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Troubleshooting Handover Problems Due to Hardware

Faults

Handover Problems Due to Incorrect Data Configurations

Others Troubleshooting1

Troubleshooting Handover Problems Due to Traffic


Congestion in the Target Cell

Others Troubleshooting2
Troubleshooting Handover Problems Due to Poor Um Interface Quality

Troubleshooting Handover Problems Due to NE Faults

Troubleshooting Handover Problems Due to


Inappropriate Inter-BSC/Inter-MSC/Inter-RAT Interaction
Troubleshooting Handover Problems Due to
Inappropriate Inter-BSC/Inter-MSC/Inter-RAT Interaction
Check whether any of the hardware alarms listed in Background Information have been reported.

Impact of handover threshold settings


Impact of neighboring cell configurations
Incorrect setting of NCC Permitted
Inappropriate data configurations for cells with repeaters or RXU co-cells

Impact of hysteresis configurations

Inappropriate configuration of optimal cell measurement time

Others causes

Number of failed internal intra-cell handovers due to congestion

Traffic volume on TCHs


TCH congestion rate (all TCHs are occupied)

Others causes

The common methods for locating interference are as follows:


The common methods for locating interference are as follows:

The method for locating the interference problem is described as follows:

The method for checking the Um interface quality is described as follows:

The method for improving the Um interface quality is described as follows:

Handover failures occur when the BSC clock source operates abnormally.

The possible causes of inter-BSC or inter-RAT handover failures are as follows:


The possible causes of inter-BSC or inter-RAT handover failures are as follows:
ALM-21807 OML Fault
BTS LAPD alarms
TRX standing wave alarms
ALM-28008 Radio Link Failure
Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold is set to 10
Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold is set to 20 in handover algorithm I or 15 in handover
algorithm II
Check If neighboring relationships are not configured or configured incorrectly
An MS measures only the signal level of cells with NCC Permitted set to 1
Inappropriate data configurations for cells with repeaters or RXU co-cells may lead to
asynchronous handover failures.
The difference between the signal level of a candidate cell and that of the serving cell must
be greater than the handover hysteresis. Therefore, a large handover hysteresis may lead to
handover failures. If the serving cell coverage is weak, decrease the handover hysteresis by
1 to 2 dB to expedite handovers to a suitable neighboring cell. If coverage overlap exists,
increase the handover hysteresis by 1 to 2 dB.
Handover algorithm II Edge HO Watch Time
Handover algorithm II Edge HO Valid Time
Handover algorithm I Edge HO Watch Time
Handover algorithm I Edge HO Valid Time
Intracell F-H HO Stat Time

Intracell F-H HO Last Time

Cell work on the same BCCH and have same BSIC

BCCH has been changed

Strong interference
TRX are working properly

H3029A:Failed Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available) (TCH)

H3229A:Number of Unsuccessful Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (No Channel


Available) (TCH)
K3014:Traffic Volume on TCH
K3011A:Failed TCH Seizures due to Busy TCH (Traffic Channel)
K3011B:Failed TCH Seizures in TCH Handovers due to Busy TCH (Traffic Channel)

Check whether the cell coverage and MS signals in the cell are normal.

Check whether TRXs in the cell are faulty.


Check whether TCHs in the cell are faulty.
Perform single-user signaling tracing.
1. Expand the BTS capacity. The handover problem is resolved.
Interference band 1: -105 to -98 dBm

Interference band 2: -98 to -90 dBm


Interference band 3: -90 to -87 dBm

Interference band 4: -87 to -85 dBm

Interference band 5: -85 to -47 dBm

Perform drive tests (DTs) to identify the cell or frequency with strong interference on the live
network. Then eliminate the interference by changing the frequency, or by adjusting the
antenna tilt, transmit power, or cell coverage.

Analyze Receive Quality Measurement Distribution per TRX(MR.RecvQualOrig.TRX) to check


the Um interface quality.

Network optimization engineers perform frequency optimization. If the Um interface quality


is not improved, perform DTs to locate and resolve the problem associated with the receive
quality and receive level. This is especially important if the problem is a high receive level
and poor receive quality.

You can run the MML command DSP CLK to check whether the BSC clock source operates
normally.

Cell data associated with MSC handovers is configured incorrectly. The cell data includes cell
global identity (CGI), location area code (LAC), and handover number.

Cell data associated with handovers to the target BSC is configured incorrectly.
Inter-RAT neighboring cells are configured incorrectly.
Encryption is performed improperly.
The handover procedure is performed improperly.
Trace the signaling on the A or E interface to check whether the signaling interactions
between the source BSC and the MSC, between MSCs, and between networks are normal.
If these alarms exists, ask

Run the MML command LST GCELLHOBASIC to check whether Edge HO UL RX_L
LST GCELLHO2GBA2 to check whether neighbo
LST GCELLIDLEBASIC to check whether NCC permitt
LST GCELLSOFT and check whether Directly Magnifier

Run the MML command LST GCELLHOBASIC to check whet

Run the MML command LST GCELLHOBASIC to check whether parameters relevant to optimal cell measureme
Valid Time are set co

Check whether the neighboring cells of the problem cell work

Check whether the BCCH frequency used by th

Check whether there is strong interfere


Check whether the TRXs are op

Run the MML command LST GTRXDEV to check whet

a. The cell coverage is


a. MS signals in the cell a
TRXs in the cell are n
TCHs in the cell are n
When handover failure messages are sent, all TC
When there are available TCHs in the cell, handov

Analyze Interference Band Measurement per TRX (MR.Iterf.TRX). If the number of interference levels in the high
bands 4 or 5 exceeds 30%, the
Analyze Interference Band Measurement per TRX (MR.Iterf.TRX). If the number of interference levels in the high
bands 4 or 5 exceeds 30%, the

Receive Quality Measurement Distribution per TRX(MR.RecvQualOrig.TRX) measures the distribution of receiv
bands ranging from band 0 to 7. Each receive quality band corresponds to a bit error rate (BER) range. A higher
or downlink receive quality bands 6 and 7 exceeds 10%, the uplink or d

If Phase-locked loop state of current clock is set to Trace

If Phase-locked loop state of current clock is not set to Trac

Check whether data configurations for the problem cell served by the MSC are correct. The data include

Check whether neighboring cell configurations for the source and target BSCs are correct based on the network
and measurement reports colle
Check whether the encryption procedure causes handover
If yes, split the cell, expand the cell capacity, or adjust network optimization parameters to reduce the numbe
cell. Then, check whether the handover problem is resolved.

AS4207A:Mean Number of TCHFs in Interference Band 1

AS4207B:Mean Number of TCHFs in Interference Band 2


AS4207C:Mean Number of TCHFs in Interference Band 3

AS4207D:Mean Number of TCHFs in Interference Band 4

AS4207E:Mean Number of TCHFs in Interference Band 5

Number of MRs on Downlink TCHF (Receive Quality Rank N)

If a line clock serves as the BSC clock source, check whether the EIUa or OIUa board that retrieves line clock sig
of the following alarms. If any of the following alarms are reported, clear these alarms by referring to the Alarm
check whether Phase-locked loop state of current clock is set to Trace. If Phase-locked loop state of current cloc
or any of the following alarms are not reported, switch over the active and standby GCUa boards or replace th
with a new one to resolve the BSC clock source problem

If yes, adjust the encryption parameters or encryption procedure of the MSC or BSC. Then, check whether the ha
is resolved.
AS4208A:Mean Number of
TCHHs in Interference
Band 1Number of
AS4208B:Mean
TCHHs in Interference
Band 2
AS4208C:Mean Number of
TCHHs in Interference
Band 3Number of
AS4208D:Mean
TCHHs in Interference
Band 4

AS4208E:Mean Number of
TCHHs in Interference
Band 5

Number Number
of MRs of MRs
on on
Number of MRs on Uplink
Downlin Uplink
TCHF (Receive Quality
k TCHH TCHH
Rank N)
(Receive (Receive
Quality Quality
Rank N) Rank N)
CM33C:Call Drops on Radio Interface (Traffic Channel)

Check whether there is any interference.

Check whether the uplink and downlink levels are balanced


Troubleshooting Call Drops Due to Poor Um Interface Quality

Check whether there are any coverage problems.

CM334:Call Drops due to Equipment Failure (Traffic


Channel)
Check whether any of the alarms listed in Background
Information are reported.
Troubleshooting Call Drops Due to Check whether the operations, such as dynamically deleting
cells or TRXs and modifying channel attributes or base
Equipment Faults station identity codes (BSICs), are performed when call
drops occur.
Analyze the signaling on the A interface when call drops
occur, and check whether the MSC sends a large number of
Reset Circuit messages.

CM333:Call Drops due to Abis Terrestrial Link Failure (Traffic


Channel)

Troubleshooting Call Drops Due to


Transmission Faults
CM334:Call Drops due to Equipment
Failure (Traffic Channel)
On the MSC side, the following
parameters (mainly referring to
timers here) affect the call drop
rate:

Troubleshooting Call Drops Due to


Incorrect Parameter Settings
Troubleshooting Call Drops Due to
Incorrect Parameter Settings

On the BSC side, the following


parameters affect the call drop
rate:
indicates the number of call drops due to poor Um interface quality.

Query Receive Quality Measurement Distribution per


TRX(MR.RecvQualOrig.TRX). If the receive quality is poor, for example, if the
proportion of uplink receive quality in receive quality bands 5, 6, and 7
exceeds 20%, there is a high probability that call drops will occur.

1. Analyze Interference Band Measurement per TRX(MR.Iterf.TRX). If


interference levels occur in the higher-level interference bands, for example,
the proportion of interference levels in interference bands 4 and 5 exceeds
10%, the call drops are caused by uplink interference.
a. Query TCHF Receive Level Measurement per
TRX(MR.RecvLevlOrigFullRate.TRX) or TCHH Receive Level Measurement
per TRX(MR.RecvLevlOrigHalfRate.TRX) to analyze the mapping between the
receive quality and receive levels. If poor receive quality mainly maps to low
receive levels, call drops in the cell may be caused by poor receive quality,
which results from coverage problems.
a. Analyze Number of MRs based on TA per TRX(MR.TaDistribOrig.TRX). If
there are many MRs with a large TA value, the call drops are caused by too-
wide coverage or coverage overlaps. Otherwise, the call drops are caused by
weak coverage.

Analyze the signaling to locate the cause of the call drops. If the TA value is
large when an MS accesses the network and if the signal level is low when call
drops occur, the call drops are caused by too-wide coverage or coverage
overlaps. If the TA value is small when an MS accesses the network, the call
drops are caused by weak coverage. If the proportion of the sum of TA values
0 through 5 to the sum of all the values is less than 90%, check for a coverage
problem in the cell based on the coverage scenario and DT result.

indicates the number of call drops due to equipment faults on the BSC side.

If yes, clear the alarms by referring to the Alarm Reference.

If yes, check whether there are no call drops when the relevant operations are
not performed. If there are no call drops, no further action is required.

If yes, call drops are caused by circuit resetting. Request core network (CN)
engineers to resolve the problem.
Generally, Abis interface transmission faults
may lead to an increase in the value of
CM333:Call Drops due to Abis Terrestrial Link
Failure (Traffic Channel)
Ater/A interface transmission faults may lead to
an increase in the value of CM334:Call Drops
due to Equipment Failure (Traffic Channel).

T305, T306, T308, and T338

Terminate Short Message Timer


T310

T313

T301

T303

Short Message ACK Timer

SACCH Multi-Frames
Radio Link Timeout

Minimum Access RXLEV

CS RACH Min. Access Level

Handover Completion Message Timers

T3109

T3111

TCH Traffic Busy Threshold

Call Reestablishment Forbidden

Handover-related Parameters

Power Control Parameters


T200 and N200

Neighboring Relationship

MAIO

Disconnect Handover Protect Timer

Directly Magnifier BTS Flag


The cause of call drops on the Um interface can be identified from the aspects of interference, uplink and downlink level balance,
coverage, antenna system, BTS hardware, BSC handover parameters, and the neighboring cell configuration for handover. If the
call drops are caused by incorrect BSC handover parameter settings or incorrect neighboring cell configuration for handover,
analyze the problem by referring to Handover Problems. The relevant descriptions are not included in this section.

If the call drops are caused by interference, check whether there are any interference sources exist onsite or perform drive tests
(DTs) to locate the interference source. In addition, check whether repeaters have been installed or whether installed repeaters
are faulty by referring to the following description. If any interference source is found, eliminate it

Query Uplink-and-Downlink Balance Measurement per TRX(MR.BalanceOrig.TRX). With regard to TRXs, if the proportion of the
uplink and downlink level balance class 1 or 11 to all uplink and downlink level balance classes exceeds 30%, the uplink and
downlink levels are unbalanced.

Check the relevant alarms to determine the link transmission status. If there
are a large number of relevant alarms, contact the transmission engineers. The
relevant BSC alarms are as follows:
The MSC uses the timers T305, T306, and T338 to monitor on-hook
procedures. T308 is used to monitor the resource release procedure. All of
these timers must be set during BSC data configuration. If any is set to an
invalid value or too large a value, the MSC takes a long time to clear a call
after the subscriber hangs up. Then, timers such as Radio Link Timeout and
T3103 on the BSC side expire, and the call is measured as dropped, and the
This timer prevents the MSC call drop
from rate increases.
repeatedly sending a short message. If this
timer is set to too large a value, the MSC does not clear any short messages
received during a link release. Instead, the MS sends a release message to the
BTS, which then sends a Release Indication message to the BSC. The BSC then
sends the MSC a Clear Request message, requesting the MSC to release the
call. As a result, the call drop rate increases.
The MSC uses this timer to monitor incoming calls. The MSC starts this timer
upon receiving a Call Confirm message and stops it upon receiving an Alerting,
Connect, or Disconnect message. If this timer is set to too large a value, the
value of the timer SACCH Multi-Frames or Radio Link Timeout on the BSS side
may decrease to 0 in a poor radio environment. As a result, the MSC releases
the call and the call drop rate increases.
The MSC uses this timer to monitor the call connection procedure. The MSC
starts this timer upon sending a Connect message and stops it upon receiving
a Connect ACK message. If the MSC does not receive a Connect ACK message
before the timer expires, the MSC clears the call. If this timer is set to too large
a value, the BSS sends a Clear Request message to the MSC after the value of
the timer SACCH Multi-Frames or Radio Link Timeout on the BSS side decreases
to 0 in the following scenario: The MSC sends the BSS a Connect message and
waits for a Connect ACK message, but the BSS does not receive the Connect
message in a poor radio environment or cannot correctly decode the message.
As a result, the call is dropped and the call drop rate increases.
this timer upon receiving an Alerting message and stops it upon receiving a
Connect or Disconnect message. If this timer expires before the MSC receives
either message, the MSC sends the calling MS a Disconnect message
containing the cause value #19 user alerting, no answer, instructing the
calling MS to clear the current call. In addition, the MSC sends the called MS a
Disconnect message, containing the cause value #102 recovery on timer
expiry or cause value #31 normal, unspecified, instructing the called MS to
clear the current call. If this timer is set to too large a value, the BSC sends the
MSC a Clear Request message before this timer expires due to poor radio
environment or link failures, requesting the MSC to release the current call. As
The MSC uses this timer to wait for a mobility management (MM) connection.
The MSC starts this timer upon sending a SETUP message and stops it upon
receiving a Call Confirm or Release Complete message. If this timer expires
before the MSC receives either message, the MSC clears the current call. If this
timer is set to too large a value, the BSS sends the MSC a Clear Request
message after the value of the timer SACCH Multi-Frames or Radio Link
Timeout on the BSS side decreases to 0 in a poor radio environment. As a
result,this
The MSC starts thetimer
call iswhen
dropped and the call
the network sidedrop
sendsrate increases.
a short message to an
MS. If the MS does not respond with a CP_ACK message before the timer
expires, the MSC sends the BSC a Clear Command message, instructing the
BSC to release radio resources. If this timer is set to too large a value, the MSC
does not release the current call or clear terrestrial resources and TCH
resources over the Um interface after the Disconnect message is issued.
Because the MS does not receive a short message from the network, the MS
sends the BTS a Disconnect message, requesting the BTS to release layer-2
links. In this case, the BTS sends a Release Indication to the BSC, and then the
BSC sends a Clear Request message to release the current call. As a result, the
This parameter determines call whether
drop an uplink
rate radio link is faulty. Each time the
increases.
BTS fails to decode measurement reports sent by the MS over the SACCH, the
value of this parameter decreases by 1. Each time the BTS successfully
decodes measurement reports sent by the MS over the SACCH, the value of
this parameter increases by 2. If the value of this parameter is 0, the BTS
assumes that the uplink radio link is faulty. If the value of M3101A:Call Drops
due to CONN FAIL Received on TCHF (Traffic Channel) in Stable State (Radio
Link Failure) is large, a large number of calls drop due to poor radio
environment. In this case, set this parameter to a larger value.
This parameter determines the time for disconnecting a call when an MS fails
to decode the messages over the SACCH. Once a dedicated channel is
allocated to an MS, the counter S is enabled and the initial value is set to the
value of this parameter. Each time the MS fails to decode an SACCH message,
the counter S decreases by 1. Each time the MS correctly decodes an SACCH
message, the counter S increases by 2. When the counter S is equal to 0, the
downlink radio link is considered as failed. Therefore, when the voice or data
quality deteriorates to an unacceptable situation and cannot be improved
using power control or channel handover, the connection is re-established or
released. If the value of M3101A:Call Drops due to CONN FAIL Received on
TCHF (Traffic Channel) in Stable State (Radio Link Failure) is large, a large
number of calls drop due to poor radio environment. In this case, set this
This parameter specifiesparameter
the minimumto a receive level for an MS to access the
larger value.
BSS. If this parameter is set to a small value, some MSs with low signal levels
may attempt to access the network and call drops are likely to occur. To reduce
the call drop rate, set this parameter to a large value. A large value, however,
may affect the call setup success rate and traffic volume.
This parameter specifies the signal level threshold for an MS to access the
network over the RACH. If this parameter is set to a small value, some MSs
with low signal levels may attempt to access the network and call drops are
likely to occur. To reduce the call drop rate, set this parameter to a large value.
A large value, however, may decrease the call setup success rate and paging
success rate.
Handover completion message timers consist of T3103A, T3103C, and T8. If
any of these timers is set to a small value, the BSC may receive no message
after timers T3103A and T3103C expire. Therefore, the BSC assumes that a
radio link fails in the source cell. Then, the BSC releases channels in the source
cell. As a result, call drops occur. If the value of CM331:Call Drops on Radio
Interface in Handover State (Traffic Channel) is large, set this parameter to a
large value. A large value, however, may lead to TCH congestion.
This parameter specifies the period during which a BSC waits for a Release
Indication message after issuing a Channel Release message. If this parameter
is set to a small value, the BSC may release the link before receiving a Release
Indication message, resulting a call drop. To reduce the call drop rate, set this
parameter to a value 2s longer than the value of Radio Link Timeout.
This parameter specifies the period during which channel deactivation is
delayed when the main signaling link is disconnected. Delaying channel
deactivation allows for a period of time for link reconnection. If this parameter
is set to a small value, a channel may be deactivated before the link has had a
If the current channel usage
chance to reaches
reconnect,or exceeds
resultingthe threshold
a call drop. specified by this
parameter, TCHHs are preferentially allocated to MSs that have newly
accessed the network. Otherwise, TCHFs are preferentially allocated to MSs
that have newly accessed the network. TCHHs do not have good anti-
interference capabilities. Therefore, the call drop rate may increase if a large
number of TCHHs are occupied. Do not set this parameter to a small value
Blind spots caused by tall buildings or congestion.
during light abrupt interference may lead to radio
link failures and call drops. This parameter specifies whether an MS can initiate
a call re-establishment procedure to re-establish a dropped call in such a
scenario. To reduce the call drop rate, set this parameter to No to allow call re-
establishment. In some scenarios, allowing call re-establishment greatly
reduces the call drop rate. However, call re-establishment generally takes a
long time, and therefore some subscribers may hang up before the call is re-
If handover-related parametersestablished
are notsuccessfully.
set correctly, handovers may not be
performed in time, leading to call drops. To reduce the call drop rate, modify
the handover-related parameters so that handovers can be performed in time.
For details, see Troubleshooting Handovers.
If the power control level and quality thresholds are set to small values, call
drops are likely to occur because of low signal level and poor signal quality.
If T200 FACCH/F, T200 FACCH/H, N200 of FACCH/Full Rate, or N200 of
FACCH/Half Rate is set to a small value, the BSC may release data links before
a call is terminated, resulting a call drop. If the value of M3100A:Call Drops due
to ERR IND Received on TCHF (Traffic Channel) in Stable State (T200 Expired) is
large, set T200 and N200 to large values.
If only some neighboring cells are configured in the BA2 list, no neighboring
cells may be suitable for handovers and signal levels may deteriorate,
resulting in call drops. Therefore, add suitable neighboring cells to the BA2 list
based on the drive test data and electronic map to prevent call drops due to
unavailability of neighboring cells.
In a cell configured with frequency hopping (FH), if MAIO is set to an incorrect
value, for example, if MAIOs for different TRXs in a cell are set to the same
value, frequency collision can occur during FH, resulting call drops.
This is a BSC soft parameter. After receiving a Disconnect message from an
MS, the BSC cannot hand over the MS within the period specified by this
parameter. When this parameter is not configured, after being handed over to
a target cell, an MS cannot hang up because it does not receive a release
acknowledgment message, leading to call drops. Configuring this parameter
enables the MS to hang up in this scenario. Do not set this parameter to a
If repeaters are installed under a BTS, handovers between repeaters can only
small value.
be asynchronous because the repeaters are far apart. If synchronous
handovers are performed, the handovers may fail, resulting in call drops.
Therefore, when repeaters are installed under a BTS, set Directly Magnifier BTS
Flag to Yes to prevent synchronous handovers between cells under the same
BTS.
Run the LST GCELLSOFT command to check whether Directly
Magnifier BTS Flag is set to Yes. If Directly Magnifier BTS Flag is a. If repeaters are installed, check whether they are wideband repeaters. If
set to Yes, the cell is configured with repeaters. If Directly Magnifier they are wideband repeaters, check whether the uplink or downlink gain is
BTS Flag is set to No, check whether other operators' repeaters are large. If the uplink or downlink gain is large, reduce it as required. Shut down
installed near the cell or whether any repeaters are installed without the repeaters if they have great impact on the call drop rate.
permission.

OML fault alarms


BTS LAPD alarms
BSC LAPD alarms
Optical interface MSP alarms
a. Check whether repeaters are faulty or whether
the uplink or downlink gain is beyond the normal
range. If repeaters are faulty or the uplink or
downlink gain is beyond the normal range, the
actual BTS coverage may change, which increases
the call drop rate. If any repeater problem occurs in
the cell, the number of MRs with a large timing
advance (TA) value measured for Number of MRs
based on TA per TRX(MR.TaDistribOrig.TRX) is
great.
The following is the method for troubleshooting interference
problems.

Troubleshooting Access Faults Due to Poor


Um Interface Quality
UL-DL Balanced

Coverage problems

Um Quality

SDCCH congestion is probably caused by one of the following


causes:
SDCCH congestion is probably caused by one of the following
causes:

The methods for troubleshooting SDCCH congestion are as


follows:

The related parameters are as follows:

Parameters related to SDCCH dynamic adjustment

Troubleshooting Low Immediate Assignment


Success Rates Due to SDCCH Congestion
Troubleshooting Low Immediate Assignment
Success Rates Due to SDCCH Congestion

Related timers
The following are the performance counters related to BTS or
BSC hardware faults:

Troubleshooting Low Immediate Assignment


Success Rates Due to Hardware or
Transmission Faults The following are the alarms related to BTS or BSC hardware
faults that can result in access faults:

You can find transmission faults by checking the following alarms


related to transmission faults that can result in access faults:

Troubleshooting Low Immediate Assignment


The characteristics of low immediate assignment success rates
Success Rates Due to Location Updates of
due to location updates of problem MSs are as follows:
Problem MSs
If the TCH congestion rate of a cell with a high assignment
Troubleshooting Low Assignment Success Rates success rate is greater than 10%, assignment failures are mainly
Due to TCH Congestion caused by TCH congestion. The following are the common
causes of TCH congestion in a cell:

According to the result of signaling tracing over the A interface,


the BSC sends the MSC an assignment failure message
containing the cause value of Equipment failure. In addition, the
values of ZTA312L:Failed Assignments per BSC (Equipment
Failure) and A3129B:Failed Assignments (First Assignment,
Terrestrial Resource Request Failed) increase.

When TRXs or combiners of a BTS are faulty, or radio frequency


(RF) cables are connected incorrectly, some channels are
unavailable, leading to assignment failures. The signaling tracing
result shows that MSs fail to access traffic channels (TCHs) and
send assignment failure messages on standalone dedicated
control channels (SDCCHs).

The following are the common hardware fault alarms that can
Troubleshooting Low Assignment Success Rates result in access faults:
Due to Hardware or Transmission Faults

When transmission problems such as delay, frame loss, and


LAPD link congestion occur, channel activation times out or
messages for inter-subrack communication of the BSC are lost,
leading to assignment failures. You can verify whether
transmission faults occur by checking transmission fault alarms.
The following are the common transmission fault alarms that can
result in access faults:
When transmission problems such as delay, frame loss, and
LAPD link congestion occur, channel activation times out or
messages for inter-subrack communication of the BSC are lost,
leading to assignment failures. You can verify whether
transmission faults occur by checking transmission fault alarms.
The following are the common transmission fault alarms that can
result in access faults:
If the receive quality is poor, for example, if the
Check Receive Quality Measurement Distribution per percentage of uplink receive quality in receive quality
TRX(MR.RecvQualOrig.TRX). bands 5, 6, and 7 exceeds 20%, there is a high probability
that access faults occur.

If the percentage of interference levels in the high


interference bands is great, for example, the percentage
Analyze Interference Band Measurement per TRX(MR.Iterf.TRX).
of interference levels in interference bands 4 or 5 exceeds
10%, access faults are caused by uplink interference.

Analyze the signaling collected by the TEMS during drive tests


If the signal level is proper but the C/I is poor, access
(DT) to determine whether the downlink C/I is normal when MSs
faults are caused by interference.
access channels.

Check Uplink-and-Downlink Balance Measurement per


TRX(MR.BalanceOrig.TRX). If the percentage of the
Check whether the uplink and downlink signal levels are uplink and downlink signal level balance class 1 or 11 to
balanced. all uplink and downlink signal level balance classes
exceeds 30%, the uplink and downlink signal levels are
unbalanced.

Check TCHF Receive Level Measurement per


TRX(MR.RecvLevlOrigFullRate.TRX) or TCHH Receive
Level Measurement per
TRX(MR.RecvLevlOrigHalfRate.TRX) and analyze the
mapping between the receive quality and receive signal
levels. If receive quality is generally poor at low receive
signal levels, access faults in the cell may be caused by
poor receive quality, resulting from coverage problems.
Check whether there are any coverage problems.

Analyze Number of MRs based on TA per


TRX(MR.TaDistribOrig.TRX). If many MRs have large TA
values, access faults are caused by wide coverage or
coverage overlap. Otherwise, access faults are caused by
weak coverage. If the percentage of TA values at levels 0
to 5 is less than 90%, check for coverage problems in the
cell based on the coverage scenario and DT result

Check TCHF Receive Level Measurement per


TRX(MR.RecvLevlOrigFullRate.TRX) or TCHH Receive
Level Measurement per
Check the Um interface quality.
TRX(MR.RecvLevlOrigHalfRate.TRX). If the percentage
of receive quality bands 6 and 7 exceeds 10%, the uplink
or downlink receive quality is poor.

The traffic volume on an SDCCH increases sharply. As a result,


new services cannot be assigned to the SDCCH, leading to an
immediate assignment failure.

The configuration data is inappropriate, such as the location area


(LA) planning, dual-band network parameters, and timer settings.
The number of functional SDCCHs decreases because some
TRXs carrying SDCCHs are faulty, but the traffic volume remains
unchanged.

For SDCCH congestion caused by heavy traffic on the SDCCH,


expand the capacity. Alternatively, modify parameters related to
location updates and SDCCH dynamic adjustment.

SDCCH congestion caused by traffic bursts such as group


sending of short messages and location update at the portal of a
tunnel cannot be completely resolved. Relieve the SDCCH
congestion by Configuring SDCCH Dynamic Adjustment.

For SDCCH congestion caused by a decrease in the number of


functional SDCCHs due to hardware faults, rectify the hardware
faults. For details, see Troubleshooting Low Immediate
Assignment Success Rates Due to Hardware or Transmission
Faults.

This parameter specifies the likelihood with which MSs


select a cell. If the communication quality in a cell is poor
due to heavy traffic or for other causes, ensure that MSs
do not work in this cell. In this case, if you set
PENALTY_TIME (PT) to 31, TEMPORARY_OFFSET
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET (CRO)
(TO) becomes invalid. C2 equals C1 minus CRO. Users
can set CRO as required. The larger the CRO, the less
likely MSs are to select the cell. You can also decrease
the value of C2 manually to reduce the likelihood that
MSs will select the cell.

This parameter specifies whether to perform inter-LA


reselection. It prevents an increase in the network
signaling volume due to frequent location updates and
CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS reduces the possibility of losing paging messages. This
parameter is generally set to 6. For dual-band networks in
urban areas belonging to different LAs, the value of this
parameter ranges from 8 to 10.

When this parameter is set to YES(Yes), dynamic


SDCCH Dynamic Allocation Allowed conversion between SDCCHs and traffic channels (TCH)
can be implemented.

When the number of idle SDCCHs in a cell is less than or


equal to the value of this parameter, the BSC uses the
channel allocation algorithm to attempt to find a TCHF
Idle SDCCH Threshold N1
that can be converted to an SDCCH. This parameter is
one of the conditions for dynamically converting a TCHF
to an SDCCH.

Before initiating dynamic conversion from the TCH to the


SDCCH, the BSC checks whether the number of
SDCCHs in a cell after the conversion will exceed Cell
Cell SDCCH Channel Maximum
SDCCH Channel Maximum. If the number will exceed
Cell SDCCH Channel Maximum, the BSC does not
initiate the conversion.

This parameter specifies the minimum duration for


TCH Minimum Recovery Time
converting an SDCCH back to a TCH.
Timer T3101 monitors the immediate assignment
procedure. Setting timer T3101 to a small value can
effectively reduce the SDCCH congestion rate. If timer
T3101 is set to a large value, the invalid duration for
T3101
occupying signaling resources is prolonged, resulting in
waste of signaling resources. To optimize signaling
resource usage, set timer T3101 to a small value,
especially when the queuing function is enabled.

An MS starts timer T3122 when receiving the IMMEDIATE


ASSIGN REJECT message and sends a new channel
request message after timer T3122 expires. Increasing
the value of timer T3122 can prevent the MS from
T3122
sending channel request messages frequently when no
system resource is available, preventing increases in the
load on random access channels (RACH) and common
control channels (CCCH).

Timer T3212 monitors the location update period.


Appropriately increasing the value of timer T3212 can
T3212
minimize the SDCCH load, which becomes heavy due to
periodic location updates.

Timer T3111 specifies the connection release delay. This


timer is used to delay channel deactivation after the main
signaling link is disconnected. This is to reserve some
time for another disconnection, if necessary. Timer T311
T3111 starts when a TCH is released and when an SDCCH is
released. The value of timer T3111 must be the same as
that of timer T3110 on the MS side and is generally two
seconds. If timer T3111 is set to a large value, severe
SDCCH congestion may occur.

If this parameter is set to a small value, a large number of


interference signals request SDCCHs to access the
network, leading to the SDCCH congestion. If the
CS RACH Min. Access Level parameter is set to a large value, call failures may occur
even when signals are available. Therefore, set this
parameter according to the actual BTS sensitivity, the
lowest MS access signal level, and the interference.

This function is set on the MSC side. If late assignment is


enabled, the calling MS always occupies the SDCCH
when waiting for the called MS to pick up the phone. In
Late Assignment
this case, the duration of SDCCH occupation increases.
As a result, other MSs may fail to request the SDCCH,
leading to SDCCH congestion.

If this parameter is set to a small value, the requirement


for the access signal level is low. As a result, a large
Minimum Access RXLEV number of MSs attempt to camp on this cell, increasing
the cell load and call drop rate and leading to SDCCH
congestion.

When the network traffic volume is heavy, the immediate


assignment success rate is low if the sum of S and T is
low. You can adjust the value of T within reason to
TX-integer
increase the sum of S and T. For details about S and T,
see the description about TX-integer contained in the
MML command SET GCELLIDLEBASIC.

This parameter specifies whether accessing a cell is


allowed. 0 indicates that accessing a cell is allowed, and
CELL BAR ACCESS (CBA) 1 indicates that accessing a cell is prohibited. This
parameter can be used with cell bar qualify (CBQ) to
determine the cell priority.

Cell Bar Qualify (CBQ) CBQ affects only cell selection.


If yes, rectify hardware and transmission faults according
to Troubleshooting Low Immediate Assignment Success
Rates Due to Hardware or Transmission Faults. If the
Check whether the value of RR300:SDCCH Availability is too
problem is resolved after the hardware and transmission
small.
faults are rectified, no further action is required. If the
problem persists, return to Procedure for locating access
faults.

RK3255:TRX Usability

RR300:SDCCH Availability

CR330C:Channel Activation Timeouts in Immediate Assignment


Procedure

CR330B:CHAN ACTIV NACK Messages Sent by BTS in


Immediate Assignment Procedure

ALM-21807 OML Fault

ALM-2204 TRX Communication Alarm

ALM-2156 TRX VSWR Alarm

ALM-4144 TRX VSWR alarm

ALM-26529 RF Unit VSWR Threshold Crossed

ALM-3606 DRU Hardware alarm

ALM-20241 Board Unavailable

ALM-20243 Board Hardware Fault

OML fault alarms

BTS LAPD alarms

BSC LAPD alarms

Optical interface MSP alarms

When the difference between A300F:Channel Requests (Location


Analyze traffic statistics to check whether the low
Updating) and A3030F:Call Setup Indications (Location Updating)
immediate assignment success rates are caused by
(SDCCH) is similar to A3040:Call Setup Indications Timed Out
location updates. The difference between A300F:Channel
(SDCCH), the low immediate assignment success rates are due to
Requests (Location Updating) and A3030F:Call Setup
location updates of problem MSs. However, the service type
Indications (Location Updating) (SDCCH) is similar to
contained in the channel requests sent by some MSs may not be
A3040:Call Setup Indications Timed Out (SDCCH), which
location updates. In this case, you need to determine the cause of
indicates that the SDCCH setup failures are due to
low immediate assignment success rates based on the other
location updates.
characteristics.

The immediate assignment success rates may be low during peak


hours or during off-peak hours.
Calls are not affected. Aside from the immediate assignment
success rates of some cells during certain periods, all key
performance indicators (KPIs) are normal. In addition, drive test
results are normal, and no subscribers complain about call drops
because the MSs retry periodically or in other cells if location
updates fail.

There is no interference or co-frequency co-BSIC cell.


There is no problem such as uplink and downlink signal-level
imbalance.
According to the signaling tracing over the Abis interface, the retry
times and retry intervals of failed location updates meet the
network configuration requirements.

Trace the signaling over the Abis interface. Figure 1 shows the
problem signaling. According to the time advance (TA) and signal
level information in channel requests, the TA values are small and
the signal level values are large. In addition, the uplink signal
strength measured by the BTS is lower than -110 dBm during the
period in which the BSS waits for MSs to access the assigned
SDCCHs, which indicates that the MSs do not access the
SDCCHs. As a result, the immediate assignment fails.
MS MAX Retrans specifies the maximum number of
Channel Request messages sent by an MS during an
immediate assignment process. You can query the value
Check MS MAXRETRANS Value
of this parameter by running the MML command LST
GCELLCCBASIC and set the value of this parameter by
running the MML command SET GCELLCCBASIC.

The traffic volume in a cell increases.

Run the MML command LST GCELLCCACCESS to


check whether a cell with a low assignment rate supports
The cell does not support the half-rate speech versions 1 and 3 in
the half-rate speech versions 1 and 3. Run the MML
an effort to ensure speech quality.
command LST GTRXDEV to check whether TCH Rate
Adjust Allow is set to YES(Yes).

Check whether coverage overlap or unbalanced traffic


Traffic volume in the cell is large because the subscriber density is
distribution occurs in the cell where TCHs are congested
high or coverage overlap occurs in the cell.
according to drive test logs and traffic statistics.

The traffic volume in the cell sharply increases because Check whether any neighboring cells are out of service
emergencies occur or any neighboring cells are out of service. according to alarm logs.

Run the MML command LST GTRXCHAN to check


The cell is configured with a large number of static packet data
whether the cell is configured with a large number of
channels (PDCHs) or dynamic PDCHs and processes PS
static packet data channels (PDCHs) or dynamic PDCHs
services preferentially.
and processes PS services preferentially.

Run the MML command LST GCELLBASICPARA to


Very early assignment is enabled. check whether TCH Immediate Assignment is Yes, that is,
whether very early assignment is enabled.

When TCHs are congested, new access requests are rejected


because TCHs are unavailable, decreasing the assignment Check whether RR307:TCH Availability is less than
success rate. Some TRXs of the cell are faulty or some channels 100%.
of the cell are blocked.

Perform dialing tests to check whether the assignment success


rates return to normal.

ALM-21807 OML Fault

ALM-2204 TRX Communication Alarm

ALM-4144 TRX VSWR alarm


Check whether any of the hardware fault alarms listed in
ALM-3606 DRU Hardware alarm Background Information are reported.
ALM-20241 Board Unavailable

ALM-20243 Board Hardware Fault

ALM-20254 DSP Unavailable

OML fault alarms

Check whether any of the transmission fault alarms listed


in Background Information are reported.
BTS LAPD link alarms
Check whether any of the transmission fault alarms listed
in Background Information are reported.

BSC LAPD link alarms

Alarms related to the MSP of optical ports

IP transmission alarms
Run the MML command LST GCELLSOFT to check whether Directly
Magnifier BTS Flag is set to Yes. If Directly Magnifier BTS Flag is set
to Yes, the cell is configured with repeaters. If Directly Magnifier BTS
Flag is set to No, check whether other operators' repeaters are
installed near the cell or whether any repeaters are installed without
permission.

a. If repeaters are installed, check whether they are wideband


repeaters. If they are wideband repeaters, check whether the uplink or
downlink gain is large. If the uplink or downlink gain is large, reduce it
as required. Shut down the repeaters if they have great impacts on the
access success rate.

a. Check whether the repeaters are faulty or whether the uplink or


downlink gain is beyond the normal range. If either is case, the actual
BTS coverage may change, leading to access faults. If any repeater
problems occur in the cell, the number of MRs with a large timing
advance (TA) value measured for Number of MRs based on TA per
TRX(MR.TaDistribOrig.TRX) changes significantly.

If the Um interface quality is poor, contact the network optimization


department to check and optimize the frequency planning data. Then,
go to Step 8.
When the traffic volume in an area is heavy and the signaling flow is
overloaded frequently, increase the CRH of neighboring cells that
belong to different LACs in this area.

When the overlapping coverage of neighboring cells that belong to


different LAs is large, increase the CRH.
When the border coverage of the neighboring cells that belong to
different LAs is poor or the borders are located on high-speed
highways or other high-speed areas, set the CRH to a value ranging
from 2 to 6 dB.
a. Run the
MML
Run the MML command
command SET SET
a. Run the MML command SET GCELLCCACCESS with Speech a. Run the MML command SET
GCELLCHMGAD GCELLCHMG
Version set to HALF_RATE_VER1(Half-rate VER 1) and GTRXDEV with TCH Rate Adjust
with TCH Traffic BASIC with
HALF_RATE_VER3(Half-rate VER 3). Allow set to YES(Yes).
Busy Threshold set Enhanced
to a required value. TCH Adjust
Allowed set to
YES(Yes).
If yes, reduce the cell coverage by performing operations such as
decreasing the power, reducing the antenna tilt, and improving CS
RACH Min. Access Level. Then, check whether the assignment
success rate returns to normal. If yes, no further action is required. If
no, go to Step 3.
If yes, resolve the problem of out-of-service cells. Then, check
whether the assignment success rate returns to normal. If yes, no
further action is required. If no, go to Step 4.

If yes, reduce the number of PDCHs. Then, check whether the


assignment success rate returns to normal. If yes, no further action is
required. If no, go to Step 5.

If yes, run the MML command SET GCELLBASICPARA with TCH


Immediate Assignment set to NO(No) to disable very early
assignment. Alternatively, perform capacity expansion. Then, check
whether the assignment success rate returns to normal. If yes, no
further action is required. If no, go to Step 6.

If yes, some TRXs are faulty or some channels are blocked. Check
the TRX status or run the MML command DSP CHNSTAT to check
channel status, and rectify TRX or channel faults. Then, check
whether the assignment success rate returns to normal. If yes, no
further action is required. If no, return to Procedure for locating access
faults.