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1.a.

The computer system is executing on behalf of a user application, the system is in user
mode.

The computer system is executing on behalf of operating system, the system is in kernel
mode.-[2M]

1.b. Process state, Program counter, CPU registers, CPU-scheduling information, Memory-
management information, Accounting information, I/O status information.- [2M]

1.c. Each process has a segment of code, called a critical section, in which the process may be
changing common variables, updating a table, writing a file, and so on.- [2M]

1.d. External Fragmentation – Total memory space exists to satisfy a request, but it is not
contiguous .

Internal Fragmentation – Allocated memory may be slightly larger than requested memory;
this size difference is memory internal to a partition, but not being used.-[2M]

1.e.1. Mutual exclusion

2.Hold and wait

3.No preemption

4.Circular wait.-[2M]

1.f.A file is grouping of similar records or related information together which is stored in
secondary memory.

File attributes: name, type, identifier, location, size, protection.- [2M]