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Characteristics of the joint prevention services

Before adopting the constitution agreement, the workers' representatives of each of the affected
companies must be consulted in this regard.

The constitution agreement must expressly state the conditions under which such a prevention
service should be developed. These conditions should be discussed, and if necessary agreed upon,
within each of the health and safety committees of the affected companies.

The constitution agreement must be communicated prior to the labor authority of the territory
where its main facilities are located, in the event that said constitution has not been decided in the
framework of collective bargaining.

Its preventive activity will be limited to participating companies.

These services, whether or not they have differentiated legal personality, will be considered as
services of the companies that constitute them and will have at least three specialties or
preventive disciplines.

Except for those formed between companies belonging to the same business group, the joint
prevention services must have minimum human resources equivalent to those required for third-
party prevention services. In order to determine the material resources that they need to have,
reference will be made to those established for third-party prevention services, adapting them to
the activity of the companies. The labor authority may formulate requirements on the adequate
provision of human and material resources.

The joint prevention service must be available to the labor authority and the author

It is necessary that you have the training required to develop the functions of the basic and
intermediate levels, depending on the characteristics of the companies covered by the service.
Experts in the aforementioned specialties will act in a coordinated manner, particularly in relation
to the functions related to the preventive design of jobs, the identification and evaluation of risks,
prevention plans and training plans for workers.

Arrange for the development of the concerted activities of the facilities and instrumentation
necessary to carry out the tests, recognitions, measurements, analysis and evaluations customary
in the practice of the aforementioned specialties, as well as for the development of the basic
educational and informative activities, in the terms that determine the development provisions of
this royal decree.

Without prejudice to the necessary coordination indicated, the health activity will count for the
development of its function within the prevention service with the structure and means
appropriate to its specific nature and the confidentiality of personal medical data.

22.2.6. Presence in the workplace of preventive resources


The presence in the work center of preventive resources to monitor compliance with preventive
activities, whatever the modality of organization of such resources, will be necessary:

When the risks can be aggravated or modified during the development of the processes or
activities, by the concurrence of diverse operations that take place successively or simultaneously
and that require specific control of the correct application of the working methods.

When carrying out activities or processes that are statutorily considered as dangerous or with
special risks (see article 22 bis.1.b) of the RSP.

When the need for such presence is required by the Labor and Social Security Inspectorate, if the
circumstances of the case so require due to the detected work conditions.

Presence is a complementary preventive measure that has the purpose of monitoring compliance
with preventive activities in relation to the risks derived from the situation that determines their
need to achieve an adequate control of said risks.

Such monitoring shall include checking the effectiveness of the preventive activities envisaged in
the planning, as well as the adequacy of such activities to the risks that are intended to be
prevented or to the appearance of unforeseen risks and derived from the situation that
determines the need for the presence of preventive resources.

The employer may assign the presence to the following:

One or more designated workers of the enterprise.

One or several members of the company's own prevention service.

One or several members of the third party prevention services or arranged by the company.

However, the employer may assign the presence of preventive resources expressly to one or more
workers of the company who, without being part of the prevention service itself or being
designated workers, gather the knowledge, qualifications and experience necessary and count
with the corresponding preventive training, at least to the basic level functions.

The location in the work center of the people to whom the presence is assigned must allow them
to fulfill their own functions, and must be a secure site that does not involve an additional risk
factor, neither for such persons nor for the employees of the company. The company must remain
in the workplace during the time the situation that determines its presence is maintained.
The presence of preventive resources in the workplace is also considered as one of the means of
business coordination established by the regulations for the prevention of occupational risks. The
way to carry out the presence of preventive resources will be determined in the planning of the
preventive activity should be provided to workers the necessary data to enable them to identify
the preventive resources designated by the employer

When there are concurrent companies in the work center that perform the operations that
require the presence of preventive resources, the obligation to designate them will fall on the
company or companies that perform such operations or activities, in which case and when there
are several such preventive resources should collaborate among themselves and with the rest of
the preventive resources and person or persons in charge of the coordination of the preventive
activities of the owner or principal employer of the work center.

22.2.7. Activities included in Annex I of the Regulation of Prevention Services

Work with exposure to ionizing radiation in controlled areas according to Real D

ecreto 783/2001, of July 6, approving the Regulation on sanitary protection against ionizing
radiations.

Work with exposure to substances or mixtures causing acute toxicity category 1, 2 and 3, and in
particular to carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic for reproduction, category 1A and 1B, according to
Regulation (EC) No. 1272 / 2008, of December 16, 2008, on classification, labeling and packaging
of substances and mixtures.

Activities that involve high-risk chemical products and are subject to the application of Royal
Decree 840/2015, of September 21, which approves risk control measures inherent to serious
accidents involving dangerous substances.

Work with exposure to biological agents of groups 3 and 4, according to Royal Decree 664/1997,
of 12 May, on the protection of workers against the risks related to exposure to biological agents
during work.

Activities for the manufacture, handling and use of explosives, including pyrotechnic articles and
other objects or instruments containing explosives.

Own works of open-pit and indoor mining, and soundings in terrestrial surface or in marine
platforms.

Activities in immersion under water.

Activities in construction, excavation, earthworks and tunnels, with the risk of falling height or
burial.

Activities in the steel industry and shipbuilding.

Production of compressed, liquefied or dissolved gases or significant use thereof.


Work that produces high concentrations of siliceous dust.

Works with electrical risks in high voltage.

Actions of the socio-labor Administration

In this field, the Ministry of Employment and Social Security and the Autonomous Communities
develop a set of actions aimed at preventing accidents at work, occupational diseases and the
encouragement and development of knowledge and activities of employers and workers on
occupational risks and their consequences.

The preventive action is developed through the following actions or measures:

Elaboration of regulations

Monitoring and control actions, including the sanctioning power.

Actions to promote prevention.

Implementation of permanent information and training programs with the most representative
associations of self-employed workers and trade union organizations.

22.7.1.1. Normative elaboration

In development or as a complement to the LPRL, a series of regulations have been issued that
constitute the regulations for the prevention of occupational hazards and that regulate each and
every one of those aspects that have or may have an impact on the safety and health of workers.
workers, among others, the conditions of workplaces, levels of exposure to certain agents or
substances, work equipment, personal protective equipment, etc.

La prevención es única herramienta que evitará que los eventuales fenómenos naturales se
conviertan en desastres. Con esa perspectiva, el Sistema Nacional de Evaluación, Acreditación y
Certificación de la Calidad Educativa (Sineace) está impulsando la certificación de competencias
para los “Promotores de gestión de riesgos de desastres” en sus respectivas zonas de residencia.

A la fecha, ya se ha aprobado las normas de competencias para certificar el buen desempeño de


estos promotores sociales que, en el marco de las funciones establecidas, será el encargado de
promover y organizar las acciones de preparación, respuesta y rehabilitación para anticiparse y
responder en caso de desastre o situación de peligro inminente.
“Para ejecutar estas tareas, el promotor usa metodologías participativas a fin de sensibilizar y
organizar a la comunidad, demostrando actitudes de liderazgo, responsabilidad, cooperación y
compromiso social”, explicó la presidenta del Consejo Directivo Ad Hoc del Sineace, Carolina
Barrios Valdivia.

Como parte de sus tareas los promotores, deben elaborar los mapas comunitarios de riesgos,
identificando las situaciones de peligro y vulnerabilidad, generando compromisos de acción ante
una emergencia o desastre, en el marco de las acciones de los actores del Sistema Nacional de
Gestión del Riesgo de Desastres (Sinagerd).

Asimismo, realizará simulacros en la comunidad con la participación de voluntarios en


emergencias y rehabilitación, en coordinación con las entidades competentes.

Según la norma establecida por el Sineace, el promotor también asistirá a la población


damnificada para la evacuación en albergues y recibirá la ayuda humanitaria. “Los promotores
fomentarán la participación activa de la comunidad en las acciones de rehabilitación de remoción
de escombros, abastecimiento de agua y energía”, añadió.

Cabe señalar que las áreas de intervención de estos promotores son: el local comunal o de
instituciones públicas, locales de servicios públicos, áreas comunales, barriales y de esparcimiento;
y en áreas industriales, comerciales y mercado de abastos.

Un estudio realizado por el Sineace reveló que existe una amplia brecha entre la capacitación, el
desempeño y la demanda laboral de personal especializado que se requiere para la prevención y
atención de los desastres naturales en 12 regiones del país.

Por ello urge por contar con recursos humanos competentes para prevenir y mitigar los efectos de
los desastres en las poblaciones afectadas, razón por la cual es importante desarrollar acciones de
capacitación para tener personal entrenado en tareas de prevención y atención de las
consecuencias ocasionadas por los desastres naturales.

Todos los proyectos tienen implícitos algún tipo de riesgo. Esto es válido tanto para los pequeños
propósitos, los planes de mediana envergadura o los proyectos millonarios como la construcción
de un túnel sub-fluvial o un cohete espacial.

En los últimos años se han llevado a cabo proyectos que terminaron costando más del doble de lo
presupuestado, que demandaron plazos mayores a los acordados en un inicio o que no
cumplieron con los objetivos esperados. Como consecuencia de estos fracasos, los gobiernos,
inversores y prestamistas se han vuelto extremadamente reacios a aceptar riesgos o participar en
este tipo de emprendimientos.

¿Se pueden eliminar todos los riesgos?

En la práctica, es imposible eliminar todos los riesgos asociados a un proyecto. A lo sumo, estos
pueden mitigarse aplicando técnicas eficientes de administración de riesgos o pueden transferirse
en parte, como es el caso de los seguros o la tercerización de servicios.

Sin embargo, por más que el riesgo se reduzca o se transfiera, siempre seguirán existiendo peligros
residuales inevitables. Por ejemplo, si hemos tercerizado una obra a un contratista, puede ocurrir
que este caiga en quiebra y no termine la obra para la cual había sido contratado.

Minimización de riesgos

La clave del éxito en los proyectos no consiste en ignorar los riesgos o estar plenamente
pendientes de ellos, sino en analizarlos y gestionarlos de manera efectiva.

Una de las mayores ventajas del análisis integral del riesgo es que permite descubrir
oportunidades de proyectos que de otra forma no se llevarían a cabo por ser considerados, a
priori, demasiado riesgosos.

Además, una eficiente administración del riesgo permitirá minimizar los peligros adversos dentro
de los límites prácticos y económicos permitidos. Por ejemplo, si en el análisis de riesgo se detecta
que un posible corte de luz puede disminuir significativamente las ventas de una empresa, puede
justificarse la compra de un equipo electrógeno para utilizar en caso de emergencia.

¿Por qué es necesario gestionar los riesgos?

La administración del riesgo es necesaria para lograr los resultados explícitos que figuran en el
plan del proyecto. Existen hechos que suelen ocurrir a lo largo del ciclo de vida de un proyecto que
pueden afectar seriamente los resultados, como los cambios en el contexto externo (legal,
económico, financiero y político) o los cambios en el contexto interno (pobres prácticas de
administración de proyectos). Por ende, es muy importante administrar los riesgos para minimizar
los efectos de estas contingencias desfavorables.

En la práctica, gran parte de los riesgos del proyecto


están relacionados con los cambios de agenda y desvíos presupuestarios que ocurren una vez que
se está ejecutando el mismo. El administrador del proyecto puede reformular rápidamente el plan
en función de estos desvíos de agenda y costos. Sin embargo, muchas veces se olvida de que estos
cambios de planes también van a originar nuevos tipos de riesgos. Para evitar los posibles efectos
negativos al cambiar los planes es necesaria una metodología sistemática de administración del
riesgo, de manera de alcanzar los resultados del proyecto.

¿Qué es la administración del riesgo?

No todos los proyectos requieren de un enfoque formal de administración de riesgo, pero su


administración debe convertirse en un proceso sistemático aplicado de una manera disciplinada
para obtener el máximo beneficio.

La administración de riesgo es el proceso sistemático de planificar, identificar, analizar, responder


y controlar los riesgos del proyecto. Este proceso trata de maximizar la probabilidad de ocurrencia
de los sucesos positivos y minimizar la probabilidad de ocurrencia de los sucesos adversos.

Si bien muchos administradores de proyectos utilizan un razonamiento intuitivo como punto de


partida para el proceso de toma de decisiones, el administrador del riesgo mira más allá,
evaluando el nivel de riesgo y los efectos que puede tener el mismo sobre el progreso del
proyecto.

Para finalizar, recuerde siempre que es usted quien debe administrar los riesgos del proyecto,
decidiendo cuáles acepta y cuáles no. No permita que los riesgos se adueñen de su proyecto y
anticípese a ellos a través de una buena planificación y su control sistemático.

Al controlar las situaciones adversas se puede decidir qué escenarios complejos aceptar y cuáles
evitar. No hay que permitir que los riesgos se adueñen de nuestro proyecto, para lo cual hay que
anticiparse a través de una buena planificación y control sistemático de los mismos.

Gestión de riesgos de SGS: le ayudamos a identificar y gestionar riesgos para sus proyectos,
operaciones y actividades comerciales diarias.

En cualquier sector usted necesita garantizar la ejecución segura y el mantenimiento de sus


proyectos, operaciones y actividades comerciales, incluido el comercio.

Como proveedor líder mundial en servicios de gestión de riesgos le ayudamos a minimizar sus
riesgos. Nuestros especialistas en proyectos y expertos técnicos le ofrecen asistencia en cada fase
y en cada sector, en cualquier parte del mundo.

Le ofrecemos más de 50 años de experiencia en gestión de riesgos, adquirida en todas las


industrias, aportando soluciones a todos los sectores económicos, desde la agricultura a las
ciencias biológicas, de la minería a las finanzas. Nuestra cartera integral de servicios de gestión de
riesgos es plenamente conforme con los estándares internacionales de gestión de riesgos, e
incluye:
Planificación de la gestión de riesgos

Identificación de riesgos

Análisis de riesgos cualitativos y cuantitativos

Manejo de riesgos

Gestión de riesgos por residuos

Investigaciones independientes como tercera parte, encuestas, estudios de mercado, estudios


de viabilidad y evaluaciones de diligencia debida

Seguimiento de los Principios de Ecuador

Seguimiento y gestión de proyectos

Encuestas de calidad y cantidad de productos y cargas

Gestión de impagos

Gestión de riesgos comerciales

Podemos ayudarle a:

Identificar y gestionar sobrecostes, retrasos, pérdidas de ingresos, incidentes de salud y


seguridad, fallos de calidad, no conformidad reglamentaria, disputas contractuales, daños en el
prestigio, insatisfacción de los grupos de interés en cada fase de sus proyectos, operaciones y
actividades comerciales

Lograr objetivos en cuanto a calidad, seguridad, costes, programación y rendimiento

Mejorar estimaciones de costes gestionando contingencias realistas y pertinentes

Conseguir hitos identificables en la programación e indicadores clave de rendimiento, incluidos


objetivos de salud y seguridad en el trabajo y medioambientales

Garantizar una mayor certeza sobre resultados financieros y de ejecución

Garantizar la seguridad de sus transacciones

Garantizar que ha dado todos los pasos para cumplir con las normas, reglamentos y buenas
prácticas del sector.

Contacte con nosotros hoy mismo para averiguar cómo nuestros servicios de gestión de riesgos
identifican y gestionan una amplia serie de riesgos para sus proyectos, operaciones y actividades
comerciales.
22.7.1.4. Actions of the labor administrations of the autonomous communities

As responsible for the enforcement of labor legislation, the labor authorities of the autonomous
communities carry out, within their territorial scope, functions to promote prevention, technical
advice, monitoring and control and, where appropriate, sanctions. A large part of these activities
are developed through specialized technical bodies.

In addition, the labor authorities of the autonomous communities are responsible for the granting
of accreditations to entities that intend to develop activities as third-party prevention services and
authorize the entities that intend to develop the audit activities of the prevention system of
companies.

22.7.2. Actions of the Public Administrations competent in sanitary matters

The actions of the Public Administrations competent in health matters concerning occupational
health will be carried out through the following actions:

The establishment of adequate means for the evaluation and control of actions of a sanitary
nature carried out in companies by the acting prevention services.

The implementation of adequate information systems that allow the elaboration, together with
the competent labor authorities, of maps of occupational risks, as well as the carrying out of
epidemiological studies for the identification and prevention of pathologies that may affect the
health of workers. as well as making possible a rapid exchange of information.

The supervision of the training that, in the matter of prevention and promotion of occupational
health, should receive the sanitary personnel acting in the authorized prevention services.

The preparation and dissemination of studies, research and statistics related to the health of
workers.

22.6. Actions of manufacturers, importers and suppliers in matters of prevention of occupational


risks

(Law 31/1995) (R.D. 1801/2003)

Manufacturers, importers and suppliers of machinery, equipment, products and work tools are
required to:

Ensure that these do not constitute a source of danger for the worker, provided they are installed
and used in the conditions, in the manner and for the purposes recommended by them.
Packaging and labeling them in a way that allows them to be stored and handled in safety
conditions and to clearly identify their content and the risks to the safety or health of the workers
that their storage or use entails.

Provide the information that indicates the correct form of use by the workers, the additional
preventive measures that must be taken and the labor risks that entail both their normal use and
their manipulation or inappropriate use.

Ensure the effectiveness of the same, provided they are installed and used in the conditions and in
the manner recommended by them. For this purpose, they must provide the information
indicating the type of risk to which they are directed, the level of protection against it and the
correct form of its use and maintenance.

Provide the businessmen, and these gather from them, the necessary information so that the use
and manipulation of machinery, equipment, products, raw materials and work tools occurs
without risks for the safety and health of workers, as well as so that employers can meet their
information obligations regarding workers.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the obligations arising from the applicable regulations in relation
to the general security of the products, whose objective is to guarantee that the products placed
on the market are safe, must be taken into account.

22.5.1. Consultation of workers

The employer must consult the workers, with due notice, the adoption of decisions regarding:

The planning and organization of work in the company and the introduction of new technologies,
in everything related to the consequences that these could have for the safety and health of
workers, derived from the choice of equipment, the determination and the adequacy of working
conditions and the impact of environmental factors on work.

The organization and development of activities for the protection of health and the prevention of
occupational risks in the company, including the designation of the workers in charge of such
activities or the use of an external prevention service.

The designation of the workers in charge of the emergency measures.

The information and documentation procedures provided in the LPRL.

The project and the organization of training in preventive matters.

Any other action that may have substantial effects on the safety and health of workers.

In the companies that have representatives of the workers, these consultations will be carried out
with said representatives.

The employer, including public administrations, has a duty to protect their workers against
occupational risks, guaranteeing their health and safety in all aspects related to their work, by
integrating the preventive activity in the company and the adoption of how many measures are
necessary.

The employer will apply the measures that make up the general duty of prevention according to
the following general principles:

Avoid the risks.

Evaluate the risks that can not be avoided.

Combat the risks at source.

Adapt the work to the person, in particular with regard to the conception of the jobs, as well as
the choice of equipment and methods of work and production, with a view, in particular, to
mitigate monotonous work and repetitive and reduce the effects of it on health.

Take into account the evolution of technology.

Substitute the dangerous for what entails little or no danger.

Plan prevention, seeking a coherent set that integrates in it the technique, work organization,
working conditions, social relations and the influence of environmental factors at work.

Adopt measures that put collective protection before the individual.

Giving appropriate instructions to workers.

The prevention of occupational risks should be integrated into the general management system of
the company, both in the set of its activities and in all hierarchical levels of the company, through
the implementation and application of a plan for the prevention of occupational risks.

The essential instruments for the management and application of the risk prevention plan, which
may be carried out in phases in a programmed manner, are the evaluation of occupational risks
and the planning of the preventive activity.

22.1.1. Occupational risk prevention plan

The occupational risk prevention plan is the tool through which the preventive activity of the
company is integrated into its general management system, establishing the occupational risk
prevention policy.

The plan must be reflected in a document that will be kept at the disposal of the labor authority,
the health authorities and the workers' representatives, and will include, with the scope
appropriate to the size and characteristics of the company, the following elements:
The identification of the company, its productive activity, the number and characteristics of the
work centers and the number of workers and their characteristics with relevance in the prevention
of occupational risks.

The organizational structure of the company, identifying the functions and responsibilities
assumed by each of its hierarchical levels and the respective channels of communication between
them, in relation to the prevention of occupational risks.

The organization of the production in terms of the identification of the different technical
processes and the practices and organizational procedures existing in the company, in relation to
the prevention of occupational risks.

The organization of prevention in the company, indicating the chosen preventive modality and the
existing representative bodies.

The policy, objectives and goals that the company intends to achieve in preventive matters, as well
as the human, technical, material and economic resources that it will have available for this
purpose.

22.1.2. Risk assessment

What is it?

The assessment of occupational hazards is the process aimed at estimating the magnitude of the
risks that could not be avoided, obtaining the necessary information so that the employer is able
to take an appropriate decision on the need to take preventive measures and, as such, case, on
the type of measures that should be adopted.

What and how should it be evaluated?

The risks present in each job must be evaluated. For this purpose, the existing or planned work
conditions will be taken into account, and, on the other hand, the worker who occupies the
position. In particular, the risk assessment will take into consideration, among others, the
following aspects:

The characteristics of the premises.

The installations.

The existing work teams.

The chemical, physical and biological agents present or employed at work.


The organization and organization of work itself, insofar as they influence the magnitude of the
risks.

Likewise, it should be taken into account the possibility that the worker who occupies that job is
especially sensitive, due to their personal characteristics or known biological status, including
those that have recognized the physical, mental or sensory disability, to any of said conditions.

In particular, the agents, procedures and working conditions that may negatively affect the health
of pregnant or lactating workers, the fetus or the child during the

The organization of the necessary resources for the development of the preventive activities will
be carried out by the entrepreneur according to any of the following modalities:

Assuming personally the preventive activity.

Appointing one or more workers to carry it out.

Constitute a prevention service itself.

Constitute a joint prevention service.

Appealing to a service of foreign prevention.

Under the terms provided in chapter IV of the LPRL, the prevention service shall be understood as
the set of human and material resources of the company necessary for carrying out the prevention
activities, and for the prevention service of another provided by an entity Specialized with the
company to carry out prevention activities, the advice and support you need depending on the
types of risks or both actions together.

The prevention services will have interdisciplinary character, understanding as such the
coordinated conjunction of two or more technical or scientific disciplines in the matter of
prevention of labor risks.

Prevention services must be in a position to provide the company with the advice and support
they require based on the types of risk in it and in relation to:

The design, implementation and application of a risk prevention plan that allows the integration of
prevention in the company.

The evaluation of risk factors that may affect the safety and health of workers.

The planning of preventive activity and the determination of priorities in the adoption of
preventive measures and the monitoring of their effectiveness.
The information and training of workers.

The provision of first aid and emergency plans.

The monitoring of workers' health in relation to the risks arising from work.

22.2.1. Personal assumption by the employer of the preventive activity

The employer may personally develop the prevention activity, with the exception of activities
related to the monitoring of workers' health, if the following conditions are met:

Whether it is companies with up to ten employees or, in the case of a company that employs up to
twenty-five workers, a single work center.

That the activities developed in the company are not included in Annex I of the RSP, (see section
22.2.7)].

That habitually develop their professional activity in the workplace.

That it has the capacity corresponding to the preventive functions that it will develop, in
accordance with the established regulation.

The monitoring of the health of the workers, as well as those other preventive activities not
personally assumed by the employer, must be covered by recourse to any of the other types of
preventive organization provided.

22.2.2. Designation of workers for preventive activity

The employer will appoint one or more workers to take care of the preventive activity in the
company. Notwithstanding the foregoing, this designation will not be mandatory if the employer
has personally assumed the preventive activity; it has set up its own prevention service; or has
resorted to a third-party prevention service.

Preventive activities for which the designation of one or more workers is not sufficient should be
developed through one or more prevention services of their own or others.

features

The number of designated workers, as well as the means that the employer puts at their disposal
and the time they have available for the performance of their activity, must be those necessary to
adequately perform their functions.
For the development of the preventive activity, the designated workers must have the capacity
corresponding to the functions to be performed, in accordance with the established regulation.

22.2.3. Own prevention services

When will it be mandatory to set up a prevention service of your own?

The employer must establish a prevention service of its own when one of the following
assumptions:

That they are companies that have more than 500 workers.

That, in the case of companies with between 250 and 500 employees, develop some of the
activities included in Annex I of the RSP, [see section 22.2.7]).

That, in the case of companies not included in the previous sections, so decides the labor
authority, following a report from the Labor and Social Security Inspectorate and, where
appropriate, from the technical bodies in preventive matters of the Autonomous Communities,
depending on the the dangerousness of the activity carried out or the frequency or seriousness of
the accident rate in the company, unless the option of a specialized entity outside the company is
chosen.

features

The own prevention service will constitute a

A specific organizational unit and its members will exclusively dedicate their activity in the
company to the purpose of the same.

The prevention services themselves must have the facilities and the human and material resources
necessary to carry out the preventive activities that they will develop in the company.

The prevention service must have, at least, two of the specialties or preventive disciplines
(occupational medicine, occupational safety, industrial hygiene and ergonomics and applied
psychosociology), developed by experts with the required training for the functions to be
performed. . These experts will act in a coordinated manner, in particular in relation to the
functions related to the preventive design of jobs, implementation and application of a plan for
the prevention of occupational hazards to allow the integration of prevention in the company,
identification and evaluation of the risks, the planning of the preventive activity and the training
plans of the workers.
Likewise, it must have the necessary personnel with the required capacity to perform the
functions of the basic and intermediate levels.

Without prejudice to the necessary coordination indicated in the previous paragraph, the health
activity, which in its case exists, will count for the development of its function, within the
prevention service, with the structure and means appropriate to its specific nature and the
confidentiality of personal medical data, having to meet the requirements established in the
sanitary regulations of application.

When the scope of action of the prevention service extends to more than one work center, the
situation of the various centers in relation to the location of the service must be taken into
account, in order to ensure the adequacy of the means of said service to the existing risks.

The preventive activities that are not assumed through the own prevention service must be
arranged with one or more third-party prevention services.

The company must prepare annually and keep at the disposal of the competent labor and health
authorities and the health and safety committee, the annual memory and programming of the
prevention service.

22.2.4. Joint prevention services

When can they be constituted?

These prevention services may be established:

Between companies that simultaneously carry out activities in the same work center, building or
commercial center, provided that the operability and effectiveness of the service are guaranteed.

Between companies belonging to the same productive sector or business group or that develop
their activities in an industrial estate or limited geographical area, when this is established in
collective bargaining or through agreements between workers 'and employers' organizations on
this matter (interprofessional agreements) or, failing that, by decision of the affected companies.

22.5.2. Rights of participation and representation

Workers have the right to participate in the company in matters related to the prevention of
occupational risks.
In companies or work centers that have six or more workers, the participation of these will be
channeled through their representatives and the specialized representation that is regulated in
the LPRL.

22.5.3. Prevention Delegates

Who are they?

The Prevention Delegates are the representatives of the workers in the company with specific
functions in matters of risk prevention in the workplace.

Designation of Prevention Delegates

The Prevention Delegates will be appointed by and among the staff representatives and their
number will be according to the following scale:

From 50 to 100 workers: 2.

From 101 to 500 workers: 3.

From 501 to 1,000 workers: 4.

From 1,001 to 2,000 workers: 5.

From 2001 to 3,000 workers: 6.

From 3,001 to 4,000 workers: 7.

From 4.001 onwards: 8.

In companies with up to 30 employees, the Prevention Delegate will be the Personnel Delegate;
From 31 to 49 workers the Prevention Delegate will be chosen by and among the Personnel
Delegates.

In workplaces that lack staff representatives because they do not reach seniority to be electors or
eligible, workers may elect by majority a worker who exercises the powers of Delegate for
Prevention (fourth additional provision of the LPRL).

Competencies of the Prevention Delegates


Collaborate with the management of the company in the improvement of the preventive action.

Promote and encourage the cooperation of workers in implementing the regulations on


prevention of occupational hazards.

Be consulted on the subjects subject to mandatory consultation for the employer.

Monitor and control compliance with the rules on prevention of occupational risks.

Powers of the Prevention Delegates

Participate in the preparation, implementation and evaluation of risk prevention plans and
programs in the company. For this purpose, before its implementation and in relation to its impact
on risk prevention, the choice of the organizational modality of the company and, where
appropriate, the management carried out by the entities will be debated. specialized with which
the company had agreed to carry out preventive activities; projects in planning, organization of
work and introduction of new

as technologies, organization and development of protection and prevention activities referred to


in Article 16 of the Law and project and organization of training in preventive matters.

Promote initiatives on methods and preventive procedures for occupational risks, as well as
propose to the company the improvement of conditions or correction of existing deficiencies.

Powers of the Health and Safety Committee

Workers' rights

For an adequate preventive action, the worker has the right to:

To be informed directly of the risks to their health and safety and of the preventive measures
adopted, including those intended to deal with emergency situations.

Receive theoretical and practical training, sufficient and adequate at the time of hiring and when
the content of the assigned task changes or new technologies or changes in the work teams are
introduced. The training should be focused specifically on the job or function of each worker,
adapt to the evolution of risks and the appearance of new ones and repeat periodically, if
necessary.

To interrupt your activity and if it is necessary to leave the workplace, when you consider that
such activity entails a serious and imminent risk to your life or health.

To have a periodical monitoring of your health status guaranteed, according to the risks inherent
to your job.

Have specific protection measures when, due to their own personal characteristics or known
biological state or physical, mental or sensorial disability, they are especially sensitive to certain
risks derived from work.

Be consulted and participate in all matters that affect safety and health at work. The workers will
have the right to make proposals to the employer and to the participation and representation
bodies (prevention delegates, health and safety committee), through whom their right to
participate is exercised.

worker's obligations

The workers must watch according to their possibilities, and by means of the fulfillment of the
prevention measures that in each case are adopted, for their own safety and health and for those
of other people that may affect their professional activity, for which, According to their training
and following the instructions of the employer, they must:

Use properly machines, tools, dangerous substances, equipment and any means of work.

Use correctly the means and protective equipment provided by the employer and in accordance
with the instructions of the latter.

Do not put out of operation and use correctly the existing safety devices or that are installed in the
media related to your activity or in the workplaces in which it takes place.

Immediately inform your hierarchical superior and the workers designated to carry out protection
and prevention activities, and the prevention service, about any situation that, in your opinion,
entails a risk for the safety and health of the workers.

Contribute to the fulfillment of the obligations established by the competent authority.

Cooperate with the employer so that he can guarantee working conditions that are safe and do
not entail risks for the safety and health of workers.

Companies forced to audit their prevention system

Companies that have not concluded the prevention service with a specialized entity outside the
company must submit their prevention system to the control of an external audit or evaluation.
The same obligation will apply to companies that develop preventive activities with their own and
third-party resources simultaneously.

Companies with up to 50 workers whose activity is not included in Annex I of the RSP will be
exempt from the obligation to submit to an audit, to carry out preventive activities with their own
resources and in which the effectiveness of the preventive system becomes evident without the
need for to resort to an audit due to the limited number of workers and the low complexity of the
preventive activity. In this case, the obligation to audit will be replaced by the submission to the
labor authority of a notification on the concurrence

of the causes that make the audit unnecessary. However, the labor authority, following a report
from the Labor and Social Security Inspectorate and, where appropriate, from the technical bodies
in preventive matters of the autonomous communities, may request an audit, in view of the data
of the accident rate of the company or sector or other circumstances that reveal the danger of the
activities carried out or the inadequacy of the prevention system.

Periodicity

The first audit of the prevention system must be carried out within twelve months after the
planning of the preventive activity is available.

The audit should be repeated every four years, reducing the term to two years if the company is
engaged in activities included in Annex I of the RSP. These review periods will be extended by two
years in cases in which the preventive modality of the company has been agreed with the
specialized representation of its workers. In any case, it must be repeated when required by the
labor authority, following a report from the Labor and Social Security Inspectorate and, where
appropriate, from the technical bodies in preventive matters of the autonomous communities,
when the circumstances reveal the need to review the results of the last audit.

Auditor requirements

The audit must be carried out by natural or legal persons who also possess a sufficient knowledge
of the matters and technical aspects that are the object of the same and have the appropriate
means to do so. The physical person or auditing entity can not maintain commercial, financial or
any other type of connection with the company, other than those inherent to its performance as
auditors.