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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

UNIT – I
FUNDAMENTALS OF MACHINING
All the processes used in manufacturing concern for changing the ingots into usable
products may be classified into primary shaping processes, secondary machining processes.
Primary Shaping or non-cutting Processes: These are manufacturing a product from an
amorphous material, in which no chip formation takes place, and the metal is shaped under the
action of heat, pressure or both. Some processes produce finish products or articles into its usable
form where as others do not, and require further working to finish a component to the desired
shape and size. Some of the important primary shaping processes are, Casting, Powder
metallurgy, Plastic technology, Gas cutting, bending and Forging.
Secondary or Machining Processes: As large number of components requires further
processing after the primary processes. These components are subjected to one or more number
of machining operations in machine shops, to obtain the desired shape and dimensional accuracy
on flat and cylindrical jobs. These are other processes in which the components are brought to
the desired shape and size by removing the unwanted material from the parent metal in the form
of chips through machining.
Machining is the process of removing the material from the work piece by means of a
cutting tool in order to obtain a desired shape and size.
Basic objectives of principles of metal cutting operations,
1. Quick metal removal.
2. High class surface finish.
3. Economy in tool cost.
4. Less power consumption.
5. Economy in the cost of replacement and sharpening of tools.
6. Minimum idle time of machine tools.
Elements of metal cutting processes:
The process of metal cutting in which chip is formed is affected by a relative motion between the
work piece and the hard edge of a cutting tool held against the work piece. Depending on the
nature of this relative motion, metal cutting processes are called by names given below table.
Operation Motion of work piece Motion of cutting tool
Turing Rotary Forward translation
Boring Forward translation Rotation
Rotation as well as translator
Drilling Fixed
feed.
Planning Translatory Intermediate translation
Milling Translatory Rotation

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

Types of cutting tools:


The process of removing metal can be done by using 2 types of cutting tools.
(a) Single point cutting tool:- If only one effective cutting edge is available for removing
the excess material from the work piece, it is called single point cutting tool.
Ex: Lathe, Shaping Tool, Planning tool etc
(b) Multipoint cutting tool:- If more than one cutting edge is available for removing
material from work piece, it is called multi point cutting tool.
Ex: Milling cutter, Drill bit, Grinding wheel, Broaching tool etc.
The cutting tools can be classified according to the motion as,
a) Linear motion tools such as lathe, broaching, planning, shaping tools etc.
b) Rotary motion tools such as milling cutters, grinding wheels etc.
c) Linear and rotary tools such as drills, honing tools, boring heads etc.
S.No. Single point cutting tool S.No. Multi point cutting tool
MRR is more than that of single
1 MRR is less. 1
point cutting tool.
Life is more than single point cutting
2 Life is less. 2
tool.
These are fed axially at a
These are fed perpendicularly to the
3 uniform feed per 3
cutter axis of rotation.
revolution.

v s t
cutting speed feed depth of cut
MRR = Metal Removal Rate = v x s x t
Cutting speed Feed Depth of cut
S.No. Parameters
(v) (s) (t)
1 MRR ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
2 Tool life ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓
Power
3 ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
consumption
4 Surface finish ↑ ↑ ↓ ↓
In order to achieve all the above properties, tool geometry came into
consideration.

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

Geometry of single point cutting tool angles:

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Shank: It is a body of tools, which is not Grained is known as shank.


Face: The surface over the chip of metal side is known as face.
Flank: The Cutting tool surface is facing the work metal is known as Flank. There are
two types like as end flank and side flank.
Base: It is a bottom surface of shank. Generally it having flat farming in naturally.
Nose: It is a Junction of side and end of cutting edge is known as nose.
Cutting edge: It is a junction of face and Flank. It having two types,
 end cutting edge
 side cutting edge

Angle of single point cutting tool:


(1) Back rake angle: The angle between tool face and line parallel to base of the tool. The slope
is given in the tool surface (or) face. In the slope is given from nose along with length of tool.
The angle may be positive or negative for depends upon amount of cutting edge.

Effects of back rake angle:


The rake angle of single point cutting tool is useful in determining the direction of chip flow
across the face of the tool. Its purpose is to guide the direction of the chip flow and it also serves
to protect the point of the cutting tool.
1. A positive rake angle is responsible to move the chip away from the machined work
piece surface.
2. The tool penetrates into the work piece easily and tends to shear the material off rather
than compressing. So the citing efficiency is best with positive back rake angle.
3. Forces and power consumption reduces with increase in positive back rake angle.

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4. If positive back rake angle increases, resisting area of tool decreases.


Generally, for softer work piece, back rake angle of 25° to 35° is preferable and for
harder work piece back rake angle of 7° to 10° is preferable. Negative back rake angle is
preferable for carbide tools. Carbide tools are very brittle in nature, so deformation occurs if we
provide positive back rake angle. To avoid deformation, negative back rake angle is provided.
Positive back rake angle is used for machining low tensile strength and non ferrous
materials. They also used during machining of long/small diameter shafts or material that is work
hardened during machining. Negative back rake angles are used for machining high tensile
strength materials, heavy feed and interrupted cuts.
The positive rake Angle whereas used as follows,
 To machining the hardened work material.
 To machining the low strength of ferrous and nonferrous material.
 To turn the long shaft with small diameter
 Machining the metals having lesser recommended the cutting speed
 The machining the job metal using small machine tool include low horsepower
The negative rake Angle whereas used followed by,
 Machining the high strength alloy
 Machine tools are more rigid
 To given the heavy and interrupted cuts
 The feed rate will be highly

(2) Side rake angle: The angle between face of tool and line parallel to the base of tool. The
slope is given the face (or) tool top position. Also the slope is given from nose along with length
of tool. When the angle is considered for positive, the slope is given toward cutting edge and the
rack angle is consider for negative, the slope is given from cutting edge.
Effects of side rake angle:-
During the machining operation the chip curling or amount of chip bends depends upon the side
rake angle. If the side rake angle is larger, cut and bending of chip and power requirement will be
decreased. Hence it provides the better surface finish to machining surface i.e. it avoids the
rubbing action between work piece and tool.
(3) Relief angle or clearance angle:
When the slope is given download from cutting edge. That is divided in two types of clearance
angle. They are
 side relief or side clearance angle
 end relief or end clearance angle

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

The angle between side of Flank and perpendicular line to tool base, it is known as side relief
angle. Which is provided to help of avoid rubbing when tool is feed sideways into job. In case
the side relief angle is large, the Tool cutting edge will be breakdown because of insufficient
support. So it will be avoid the side relief angle is having very small.
When the cutting tool cannot be feeding into the work but rubbing action against the job,
overheating of tool will be done. This affects the job surface finish.
The angle between flank of end and line perpendicular to tool base measuring along right angle
to flank of end is called as end relief angle. This angle is used to prevent the cutting tool from
rubbing again work job. If the relief angle is very large, it will be break down due to insufficient
support of cutting tool. So the cutting of job will not be properly and the poor surface finish will
be done. Generally these angles are between 6° to 10°.
(4) Cutting edge angle: The cutting edge angle having two types such as side cutting edge and
end cutting edge. The side cutting edge angle is the angle between side of cutting edge and side
of tool Shank or the angle between side of cutting edge and longitudinal axis of tool. It side
cutting edge used to control the flow of chip, avoid the formation of built up edge and
distributing of cutting force. Generally these angles are between 0° to 90°.
The end cutting edge angle is the angle between end of cutting tool and line of
perpendicular to tool Shank or the angle between tool face and plane perpendicular to shank side.
Allow only for small question of end section edge to contact the machining surface, and also the
vibration and chatter are prevented. The angle will be from 5° to 15°.
(5) Nose radius: The nose radius is the angle between side of cutting edge and end of cutting
edge. The side cutting edge and end cutting edge angles are joined by a line by a point lead to
high heat concentration. When these are joined by means of the small radius is good
configuration to increase in the tool life and to obtain better surface finish. The optimum nose
radius which is giving better surface finish is 0.2mm to 1.2mm.

The arrangement of all these in a particular order is called single point cutting tool nomenclature
or designation. Two systems are widely used in this context.
1. ASA System (American Standard Association System)
2. ORS (Orthogonal Rake System)

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

ASA System ORS System

αb - Bake Rake angle λ - Inclination


αs - Side Rake angle αo - orthogonal rake angle
θe - Bake Clearance Rake angle γ - side relief angle
θs - Side Clearance Rake angle γ1 - End relief angle
φs - End Cutting Edge angle φ1 - auxiliary cutting edge angle
φs - Side Cutting Edge angle φ - Approach Angle
r – Nose Radius r - Nose Radius
In this system, the angles defined as measured In this system, the angles defined are measured
w.r.t 3 mutually perpendicular planes. w.r.t plane containing principle or side cutting
edge and the plane normal to it.
In this, the angles specified are measured w.r.t In this, the angles specified are measured w.r.t
mutually perpendicular planes, hence the the major cutting edge of the tool. Therefore
analysis of machining will be difficult. the analysis of machining operation is easy.
Because analysis of machining will be easier But because the angles can seen only in
when the properties of a single point cutting isometric views, the understanding of the
tool are measured w.r.t major cutting edge of system and measurement of angles are
the tool. difficult.

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

Methods of Metal Cutting:


(1) Orthogonal Cutting (2D): This cutting takes place when the cutting face of the tool is 90° to
the line of action or path of the tool. Ex: broaching & Sawing.

Tangential
Tangential
Radial
Radial
Axial

(1) Oblique Cutting (3D): The cutting face is inclined at an angle less than 90° to the path of the
tool. The depth of the cut is the same in both cases, and so is the feed, but the force which cuts or
shears the metal acts on a larger area in the case of the oblique tool. The oblique tool will, thus
have a longer life as the heat developed per unit area due to friction along the tool – work piece
interface is considerably small. Alternatively, the oblique tool will remove more metal in the
same life as an orthogonal tool.
Mechanism of chip formation: In any machining operation, the material is removed from the
work piece in the form of chips. Chips are formed due to tearing and shearing.
When a force is applied by using tip of the tool on to the layer of the work piece material,
the material is started deforming plastically and sliding over the rake face of the tool inducing
shear stresses on the layer of the work piece material. On the further application of the force by
using the tool, the shear stresses induced in the layer of work material are increasing

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

continuously. At some point, the shear stresses induced will become greater than or equal to the
ultimate shear strength of the material. Then shearing or cracking is taking place at the tip of the
tool and it is propagating towards the surface of the work piece producing shear plane.
Types of chips: The material removed from the work piece in the form of chips. These are
classified as follows,
(1) Discontinuous chips: These types of chips are usually produced when cutting of brittle
materials like grey cast iron, bronze, hard brass.
During machining of hard and brittle work materials because of lower toughness, the energy
wave or crack wave can propagate very easily up to the surface so that discontinuous chips are
formed discontinuous chips entangled with the work piece surface due to interrupted contact
between tool and work piece surface the surface finish is poorer
(2) Continuous chips: It can obtain when cutting ductile materials such as low carbon steel,
aluminium and copper. This chip is severely deformed either in the form of a long strip or curl
into a tied roll.
During machining of soft and ductile materials because of higher toughness of work piece
material, the crack wave propagation (energy wave propagation) will be observed by the material
and disappearing some where in the middle so that continuous chip will be formed.
(3) Built up Edge (BUE): When the machining of ductile materials, conditions of high local
temperature and extreme pressure in the cutting zone, a portion of chip material subjected to all
sided compression, shears out from chip and deposited on tool face. This cold welded deposit is
known as built up edge.
Cutting tool is more stronger than work piece material and built up edge is more stronger than
cutting tool built up edge and cut the work piece material for some milli seconds, therefore tool
life increases.

BUE forming will takes place only with continuous chips so another type of chip formation is
continuous chips with BUE. This is because of small rake angle, without use of cutting fluid etc;

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

Comparison between chips

Depth of Cutting
S. No. Material type Rack angle
cut speed

Continuous Chips Ductile High Small Large/medium

Discontinuous Brittle, Ductile


Medium High Low
Chips but hard

Continuous chips
Ductile Low/Medium Medium Medium
with built edge

Chip beakers: Continuous chips get entangled on the work piece surface, rub against machined
surface and result in a damage to the surface finish obtained, in order to prevent this damage,
chip beaker must be used on the tool face. It is a piece of cutting – tool material clamped on top
of the cutting tool.

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

The following types of chip breakers are commonly used:

a) Groove type b) Step type

c) Secondary Rake type d) Clamp type

Chip thickness ratio: During the cutting action of a metal it will be observed that the thickness
of the deformed or upward flowing chip is more than the actual depth of cut. It is because the
chip flows upwards at a slower rate than the velocity of the cut. The velocity of the chip flow is
directly effected by the shear plane angle. The smaller this angle the slower will be the chip flow
velocity and therefore, larger will be the thickness of the chip.

Figure shows an orthogonal cutting operation

t1 = chip thickness prior to deformation


t2 = chip thickness after deformation.
The above discussion leads to the result that t2 > t1.
The chip thickness ratio `r’ is given by:

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

𝒕𝟏
r=
𝒕𝟐
Since t2 always greater than t1, the value of chip thickness ratio r is less than unity. The higher
the value of r the better is supposed to be the cutting action. The reverse of r is known as chip
reduction coefficient. If k is the chip reduction coefficient, then:
𝟏
k=
𝒓

Now, in orthogonal cutting the width of the chip equals to the width of the cut. Considering the
specific gravity of the metal as constant, the volume of the chip produced will be equal to the
volume of the metal cut. Widths of both being equal, the product of the chip thickness and its
length will therefore, be equal to the product to the thickness and the length of the metal cut. If
L1, L2 are the lengths of the metal cut and the chip respectively, it follows that,
t1.L1 = t2.L2
𝒕𝟏 𝑳𝟐
r= =
𝒕𝟐 𝑳𝟏
𝒕𝟏
But, r =
𝒕𝟐
𝒕𝟏 𝑳𝟐
r= =
𝒕𝟐 𝑳𝟏

In the given fig we have to right angle triangles OAP & OBP.
Considering the right angle triangle OAP we have:

𝐴𝑃
= sin (AOP) = sin (Φ)
𝑂𝑃

𝐴𝑃
So OP = but (AP = t1)
sin Φ

t1
So OP =
sin Φ

Now considering the right angled triangle OBP we have

𝐵𝑃
= sin (BOP) = sin (90- Φ + α) = sin (90- (Φ - α))
𝑂𝑃
= cos (Φ - α)
𝐵𝑃
OP = but (BP = t2)
cos (Φ − α)
𝑡2
OP =
cos (Φ − α)
Now by equating the equations for OP we get
t1 𝑡2
=
sin Φ cos (Φ − α)

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

t1 sin Φ
=
𝑡2 cos (Φ − α)
sin Φ
𝑟=
cos Φ. cosα + sin Φ. sinα
𝑟(cos Φ. cosα) + r(sin Φ. sinα) = sin Φ

r(cos Φ.cosα) r(sin Φ.sinα)


+ =1
sin Φ sin Φ
r(cosα)
+ rsinα =1
tan Φ

r(cosα)
= 1 – rsinα
tan Φ
r(cosα)
tan Φ = 1 − rsinα
t1
t2(cosα)
tan Φ = t
1 − t1sinα
2

Velocity relationships:
Vc = Velocity of tool relative to work (or) the cutting velocity
Vf = Chip flow Velocity
Vs = Shear Velocity

Out of the above three velocities the cutting velocity Vc is always known. The other two
can be computed with the help of following relations.
From standard trigonometric ratio’s, We get
𝑉𝐶 𝑉𝑓 𝑉𝑆
= =
sin(90 − 𝜑 + 𝛼) sin 𝜑 sin (90 − 𝛼)

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𝑉𝐶 𝑉𝑓 𝑉𝑆
= =
sin(90 − (𝜑 − 𝛼)) sin 𝜑 sin (90 − 𝛼)
𝑉𝐶 𝑉𝑓 𝑉𝑆
= =
cos(𝜑 − 𝛼) sin 𝜑 cos 𝛼
𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝛼
𝑉𝑆 = 𝑉𝐶
cos(𝜑 − 𝛼)
𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜑
𝑉𝑓 = 𝑉𝐶
cos(𝜑 − 𝛼)
𝑉𝑓 = 𝑉𝐶 ∗ 𝑟

Cutting speed: Cutting speed of a cutting tool can be defined as the rate at which its cutting edge
passes over surface of the work piece in unit time. It is normally expressed as in surface speed in
meter per minute.
If it is too high, the tool gets overheated and its cutting edge may fail. If it is too low, too
much time is consumed in machining and full cutting capacities of the tool and machine are not
utilized, which results in lowering of productivity and increases the production cost.
Feed: It is defined as distance travels along or into work piece for each pass of its point through
particular position in unit time.
For example, in turning operation on a lathe it is equal to the advancement of the tool
corresponding to each revolution of work.
In planning, it is the work which is fed and not to the tool.
In milling, the feed is basically considered per tooth of the cutter.
The cutting speed and feed of a cutting tool is largely influenced by the following factors.
1. Material being machined.
2. Material of the cutting tool.
3. Geometry of the cutting tool.
4. Required degree of surface finish.
5. Rigidity of the machine tool being used.
6. Type of the coolant being used.
Depth of cut: It is penetration of the cutting edge of the tool into the work piece material in each
pass, measured perpendicular to the machined surface, i.e., it determines the thickness of metal
layer removed by the cutting tool in one pass.
For example, in turning operation on the lathe it is given by,
𝐷−𝑑
Depth of cut =
2
Where, D = Original diameter of the work piece in mm
d = Diameter obtained after turning in mm

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

Force Relationship in orthogonal Cutting:


It is clear from Fig. that a number of forces act on the chip during metal cutting. The
relationships among these forces were established by merchant with some assumptions:
1. Cutting velocity always remains constant.
2. Cutting edge of the tool remains sharp throughout cutting and there is no contact between
the work piece and the tool flank.
3. There is no sideways flow of chip.
4. Only continuous chip is produced.
5. There is no built up edge.
6. No consideration is made of the inertia force of the chip.
7. The behavior of the chip is like that of a free body which is in the state of stable
equilibrium due to the action of two resultant forces which are equal, opposite and
collinear.

FS = Metal resistance to shear in chip formation, acting along the shear plane or shear force.
FN = Backing up force exerted by the work piece on the chip, acting normal to the shear plane.
N = Force exerted by the tool on the chip, acting normal to the tool face.
F = μN
𝐹
μ=
𝑁
These forces are vectorially represented in the free body diagram. It will be observed that forces
FS and FN can be easily replaced by their resultant R and forces F and N by their resultant R1.
Thus, all these forces are resolved to only two forces R and R1. For equilibrium, these forces R
and R1 should be equal, act opposite to each other and collinear.
For the convenience in studying further relationships, the two triangles of forces of the above
free body diagram have been combined together called the ‘Merchant’s Circle Diagram’ for
cutting forces, in which the following components figure,
FC = Horizontal cutting force exerted by the tool on the work piece.

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

Ft = Vertical (or) tangential force which helps in holding the tool in position and acts on
the tool nose.

These two forces can easily found out with the help of strain gauges or force dynamometers. The
angle α is a known quantity, being the rake angle of the tool. With the help of the equations, the
value of φ can also be determined. When all these four values, i.e., Fc , Ft, α and φ are known, all
the other forces can be easily calculated with the help of geometry with reference to above Fig.
𝐴𝑄
F = AQ + QB 𝑃𝑄
Cos(90-α) = 𝐴𝑃 Sin(90-α) = 𝐴𝑃
= AQ + DC 𝑃𝑄
𝐴𝑄
Sinα = F = FC sinα + Ft cosα and Cosα = 𝐴𝑃
𝐴𝑃
AQ = 𝑭𝑪 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜶 N = QD PQ = 𝑭𝑪 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜶
𝐷𝐶 𝑃𝐷
Cosα = 𝑃𝐶 = PQ - PD Sinα = 𝑃𝐶
DC = 𝑭𝒕 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜶 = FC cosα - Ft sinα PD = 𝑭𝒕 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝜶

FS = AH - HK
𝐴𝐻 = AH - PE 𝐶𝐸
Cos φ = Cos φ =
𝐴𝑃 𝐶𝑃
AH = 𝐹𝐶 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜑 = FC cosφ - Ft sinφ and CE = 𝐹𝑡 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜑
𝑃𝐸 𝑃𝐻
Sin φ = 𝑃𝐶 FN = CK Sin φ = 𝐴𝑃
PE = 𝐹𝑡 sin 𝜑 = CE + EK PH = 𝐹𝑐 sin 𝜑
= Ft cosφ - FC sinφ

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Metal Cutting & Machine Tools

From the right angled triangle ABC,

𝐹
= tan τ = μ
𝑁
τ = tan-1μ
𝐹
τ = tan-1 (𝑁)
𝐹𝑡
Further, = tan(𝜏 − 𝛼)
𝐹𝐶

Tool life: The actual machining time between successive regrinding of a cutting tool is called
tool life. There are number of ways of expressing tool life such as,
1. Volume of metal removed (in rough machining)
2. Number of work pieces machined (in mass production).
3. Time unit (commonly expressed in minutes).

Factors influencing tool life:


(1) Properties of work piece material: with increase of hardness of work piece, forces and
power consumption increases and tool wear increases. So tool life decreases.
When ductility of work piece increases, forces and power consumption decreases and tool wear
decreases. So tool life increases.
But there is no quantitative relationship available between properties of work and tool
life.
(2) Tool Geometry: As the tool geometry changes, like rake angle increases, the tool life will
increases. But there is no quantitative relationships are available between tool geometry and tool
life.
(3) Use of cutting Fluid: when the cutting fluid is used during machining it is acting as a
lubricant in friction zone and carrying away the heat during machining.
(4) Process Parameters:
1. Cutting Speed ↑
2. Feed ↑ Tool Life ↓
3. Depth of Cut ↑

Because of uniqueness of process parameters, the researchers try to establish relationship


between process parameters and tool life.
Taylor has assumed that cutting velocity is the major parameter influencing tool life.

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Taylor’s tool life equation:


VTn = Constant = C
Where, V = Cutting Velocity in m/min
T = Tool life in minutes
C = Taylor’s Constant
n = Taylor’s exponent depending mainly on cutting tool material.
= 0.05 to 0.1 for H.C Steel
= 0.1 to 0.2 for H.S.S
= 0.2 to 0.4 for Carbides
= 0.4 to 0.6 for Ceramics
= 0.7 to 0.9 for Diamond / CBN
Modified Taylor’s tool life equation:
V Tn fp dq = C
f = feed mm/rev
d = depth of cut in mm
p, q = constants < 1
q < p indicates that tool life is more sensitive to the uncut chip thickness than to the
width of cut.
V>f>d

Cutting fluids (or) Coolants: Cutting fluids, sometimes referred to as lubricants or coolants are
liquids and gases applied to the tool and work piece to assist in the cutting operations.
Purpose of Cutting fluids:
1. To cool the tool.
2. To cool the work piece.
3. To lubricate (or) reduce friction.
4. To improve surface finish.
5. To protect the finished surface from corrosion.
6. To cause chips break up into small parts.
7. To wash the chips away from the tool.
Properties of cutting fluids:
1. High heat absorption for easily absorbing heat developed.
2. Good lubricating qualities to produce low co-efficient of friction.
3. High flash point (so as to eliminate the hazard of fire)
4. Stability (so as not to oxide in the air).

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5. Neutral (so as not to react chemically).


6. Odorless (so as not to produce any bad smell even when heated).
7. Harmless to the skin of the operator.
8. Harmless to the bearings.
9. Non-corrosive to the work or machine.
10. Transparency so that the cutting action of the tool may be observed.
11. Low viscosity to permit free flow of the liquid.
12. Low priced to minimize production cost.
Types of cutting fluids:
 Water : Excellent coolant.
Poor Lubricant.
 Water + Soap : Excellent coolant.
Good Lubricant.
 Straight Oils : 1. Mineral oils : High Cooling, Low viscosity.
(Lard oils) Hydrocarbons of varying molecular structures and weights.
2. Fatty oils : Costly, Poor Cooling, High Viscosity.
Made from animal fat (or) Vegetable fat
3. Compounded / Blended Oils : The film strength of compounded oils
could be maintained even upto 75% of the content taken from mineral oils
and 25% taken from fatty oils.
 Soluble oils : Water + (Mineral / fatty oils)
 Oils with EP additives: 1. Chlorinated oils (3% cl + Mineral oils)
2. Sulphurized oils (5% S + Mineral oils)
Sulphurized oils are found to be highly effective in preventing
BUE formation.
Cutting Tool materials:
Basic properties which must be possessed by cutting tool material are,
1. Tool material must be at least 30 to 50% harder than the work piece material.
2. Tool material must be have high hot hardness temperature.
3. Higher toughness for withstanding the impact loads.
4. High wear resistance to minimize the wear of the tool.
5. High thermal conductivity for easy distribution of heat and avoid the high heat.
6. Lower co-efficient of friction.
7. Easiness in fabrication and cheap.

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Different cutting tool materials used in practice are,

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UNIT – II
LATHE
Lathe is a machine, which remove the metal from a piece of work to the required shape and
size. It holds the work between two rigid and strong supports, called centres or in a chuck or face
plate white the latter revolves.

1. It is most important machine tool in the metal working industry a lathe operates on the
principal of a rotating work piece and a translator cutting tool
2. It cutting tool fed into the working piece , which rotates about its own axis ,causing the
work piece to be formed to the desired shape
3. Lathe machine is also known as ‘the mother of the entire tool family’.

Inventor of center lathe:


Herrny Maudsley was born on an isolated farm near Gigghleswick in North Yorkshire
and educated at university college, London. He was an outstanding student collecting 10 gold
medals and graduating with M.D in 1857.
Specifications of Lathe Machine: The size of a lathe is generally specified by the following
means:

a) Swing or maximum diameter that can be rotated over the bed ways
b) Maximum length of the job that can be held between head stock and tail stock Centres.
c) Bed length, which may include head stock length also
d) Maximum diameter of the bar that can pass through spindle or collect chuck of capstan
lathe.
Fig. 21.7 illustrates the elements involved in specifications of a lathe. The following data
also contributes to specify a common lathe machine.

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a) Maximum swing over bed


b) Maximum swing over carriage
c) Height of centers over bed
d) Maximum distance between centers
e) Length of bed
f) Width of bed
g) Morse taper of center
h) Diameter of hole through spindle
i) Face plate diameter
j) Size of tool post
k) Number of spindle speeds
l) Lead screw diameter and number of threads per cm.
m) Size of electrical motor
n) Pitch range of metric and inch threads etc.

CONSTRUCTION OF LATHE MACHINE:

A simple lathe comprises of a bed made of grey cast iron on which headstock, tailstock,
carriage and other components of lathe are mounted. Fig. 21.3 shows the different parts of engine
lathe or central lathe. The major parts of lathe machine are given as under:
1. Bed
2. Head stock
3. Tailstock
4. Carriage
5. Feed mechanism
6. Thread cutting mechanism

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Bed: The bed of a lathe machine is the base on which all other parts of lathe are mounted.
It is massive and rigid single piece casting made to support other active parts of lathe. On left
end of the bed, headstock of lathe machine is located while on right side tailstock is located. The
carriage of the machine rests over the bed and slides on it. On the top of the bed there are two
sets of guide ways-inner ways and outer ways. The inner ways provide sliding surfaces for the
tailstock and the outer ways for the carriage. The guide ways of the lathe bed may be flat and
inverted V shape. Generally cast iron alloyed with nickel and chromium material is used for
manufacturing of the lathe bed.

Head Stock: The main function of headstock is to transmit power to the different parts of
a lathe. It comprises of the headstock casting to accommodate all the parts within it including
gear train arrangement. The main spindle is adjusted in it, which possesses live centre to which
the work can be attached. It supports the work and revolves with the work, fitted into the main
spindle of the headstock. The cone pulley is also attached with this arrangement, which is used to
get various spindle speed through electric motor. The back gear arrangement is used for
obtaining a wide range of slower speeds. Some gears called change wheels are used to produce
different velocity ratio required for thread cutting.

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Tail Stock: Fig. 21.4 Shows the tail stock of central lathe, which is commonly used for
the objective of primarily giving an outer bearing and support the circular job being turned on
centers. Tail stock can be easily set or adjusted for alignment or non-alignment with respect to
the spindle centre and carries a centre called dead centre for supporting one end of the work.
Both live and dead centers have 60° conical points to fit centre holes in the circular job, the other
end tapering to allow for good fitting into the spindles.

Carriage: Carriage is mounted on the outer guide ways of lathe bed and it can move in a
direction parallel to the spindle axis. It comprises of important parts such as apron, cross-slide,
saddle, compound rest, and tool post. The lower part of the carriage is termed the apron in which
there are gears to constitute apron mechanism for adjusting the direction of the feed using clutch
mechanism and the split half nut for automatic feed. The cross-slide is basically mounted on the
carriage, which generally travels at right angles to the spindle axis. On the cross-slide, a saddle is
mounted in which the compound rest is adjusted which can rotate and fix to any desired angle.
The compound rest slide is actuated by a screw, which rotates in a nut fixed to the saddle.
The tool post is an important part of carriage, which fits in a tee-slot in the compound rest
and holds the tool holder in place by the tool post screw. Fig. 21.5 shows the tool post of centre
lathe.

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Feed Mechanism: Feed mechanism is the combination of different units through which motion
of headstock spindle is transmitted to the carriage of lathe machine. Following units play role in
feed mechanism of a lathe machine.
1. End of bed gearing
2. Feed gear box
3. Lead screw and feed rod
4. Apron mechanism
The gearing at the end of bed transmits the rotary motion of headstock spindle to the feed
gear box. Through the feed gear box the motion is further transmitted either to the feed shaft or
lead screw, depending on whether the lathe machine is being used for plain turning or screw
cutting.
The feed gear box contains a number of different sizes of gears. The feed gear box
provides a means to alter the rate of feed, and the ration between revolutions of the headstock
spindle and the movement of carriage for thread cutting by changing the speed of rotation of the
feed rod or lead screw.
The apron is fitted to the saddle. It contains gears and clutches to transmit motion from
the feed rod to the carriage, and the half nut which engages with the lead screw during cutting
threads.
Thread Cutting Mechanism: The half nut or split nut is used for thread cutting in a lathe. It
engages or disengages the carriage with the lead screw so that the rotation of the lead screw is
used to traverse the tool along the work piece to cut screw threads. The direction in which the
carriage moves depends upon the position of the feed reverse lever on the headstock.

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Apron Mechanism: It is the hanging part of infront of the carriage. Also, it serves as a

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