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Experiment Title : Analog-to-Digital Converter

Subject : UEMH4413 Sensors and Instrumentation

Course : Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) Mechatronics Engineering

Name of Student : Yeoh Boon Khai

Student ID No : 1403449

Year and Trimester : Y4T3 Received by:-

Date of Experiment : 25 Feb 2019


________________________
Name of Lecturer : Dr.Chee Pei Song
Lab Assistance / Lab Officer

Date :

Receipt of Lab Report Submission (to be kept by student)

Experiment Title : Analog-to-Digital Converter

Subject : UEMH4413 Sensors and Instrumentation

Course : Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) Mechatronics Engineering

Name of Student : Yeoh Boon Khai Received by:-

Student ID No : 1403449

Year and Trimester : Y4T3 ________________________

Lab Assistance / Lab Officer


Date of Experiment : 25 Feb 2019
Date :
Data collection and setup

Figure 1: Set up of the ultrasonic sensor circuit

The ultrasonic sensor LV-MaxSonar-EZ1 is connect with the power supply through Vin and
ground while the AN pin is connect to the digital multimeter to read the data collected as shown
in the setup in figure 1. In figure 1, a piece of paper is drawn in grid form and the dimension of
one square grid is 3cm x 3 cm and it place in the front of ultrasonic sensor use to record the
distance when the target object is moving by the student. The experiment is using different size
of object to determine the sensitivity of the ultrasonic sensor. Hence a water bottle with a
cylindrical shape and a power bank with a square shape as the targeting object.

Figure 2: Cylindrical Figure 3: Square object


object
Improvement in data collection and setup

Figure 4: Calibration step

Firstly, a random object is use to calibrate the sensor base on the equation (Vcc/512)/inch. After
the calibration, the improvement of the setup is show in figure above.

Figure 5: Improvement by using cotton insulator

The cylindrical water bottle is cover with a cotton. This is because the cotton may have some
different reflectance compare to original water bottle and make the ultrasonic sensor have
different result.
Result of before improvement and after improvement

Improvement
Original setup setup
rectangular cylindrical cylindrical + cotton insulator
actual % actual % actual
cm inch volts inch error volts inch error volts inch % error
9 3.5
15 5.9 0.067 6.837 15.7 0.096 9.796 65.8 0.084 8.571 45.0
21 8.3 0.08 8.163 1.3 0.107 10.918 32.0 0.088 8.980 8.5
27 10.6 0.108 11.020 3.6 0.138 14.082 32.4 0.12 12.245 15.1
33 13.0 0.127 12.959 0.3 0.144 14.694 13.0
39 15.4 0.158 16.122 4.9 0.163 16.633 8.2
45 17.7 0.175 17.857 0.7 0.191 19.490 9.9

Table 1

Relate the obtained result with the working principle of the sensor.

The analog voltage pin output voltage is corresponds to distance. The further the distance of the
object, the higher the output voltage will measure by multimeter.

The voltage scaling of the ultrasonic sensor LV-MaxSonar-EZ1 is

Vi=Vcc/512 where Vi=Volts per inch

Hence after the calculation, the sensor is work in 0.0098V per inch.

Relate the obtained result with the measurement error

The percentage error of the original setup is shown in table 1. The percentage error of the
rectangular object is smaller than the cylindrical object. This is because the rectangular have
larger surface compare to cylindrical object. Hence the accuracy of the rectangular object is
better than cylindrical object.
Reconstruct the experimental setup to obtain better accuracy

The experiment is reconstruct by using the cylindrical water bottle with the cotton insulator. The
percentage error of is better than the original setup. This is because the sound energy is absorb by
the cotton insulator .Hence the output voltage value is less than original setup which lead to the
distance of detect is close to the actual distance of the target object.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the accuracy of the ultrasonic sensor will be vary based on the target object
characteristic such as the surface area and the material of the object. In order to improve the
accuracy of the ultrasonic sensor , several step can be done such as increase the surface the
object and apply insulator make of sound prove materials such as cotton.
Marking Scheme
Student name:Yeoh Boon Khai
Programme:MH

On-spot Evaluation (20%)


To examine the student capability in executing the experiment reliably and independently without
any assistance.

Task Score
Demonstrate the ability in reading data sheet for a given sensor.
Construct a circuit for sensor data acquisition.
Performing the skill in handling function generator/power supply/multimeter.
Performing the skill of high degree of precision in data collection.
Construct the experimental setup in a proper manner.
Total (Score / 5) * 20

Report (80%)
Procedure
a. Data collection and setup. (Score/5*10)

Procedure
b. Improvement in data collection and setup (Score/5*10)

Result
a. Data collection and setup. (Score/5*10)

Result
b. Improvement in data collection and setup (Score/5*10)

Analysis
a. Relate the obtained result with the working principle of the sensor. (Score/5*10)

Analysis:
b. Relate the obtained result with the measurement error. (Score/5*10)

Analysis:
c. Reconstruct the experimental setup to obtain better accuracy (Score/5*10)

Analysis:
d. Draw a conclusion for the sensor (Score/5*10)

Total Score: (Score * 100/ 7.5) - Mark Penalty =