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Chapter 3 Occupational Health and Control

(6 hours)

i. Introduction to Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health (2hrs)

ii. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation System (1hr)
iii. Safe Working In A Confined Space (1hr)
iv. Ergonomics- Manual Handlings, Standing, Seating, VDUs and etc. (1hr)
v. Stress and Violence at The Workplace (0.5hr)
vi. Biological Hazards – Prevention and PPE (0.5hr)

Edited by aliasms

Introduction to Industrial Hygiene and Occupational

pdf01. Guidelines On Heat Stress Management At pdf01.Guidelines on Aedes Mosquito Control in Construction
Workplace 2016 Sites, 2015

pdf02. Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health for

pdf02. Guidelines for the Protection of Employees Against
Design, Inspection, Testing and Examination of Local
the Effects of Haze at Workplaces, 2013
Exhaust Ventilation System, 2008

pdf03. Guidelines for Control of Occupational Noise, 2005 pdf03. Guidelines on Occupational Health Services, 2005

pdf04. Guidelines on Preventing and Responding to Drugs

and Alcohol Problems in the Workplace, 2004

pdf05. Guidelines on First Aid in the Workplace (2nd Edition),


pdf06. Guidelines on Reproductive Health Policy &

Programmes at the Workplace, 2002

pdf07. Guidelines on Medical Surveillance, 2001

pdf08. Guidance for the Prevention of Stress and Violence at

the Workplace, 2001

What is Occupational Hygiene?
• The discipline of anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of
those environmental factors or stresses arising in or from the
• which may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or
significant discomfort among workers or among the citizens of the
• Industrial hygienists use environmental monitoring and analytical
methods to detect the extent of worker exposure and employ
engineering, work practice controls, and other methods to control
potential health hazards.


Occupational hygiene principles

• Anticipation
• Recognition
• Evaluation
• Control

Anticipation of risk

During design stage of a process/ equipment or

formulation of chemicals or before starting process or
work operations

• Anticipate potential health risks:

– Process characteristics
– Physicochemical properties
– Possible health effects
– Past experiences
– Similarity of the chemical structure to a known hazardous

Recognition of hazard
• Identifying the potential hazard that a chemical,
physical or biological agent - or an adverse ergonomic
situation - poses to health.
• Information
• Material- Inventory, CSDS/MSDS, specification
• Process
• Process flow & description
• Plant layout
• Equipment
• Specification

Identification techniques

• Workplace observation
o Source of hazard
o Work practice
o Nature of exposure
o Existing controls
• Feedback
o Management & supervisors
o Workers
o Company doctor/industrial nurse
o Health records
• Poisoning & disease cases
o Occurrence

Evaluate risks
Evaluation of the extent of exposure to the chemical hazards,
physical or biological agents (or adverse ergonomic situation) in the
This often involves measurement of the personal exposure of a
worker to the hazard/agent in the workplace, particularly at the
relevant interface between the environment and the body, e.g.
breathing zone, hearing zone, and assessment of the data in terms
of recommended occupational exposure limits (OELs), where such
criteria exist.
Estimate exposure
Quantitative measurement or sampling
Frequency, duration, magnitude
Characterize risk
Apply exposure standards
Acceptable or not
To control or not

Control of the chemical, physical or biological agent - or adverse

ergonomic situation, by procedural, engineering or other means where
the evaluation indicates that this is necessary.

The Right Thing to Do - What is Industrial Hygiene?

• The Right Thing to Do - What is

Industrial Hygiene?

• What is Industrial Hygiene


The Importance of Occupational Hygiene

i. Manage Healthcare Costs

ii. Regain Lost Hours
iii. Effective Employees
iv. Increased Productivity
v. Save Money
vi. Professionalism

The Importance of Occupational Hygiene


• Can save valuable resources and money in provincial
healthcare costs later down the road
• “These injuries have the highest potential of resulting in
both short-term and long-term disability, and are among the
most costly of all injuries from an economic perspective,”
stated the author.
• Insurance premium rates, the volume of injury claims and
company healthcare package offerings are all affected by
occupational hygiene. By setting high standards, industry
can reduce risks and improve conditions in the workplace –
and, in turn, benefit in the long run.

http://www.ohsglobal.ca/6-reasons-industrial- 12
The Importance of Occupational Hygiene


 The prevalence of occupational health complications is undeniable.
Absenteeism has reported increases steadily. In British Colombia, actual
work time lost for personal reasons was 8.5 days per employee (2005) and
the lost productivity that goes along with it is a major business cost.
 Industries can reduce the number of workers forced to leave their jobs due
to injury or illness by making hygiene a top priority.
 Having employees off the job could lead to a halt in production and the
need to allocate additional resources to hiring, training and monitoring
 Absenteeism and tardiness can also be lessened for operations with
healthy employees. Obligations that come with injury and illness –
including rehabilitation, specialist appointments, treatments and
procedures – can take a person’s time and focus away from his or her job.

http://www.ohsglobal.ca/6-reasons-industrial- 13
The Importance of Occupational Hygiene


• The success of a company starts with its workers. People who have a
supportive supervisor, flexible workplaces, a safe environment and low
job stress report greater work-life balance.
• Occupational hygiene helps keep employees physically and mentally
healthy, allowing them the energy and resources to focus on the task at
• Health complications can trigger numerous other distractions – such as
stress, fatigue, inattentiveness and anxiety – making it difficult for a
worker to be effective in the workplace.
• Rather than absorbing the costs of having a high turnover rate – such as
retraining expenses and the need to supervise new workers with less
experience – it is more beneficial to invest in long-term employees who
can increase productivity over time.

http://www.ohsglobal.ca/6-reasons-industrial- 14
The Importance of Occupational Hygiene


 Health and safety in the workplace is one of the primary priorities for
employers. Alongside boosting morale and reducing absenteeism, a
healthy and safe workplace is likely to improve productivity.
 Implementing high safety standards will also lead to employees having
better training in occupational hazards. Such employees will be able to
confidently identify and report risks in the workplace, and, as a result,
prevent future injuries. Having workers play a part in overall workplace
hygiene is a productive way to ensure dangerous situations don’t get
overlooked or slip through the cracks.

http://www.ohsglobal.ca/6-reasons-industrial- 15
The Importance of Occupational Hygiene


• Industries with high hygiene standards can put the money they
save from workplace injuries and illnesses towards organizational
improvement and growth.
• Rather than throwing money at preventable situations, companies
can take pro-active measures that benefit their bottom line.

http://www.ohsglobal.ca/6-reasons-industrial- 16
The Importance of Occupational Hygiene

 A company that not only recognizes, but highly values occupational hygiene is going
to be one that is more highly regarded by employees and the public alike.
 Having the reputation as a safe and hygienic workplace is appealing to potential
workers seeking employment with a respectable and professional organization. That
sort of distinction has the power to attract a large number of diverse applicants,
allowing companies to be more selective during the hiring process.
 The credibility that comes with keeping a safe work environment can also lead to a
good-standing with investors, clients and partners.
 Let’s face it — Image can make or break a business, and associating one’s
organization with best practices is the first step in creating an honourable impression.
 The bottom line is that having healthy employees helps boost productivity, morale and
efficiency. That, combined, with a safe and professional reputation can be what sets a
company well above others in its field.

http://www.ohsglobal.ca/6-reasons-industrial- 17




RECEIVER Substitution
Engineering control

• Control At Source Rather Than At

• Eliminate Or Isolate Rather Than
• Control Below Occupational
Exposure Standards
• Control Risk To As Low As
Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)

Hierarchy of Controls

Requires a
physical change
Effective to the workplace

Requires worker
or employer to do

worker to
Least Effective

Elimination/ substitution

Engineering controls

• Control at the source!

• Limits the hazard but doesn’t entirely remove it.

Other Examples:
Mechanical Guards
Wet Methods for Dust
Dilution Ventilation

Local Exhaust
Proper equipment
Re-designed Tools
Engineering controls

Administrative controls

•Aimed at reducing employee exposure to hazards but not removing them!

 Changes in work procedures such as:

 Written safety policies/rules

 Schedule changes, such as:

 Lengthened or Additional Rest Breaks
 Job Rotation
 Adjusting the Work Pace

 Training with the goal of reducing the duration,

frequency and severity of exposure to hazards

Administrative controls

Personal Protective Equipment

Control of LAST RESORT!

 Special Clothing
 Eye Protection
 Hearing Protection
 Respiratory Protection


Guidelines –
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health


pdf01. Guidelines On Heat Stress Management At pdf01.Guidelines on Aedes Mosquito Control in

Workplace 2016 Construction Sites, 2015

pdf02. Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health for

pdf02. Guidelines for the Protection of Employees
Design, Inspection, Testing and Examination of Local
Against the Effects of Haze at Workplaces, 2013
Exhaust Ventilation System, 2008

pdf03. Guidelines for Control of Occupational Noise,

pdf03. Guidelines on Occupational Health Services, 2005

pdf04. Guidelines on Preventing and Responding to

Drugs and Alcohol Problems in the Workplace, 2004

pdf05. Guidelines on First Aid in the Workplace (2nd

Edition), 2004

pdf06. Guidelines on Reproductive Health Policy &

Programmes at the Workplace, 2002

pdf07. Guidelines on Medical Surveillance, 2001

pdf08. Guidance for the Prevention of Stress and

Violence at the Workplace, 2001
1.Guidelines On Heat Stress Management At
Workplace 2016
• Heat stress is the overall heat load to which an employee may be
exposed from the combined contributions of metabolic heat,
environmental factors (i.e. air temperature, humidity, air
movement, and radiant heat), and clothing requirements. Heat
stress occurs when the body’s means of controlling its internal
temperature starts to fail.


• Heat stress can affect individuals in different ways, and some
people are more susceptible to it than others.
• Typical symptoms are:
– An inability to concentrate
– Muscle cramps
– Heat rash
– Severe thirst - a late symptom of heat stress
– Fainting
– Heat exhaustion - fatigue, giddiness, nausea, headache,
moist skin
– Heat stroke - hot dry skin, confusion, convulsions and
http://www.dosh.gov.my/index.php/en/leg eventual loss of consciousness. This is the most severe
islation/guidelines/industrial-hygiene-1 disorder and can result in death if not detected at an early
stage 28
1.Guidelines On Heat Stress Management At
Workplace 2016

1.Guidelines On Heat Stress Management At
Workplace 2016

1.Guidelines On Heat Stress Management At
Workplace 2016

Heat Stress Evaluation And Control

The hazard of heat stress

https://www.ihsa.ca/Free-Products/Downloads/IHSA013-The-Hazards-of- 33
The hazard of heat stress

https://www.ihsa.ca/Free-Products/Downloads/IHSA013-The-Hazards-of- 34
02. Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health for Design, Inspection,
Testing and Examination of Local Exhaust Ventilation System, 2008


03. Guidelines for Control of Occupational Noise, 2005


Occupational health

What is • Occupational health deals with all aspects of

Occupational health and safety in the workplace and has a
Health? strong focus on primary prevention of hazards.
https://www.youtub • The health of the workers has several
e.com/watch?v=cby determinants, including risk factors at the
workplace leading to cancers, accidents,
musculoskeletal diseases, respiratory diseases,
hearing loss, circulatory diseases, stress related
Healthy Working disorders and communicable diseases and
Lives: Occupational others.
Health • Employment and working conditions in the
https://youtu.be/gAr formal or informal economy embrace other
ZMSAnVDw?t=24 important determinants, including, working
hours, salary, workplace policies concerning
maternity leave, health promotion and
protection provisions, etc.

1.0 Guidelines on Aedes Mosquito Control in
Construction Sites, 2015

Guidelines on Mosquito Prevention for
Contractors of Construction Sites

ol/mosquito_construction_contactors.pdf 39

The Pollutant Standards Index, or PSI,
2.0 Guidelines for the Protection of Employees Against
the Effects of Haze at Workplaces, 2013

2.0 Guidelines for the Protection of Employees Against
the Effects of Haze at Workplaces, 2013

Jerebu/ Haze

3.0 Guidelines on Occupational Health Services, 2005

The objectives of this the employer. The employer Factors to consider.

Guidelines are: has to make the necessary Each organisation will have to
• To assist employers and arrangements of budgetary decide on how it wishes to
Occupational Health (both financial and human organize its OHS bearing in
Practitioners in their resources). mind the following:
organisations; Methods of providing a. The nature of its operations,
• To guide employer and Occupational Health hazards involved and their
Occupational Practitioners Services. associated risks
on how to form an OHS; Each organisation may provide b. The number of employees
• To encourage all OHS by utilising; who are potentially exposed
stakeholders to form an a. In-house resources; to these hazards
OHS. b. External resources i.e. c. The duration of its
MECHANISM ON HOW TO acquiring the services operations (e.g. one eight-
IMPLEMENT needed from another unit or hour shift or three eight-
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH persons entitled; or hour shifts or two twelve-
SERVICES. c. A combination of the above. hour shifts, etc).
• Under OSHA 1994, the
responsibility for the
provision of OHS lies with
3.0 Guidelines on Occupational Health Services, 2005


HEALTH SERVICES. – Return to work.
a. Management of workplace – Follow-up of health of the vulnerable
occupational health risks. groups.
– Identification and Assessment of – Investigation of occupational
Workplace Hazards poisoning or occupational disease.
– Recommendations of occupational – Health promotion.
health controls at workplace. c. Participating in emergency
– Risk Communication. response and disaster
b. Management of Workers’ Health management.
– Pre-employment medical d. Provision of clinical services.
examination. e. Record keeping.
– Pre-placement medical
– Health surveillance.
– Medical removal.


The following are elaboration of training, assessment. Interpret and explain the
accreditation and roles of keys professionals results of investigations to the employee
involved in the provision of Occupational and employer and specify what further
Health Services: action is necessary;
a. Occupational Health Doctor (OHD). • • to notify cases of Occupational
b. Occupational Health Nurse (OHN). diseases and poisoning to DOSH and
c. Occupational Hygienist (OHyg). employer;
d. Hygiene Technician. • • to assist in implementation of
occupational health programme in the
e. Ergonomist. workplace;
f. Safety and Health Officer • • to provide periodic education and
advice to employees and employer on
a. Occupational Health Doctor (OHD). workplace health and safety issues.
• To conduct the pre-placement medical • • to assist in audit/evaluation of
examination, medical surveillance and occupational health programme in the
• other health management activities for workplace;
employees as mentions in para 6.2 • and
above; • • to maintain the medical records of
• • to analyse Occupational Diseases and employees during the course of
Poisoning and co-relate with risk employment and post termination.

b. Occupational Health Nurse (OHN). c. Occupational Hygienist.

• • to manage cases – provide treatment, • to review projects, design and purchase
follow-up and referrals and emergency of materials;
care for job related injuries and • • to identify workplace health hazards
illnesses;• and evaluate its severity;
• • to counsel and intervene in crisis – • • to assess human exposures to
counselling workers about related illness hazards(i.e. noise, heat, mineral dust
and injuries, substance abuse and etc) by both qualitative and quantitative
emotional problems. methods;
• • to promote health – health education • • to recommend specific
programs that encourage workers to recommendations for effective control of
take responsibility for their own health; the risks identified;
• • to advise employer on legal and • • to communicate risks and control
regulatory compliance; and measures to workers, management, and
• • to assist in risk management.e.g. others affected; and
gathering health and hazard data, and • • to respond to emergencies, to develop
using the data to prevent injury and Industrial Health programs, to regulate
illness. compliance, etc

4.0 Hygiene Technician. how to manage work-related
• to conduct employee exposure musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs); and
monitoring; and • to communicate ergonomic solving
• to conduct the inspection, examination process with the OHD, OHN, and the
and testing of local exhaust ventilation • management team of a company.
system and other engineering control 6.0 Safety And Health Officer (SHO).
equipment as required by the presents • to advise the employer on the measures
Regulations. to be taken in the interests of the safety
5.0 Ergonomist. and health of the persons employed in
• to identify work-related ergonomic risk the place of work;
factors in the working environment; • to inspect the machinery, plant,
• to assess work processes, tasks, equipment, substance, appliances or
designs and products, and assign risk process or any description of manual
level; labour used in the place of work,
• to give advice to the management on • to investigate any case of accident,
control measures of ergonomic related near-miss accident, dangerous
problems based on accepted ergonomic occurance, occupational poisoning or
best practices and with any published occupational diseases. Duties of SHO
government laws, regulations or are spelt out in the OSHA (Safety and
guidelines that related to ergonomics; Health Officer) Regulations 1997.
• • to give advice to the management on
4.0 Guidelines on Preventing and Responding to Drugs
and Alcohol Problems in the Workplace, 2004

• Drug and alcohol use have been found objective can be achieved through
to contribute to workplace accidents, adopting several approaches. A
absenteeism, medical claims and comprehensive program might consist of
compensation claims. Poor productivity, the following:
high staff turnover and criminal i. Risk assessment;
involvement have been found related to ii. Based on the risk assessment,
use of alcohol and drug abuse. developing and communicating a drug
• The purpose of these Guidelines is to policy and guidelines for all levels of
assist employers and employees to
iii. Providing high quality staff supervision
implement effective prevention
and performance management;
responses to drug problems in the
iv. Preventing problems through such
workplace in line with the general duties steps as providing information and
under Occupational Safety and Health education;
Act 1994. In turn, this will make a v. Management of hazards through
significant contribution to making introducing procedures to identify and
workplaces safer and more productive deal with affected persons at the
and to the attainment of the national workplace; and
goal of a drug-free society. vi. Provision in the strategy for the
• The aim of any strategy should be to rehabilitation of affected employees.
eliminate drug and alcohol related
problems as far as practicable. This 49
05. Guidelines on First Aid in the Workplace (2nd Edition),
First-aid in the workplace includes the workplace first-aid, namely;
provision of first-aid facilities, services and i. first-aider
personnel required for the initial treatment of ii. first-aid box
persons suffering from injury or illness at a
workplace. It is the immediate treatment or iii. first-aid room
care given to a victim of an accident or iv. first-aid equipment
sudden illness before qualified health
personnel attend to provide treatment.
The aims of first aid are to:
i. Preserve life; Factors to Consider
ii. Prevent illness or injury from becoming • When deciding on the number of first-
worse; aiders, first-aid box, first-aid room and
iii. Reduce pain; first-aid equipment for the workplace, the
iv. Promote recovery; and following factors should be considered:
v. Care of unconscious. i. type of industry
ii. number of workers
COMPONENTS OF WORKPLACE FIRST- iii. number of work shifts
AID. iv. location of workplace and status of
Major Components infrastructure in relation to the
There are four major components of nearest medical clinic or hospital
First Aiders in the Workplace

Training for Staff become First Aiders

• Recognised Course
• A course on first-aid conducted by
institutions listed in Appendix 1 are
recognized by DOSH as meeting
the first-aid training requirement.
The course should have contents
listed in Appendix 2.
The Need for Refresher Training
• First-aiders need to undergo a
recognized course (appendix 1)
once every three (3) years.
Training Record
• The employers should keep a
record of the dates on which first-
aiders obtained their training and
the dates on which they received
refresher training.

First Aiders in the Workplace


1.0 FIRST-AID BOX sufficient quantity of suitable first-aid

materials. They should not contain oral
Design medication of any kind other than those
• First-aid boxes should be made of required for first-aid treatment.
sturdy material and be portable so that • It is essential that first-aid boxes be
it can be taken to the site of an checked frequently so as to make sure
incident. The boxes should also be they are fully equipped and all items
clearly marked. are usable. Materials used should be
Location replaced as soon as possible.
• Each first-aid box should be placed in Appendix 4 recommended the
a clearly identifiable, well-illuminated contents of a first-aid box.
and accessible location. Where a •Appendix 6 is an example of a
workplace covers a large area, an checklist which can be used for
adequate number of first-aid boxes checking the appropriateness of the
should be provided. The box should be contents of the first-aid box.
kept locked and the key thereto kept by
responsible person available during all 2.0 FIRST-AID ROOM
working hours [section 38 (iii) FMA • A first-aid room should b e provided
(safety, Health and Welfare) where there are more than 150
Regulations].The employees should be employees in the workplace..
informed of the location of all first aid • The room should be large enough to
boxes. hold a couch and still have space for
Contents. people to move about. There should be
• First-aid boxes should contain a emergency lighting in the room.
First Aiders in the Workplace

06. Guidelines on Reproductive Health Policy &
Programmes at the Workplace, 2002

Will discuss at next chapter

07. Guidelines on Medical Surveillance, 2001

• “Medical surveillance” means the

monitoring of a person for the
purpose of identifying changes in
health status due to occupational
exposure to chemicals hazardous to
• “Health surveillance” means any
examination and investigations which
may be necessary to detect exposure
levels and early biological effects and
responses, and includes biological
monitoring, biological effect
monitoring, medical surveillance,
enquires about symptoms of
occupational poisoning or
occupational disease and review of
records and occupational history.

07. Guidelines on Medical Surveillance, 2001

3.0 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE biological effect monitoring.

GUIDELINES ON MEDICAL iii. Health effects monitoring.
SURVEILLANCE iv. Investigation of occupational
The objective of this GUIDELINES ON disease and poisoning including
MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE is to help workplace inspections.
occupational health doctors (OHD), v. Notification of occupational
registered with DOSH to implement the disease and poisoning.
guidelines according to Occupational
Safety and Health (Use and Standard vi. Assist in disability assessment.
of Exposure of Chemicals Hazardous vii. Return to work examination after
to Health) Regulations 2000. medical removal protection.
4.0 COMPONENTS OF MEDICAL viii. Record keeping and monitoring
The components of Medical
Surveillance Programme include :
i. Pre-employment and pre-
placement medical examination.
ii. Biological monitoring and

07. Guidelines on Medical Surveillance, 2001
DUTIES OF EMPLOYER (9) Allow the employee access to occupational
medical surveillance records.
(1) Carry out health surveillance programme as
required by the assessment report under USECHH (10) Ensure the workplace hygiene is improved, is
Regulations. safe and healthy and does not place the worker at
increased risk of material impairment to health
(2) Health surveillance programme shall be
from exposure to chemical hazardous to health.
conducted during the working hours and the costs
before allowing the worker to work in the same
shall be borne by the employer.
place so as to ensure the disease or poisoning
(3) Appoint an Occupational Health Doctor, (OHD) does not reoccur.
to conduct occupational medical surveillance
(11) Record Keeping of diseases and accidents.
(12) Provide Employee Medical Book.
(4) Allow and assist the OHD to visit the workplace
to investigate and manage occupational disease DUTIES OF EMPLOYEE
and poisoning including access to relevant (1) Undergo training on importance of preventing
monitoring and other health related data. occupational poisoning and disease.
(5) Co-operate with the OHD in medical removal (2) Report early symptoms and signs of disease (
protection of the worker. including self examination) to the OHD and
(6) During the period of medical removal the management.
worker may be allowed to do other work that will (3) Comply and co-operate in the Occupational
not expose him to the hazardous chemical. Medical Surveillance Programme, as required
(7) Notify occupational disease and poisoning to under USECHH.
DOSH . (4) To take proper care of the Employee Record
(8) Notify the workers concerned regarding Book and to present it to OHD for Occupational
monitoring of exposure levels of chemicals Medical Surveillance record purposes.
hazardous to health including occupational disease
and poisoning.
08. Guidance for the Prevention of Stress and Violence at
the Workplace, 2001

• Will discuss later