck point should be identified and removed to get the maximum
output from the production line.
 Proper and adequate training should be provided to employees and
workers so that they can gather proper knowledge and consciousness
about the operation of various machine to maintain desired quality.
In this study, flow of value, waste and waste sources in the value stream was
tried to clarified by using value stream mapping. The current state was
analyzed and ideas for improving system performance were proposed.
Value stream mapping should be repeated periodically in order to achieve
better system performance with continuous improvement view. They must be
establishing leaning department to introduce different lean tools like single
piece flow system, takt time, Kanab and total productive maintenance we can
increase the productivity and also, we can minimize the production cost of the
garment. And reducing the production of lead time.

48
REFERENCE
1. Ana, R. (2008), “Implementing Lean Manufacturing”: the Annals of
“Dunarea De Jos” in Machine Building, pp: 2 -10

2. Anders Nielsen 2008 ;Gardiner Nielsen Associates Inc.” Getting Started


with Value Stream Mapping”

3. Farhatun Nabi & Rezwan Mahmud (December-2014) “Elimination of Non-


Value Added Activities in Sewing Section of an Apparel Industry Through
Value Stream Mapping Analysis” International Journal of Engineering
Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278 -0181 IJERTV3IS120881

4. K. M. Mostafizur Rahman Sobuj, 2Chowdury M L Rahman International


Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 3, Issue 2,
March-April, 2015 ISSN 2091-2730“STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF THE
SCOPE OF VALUE STREAM MAPPING (VSM) TECHNIQUE
APPLICATION IN A SELECTED GARMENTS FACTORY OF
BANGLADESH”

5. Masudul Haque Talukder1, Mohammad Ali Afzal1, MD.Abdur Rahim,


Mohd.Rifat Khan; International Journal of Scien tific & Engineering
Research, Volume 4, Issue 11, November -2013 1844 ISSN 2229-5518 “
Waste Reduction and Productivity Improvement through Lean Tools”

6. Ohno, T. (1988). Toyota Production System, Productivity Press, New York,


pp. ix paneruesh Applicability of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in the
Apparel industry in Sri Lanka SILVA, S.K.P.N. / International Journal of
Lean Thinking Volume 3, Issue 1(June2012)

7. Rother M. and Shook J. Learning to see: value stream mapping to add value
and eliminate MUDA, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Brookline, MA, 1999.

8. Wilson, L. (2009). How to Implement Lean Manufacturing? New York:


McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing. p. 29- 214.

49
APPENDIX

Value stream mapping icons and meaning


VALUE STREAM MAPPING PROCESS ICONS
Customer/Supplier Icon: represents the Supplier when in the upper left, customer
when in the upper right, the usual end point for material
Dedicated Process flow Icon: a process, operation, machine or department, through
which material flows. It represents one department with a continuous, internal fixed
flow
Data Box Icon: it goes under other icons that have significant
information/data required for analyzing and observing the system.
inventory Icons: show inventory between two processes
Timeline shows value added times (Cycle Times) and non-value added (wait) times.
Use this to calculate Lead Time and Total Cycle TimeLine Time.
VALUE STREAM MAPPING MATERIAL ICONS
Shipments Icon: represents movement of raw materials from suppliers to the
Receiving dock/s of the factory. Or, the movement of finished goods from the
Shipping dock/s of the factory to the customer
Push Arrow Icon: represents the “pushing” of material from one process to the next
process
Supermarket Icon: an inventory “supermarket” (Kanban stock point).

Material Pull Icon: supermarkets connect to downstream processes with this "Pull"
icon that indicates physical removal.
VALUE STREAM MAPPING INFORMATION ICONS
Production Control Icon: This box represents a central production scheduling or
control department, person or operation
Manual Info Icon: A straight, thin arrow shows general flow of information from
memos, reports, or conversation. Frequency and other notes may be relevant.
Electronic Info Icon: This wiggle arrow represents electronic flow such as
electronic data interchange (EDI), the Internet, Intranets, LANs (local area network),
WANs (wide area network). You may indicate the frequency of information/data
interchange, the type of media used ex. fax, phone, etc. and the type of data
exchanged.
Go See Icon : gathering of information through visual means
Kaizen Burst These icons are used to highlight improvement needs and plan kaizen
workshops at specific processes that are critical to achieving the FSVSM
Kanban signals A location where Kanban signals reside for pickup. Often used
with two-card systems to exchange withdrawal and production Kanban.

50
51
Value stream mapping study sheet
Queue Cycle Change Std. Units WIP Distance to Comments :
Department Operation Step Time Time overtime Inventory Processed Finished next process

52