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3. a.

Short-term scheduler (or CPU scheduler) – selects which process should be executed
next and allocates CPU.-[2M]

Long-term scheduler (or job scheduler) – selects which processes should be brought into the
ready queue.-[2M]

Medium-term scheduler - Remove process from memory, store on disk, bring back in from
disk to continue execution: swapping.-[2M]

b.Process control block:



4. a.1. Many readers can perform reading concurrently.

2. Reading is prohibited while a writer is writing.
3. Only one writer can perform writing at any time.-[3M]
Pseudo code explanation using monitor –[3M]
b.Critical section problem explanation-[2M]
Solution to Critical-Section Problem
1. Mutual Exclusion
2. Progress
3. Bounded waiting –[4M]
5.a.Page fault handling

b.Problem solving
6.Deadlock: A process requests the resources are not available at that time, so the process
enters into the waiting state. The requesting resources are held by another waiting process,
both are in waiting state, this situation is said to be deadlock-[2M]
Explaining how these conditions satisfy mutual exclusion,hold and wait,no
preemption,circular wait with respective of Dining philosopher’s problem.-[4M]
7.a.File access method
1.Sequential access
2.Direct access
3.Indexed access
4.Indexed sequential access.-[6M]
b.Any two disk scheduling algorithms
1.explanation –[3M]