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Optimizing Converged

Cisco Networks (ONT)

Module 4: Implement the DiffServ QoS Model (Intro)

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Introducing
Classification and
Marking

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Objectives
 Describe the classification and marking for QoS.
 Explain the relationship between IP Precedence and
DSCP.
 Describe the standard Per Hop Behavior (PHB) groups
and their characteristics.
 Explain how a service class is used to implement QoS
policies.
 Describe a trust boundary and the guidelines used to
establish this boundary.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Classification
 Classification is the process of identifying and
categorizing traffic into classes, typically based upon:
Incoming interface
IP precedence
DSCP
Source or destination address
Application

 Without classification, all packets are treated the same.


 Classification should take place as close to the source
as possible.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Marking
 Marking is the QoS feature component that ―colors‖ a
packet (frame) so it can be identified and distinguished
from other packets (frames) in QoS treatment.
 Commonly used markers:
Link layer:
CoS (ISL, 802.1p)
MPLS EXP bits
Frame Relay
Network layer:
DSCP
IP precedence

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Classification and Marking in the LAN with
IEEE 802.1Q

 IEEE 802.1p user priority field is also


called CoS.
 IEEE 802.1p supports up to eight CoSs.
 IEEE 802.1p focuses on support for
QoS over LANs and 802.1Q ports.
 IEEE 802.1p is preserved through the
LAN, not end to end.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Classification and Marking in the Enterprise

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


DiffServ Model
 Describes services associated with traffic classes,
rather than traffic flows.
 Complex traffic classification and conditioning is
performed at the network edge.
 No per-flow state in the core.
 The goal of the DiffServ model is scalability.
 Interoperability with non-DiffServ-compliant nodes.
 Incremental deployment.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Classification Tools
IP Precedence and DiffServ Code Points
Version ToS
Len ID Offset TTL Proto FCS IP SA IP DA Data
Length Byte
IPv4 Packet

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Standard IPv4
IP Precedence Unused
DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) IP ECN DiffServ Extensions

 IPv4: three most significant bits of ToS byte are called


IP Precedence (IPP)—other bits unused
 DiffServ: six most significant bits of ToS byte are called
DiffServ Code Point (DSCP)—remaining two bits used
for flow control
 DSCP is backward-compatible with IP precedence

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


IP ToS Byte and DS Field Inside the IP Header
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


IP Precedence and DSCP Compatibility

 Compatibility with current IP precedence usage (RFC 1812)


 Differentiates probability of timely forwarding:
(xyz000) >= (abc000) if xyz > abc
 That is, if a packet has DSCP value of 011000, it has a greater
probability of timely forwarding than a packet with DSCP value of
001000.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Per-Hop Behaviors

 DSCP selects PHB throughout the network:


Default PHB (FIFO, tail drop)
Class-selector PHB (IP precedence)
EF Expedite Forwarding PHB
AF Assured Forwarding PHB
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Standard PHB Groups

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Expedited Forwarding (EF) PHB

 EF PHB:
• Ensures a minimum departure rate (lowest delay)
• Guarantees bandwidth—class guaranteed an amount of bandwidth with
prioritized forwarding
• Polices bandwidth—class not allowed to exceed the guaranteed amount
(excess traffic is dropped)
 DSCP value of 101110: Looks like IP precedence 5 to non-DiffServ-
compliant devices:
Bits 5 to 7: 101 = 5 (same 3 bits are used for IP precedence)
Bits 3 and 4: 11 = No drop probability (contradiction to AF PHB)
Bit 2: Just 0
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Assured Forwarding (AF) PHB

 AF PHB:
Guarantees bandwidth
Allows access to extra bandwidth, if available

 Four standard classes: AF1, AF2, AF3, and AF4


 DSCP value range of aaadd0:
aaa is a binary value of the class
dd is drop probability
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
AF PHB Values

 Each AF class uses three DSCP values.


 Each AF class is independently forwarded with its guaranteed
bandwidth.
 Congestion avoidance is used within each class to prevent
congestion within the class.
 Probability of drop, a relationship where AFx1 <= AFx2 <= AFx3.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mapping CoS to Network Layer QoS

End-to-end QoS
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
QoS Service Class
 A QoS service class is a logical grouping of packets
that are to receive a similar level of applied quality.
 A QoS service class can be:
A single user (such as MAC address or IP address)
A department, customer (such as subnet or interface)
An application (such as port numbers or URL)
A network destination (such as tunnel interface or VPN)

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Implementing QoS Policy Using a QoS Service
Class

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


QoS Service Class Guidelines
 Profile applications to their basic network requirements.
 Do not over engineer provisioning; use no more than four to five
traffic classes for data traffic:
Voice applications: VoIP
Mission-critical applications: Oracle, SAP, SNA
Interactive applications: Telnet, TN3270
Bulk applications: FTP, TFTP
Best-effort applications: E-mail, web
Scavenger applications: Nonorganizational streaming and video
applications (Kazaa, Yahoo, Youtube)
 Do not assign more than three applications to mission-critical or
transactional classes.
 Use proactive policies before reactive (policing) policies.
 Seek executive endorsement of relative ranking of application
priority prior to rolling out QoS policies for data.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Classification and Marking Design
QoS Baseline Marking Recommendations
L3 Classification L2
Application
IPP PHB DSCP CoS
Routing 6 CS6 48 6
Voice 5 EF 46 5
Video Conferencing 4 AF41 34 4
Streaming Video 4 CS4 32 4
Mission-Critical Data 3 AF31* 26 3
Call Signaling 3 CS3* 24 3

Transactional Data 2 AF21 18 2

Network Management 2 CS2 16 2


Bulk Data 1 AF11 10 1
Best Effort 0 0 0 0
Scavenger 1 CS1 8 1
* Cisco IP phones use AF31 currently for call-signaling => MCD = DSCP 25
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
How Many Classes of Service Do I Need?
4/5 Class Model 8 Class Model 11 Class Model

Voice Voice
Realtime Interactive-Video
Video Streaming Video
Call Signaling Call Signaling Call Signaling
IP Routing
Network Control
Network Management
Critical Data Mission-Critical Data
Critical Data
Transactional Data
Bulk Data Bulk Data

Best Effort Best Effort


Best Effort

Scavenger Scavenger Scavenger


Time
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Trust Boundaries: Classify Where?

 For scalability, classification should be enabled as close to the


edge as possible, depending on the capabilities of the device at:
Endpoint or end system
Access layer
Distribution layer

 If a endpoint is trusted then enable mls qos trust dscp in the sw.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Trust Boundaries: Mark Where?

 For scalability, marking should be done as close to the source as possible.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Self Check
1. Which PHB would be used for voice traffic?
2. How many bits are used for IP Precedence? For
DSCP?
3. Which PHB can allow access to extra bandwidth if it is
available?
4. How is CDP used to establish trust boundaries?

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Summary
 Classification, marking, and queuing are critical
functions of any successful QoS implementation.
 Classification allows network devices to identify traffic
as belonging to a specific class with the specific QoS
requirements determined by an administrative QoS
policy.
 The DiffServ model uses classes to describe services
offered to network traffic, rather than traffic flows.
 DiffServ uses DSCP to establish Per Hop Behaviors
(PHBs) to classify and service traffic.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Resources
 DiffServ -- The Scalable End-to-End QoS Model
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/ps6610/products_
white_paper09186a00800a3e2f.shtml

 Quality of Service - The Differentiated Services Model


http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/ps6610/products_
data_sheet0900aecd8031b36d.html

 Differentiated_services
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differentiated_services

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Using NBAR for
Classification

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Network-Based Application Recognition
 Used in conjunction with QoS class-
based features, NBAR is an
My application intelligent classification engine that:
is too slow!
Classifies modern client-server and web-
based applications
Discovers what traffic is running on the
network
Analyzes application traffic patterns in real
time
 NBAR functions:
Performs identification of applications and
protocols (Layer 4–7)
Citrix 25%
Netshow 15% Performs protocol discovery
Fasttrack 10%
FTP 30% Provides traffic statistics
 New applications are easily
HTTP 20%

Sample Link Utilization supported by loading a Packet


Description Language
Module (PDLM).
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
NBAR Functions & Features
 NBAR performs the following two functions:
Identification of applications and protocols (Layer 4 to Layer 7)
Protocol discovery (statistics)

 Some examples of class-based QoS features that can


be used on traffic after the traffic is classified by NBAR
include:
Class-Based Marking (the set command)
Class-Based Weighted Fair Queueing (the bandwidth and
queue-limit commands)
Low Latency Queueing (the priority command)
Traffic Policing (the police command)
Traffic Shaping (the shape command)

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


NBAR Application Support

 NBAR can classify applications that use:


Statically assigned TCP and UDP port numbers
Non-UDP and non-TCP IP protocols
Dynamically assigned TCP and UDP port numbers negotiated
during connection establishment (requires stateful inspection)
Subport and deep packet inspection classification

 Restrictions: You must enable Cisco Express


Forwarding (CEF) before you configure NBAR.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Packet Description Language Module
 PDLMs allow NBAR to recognize new protocols
matching text patterns in data packets without requiring
a new Cisco IOS software image or a router reload.
 An external PDLM can be loaded at run time to extend
the NBAR list of recognized protocols.
 PDLMs can also be used to enhance an existing
protocol recognition capability.
 PDLMs must be produced by Cisco engineers.
 CCO registered users can find the PDLMs at:
http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/pdlm.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


NBAR Command Syntax
router(config)#
ip nbar pdlm pdlm-name
 Used to enhance the list of protocols recognized by NBAR
through a PDLM.
 The filename is in the URL format (for example,
flash://citrix.pdlm).
router(config)#
ip nbar port-map protocol-name [tcp | udp] port-
number
 Configures NBAR to search for a protocol or protocol name
using a port number other than the well-known port.
 Up to 16 additional port numbers can be specified.
 Example: ip nbar port-map http tcp 80 8080
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
NBAR Show Protocol-to-Port Maps

router#
show ip nbar port-map [protocol-name]
 Displays the current NBAR protocol-to-port mappings

router#show ip nbar port-map

port-map bgp udp 179


port-map bgp tcp 179
port-map cuseeme udp 7648 7649
port-map cuseeme tcp 7648 7649
port-map dhcp udp 67 68
port-map dhcp tcp 67 68
port-map dns udp 53
port-map dns tcp 53
Port-map http tcp 80 8080

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


NBAR Protocol Discovery
 Analyzes application traffic patterns in real time and
discovers which traffic is running on the network
 Provides bidirectional, per-interface, and per-protocol
statistics
 Important monitoring tool supported by Cisco QoS
management tools:
Generates real-time application statistics
Provides traffic distribution information at key network locations

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Configuring and Monitoring NBAR Protocol
Discovery

router(config-if)#
ip nbar protocol-discovery
 Configures NBAR to discover traffic for all protocols known
to NBAR on a particular interface
 Requires that CEF be enabled before protocol discovery
 Can be applied with or without a service policy enabled

router#
show ip nbar protocol-discovery
 Displays the statistics for all interfaces on which protocol
discovery is enabled. Statistics can be inaccurate because
of policing of queue drops at the output interface.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Configuring and Monitoring Protocol
Discovery Output

router#show ip nbar protocol-discovery

Ethernet0/0
Input Output
Protocol Packet Count Packet Count
Byte Count Byte Count
5 minute bit rate (bps) 5 minute bit rate (bps)
---------- ------------------------ -----------------
realaudio 2911 3040
1678304 198406
19000 1000
http 19624 13506
14050949 2017293
0 0
<output omitted>

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Steps for Configuring NBAR for Static
Protocols

 Required steps:
1. Enable NBAR Protocol Discovery.

2. Configure a traffic class.

3. Configure a traffic policy.

4. Attach the traffic policy to an interface.

5. Enable PDLM if needed.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Configuring NBAR for Static Protocols
Commands

router(config-cmap)#
match protocol protocol

 Configures the match criteria for a class map on the basis of


the specified protocol using the MQC configuration mode.
 Static protocols are recognized based on the well-known
destination port number.
 A match not command can be used to specify a QoS policy
value that is not used as a match criterion; in this case, all
other values of that QoS policy become successful match
criteria.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Configuring NBAR Example

 HTTP is a static protocol using a well-known port number 80.


However, other port numbers may also be in use.
 The ip nbar port-map command will inform the router that other
ports are also used for HTTP.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Steps for Configuring Stateful NBAR for
Dynamic Protocols

 Required steps:

1. Configure a traffic class.


2. Configure a traffic policy.
3. Attach the traffic policy to an interface.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Enhanced NBAR Classification for HTTP
router(config-cmap)#

match protocol http url url-string


 Recognizes the HTTP GET packets containing the URL, and
then matches all packets that are part of the HTTP GET
request
 Include only the portion of the URL following the address or
host name in the match statement
router(config-cmap)#

match protocol http host hostname-string


 Performs a regular expression match on the host field
content inside an HTTP GET packet and classifies all
packets from that host

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Special NBAR Configuration for HTTP and
FastTrack
router(config-cmap)#
match protocol http mime MIME-type
 Matches a packet containing the MIME type and all subsequent
packets until the next HTTP transaction for stateful protocol.
router(config-cmap)#
match protocol fasttrack file-transfer
regular-expression
 Stateful mechanism to identify a group of peer-to-peer file-sharing
applications.
 Applications that use FastTrack peer-to-peer protocol include
Kazaa, Grokster, Gnutella, and Morpheus.
 A Cisco IOS regular expression is used to identify specific
FastTrack traffic.
 To specify that all FastTrack traffic will be identified by the traffic
class, use asterisk (*) as the regular expression.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
URL or HOST Specification String Options

Options Description
* Match any zero or more characters in this
position.
? Match any one character in this position.

| Match one of a choice of characters.

(|) Match one of a choice of characters in a


range. For example, xyz.(gif | jpg)
matches either xyz.gif or xyz.jpg.
[ ] Match any character in the range
specified, or one of the special
characters. For example, [0-9] is all of
the digits; [*] is the "*" character, and
[[] is the "[" character.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Configuring Stateful NBAR for RTP
router(config-cmap)#
match protocol rtp [audio | video | payload-type
payload-string]
 Identifies real-time audio and video traffic in the class-
map mode of MQC
 Differentiates on the basis of audio and video codecs
 The match protocol rtp command has these options:
audio: Match by payload type values 0 to 23, reserved for audio
traffic
video: Match by payload type values 24 to 33, reserved for
video traffic
payload-type: Match by a specific payload type value; provides
more granularity than the audio or video options

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Classification of RTP Session

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Resources
 Network-Based Application Recognition, Q&A
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/ps6616/products_
qanda_item09186a00800a3ded.shtml

 Network-Based Application Recognition and Distributed


Network-Based Application Recognition
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/ps6350/products_
configuration_guide_chapter09186a0080455985.html

 Remaining percent calculations example


https://supportforums.cisco.com/thread/122893?tstart=0

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Introducing Queuing
Implementations

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Objectives
 Describe the common causes of congestion on a link.
 Compare and contrast various queuing methods used
to relieve congestion.
 Describe the purpose and functionality of software
queues.
 Describe the function and purpose of the hardware
queue.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Congestion and Queuing

 Congestion can occur at any point in the network where there are
points of speed mismatches or aggregation.
 Queuing manages congestion to provide bandwidth and delay
guarantees.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Speed Mismatch

• Speed mismatches are the most typical cause of congestion.


• Possibly persistent when going from LAN to WAN.
• Usually transient when going from LAN to LAN.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Aggregation

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


What is Queuing?
 Queuing is a congestion-management mechanism that
allows you to control congestion on interfaces.
 Queuing is designed to accommodate temporary
congestion on an interface of a network device by
storing excess packets in buffers until bandwidth
becomes available.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Congestion and Queuing

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Queuing Algorithms
 First-in, first-out (FIFO)
 Priority queuing (PQ)
 Round robin
 Weighted round robin (WRR)

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


FIFO
 First packet in is first packet out
 Simplest of all
 One queue
 All individual queues are FIFO

By default serial interfaces at E1 and below use WFQ, all


others interfaces by default use FIFO.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Best suited to
Priority Queuing low-bandwidth,
congested
 Uses multiple queues serial interfaces
 Allows prioritization
 Always empties first queue
before going to the next queue:
 Empty queue number 1.
 If queue number 1 is empty,
then dispatch one packet from
queue number 2.
 If both queue number 1 and
queue number 2 are empty,
then dispatch one packet from
queue number 3.
 Queues number 2 and number
3 may ―starve‖
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Round Robin Queuing
 Uses multiple queues
 No prioritization
 Dispatches one packet
from
each queue in each
round:
• One packet from
queue number 1
• One packet from
queue number 2
• One packet from
queue number 3
Then repeat

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Cisco CQ uses
Weighted Round Robin Queuing number of
bytes instead of
 Allows prioritization number of
packets
 Assign a weight to each
queue
 Dispatches packets from each
queue proportionately to an
assigned weight:
 Dispatch up to four from
queue number 1.
 Dispatch up to two from
queue number 2.
 Dispatch 1 from
queue number 3.
 Go back to queue number 1.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Problems with Weighted Round Robin Queuing

 Problem with WRR:


Some implementations of WRR dispatch a configurable number of
bytes (threshold) from each queue for each round—several
packets can be sent in each turn.
The router is allowed to send the entire packet even if the
sum of all bytes is more than the threshold.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Router Queuing Components

 Each physical interface has a hardware and a software queuing


system.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Hardware and Software Router Queuing
Components

 The hardware queuing system always uses FIFO queuing.


 The software queuing system can be selected and configured
depending on the platform and Cisco IOS version.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


The Software Queue

 Generally, a full hardware queue indicates interface congestion,


and software queuing is used to manage it.
 When a packet is being forwarded, the router will bypass
the software queue if the hardware queue has space in it
(no congestion).

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


The Hardware Queue
 Routers determine the length of the hardware queue based
on the configured bandwidth of the interface.
 The length of the hardware queue can be adjusted with the
tx-ring-limit command.
 Reducing the size of the hardware queue has two benefits:
It reduces the maximum amount of time that packets wait in the
FIFO queue before being transmitted.
It accelerates the use of QoS in Cisco IOS software.
 Improper tuning of the hardware queue may produce
undesirable results:
A long transmit queue may result in poor performance of the
software queuing system.
A short transmit queue may result in a large number of
interrupts, which causes high CPU utilization and low link
utilization.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Monitoring Hardware Queue Transmit Queue
Length
 The show controllers serial 0/1/0 command shows the length of
the hardware queue.
R1#show controllers serial 0/1/0
Interface Serial0/1/0
Hardware is GT96K
DCE V.11 (X.21), clock rate 384000

<...part of the output omitted...>


1 sdma_rx_reserr, 0 sdma_tx_reserr
0 rx_bogus_pkts, rx_bogus_flag FALSE
0 sdma_tx_ur_processed

tx_limited = 1(2), errata19 count1 - 0, count2 - 0


Receive Ring
rxr head (27)(0x075BD090), rxr tail (0)(0x075BCEE0)
rmd(75BCEE0): nbd 75BCEF0 cmd_sts 80800000 buf_sz 06000000
buf_ptr 75CB8E0
rmd(75BCEF0): nbd 75BCF00 cmd_sts 80800000 buf_sz 06000000
buf_ptr 75CCC00
<...rest of the output omitted...>

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Congestion on Software Interfaces
 Subinterfaces and software interfaces (dialers, tunnels,
Frame Relay subinterfaces) do not have their own
separate transmit queue.
 Subinterfaces and software interfaces congest when
the transmit queue of their main hardware interface
congests.
 The tx-ring state (full, not-full) is an indication of
hardware interface congestion.
 The terms ―TxQ‖ and ―tx-ring‖ both describe the
hardware queue and are interchangeable.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Self Check
1. When does the router use a software queue?
2. What are the typical causes of congestion?
3. When would FIFO queuing be appropriate in a
network?
4. What is the ―worst case scenario‖ for Priority Queuing
(PQ)?
5. How does Weighted Round Robin (WRR) improve on
Round Robin queuing?

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Summary
 Speed mismatch and aggregation are the most
common causes of congestion on a network link.
 When network links experience congestion, queuing
methods can be used to sort the traffic and then
determine some method of prioritizing it onto an output
link. Each queuing algorithm was designed to solve a
specific network traffic problem and has a particular
effect on network performance.
 Software queuing is activated when the hardware
queue fills. If the hardware queue is not full, software
queuing is bypassed and packets are sent directly to
the hardware output queue.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Q and A

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Resources
 Congestion Management Overview
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/ps6350/products_
configuration_guide_chapter09186a00800b75a9.html

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.