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Vocational Training Report:

Submitted by:-
Rahul Roy
S.R.M University Kattankulathur
(Electronics &Instrumentation)
REG. NO. 1171110153
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) is an Indian state-owned integrated power plant equipment
manufacturer and operates as an engineering and manufacturing company based in New Delhi, India. BHEL
was established in 1964, ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India. The company
has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77. It is one of the only 7
mega Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) of India clubbed under the esteemed 'Maharatna' status.On 1
February 2013, the Government of India granted Maharatna status to Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.
Main manufacturing Units:
 Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant, Haridwar, Uttarakhand
 Heavy Power Equipment Plant Ramachandrapuram Hyderabad(Andhra Pradesh)
 Transformer Plant, BHEL Jhansi(Uttar Pradesh)
 High Pressure Boiler Plant and Seamless Steel Tube Plant, Trichy(Tamil Nadu)
 Boiler Auxiliaries Plant, Ranipet, Vellore(Tamil Nadu)
 Electronics Division and Electro Porcelain Division, Bangalore (Karnataka)
 Centralised Stamping Unit & Fabrication Plant Jagdishpur (Uttar Pradesh)
 Insulator Plant Jagdishpur (Uttar Pradesh)
 Heavy Electrical Plant Bhopal
 Component Fabrication Plant Rudrapur (Uttrakhand)
 Industrial Valves Plant, Goindwal(Punjab)
 Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels Limited (Vizag)
 BHEL Electrical Machines Ltd., Kasaragod, Kerala
Products
 Boiler (steam generator)- under collaboration with Combustion Engineering, USA
 Gas generator
 Hydro generator
 Steam turbine - under collaboration with Siemens, Germany
 Gas turbine - under collaboration with GE, USA
 Hydro turbine
 Transportation equipment
 Traction machines
 AC Motors
 Transformer
 Switchgear
 Oil field equipment (OFE)-under collaboration with National Oilwell Varco.
 Boiler drum
 Water wall panel, Coils, Super Heaters, Re heaters, SOFA panels, Burner panels, Piping & Headers
 Wind mill
 Valves
 Electrostatic precipitators
SWITCH GEAR
Introduction

Switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate
electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear
faults downstream.
Location
Switch gear is located anywhere where isolation and protection may be required.These locations include generators, motors,
transformers and substations.

1. Substations :Typically switchgear in substations is located on both the high voltage and the low voltage side of large
power transformers. The switchgear on the low voltage side of the transformers may be located in a building, with
medium-voltage circuit breakers for distribution circuits, along with metering, control, and protection equipment. For
industrial applications, a transformer and switchgear line-up may be combined in one housing, called a unitized
substation or USS.
2. Housing :

Switchgear for low voltages may be entirely enclosed within a building. For transmission levels of voltage (high voltages over
66 kV), often switchgear will be mounted outdoors and insulated by air, although this requires a large amount of space. Gas
insulated switchgear used for transmission-level voltages saves space compared with air-insulated equipment, although it has a
higher equipment cost. Oil insulated switchgear presents an oil spill hazard.

At small substations, switches may be manually operated, but at important switching stations on the transmission network all
devices have motor operators to allow for remote control.
3.Functions:
We all familiar with low voltage switches and re-wirable fuses in our home. The switch is used to manually open and close the
electrical circuit in our home and electrical fuse is used to protect our household electrical circuit from over current and short
circuit faults. In same way every electrical circuit including high voltage electrical power system needs switching and protective
devices. But in high voltage and extra high voltage system, these switching and protective scheme becomes complicated one for
high fault current interruption in safe and secure way. In addition to that from commercial point of view every electrical power
system needs measuring, control and regulating arrangement. Collectively the whole system is called Switchgear and
Protection of power system. The electrical switchgear have been developing in various forms.

Switchgear protection plays a vital role in modern power system network, right from generation through transmission to
distribution end. The current interruption device or switching device is called circuit breaker inSwitchgear
protection system. The circuit breaker can be operated manually as when required and it is also operated during over
current and short circuit or any other faults in the system by sensing the abnormality of system. The circuit breaker senses
the faulty condition of system through protection relay and this relay is again actuated by faulty signal normally comes
from current transformer or voltage transformer.
CONTROL GEAR
The control gear assembly is used for the control over equipments. Various control panels are made in BHEL,Bhopal.
Some of them are:

 Remote tap changer and control panel (RTCC) for both single and three phase.
 Line control panel
 Relay control panel

The RTCC panel consists of :

 Tap position indicator


 Alarm annunciator
 Indicator for :
 Out of step
 Tap change in process
 Tap changer control supply on

 Switches for:

 Tap position lower


 Tap position raise

 Sequence selector
 Switch for OFF
 Alarm for :

 Out of step
 Fault alarm
The above instrument is used in single phase panel. In a three phase panel, some more instruments are used :

 Voltmeter

 HV side
 IV side
 LV side
 Switch for :

 Voltmeter switches for HV, IV, LV side


 Auto/manual control selector
 Automatic voltage regulator
 Indicator for

 Fan running
 Pump running
 Switch for lamp test

Line control panel consists of :

 Alarm
 Current indicator
 Voltage indicator
 Active power indicator
 Reactive power indicator
RECTIFIER

A rectifier is an electrical device


that converts alternating current(AC), which periodically
reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in
only one direction. The process is known as rectification.
The rectifier manufacturing department deals with
products as displayed below :
PRODUCT PROFILE :
1. Traction Control
 Diesel electric locos 700 hp to 3600 hp
 Electric locomotives 500hp control cubicles

2.Plant industrial controls

 Electronic controllers for electrostatic precipitators (60-80 kv, 250-1600 Ma)


 Large current rectifiers (upto 90kamp, 300-900 V )
 G40, electrohydraulic governor (upto 165 MW)
 Compact automatic voltage regulator with power factor controls( 1.4 MW to 6 MW)
 Automatic voltage regulator (1.4 MW to 60 MW)
 Static excitation equipment ( 1.4 MW to 60 MW)
Alternator Mounted Recitifier

HIRECT has also designed and developed rectifiers which eliminates self cooling system by integrating the rectifier
cooling with that of main alternator and is mounted on top of the alternator thereby reducing space requirement.
Rectifiers are also supplied for AC-DC locomotives.
Boiler
A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The fluid does not necessarily boil. The heated or
vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating.

Material used: The pressure vessel of a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought
iron.
Cast iron may be used for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters.
WATER TURBINE
A water turbine is a rotary engine that takes energy from moving water.

Now they are mostly used for electric power generation. Water turbines are mostly found in Embankment dams to
generate electric power from water kinetic energy
Types: Kaplan Francis
VALVES:
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by
opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.

SPHERICAL VALVES

This kind of valve is generally used in


the hydroelectric power plants as a turbine
protection to guarantee the emergency shutoff of
the pressurized water flow of the penstock. It’s
placed immediately before the turbine and works
automatically to shut off the water flow in case of
any turbine malfunction, lack of power or any
specified condition.
Butterfly valves
Butterfly valves are equipped with either a lens type or a lattice door (through-flow) type. These door types were optimized
in model tests to achieve a minimum flow head loss coefficient. This type of valve is mainly used as safety valve, turbine
inlet valve, and pump valve for low to medium design pressures.

Cone valves
Cone valves are installed for flow regulation from 0 to 100%, for energy dissipation, and as pressure relief valves. They are
often installed in combination with an upstream guard valve (e.g. butterfly valve) for maintenance and emergency shut-
down purposes.

•Butterfly valves up to a diameter of 6,000 mm and design


pressure of 64 bar
•Cone valves up to a diameter of 2,200 mm and design pressure
of 64 bar
TRANSFORMER
Coil Winding is of two types:-
High Voltage Coils: H.V. Coils are the components of finished transformers. They are made on
automatic layer setting winding machines.
 A solid cylindrical former of predetermined diameter and length is being used as hase over
which is made.
 Generally round insulated wire of either copper (Cu) or Aluminium (Al) is used as basic raw
material.
 The coils are made in number of layers.
 The starting and finishing leads of each coil are terminated on either side of the coil.
 These leads are properly sleeved and locked at number of points.
Low Voltage Coils:
 L.V. Coils are also one of the components of transformer. The procedure of making low
voltage coil is generally same as described earlier.
 The shape of the basic raw-material (Al or Cu) is rectangular.
The Test: The "Turn Test" is carried out on the H.V. Coils as per the specifications.
The manufacturing process of Transformer cover the following departments:-

Coil Winding
Core Assembly
Core-Coil Assembly
Tank-up
Transformer Tank
Painting & Finishing
MOTORS

At BHEL Bhopal, manufacturing of following motors are done:


 SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTORS
 SLIPRING INDUCTION MOTORS
 SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
 INDUSTRIAL ALTERNATORS
 VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE MOTORS
 PRESSURISED MOTORS
 FLAME PROOF MOTORS
 INDUCTION GENERATORS
 WIND ELECTRIC GENERATOR
Product Range
SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTORS
UP TO 21000 KW(4POLE)
LOW VOLTAGE, 3.3-11KV
50 AND 60 HZ
4 POLE TO 24 POLE
2 POLE MOTORS UP TO 4500KW

SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTORS


UP TO 10000 KW (4 POLE)
LOW VOLTAGE, 3.3-11 KV
50 & 60 HZ
4 POLE TO 12 POLE
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
UPTO 21000 KW (4 POLE) CYL. ROTOR
4 POLE TO 10 POLE CYL. ROTOR
UPTO 4500 KW ( > 12 POLE) SALIENT POLE ROTOR
3.3 – 11 KV

ALTERNATORS
UPTO 3 MW, 4 POLE LT (420 V)
UPTO 25000 KVA , 4 POLE CYLINDRICAL ROTOR
UPTO 20000 KVA, 12 POLE SALIENT POLE ROTOR
3.3 – 11 KV

VARIABLE FREQUENCY MOTORS


UPTO 21000 KW (4 POLE) CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR
UPTO 15000 KW (4 POLE) SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
PRESSURIZED MOTORS
UPTO 21000 KW, 4 POLE VFD SYN. MOTOR
UPTO 21000 KW, 4 POLE INDUCTION MOTOR
UPTO 4500 KW, 18 POLE INDUCTION MOTOR
UPTO 4500 KW,18 P SALIENT POLE SYN. MOTOR
UPTO 13000 KW, 4 POLE CYL. ROTOR SYN. MOTOR

FLAME PROOF MOTORS


UPTO 1200 kW, 4POLE TETV
INDUCTION GENERATOR
UPTO 5000 kW, 4 POLE

WIND ELECTRIC GENERATORS


UPTO 2500kW
Vertical Sq. Cage Induction Motor

Totally Enclosed Tube Ventilated Sq. Cage Cyl. Rotor Syn. machine
Induction Motor

Flame Proof Sq. Cage Induction Motor


THANK YOU