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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящее издание продолжает серию учебных материалов по


английскому языку для студентов неязыковых факультетов высших
учебных заведений и ориентировано на требования Федеральных
государственных образовательных стандартов высшего
профессионального образования третьего поколения.
Пособие «English Language Assessment Tests» разработано для
подготовки студентов к итоговому тестированию по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык» ФГОС ВПО и включает в себя как
тренировочные задания для развития коммуникативной
компетенции в отдельных видах речевой деятельности, так и
комплексные тесты.
Пособие состоит из двух частей, каждая из которых выстроена
в соответствии с тематической структурой измерительных
материалов по английскому языку Федерального интернет-
экзамена в сфере высшего профессионального образования.
Часть I содержит тестовые задания, сгруппированные по темам
дидактических единиц. Представленные в этой части пособия
материалы носят обучающий характер и позволяют студентам
поэтапно готовиться к итоговому контролю. Задания части I могут
также использоваться преподавателем для различных
диагностических процедур, поскольку структура данного раздела
обеспечивает возможность формирования дополнительных тестов,
отвечающих задачам определенного этапа обучения.
Часть II включает в себя 12 вариантов комплексных тестов.
Предлагаемые в тестах задания делятся на три типа:
1. выбор одного ответа из предложенных вариантов;
2. указание соответствия;
3. указание последовательности.
Материал, представленный в заданиях, отражает современные
языковые реалии англо-говорящих стран. Издание включает в себя
актуальные аутентичные тексты различной профессиональной
направленности, а также типичные образцы устной и письменной
коммуникации, заимствованные из реальной практики делового
общения.

3
Тематическая структура измерительных материалов
Наименование
№ №
дидактической Тема задания
ДЕ зад.
единицы
1 Учебная лексика
2 Деловая лексика
1 Лексика
3 Профессиональная лексика
4 Термины (дефиниции)
5 Словообразование
6 Местоимения
7 Степени сравнения прилагательных
8 Артикли
9 Предлоги
2 Грамматика
10 Союзы
11 Глагол и его формы
12 Неличные формы глагола
13 Фразовые глаголы
14 Модальные глаголы
15 Бытовая сфера
16 Профессионально-деловая сфера
3 Речевой этикет
17 Учебно-социальная сфера
18 Социально-деловая сфера
19 Великобритания
Культура и
20 США
4 традиции стран
21 Канада
изучаемого языка
22 Выдающиеся личности англо-говорящих стран
23 Оформление делового письма
24 Оформление конверта
5 Письмо Оформление резюме, письма-заявления, письма-
25 уведомления, письма-запроса
Оформление электронного сообщения, факса,
26 служебной записки, повестки дня
6 Чтение 27
Ознакомительное чтение с целью определения
истинности утверждения
Ознакомительное чтение с целью определения
28 ложности утверждения
Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в
29 тексте запрашиваемой информации
Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия или
30 отсутствия в тексте запрашиваемой информации
31 Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации
32 Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования
33 Изучающее чтение с элементами сопоставления

4
Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов
34 содержания текста
ЧАСТЬ I

ЛЕКСИКА

Учебная лексика

1. Заполните пропуск.
Something should be done to reform the educational … of the
developing countries.
a) school
b) system
c) support
d) goal

2. Заполните пропуск.
Students must give credit to an author if they use a … in their research
papers.
a) foundation
b) innovation
c) quotation
d) collocation

3. Заполните пропуск.
The B.S. degree in chemistry requires a minimum of 180 … to
graduate.
a) credits
b) grades
c) points
d) marks

4. Заполните пропуск.
In England students who go to … schools pay fees.
a) public
b) comprehensive
c) middle

5
d) community

5. Заполните пропуск.
Professor Wilson is a wonderful teacher but there are too many … in
his course.
a) diplomas
b) solutions
c) degrees
d) assignments

6. Заполните пропуск.
The course aims at helping students … knowledge of ocean ecology.
a) acquire
b) earn
c) win
d) deny

7. Заполните пропуск.
The text of the paragraph should … to the topic sentence.
a) comply
b) coincide
c) agree
d) correspond

8. Заполните пропуск.
One educational goal for developing countries would be at least a …
education for every citizen.
a) basic
b) higher
c) tertiary
d) special

9. Заполните пропуск.
The … between semesters is a welcome break for students and faculty.
a) contradiction
b) interval
c) publication

6
d) delay

10. Заполните пропуск.


Finding a dissertation … is often the most difficult part of PhD work.
a) edition
b) initiative
c) topic
d) quotation

11. Заполните пропуск.


The irresponsible student … his research paper two weeks late.
a) introduced
b) produced
c) performed
d) submitted

12. Заполните пропуск.


Putting an end to adult … is one of the main goals for developing
countries.
a) illiteracy
b) illegality
c) illegibility
d) illogicality

7
Деловая лексика

1. Заполните пропуск.
The … of directors meets once a month to discuss the budget.
a) company
b) board
c) conference
d) consensus

2. Заполните пропуск.
Any financial information shared during this meeting should be kept …
a) confined
b) confident
c) confidential
d) conflicting

3. Заполните пропуск.
The … for submitting papers to the conference is May 25th.
a) dead-point
b) deadline
c) deadfall
d) deadlight

4. Заполните пропуск.
It is … that all supervisors attend Friday’s meeting.
a) mandatory
b) exquisite
c) exclusive
d) sure

5. Заполните пропуск.
The … is reserved for a managers’ meeting.
a) boardroom
b) bathroom
c) changing room
d) guest room

8
6. Заполните пропуск.
The role of treasurer was based on the chairman’s … vote.
a) unanimous
b) deliberative
c) proxy
d) casting

7. Заполните пропуск.
A … to eliminate all part-time positions was put forward at the
meeting.
a) action
b) motion
c) caution
d) vision

8. Заполните пропуск.
One of the ways to call a meeting is to inform each … individually via
e-mail.
a) speaker
b) chairman
c) participant
d) absentee

9. Заполните пропуск.
An … should outline the order and amount of time to spend on each
item at the meeting.
a) agenda
b) issue
c) indication
d) strategy

10. Заполните пропуск.


The board members couldn’t come to a … so they had to hold a vote.
a) comment
b) grievance
c) motion

9
d) consensus

11. Заполните пропуск.


Generally speaking, a good manager … a smooth production process.
a) makes sure
b) ensures
c) is sure
d) as sure as

12. Заполните пропуск.


Many managers were … about two months ago.
a) shared
b) taken
c) hired
d) received

10
Профессиональная лексика

1. Заполните пропуск.
Teachers are expected to use computer-based technology with
increasing frequency and … .
a) promotion
b) productivity
c) profoundness
d) proficiency

2. Заполните пропуск.
Specific learning difficulties most commonly include conditions such
as dyslexia, … deficit, hyperactivity disorder etc.
a) addiction
b) attention
c) appreciation
d) imagination

3. Заполните пропуск.
A typical lesson plan should contain the methods of … .
a) assessment
b) assertion
c) invention
d) engagement

4. Заполните пропуск.
Students or pupils who … motivation will be unable to benefit fully
from their education.
a) have
b) are out of
c) lack
d) doubt

5. Заполните пропуск.
The curriculum usually includes … and optional subjects.
a) educational
b) electives
c) compulsory

11
d) free
6. Заполните пропуск.
Candidates who could demonstrate the relevant … could be accredited
with a qualification.
a) assessment
b) fantasy
c) diploma
d) competencies

7. Заполните пропуск.
National … are used to regulate the levels of attainment required in
nationally recognized qualifications.
a) standards
b) tests
c) examinations
d) rules

8. Заполните пропуск.
The development of thinking … in young pupils is thought to improve
the quality of their learning.
a) moods
b) tools
c) skills
d) mind

9. Заполните пропуск.
… education involves skills training and prepares the learner to enter
directly into skilled or semi-skilled employment.
a) vocational
b) secondary
c) normal
d) independent

10. Заполните пропуск.


… who have a good relationship with their parents are less likely to
engage in various risk behaviours.
a) Peers
b) Adults
c) Adolescents

12
d) Interns
11. Заполните пропуск.
Young people … optimism about entering the career area of their
choice.
a) obeyed
b) expressed
c) experienced
d) gained

12. Заполните пропуск.


Children with learning … may have difficulty processing information.
a) disagreement
b) abilities
c) ambitions
d) disabilities

13
Термины (дефиниции)

1. Заполните пропуск.
… attempts to transcribe the sounds of the language into alphabetic
letters.
a) Alphabet
b) Listening
c) Spelling
d) Transliteration

2. Заполните пропуск.
… is a combination of on-the-job training and related classroom
instruction under the supervision of a trade professional.
a) Apprenticeship
b) Scholarship
c) Acquisition
d) Communication

3. Заполните пропуск.
… is a condensed form of a particular piece of information.
a) Reference
b) Summary
c) Contents
d) Representation

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is a person who provides extra help for students with their
schoolwork.
a) Instructor
b) Dean
c) Chancellor
d) Tutor

5. Заполните пропуск.
… is an outline and description of a course.
a) Lecture
b) Syllabus
c) Credit

14
d) Syllable
6. Заполните пропуск.
… are measurable benchmarks for growth in academic and functional
areas of instruction.
a) Learning styles
b) Learning steps
c) Learning goals
d) Learning skills

7. Заполните пропуск.
… is the practice of placing students with disabilities in regular
classrooms.
a) Inclusion
b) Exclusion
c) Immersion
d) Intervention

8. Заполните пропуск.
… is the instruction provided for students with educational or physical
disabilities.
a) Health education
b) Special education
c) Compulsory education
d) Vocational education

9. Заполните пропуск.
… is the identification and detailed examination of the constituent parts
or elements of some phenomenon.
a) Comprehension
b) Analysis
c) Knowledge
d) Interest

10. Заполните пропуск.


… is the ability to be original and imaginative, especially in an artistic
domain.
a) Creativity
b) Competence
c) Imagination

15
d) Concentration
11. Заполните пропуск.
… in education is the state of being prepared to start school.
a) Readability
b) Readership
c) Reading
d) Readiness

12. Заполните пропуск.


… is a cognitive, social, or physical ability acquired, or developed,
through practice.
a) Education
b) Skill
c) Activity
d) Preparation

16
ГРАММАТИКА

Словообразование

1. Заполните пропуск.
About 55 per cent of students at both universities come from …
schools.
a) state
b) statement
c) statutory
d) stationary

2. Заполните пропуск.
The three major … of the world ocean are the Atlantic Ocean, the
Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean.
a) subdivided
b) subdivide
c) subdivisible
d) subdivisions

3. Заполните пропуск.
We need to work together to … a unified strategy.
a) productive
b) product
c) production
d) produce

4. Заполните пропуск.
In the 18th century English began its … into Wales and north western
Scotland.
a) expansive
b) expand
c) expansion
d) expansible

17
5. Заполните пропуск.
This modern approach tries to … the best of the other methods.
a) combination
b) combinative
c) combine
d) combinatorially

6. Заполните пропуск.
Catalan, even though it has been written and spoken for centuries, is not
… to speakers of standard Spanish.
a) understandable
b) understand
c) understandably
d) understanding

7. Заполните пропуск.
We shouldn’t ignore … context of communication.
a) psychologist
b) psychology
c) psychological
d) psychologically

8. Заполните пропуск.
Aggression can sometimes be an … of fear.
a) express
b) expression
c) expressive
d) expressly

9. Заполните пропуск.
The distinction between news and … can at times be fuzzy.
a) entertainment
b) entertain
c) entertainer
d) entertaining

18
10. Заполните пропуск.
Social shifts may … ideological shifts and other types of cultural
change.
a) accompaniment
b) accompany
c) accompanying
d) accompanied

11. Заполните пропуск.


Some … believe that mass culture is the most powerful de-educator of
the public mind.
a) scientists
b) science
c) scientific
d) sciences

12. Заполните пропуск.


Some … actively promote traditional family values.
a) political
b) politics
c) politicians
d) policy

19
Местоимения

1. Заполните пропуск.
The bus service is excellent. There’s a bus … ten minutes.
a) each
b) every
c) all
d) any

2. Заполните пропуск.
My friend is very busy with his study. He has … time for other things.
a) little
b) few
c) a few
d) plenty

3. Заполните пропуск.
Oxford proudly lists 25 prime ministers amongst … alumni.
a) its’
b) it’s
c) his
d) its

4. Заполните пропуск.
They all seemed to be enjoying … .
a) themselves
b) themself
c) theirs
d) their

5. Заполните пропуск.
Can I have … milk in my coffee, please?
a) a little
b) any
c) a lot of
d) little

20
6. Заполните пропуск.
Can you lend me … dollars?
a) little
b) a lot
c) a little
d) a few

7. Заполните пропуск.
There wasn’t … traffic this morning.
a) many
b) a few
c) much
d) few

8. Заполните пропуск.
The Olympic Games are held … four years.
a) each of
b) each
c) every
d) all

9. Заполните пропуск.
… young people deal successfully with these challenges.
a) Little
b) Most
c) The most
d) None

10. Заполните пропуск.


Sociologists believe that there are too … positive activities which are
attractive for young people.
a) much
b) little
c) a few
d) few

21
11. Заполните пропуск.
I haven’t read many of … books.
a) these
b) this
c) that
d) there

12. Заполните пропуск.


He’s been to Rome … times.
a) little
b) a little
c) a few
d) plenty

22
Степени сравнения прилагательных

1. Заполните пропуск.
Women in Hartlepool live around 9.6 years … than in the central
London borough.
a) more little
b) little
c) less
d) more less

2. Заполните пропуск.
Paul is very smart; in fact he is … boy among his classmates.
a) intellegener
b) more intelligent
c) the most intelligent
d) as intelligent

3. Заполните пропуск.
I have never liked studying Chemistry; it is … subject for me.
a) the least interesting
b) the most interesting
c) the less interesting
d) interesting

4. Заполните пропуск.
The nights in summer are … the nights in winter.
a) not as long as
b) as long as
c) longest
d) longer

5. Заполните пропуск.
They’ve got … money than they need.
a) little
b) less
c) the least

23
d) least
6. Заполните пропуск.
The more you know … you forget. So why study?
a) more
b) the most
c) the more
d) most

7. Заполните пропуск.
This bag is a bit … than the other one.
a) heavy
b) heaviest
c) the heaviest
d) heavier

8. Заполните пропуск.
Are you any good at tennis? I am … tennis player in the world.
a) the worst
b) worse
c) bad
d) the baddest

9. Заполните пропуск.
Richard and Timothy don’t know many people at the party. Lionel and
David know … .
a) the most
b) more
c) as many
d) the many

10. Заполните пропуск.


I didn’t like the book; it’s rather dull. The film is … .
a) as interesting
b) more interesting
c) the less interesting
d) the most interesting

24
11. Заполните пропуск.
I like both football and baseball but I prefer … .
a) the last
b) the less
c) the least
d) the latter

12. Заполните пропуск.


I don’t know much but he knows even … than I do.
a) the least
b) little
c) less
d) litter

25
Артикли

1. Заполните пропуск.
He is going to study … Information Science.
a) -
b) an
c) a
d) the

2. Заполните пропуск.
… average age at first marriage in the UK has risen from 29.3 years in
1996 to 31.8 in 2006.
a) -
b) A
c) An
d) The

3. Заполните пропуск.
“… Economist” published several interesting reviews last month.
a) An
b) -
c) A
d) The

4. Заполните пропуск.
It is widely accepted that the process of … education begins at birth and
continues throughout life.
a) -
b) a
c) an
d) the

5. Заполните пропуск.
… unemployment is increasing at the moment.
a) The
b) An
c) -

26
d) A
6. Заполните пропуск.
However, for the scientist, … logic of religious behaviour is not simple.
a) the
b) a
c) an
d) -

7. Заполните пропуск.
… basketball is my favourite sport.
a) A
b) The
c) -
d) An

8. Заполните пропуск.
Celine is … French.
a) -
b) a
c) an
d) the

9. Заполните пропуск.
… amazing thing happened to me yesterday.
a) A
b) An
c) -
d) The

10. Заполните пропуск.


My friend doesn’t eat … red meat.
a) a
b) an
c) the
d) -

27
11. Заполните пропуск.
Books, magazines, and newspapers written in … English are available
in many countries around the world.
a) a
b) -
c) an
d) the

12. Заполните пропуск.


… 1930s Cambridge students provided the core of the mathematicians
who broke Germany’s Enigma code.
a) The
b) A
c) An
d) -

28
Предлоги

1. Заполните пропуск.
You can’t really take … something once it has been said.
a) off
b) in
c) back
d) at

2. Заполните пропуск.
The word ‘education’ is derived … the Latin educare.
a) from
b) by
c) of
d) with

3. Заполните пропуск.
Post-compulsory education can be divided … further and higher
education.
a) in
b) into
c) at
d) on

4. Заполните пропуск.
Higher education covers all post-school courses … ‘A’ level standard.
a) after
b) around
c) between
d) above

5. Заполните пропуск.
When the basic course of study is successfully completed, usually …
the end of four years, the graduate receives a bachelor’s degree.
a) in
b) at
c) on

29
d) over
6. Заполните пропуск.
American children start school … the age of five years.
a) in
b) of
c) at
d) from

7. Заполните пропуск.
Nowadays the computer is taken … granted.
a) for
b) as
c) by
d) on

8. Заполните пропуск.
People judge you … your behavior, not your intent.
a) with
b) by
c) on
d) at

9. Заполните пропуск.
Facebook may have secured its place … the top of the world’s list of
social networking sites.
a) in
b) to
c) by
d) at

10. Заполните пропуск.


This was a logical arrangement … the mathematical point of view.
a) from
b) in
c) on
d) at

30
11. Заполните пропуск.
The later system of numerals was first introduced … the 3rd century
BC.
a) along
b) about
c) next to
d) since

12. Заполните пропуск.


The term ‘culture’ refers … all the characteristics common to a
particular group of people that are learned and not given by nature.
a) with
b) across
c) for
d) to

31
Союзы

1. Заполните пропуск.
We should either walk quickly … take the bus.
a) but
b) nor
c) or
d) than

2. Заполните пропуск.
You look … you’ve seen a ghost.
a) so that
b) as if
c) as long as
d) while

3. Заполните пропуск.
I’m going shopping for food this evening … I don’t have to go at the
weekend.
a) so that
b) until
c) than
d) whether

4. Заполните пропуск.
I don’t mind if you go out for lunch … you’re back for the meeting at
two.
a) unless
b) because
c) otherwise
d) as long as

5. Заполните пропуск.
… I don’t think she’s perfect for the job, she’s certainly better qualified
than Steve.
a) Until
b) While
c) But also

32
d) As if
6. Заполните пропуск.
The crowd was both large … enthusiastic.
a) and
b) nor
c) than
d) or

7. Заполните пропуск.
He could not decide whether to tell the truth … keep silent.
a) when
b) nor
c) or
d) and

8. Заполните пропуск.
… I told the truth, you would not believe me.
a) Even if
b) So that
c) For
d) Because

9. Заполните пропуск.
I would rather wait here … risk missing the bus.
a) when
b) than
c) or
d) neither

10. Заполните пропуск.


… you read this book, you would be sure to enjoy it.
a) Until
b) Whereas
c) Even if
d) If

33
11. Заполните пропуск.
I’m learning English … I can get a better job.
a) or
b) so that
c) unless
d) whether

12. Заполните пропуск.


Please wait … I make a phone call.
a) while
b) during
c) than
d) as though

34
Глагол и его формы

1. Заполните пропуск.
In Britain milk … to your doorstep.
a) delivered
b) delivers
c) is being delivered
d) is delivered

2. Заполните пропуск.
By the time we get to Chicago this evening, we … more than four
hundred miles.
a) shall have driven
b) shall drive
c) shall be driving
d) drive

3. Заполните пропуск.
The letter I was waiting for didn’t arrive because it … to my old
address.
a) was sent
b) had been sent
c) has been sent
d) is sent

4. Заполните пропуск.
In June, my grandmother and grandfather … for fifty years.
a) will have been married
b) will have married
c) will be married
d) are married

5. Заполните пропуск.
Sam was trying to change a light bulb when he … .
a) fall
b) was falling
c) was felling

35
d) fell
6. Заполните пропуск.
The students are usually taught by Mrs. Monty. However, this week
they … by Mr. White.
a) was taught
b) are being taught
c) taught
d) teach

7. Заполните пропуск.
English has … every day.
a) to be practiced
b) practiced
c) be practiced
d) to practice

8. Заполните пропуск.
Hadrian’s Wall … by 15,000 Roman soldiers.
a) guarded
b) was guarded
c) has been guarded
d) is being guarded

9. Заполните пропуск.
The Statue of Liberty … to the United States by France.
a) gave
b) will give
c) was given
d) was gived

10. Заполните пропуск.


The White House and the Capitol … by Pennsylvania Avenue.
a) are connected
b) connected
c) is connected
d) are being connected

36
11. Заполните пропуск.
A new factory is going … in Portland.
a) be built
b) be building
c) build
d) to be built

12. Заполните пропуск.


Over 20 models … in the past two years.
a) was produced
b) have been produced
c) were produced
d) produced

37
Неличные формы глагола

1. Заполните пропуск.
In order to save time, we tend … fast food.
a) buying
b) to buy
c) to buying
d) buy

2. Заполните пропуск.
Travel agents usually advise … flight bookings three days before
departure.
a) to reconfirm
b) reconfirm
c) to reconfirming
d) reconfirming

3. Заполните пропуск.
Mr. Miller asked … included in the meeting with the new clients.
a) to be
b) being
c) to have been
d) be

4. Заполните пропуск.
They had difficulty … a parking place.
a) to finding
b) finding
c) to find
d) find

5. Заполните пропуск.
We advised him … a taxi instead of walking to the restaurant.
a) taking
b) to take
c) to taking

38
d) take
6. Заполните пропуск.
I don’t remember … the legend before.
a) having heard
b) to have heard
c) to hear
d) hear

7. Заполните пропуск.
We had fun … down the Colorado River.
a) rafting
b) to raft
c) to have rafted
a) raft

8. Заполните пропуск.
They prepared … early in the morning.
a) leave
b) leaving
c) to leaving
d) to leave

9. Заполните пропуск.
I can’t help … in love with him.
a) to fall
b) falling
c) fall
d) to have fallen

10. Заполните пропуск.


Do you enjoy … movies?
a) to watch
b) watch
c) watching
d) to watching

39
11. Заполните пропуск.
On the way home from work, he stopped … some groceries.
a) to buy
b) buying
c) to buying
d) buy

12. Заполните пропуск.


Lilly stopped … sweets and cakes as she was on a diet.
a) to buy
b) buying
c) to buying
d) buy

40
Фразовые глаголы

1. Заполните пропуск.
We have applied … membership of the European Marketing Scheme.
a) to
b) on
c) of
d) for

2. Заполните пропуск.
I am going to complain … their poor delivery.
a) about
b) over
c) at
d) in

3. Заполните пропуск.
I must apologise … keeping you all waiting.
a) about
b) for
c) in
d) at

4. Заполните пропуск.
We must contact them; they are waiting … our answer.
a) at
b) for
c) out
d) up

5. Заполните пропуск.
We are looking forward … meeting you.
a) on
b) to
c) about
d) with

41
6. Заполните пропуск.
Some interesting matters … in our discussion yesterday.
a) came up
b) came off
c) came by
d) came down

7. Заполните пропуск.
This piano piece is difficult to … .
a) carry away
b) carry over
c) carry off
d) carry down

8. Заполните пропуск.
Nothing … as much as your manner of speech.
a) gives you away
b) gives you back
c) gives you off
d) gives you out

9. Заполните пропуск.
Further taxes may be … this spring.
a) laid out
b) laid off
c) laid on
d) laid up

10. Заполните пропуск.


Would you please … these brochures to the other members of the
committee?
a) hand off
b) hand out
c) hand down
d) hand along

42
11. Заполните пропуск.
On his way home, Jack stopped at the supermarket … some milk.
a) to pick at
b) to pick out
c) to pick over
d) to pick up

12. Заполните пропуск.


We’re … this weekend with some friends from college.
a) getting together
b) getting back
c) getting on
d) getting up

43
Модальные глаголы

1. Заполните пропуск.
… I have one of these cakes?
a) Should
b) Must
c) Have to
d) May

2. Заполните пропуск.
… you wait a moment, please?
a) Can
b) Should
c) Must
d) Need

3. Заполните пропуск.
Where is Nick? He … be in his office.
a) should
b) would
c) might
d) ought to

4. Заполните пропуск.
Are you going to read the report? No, I … . I already know what it says.
a) mustn’t
b) shouldn’t
c) needn’t
d) can’t

5. Заполните пропуск.
I am so angry with them. I … kill them!
a) can
b) must
c) should
d) could

44
6. Заполните пропуск.
She … help you tomorrow.
a) was to
b) will be able to
c) will can
d) is able to

7. Заполните пропуск.
You … take the car, but be careful.
a) can
b) must
c) has to
d) might

8. Заполните пропуск.
The situation was bad but it … worse.
a) could
b) should be
c) could have been
d) would have been

9. Заполните пропуск.
Ask Catherine about your problem. She might … help you.
a) be able to
b) is able to
c) to be able to
d) can

10. Заполните пропуск.


The baby … sleep. There is too much noise here.
a) can’t
b) is able to
c) should
d) is allowed to

45
11. Заполните пропуск.
I can’t understand Martin. I’ve never … understand him.
a) could
b) be able
c) been able to
d) can

12. Заполните пропуск.


You … see the film. It’s so interesting!
a) must
b) can
c) have to
d) were to

46
РЕЧЕВОЙ ЭТИКЕТ

1. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Passenger 1: Excuse me, is this seat free?
Passenger 2: ____________
a) No.
b) It’s nobody’s business.
c) No, I’m afraid, not.
d) Don’t mind me!

2. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Immigration officer: Your passport, please. Have you got a visa?
Traveller: _____________
a) What for?
b) Why did you ask?
c) I will not hear of it.
d) Here you are.

3. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Customer: I would like some information on your agency. Can you help
me?
Receptionist: _____________
a) Yes, certainly. What would you like to know?
b) Yes.
c) I have the very thing you want.
d) What did you say?

4. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Shop assistant: Could I help you with anything?
Customer: ____________
a) I’m very glad to see you.
b) Show me that wristwatch!
c) Leave me alone.

47
d) Could I look at the wristwatch in this case?
5. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Employee: __________
Chief: I’d like to say yes, but it’s just not possible.
a) I need time off next week.
b) Would you mind if I had some time off?
c) Is there any chance of having time off?
d) Can you fix up time off for me?

6. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Receptionist: Doctor Howard’s office!
Patient: ____________
a) I’m ill.
b) This is Mrs. Laurence. I’d like to make an appointment.
c) What about my visit?
d) I’m glad to hear you!

7. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Driver: Excuse me, can I park my car on the other side of the street?
Policeman: _____________
a) I’d rather you didn’t.
b) I don’t think that’s a good idea.
c) Do as you think best.
d) I’m afraid not, parking isn’t allowed there.

8. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения..
Job applicant: My name is Frank Rowland. I was invited to come to an
interview. I’d like to arrange a time.
Clerk: _______________
a) Oh, really?
b) I see… Is Wednesday morning all right for you?
c) Let’s meet on Monday then.
d) Do you think we could meet to discuss it?

48
9. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Student: ____________
Hostess: Yes, I’ll have a room free after weekend.
a) I wonder if you can help me – I’m looking for a room.
b) I want you to rent a room to me.
c) I would like to book a room.
d) Is the room free now?

10. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Job applicant: Excuse me, have you any vacancies for full-time staff?
Secretary: ____________
a) I’m sorry, we are booked out.
b) We are not waiting for any one.
c) Anything in particular that appeals to you?
d) Nothing is impossible to a willing heart.

11. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Hotel guest: Will you help me to fill up this form, please?
Receptionist: _____________
a) You must do it yourself.
b) Please sign this cheque.
c) Don’t disturb me till noon, please.
d) Certainly, I’ll be glad to. Let’s have a look at it.

12. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Student: Professor, I really apologize for not attending your lecture last
Friday, I was laid up with a cold.
Professor: ____________
a) It’s all right. You couldn’t have known that.
b) What a pity! I couldn’t deliver it without you.
c) That’s quite all right. I hope your cold is better.
d) I’ll thank you to be a little more polite.

49
13. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Student 1: Happy New Year to you!
Student 2: ___________
a) My congratulations!
b) The same to you!
c) Just my luck!
d) What good news!

14. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Visitor: I’d like to cash this traveller’s cheque, please.
Bank Clerk: ___________
a) Have you got your passport with you, madam?
b) I’m very much obliged to you.
c) I’m sorry, but I’m a stranger here.
d) Would you give me one pound in silver, please?

15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Student: ___________
Librarian: It’s all right. But please, don’t forget about it next time!
a) I’m going to return the book.
b) Well, here is your book.
c) I must apologize for not returning the book in time.
d) You know, I couldn’t return the book.

16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Manager (on the phone): Good afternoon. I’d like to speak to Mr Smith,
if I may.
Secretary: ____________
a) I’m afraid Mr Smith is out at the moment. But I can take a
message for him.
b) Answer the telephone for me, please.
c) I don’t know where he is.
d) Repeat what you’ve just said.

50
17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Hostess: How about a nice cup of tea before you go?
Guest: ___________
a) A strong one without sugar.
b) No, please.
c) Let me think.
d) Yes, I’d love to.

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Policeman: Can I see your driving licence and insurance certificate?
Driver: ___________
a) Here you are.
b) Will next Monday be all right with you?
c) I like that!
d) That’s very kind of you.

19. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Chief: Miss White, will you, please, translate this notice for me?
Clerk: ___________
a) Gladly, Mister Smith.
b) I can’t.
c) Don’t disturb me, please.
d) Repeat your question.

20. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Visitor to London: ___________
Taxi Driver: We’ll be all right if the traffic’s not too heavy.
a) How long are you staying?
b) Paddington, please. I want to catch the 11.15.
c) I’m sorry to have troubled you.
d) Why doesn’t the taxi go on?

51
21. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Student: Would you mind if I opened the window? It’s stuffy in here.
Teacher: ___________
a) Well, no, but I’ll have to close it if anyone feels cold.
b) I’m afraid there’s nothing we can do about it.
c) What a shame!
d) Why? What’s happened?

22. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Clerk: ___________
Director: Certainly. Won’t you sit down?
a) Excuse me. Are you very busy just now?
b) It’s a pleasure to have met you.
c) How’s business?
d) Excuse me. I’d like to ask you a favour, if I may.

23. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Man: Shall I wait for you?
Woman: ____________
a) Yes, please. I won’t be long.
b) Oh, come along!
c) I see.
d) Well, I never! That is a nice thing to say to a lady!

24. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Hotel Guest: ____________
Hall Porter: Which room number, please, sir?
a) I’m sure you’re ready to bring my luggage down!
b) Please could you have my luggage brought down? I’ll be
leaving in about ten minutes.
c) How do you find bringing my luggage down?
d) Are you served?

52
25. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Student: I wonder if it would be possible for me to leave a bit earlier
tomorrow.
Teacher: ____________
a) That’s exactly what I think.
b) I’m afraid not. You have a test.
c) Oh, never mind, it doesn’t really matter.
d) What are you going to do about it?

53
КУЛЬТУРА И ТРАДИЦИИ СТРАН ИЗУЧАЕМОГО ЯЗЫКА

1. Заполните пропуск.
The most densely-populated country of the United Kingdom is … .
a) Scotland
b) Wales
c) England
d) Northern Ireland

2. Заполните пропуск.
Christopher Columbus landed in America in … .
a) 1620
b) 1942
c) 1492
d) 1547

3. Заполните пропуск.
The highest mountain in the United Kingdom is … .
a) Snowdon
b) Ben Nevis
c) the Adirondack Mountains
d) the Ozark Mountain Range

4. Заполните пропуск.
The longest river in Canada is … .
a) the Mackenzie
b) the Columbia
c) the Fraser
d) the Saskatchewan

5. Заполните пропуск.
Range of hills known as the “backbone of England” is … .
a) the Adirondack Mountains
b) the Ozark Mountain Range
c) the Appalachian Mountains
d) the Pennine Chain

54
6. Заполните пропуск.
The first university in America was … .
a) Boston University
b) Harvard
c) Eton
d) Oxford

7. Заполните пропуск.
Canada’s largest city is … .
a) Ottawa
b) Toronto
c) Quebec
d) Manitoba

8. Заполните пропуск.
The longest river in Britain is … .
a) the Thames
b) the Tay
c) the Tweed
d) the Severn

9. Заполните пропуск.
Loch is … .
a) a person who is not clever
b) a lake
c) a valley
d) a dale

10. Заполните пропуск.


The national symbol of America is … .
a) the rose
b) the bald eagle
c) the shamrock
d) the Statue of Liberty

55
11. Заполните пропуск.
Members of … are not elected in Canada.
a) the House of Commons
b) the House of Representatives
c) the House of Lords
d) the Senate

12. Заполните пропуск.


Caesar came from Rome to British Isles in … .
a) 55 B.C.
b) 55 A.D.
c) 43 A.D.
d) 43 B.C.

13. Заполните пропуск.


The Statue of Liberty is … .
a) in California
b) in Massachusetts
c) in New York
d) in Washington

14. Заполните пропуск.


In Canada the dates 1897-1899 refer to … .
a) Gold Rush
b) growing manufacturing industry
c) growing agriculture
d) the establishment of new provinces

15. Заполните пропуск.


Misfortune fell upon London in 1665 was … .
a) the Great Flood
b) the Plague
c) the Great Fire
d) the Great Earthquake

56
16. Заполните пропуск.
The American parliament has … chambers.
a) 4
b) 3
c) 2
d) 6

17. Заполните пропуск.


Canada’s constitutional autonomy from Britain was confirmed in … .
a) 1949
b) 1899
c) 1931
d) 1929

18. Заполните пропуск.


… presides over the British House of Commons.
a) the Speaker
b) the Prime Minister
c) the Lord Chancellor
d) the Major

19. Заполните пропуск.


The central lowlands in the USA are called … .
a) the Mississippi valley
b) the eastern lowlands
c) the prairie
d) the Missouri valley

20. Заполните пропуск.


In Canada the Government is formed by … .
a) the Queen
b) the party that wins the largest number of seats
c) by the Governor General
d) the Senate

57
21. Заполните пропуск.
Religious capital in England is … .
a) Windsor
b) York
c) Canterbury
d) Coventry

22. Заполните пропуск.


The largest state in the USA compared to all other states is … .
a) Alaska
b) Texas
c) California
d) Nevada

23. Заполните пропуск.


To create trading routes in Canada aboriginal peoples and fur traders
used … .
a) roads
b) waterways
c) railway
d) air

24. Заполните пропуск.


The world-known Speaker’s Corner is in … .
a) Kensington Gardens
b) St. James’s Park
c) Hyde Park
d) Green Park

25. Заполните пропуск.


The First State to ratify the Constitution of the US was … .
a) Delaware
b) Nebraska
c) Illinois
d) Washington

58
26. Заполните пропуск.
To encourage people to settle the Prairie provinces Canadian
government … .
a) offered to pay travel expenses
b) offered land at cheap prices
c) promised gold mines
d) paid settlers to move out west

27. Заполните пропуск.


Wimbledon is associated with … .
a) horse-racing
b) soccer
c) tennis
d) cricket

28. Заполните пропуск.


… is the poorest district of New York, where more than one million
Afro-Americans live.
a) Manhattan
b) Broadway
c) Brooklyn
d) Harlem

29. Заполните пропуск.


The first explorers came to Atlantic Canada … .
a) to establish farming communities
b) to escape wars in Europe
c) to look for gold
d) to fish and trade with First Nations People

30. Заполните пропуск.


The country’s official name became the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland in … .
a) 1801
b) 1603
c) 1535
d) 1921

59
31. Заполните пропуск.
The symbol of American advertising business is … .
a) Fifth Avenue
b) Broadway
c) Park Avenue
d) Madison Avenue

32. Заполните пропуск.


The Klondike Gold Rush occurred in … .
a) Alaska
b) Yukon
c) Northern British Columbia
d) Newfoundland

33. Заполните пропуск.


The symbol of the Lord Chancellor’s power is … .
a) the woolsack
b) the bell
c) the crown
d) the mace

34. Заполните пропуск.


… are the salaried or professional workers whose jobs generally do not
involve manual labour.
a) “Blue collars”
b) “Red collars”
c) “White collars”
d) “Gold collars”

35. Заполните пропуск.


The nickname of the Canadian dollar is … .
a) the Beaver
b) the Loonie
c) the Moose
d) the Caribou

60
36. Заполните пропуск.
The earliest known people of Britain were … .
a) the Celts
b) the Danes
c) the Anglo-Saxons
d) the Iberians

37. Заполните пропуск.


President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in … .
a) New York, NY
b) Washington, DC
c) Los Angeles, California
d) Dallas, Texas

38. Заполните пропуск.


“First Nations” is a legally defined term in Canada that came into
common usage in the 1980s to replace the word … .
a) European descendant
b) Métis
c) Indian
d) Inuit

39. Заполните пропуск.


The guards in the Tower of London are called … .
a) Tower Guards
b) Beefeaters
c) Security Guards
d) Castle Guards

40. Заполните пропуск.


… doesn’t belong to the five Great Lakes.
a) the Lake Superior
b) the Lake Huron
c) the Great Salt Lake
d) the Lake Ontario

61
ЧТЕНИЕ

TEXT 1
From the History of the Computer

(1) IBM introduced the System/360 family of computers in 1964 and


then dominated mainframe computing during the next decade for large-
scale commercial, scientific, and military applications. The System/360
and its successor, the System/370, was a series of computer models of
increasingpower that shared a common architecture so that programs
written for one model could run on another. Also in 1964, Control Data
Corporation introduced the CDC 6600 computer, which was the first
supercomputer. It was popular with weapons laboratories, research
organizations, and government agencies that required high
performance. Today’s supercomputer manufacturers include Cray
Research, NEC, Hitachi, and Fujitsu.

(2) Beginning in the late 1950s, Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)


built a series of smaller computers that it called minicomputers. These
were less powerful than the mainframes, but they were inexpensive
enough that companies could buy them instead of leasing them. The
first successful model was the PDP-8 shipped in 1965. It used a
typewriter-like device called a Teletype to input and edit programs and
data. In 1970, DEC delivered its PDP-11 minicomputer, and in the late
1970s, it introduced its VAX line of computers. For the next decade,
VAX computers were popular as departmental computers within many
companies, organizations, and universities. By the close of the 20th
century, however, the role of minicomputers had been mostly taken
over by PCs and workstations.

(3) By the mid-1970s, microchips and microprocessors had drastically


reduced the cost of the thousands of electronic components required in
a computer. The first affordable desktop computer designed specifically
for personal use was called the Altair 8800 and was sold by Micro
Instrumentation Telemetry Systems in 1974. In 1977 Tandy Corporation
became the first major electronics firm to produce a personal computer.
They added a keyboard and monitor to their computer and offered a

62
means of storing programs on a cassette recorder. Soon afterward,
entrepreneur Steve Jobs and his engineer partner Stephen Wozniak
founded a small company named Apple Computer. They introduced the
Apple II computer in 1977. Its monitor supported relatively high-
quality color graphics, and it had a floppy disk drive. The machine
initially was popular for running video games. In 1979, Daniel Bricklin
wrote an electronic spreadsheet program called VisiCalc that ran on the
Apple II. Suddenly businesses had a legitimate reason to buy personal
computers, and the era of personal computing began in earnest.

(4) IBM introduced its Personal Computer, or PC, in 1981. As a result


of competition from the makers of clones (computersthat worked
exactly like an IBM PC), the price of personal computers fell
drastically. Today’s personal computer is 400 times faster than ENIAC,
3,000 times lighter, and several million dollars cheaper. By the late
1990s, it was possible to buy a powerful PC for less than 1,000 dollars.
In rapid succession computers shrank from tabletop to lap-top and
finally to palm size. With some personal computers, called pen-pads,
people can even write directly on an etched-glass, liquid-crystal screen
using a small electronic stylus, and words will appear on the screen in
clean typescript.
(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)

1. Определите, является ли утверждение:


New programmes incredibly reduced the cost of electronic components
of the computer.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

2. Определите, является ли утверждение:


With the help of the first computers people could reduce their work,
play high-quality games and make complicated calculations.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации
3. Определите, является ли утверждение:

63
Apple Computer was introduced at the beginning of the 20 th century by
CDC Corporation.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The first supercomputer was popular with different laboratories and
organizations dealing with weapons and government.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The appearance of first minicomputers dates back to the middle of the
20th century.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Nowadays personal computers are available not only to organizations
and firms but to any individual.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

7. Ответьте на вопрос:
What main devices were necessary for proper work of the first PC?
a) A keyboard, high-quality color graphics and video games.
b) The means of storing software, a monitor and an input device.
c) A floppy disk drive, electronic spreadsheet program and a
monitor.

64
d) A cassette recorder, microchips and a microprocessor.

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The history of success of digital equipment corporations.
b) The drastic price changes in the progress of PC evolution.
c) The description of main parts and devices of computers.
d) The main stages of development of mainframes,
supercomputers and minicomputers.

TEXT 2
The Internet

(1) The Internet is a large, international computer network linking tens


of millions of users around the world. It is used daily by many
individuals for the main purposes of sending and receiving electronic
mail (e-mail), obtaining mountains of information on almost any
subject, or to communicate with coworkers on projects. Access to the
Internet is obtained only by subscription, and an Internet address is
needed to receive a message or to send a message to another Internet
user. Such addresses have a specific format that specifies the name of
the user, the machine they are working on, and where that machine is
located.

(2) The Internet began as a network of computers, the Advanced


Research Projects Agency Network, or ARPANET, supported by the
U.S. Defense Department. In the 1980s, the National Science
Foundation (NSF) supplied funding to extend the network to connect
research-based supercomputers at various sites across the U.S. By the
end of the decade, the Internet had extended to connect countries from
around the world. By the early 1990s the Internet had encompassed all
research universities, four-year colleges, federal agencies and
laboratories, and computer vendors. At the close of the 1990s, lower
personal computer prices and the ready availability of numerous online
services encouraged increased personal and home connections to the
Internet, particularly via the World Wide Web, an application that
gathers resources from the Internet into a series of menu pages, or
screens. The advent of the World Wide Web, with its relative ease of

65
use, is undoubtedly one reason for the explosion of home computer use
experienced at the close of the twentieth century.

(3) Although no single authority governs the use of the Internet, users
voluntarily adhere to a telecommunications protocol. Because there is
no governing body, however, controversy sometimes arises as to issues
of privacy and what information may or may not be allowed into the
network. In 1996, a new law designed to regulate indecent material on
the global Internet computer network was declared an unconstitutional
violation of the First Amendment guarantee of free speech by a panel of
three U.S. Federal judges.

(4) The legislation, known as the Computer Decency Act, had been
approved as part of the broad Telecommunications Act of 1996 that
won Congressional approval and was signed into law by President Bill
Clinton in February. The law's supporters said it was designed to stop
the dissemination of pornography and other unsuitable material over
the Internet network, which was used by tens of millions of adults and
children around the world. Under the legislation, the distribution of
“indecent” material over the Internet was punishable by a $250,000 fine
and up to two years in prison. The decision was the first judicial ruling
that Internet materials should be extended the same protection from
censorship as printed materials.
(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)

1. Определите, является ли утверждение:


At the end of the 20th century the Internet was available to all research
institutions, colleges and laboratories.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

2. Определите, является ли утверждение:


By now many governments in different countries have accepted
numerous laws to control the Internet.
a) истинным
b) ложным

66
c) в тексте нет информации

3. Определите, является ли утверждение:


You may use the Internet any time you need without special
registration.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:


There are some legal restrictions to use the Internet materials.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The Internet was originally designed for the purposes of governmental
and military institutions.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The breaking of the law concerning the Internet is strictly punished.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

7. Ответьте на вопрос:
What are the main tasks and purposes of the World Wide Web?
a) Sending messages to the other users of the Internet.
b) Obtaining and sending all kind of electronic information for
working, studying and entertainment.
c) Usage of home computers as a series of menu pages or screens.

67
d) Allowing or prohibition issues of private information with the
help of the network.

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) Expanding the Internet to connect different countries all over
the world.
b) The description of basic functions of the Internet and some
means of regulating the process of getting information.
c) Creating the united system of controlling research-base
supercomputers in the USA.
d) Designing the telecommunication protocol known as the
Computer Decency Act.

TEXT 3
Advantages and Disadvantages of Automated Systems

(1) Should a system be automated? Before this question can be


answered, the various positive and negative effects of introducing
automation must be considered. Two primary types of effects are
technical and economic. There are others, but they are more complex.
One reason for the complexity is that the benefits and problems of
automating a system vary considerably not only with each area of
application but also with the people who work with the system or who
are affected by it.

(2) Because automated systems are able to perform routine decision-


making tasks, they enable a company or organization to increase
productivity. In other words, more goods are manufactured or more
services rendered. Often quality can be improved as well. Such has
been the case with the automation of the supermarket. The number of
grocery items that can be checked out per minute has been greatly
increased – in some cases nearly doubled – and the extensive delays
occasionally experienced when a checkout clerk does not know the
price of an item have been eliminated. More important, the automated
reordering of goods has helped to even out the workload at warehouses
and distributors, which is of particular importance to large supermarket

68
chains. In addition, studies show that the computerized checkout
system reduces errors in charging customers by as much as 75 percent.

(3) Automation also makes possible the performance of tasks that are
well beyond the limits of human capabilities, as for example the
launching, tracking, and control of the United States space shuttle. A
project of this kind requires so many complex computations and such
rapid control responses that it can only be accomplished through the
employment of high-speed computerized systems.

(4) Automated systems, however, do have certain limitations and


drawbacks. Although usually very reliable, they can malfunction.
Moreover, an entire system may fail to operate properly if there is a
single error in setting it up. A backup system has to be provided or a
human “override” capability built into the system so that operations can
be handled manually. Automated systems also lack the flexibility of
humans. Any significant change in their function may thus require
extensive redesigning of the equipment. This problem has been
mitigated by the use of computer programs that can be modified with
relative ease, but action, sensing, and control components still have to
be tailored to specific applications. This is one reason that large
amounts of money are required as a company or industry becomes
increasingly more automated. In the long term, automation generally
yields economic benefits. An exception would be a situation where an
operation has to be automated for technical or safety reasons only.
(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)

1. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Automated systems can be extremely complex only because of the area
of application.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

2. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Automated reordering of goods can make the whole system work more
efficiently.
a) истинным
b) ложным

69
c) в тексте нет информации

3. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The US space shuttle program needs many accurate calculations and
fast responses that can be provided by computers only.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Complex automated systems should be designed so as an operator
could control them manually.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The automation of supermarkets may improve the functioning of
service, check-outs and distribution of goods.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The quality work can be dependent on only one error during the system
loading.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

7. Ответьте на вопрос:
How do automated systems improve the work of a company or an
organization?
a) The number of grocery items is increased.

70
b) More products are manufactured and more services are
provided.
c) A check out clerk always knows the price of every item.
d) Distributors don’t need to contact the company.

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The main disadvantage of a complex automated system is the
lack of money and inflexibility.
b) The effectiveness of automated systems provides the rapid
development of companies but still they’ve got some serious
negative effects.
c) The economic and technical development of any company
depends on automated systems.
d) Sometimes the system may fail and it requires extensive
redesigning of equipment.

TEXT 4
Glimpses of History of Physical Chemistry

(1) In 1896, Henri Becquerel and the Curies had discovered the
phenomenon of radioactivity. This laid the basis for nuclear chemistry
and physics. In 1919 Ernest Rutherford produced the first artificial
transmutation of elements, and in 1934 the Joliot-Curies discovered that
all elements could be made to be radioactive. By 1939 Otto Hahn, Fritz
Strassmann, and Lise Meitner had established the occurrence of
uranium fission. By the early 1940s nuclear reactions had been used to
make radioactive isotopes of all elements from atomic number 1 to 98
inclusive. Glenn Seaborg contributed much to this work. In the first 25
years of the 20th century, Rutherford's work laid the basis for the
interpretation of the structure of atoms. Gilbert Lewis, Irving Langmuir,
and Niels Bohr submitted the first qualitative concept of atomic
structure in the period 1912-25. The more workable picture was given
by the wave theory of matter (1925). In the late 1920s and early 1930s,
Linus Pauling contributed much to knowledge of the nature of the
chemical bond and of the relationship between the structure of atoms
and molecules and their properties.

71
(2) One of the most notable achievements in chemistry has been the
development or synthesis of whole new classes of materials. Early
plastics such as Parkesine, for example, developed before 1862, and
celluloid had little commercial success until the 20th century. The early
plastics had relied on the large molecules in cellulose, usually derived
from wood pulp. However, in 1909 Leo H. Baekeland, a Belgian-born
inventor in the United States, took out a patent for Bakelite, a hard,
chemically resistant plastic that he had developed. As a nonconductor
of electricity it was useful for all sorts of electrical appliances.

(3) The commercial success of Bakelite sparked great interest and


investment in the plastics industry, in the study of coal-tar products and
other hydrocarbon compounds, and in the theoretical understanding of
complex molecules. This activity led to new dyes and detergents, but it
also led to the successful manipulation of molecules to produce
materials with particular qualities such as hardness or flexibility.
Techniques were developed, often requiring catalysts and elaborate
equipment, to make these polymers – that is, complex molecules
produced by the building up of simpler structures. Among the more
important results from the advance of chemistry in this direction has
been the development of the industries for producing synthetic fibers
for use in textiles and other applications, and for producing synthetic
rubber.

(4) An even more dramatic result of the growth in chemical knowledge


has been the expansion of the modern pharmaceutical industry. Notable
early achievements include the development of acetylsalicylic acid
(aspirin) in 1899, Salvarsan (an antisyphilis drug) in 1910, and
Prontosil (an effective antistreptococcal drug) in 1932, as well as the
discovery of penicillin in 1928.
(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)

1. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The modern pharmaceutical industry became the starting point for the
growth in chemical knowledge.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

72
2. Определите, является ли утверждение:
The main discovery in chemistry was the combination of absolutely
different groups of materials, such as plastic and celluloid.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

3. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The particular qualities of polymers can be widely used in different
brunches of industry.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:


At the beginning of the 20th century the great contribution was made to
the knowledge of the nature of the chemical bond.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Some of the most outstanding pharmaceutical discoveries were made in
the late 19th – early 20th centuries.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The discovery of radioactivity gave start to numerous experiments and
it was proved that any element could be made radioactive.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

73
7. Ответьте на вопрос:
What was the result of the commercial success of a hard, chemically
resistant plastic – Bakelite?
a) It made the great interest to chemistry possible.
b) Many new dyes and detergents appeared and it was for the
commercial success of penicillin.
c) The investments to the plastic industry grew considerably,
further study of complex molecules was made and it led to the
producing of new materials.
d) The successful manipulation on molecules allowed studying
theoretical foundation of the complex molecules.

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The discoveries in physics provided the rapid growth in
chemical knowledge and pharmaceutical industry.
b) The usage of nuclear reactions gave way to the development of
chemical investors.
c) The invention of Bakelite and Prontosil allowed scientists make
new experiments in the field of radioactivity.
d) The state of chemistry as a science depends on commercial
success, most notable achievements and dramatic results.

TEXT 5
Agriculture – The Basis of Civilization

(1) The single, decisive factor that made it possible for mankind to
settle in permanent communities was agriculture. After farming was
developed in the Middle East in about 6500 BC, people living in tribes
or family units did not have to be on the move continually searching for
food or herding their animals. Once people could control the production
of food and be assured of a reliable annual supply of it, their lives
changed completely. People began to found permanent communities in
fertile river valleys. Settlers learned to use the water supply to irrigate
the land. Being settled in one place made it possible to domesticate
animals in order to provide other sources of food and clothing.

74
(2) Farming was a revolutionary discovery. It not only made settlements
possible – and ultimately the building of cities – but it also made
available a reliable food supply. With more food available, more people
could be fed. Populations therefore increased. The growing number of
people available for more kinds of work led to the development of more
complex social structures. With a food surplus, a community could
support a variety of workers who were not farmers. Farming the world
over has always relied upon a dependable water supply. For the earliest
societies this meant rivers and streams or regular rainfall. The first great
civilizations grew up along rivers. Later communities were able to
develop by taking advantage of the rainy seasons.

(3) All of the ancient civilizations probably developed in much the


same way, in spite of regional and climatic differences. As villages
grew, the accumulation of more numerous and substantial goods
became possible. Heavier pottery replaced animal-skin gourds as
containers for food and liquids. Cloth could be woven from wool and
flax. Permanent structures made of wood, brick, and stone could be
erected.

(4) The science of mathematics was an early outgrowth of agriculture.


People studied the movements of the moon, sun, and planets to
calculate seasons. In so doing they created the first calendars. With a
calendar it was possible to calculate the arrival of each growing season.
Measurement of land areas was necessary if property was to be divided
accurately. Measurements of amounts – for example, of seeds or grains
– was also a factor in farming and housekeeping. Later came measures
of value as commodity and money exchange became common. The use
of various ways of measuring led naturally to record keeping, and for
this some form of writing was necessary. The earliest civilizations all
seem to have used picture-writing – pictures representing both sounds
and objects to the reader. The best known of the ancient writing systems
is probably Egyptian hieroglyphics, a term meaning “sacred carvings,”
since many of the earliest writings were inscribed on stone. (Britannica
Student Encyclopedia Library)

1. Определите, является ли утверждение:

75
Nature studying and mathematics were of great help for early
agriculture development.
a) в тексте нет информации
b) ложным
c) истинным

2. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The main purpose of farming development in ancient societies was to
provide food for domestic animals.
a) истинным
b) в тексте нет информации
c) ложным

3. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Ancient civilizations had different regional and climatic conditions and
it affected the specific development of agriculture.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The best place for permanent ancient communities were forests and
mountains.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The development of agriculture caused the appearance of new materials
that replaced the ones used before.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 1
d) 4

76
6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует
следующая информация:
Some forms of writing were necessary to make some records on
housekeeping.
a) 1
b) 4
c) 2
d) 3

7. Ответьте на вопрос:
Why do we consider farming to be revolutionary?
a) The process of constant migration was promoted by the
farming.
b) Farming became dependable on water supply and rainfalls.
c) It was farming that stated the intensive development of Maths
as a science.
d) It provided people with constant food supply, the number of
people increased, towns began to grow.

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) At the early stage the decisive factor for rapid development of
civilization was fast outgrowth of agriculture.
b) The intensive growth of sciences was the main reason for
revolutionary farming.
c) The regional and climatic conditions influenced the
development of towns and cities.
d) The foundation of a civilized society was searching for food
and herding animals.

TEXT 6
Global Biodiversity Crisis

(1) Biodiversity is the sum of all the different species of animals,


plants, fungi, and microbial organisms living on Earth and the variety
of habitats in which they live. Scientists estimate that upwards of 10
million – and some suggest more than 100 million – different species
inhabit the Earth. Each species is adapted to its unique niche in the

77
environment, from the peaks of mountains to the depths of deep-sea
hydrothermal vents, and from polar ice caps to tropical rain forests.

(2) Most biologists accept the estimate of American evolutionary


biologist Edward O. Wilson that the Earth is losing approximately
27,000 species per year. This estimate is based primarily on the rate of
disappearance of ecosystems, especially tropical forests and grasslands,
and our knowledge of the species that live in such systems. We can
measure the rate of loss of tropical rain forests, for example, by
analyzing satellite photographs of continents from different periods that
show rates and amounts of habitat destruction – and from these
measurements calculate the approximate number of species being lost
each year.

(3) This extraordinary rate of extinction has occurred only five times
before in the history of complex life on Earth. Mass extinctions of the
geological past were caused by catastrophic physical disasters, such as
climate changes or meteorite impacts, which destroyed and disrupted
ecosystems around the globe. In the fifth mass extinction, which
occurred more than 65 million years ago, the Earth was shrouded in a
cloud of atmospheric dust - the result of meteorite impact or
widespread volcanic activity. The resulting environmental disruption
caused the demise of 76 percent of all species alive at the time,
including the dinosaurs.

(4) Today’s sixth extinction is likewise primarily caused by ecosystem


disturbance – but this time the destroying force is not the physical
environment, but rather humankind. The human transformation of the
Earth’s surface threatens to be every bit as destructive as any of the past
cataclysmic physical disasters.
(Microsoft Encarta, 2008)

1. Определите, является ли утверждение:


All biologists agree with American scientist Edward O. Wilson who
claims that about 27,000 species are lost each year.
a) в тексте нет информации
b) истинным
c) ложным

78
2. Определите, является ли утверждение:
The result of the fifth mass extinction was disappearance of 76 percent
of species, including the dinosaurs.
a) истинным
b) в тексте нет информации
c) ложным

3. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The fifth mass extinction of species happened about 56 million years
ago.
a) ложным
b) истинным
c) в тексте нет информации

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Most biologists agree that life on Earth is now faced with the most
severe extinction of species.
a) ложным
b) в тексте нет информации
c) истинным

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Estimates of species inhabiting the Earth amount to more than 100
million.
a) 3
b) 1
c) 4
d) 2

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The sixth extinction of species is caused by the human transformation
of the Earth.
a) 2
b) 4
c) 1
d) 3

79
7. Ответьте на вопрос:
How can the rate of loss of tropical rain forests be measured?
a) by analyzing some satellite photographs of continents
b) by analyzing satellite photographs of continents from various
periods
c) by calculating the approximate number of species lost each
year
d) by analyzing several photographs of continents

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The greatest threat to global biodiversity is the human
destruction of natural habitats.
b) Biodiversity underlies everything from food production to
medical research.
c) Scientists around the world are cataloging and studying global
biodiversity.
d) The greatest value of biodiversity is yet unknown.

TEXT 7
Ocean and Oceanography

(1) Ocean is a great body of salt water comprising all the oceans and
seas that cover nearly three-fourths of the surface of the earth.
Oceanography is the scientific study of the physical, chemical, and
biological aspects of the so-called world ocean. The major goals of
oceanography are to understand the geologic and geochemical
processes involved in the evolution and alteration of the ocean and its
basin, to evaluate the interaction of the ocean and the atmosphere, and
to describe how the biological productivity in the sea is controlled.

(2) The world ocean covers 71 percent of the earth’s surface, or about
361 million sq km. Its average depth is 5,000 m, and its total volume is
about 1,347,000,000 cu km. The three major subdivisions of the world
ocean are the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean,
which are conventionally bounded by the continental masses. The two
minor subdivisions of the world ocean are the Southern Ocean,

80
bounded by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to the north and
Antarctica to the south, and the Arctic Ocean.

(3) The oceans are being looked to as a major source of food for the
future. Estimates of the yearly world ocean production of organic
matter amount to about 130 billion metric tons. This process begins
with phytoplankton, which are photosynthetic plants that turn carbon
into organic matter with the aid of sunlight; zooplankton and fish feed
on phytoplankton, and each member of this part of the food web has its
own predator. Most of this organic matter is recycled and reused.

(4) The harvestable amount of organic matter is a function of


technology, tastes, needs, and the ability of the system to sustain this
harvest. Presently, yearly harvests amount to about 82 million metric
tons of fish and about 500,000 metric tons of seaweed. Estimates of the
maximum harvestable amounts on a sustained-yield basis amount to
about 100 million metric tons per year. Thus, predictions are that the
sea can yield only about 25 percent more than the present amount of
organic food resources. Food from the sea will be a good source of
protein, but cannot meet the total world demand for calories in the
future. The present yield of about 83 million tons per year supplies
about 5.6 percent of the protein needs of the world at the present time.
(Microsoft Encarta, 2008)

1. Определите, является ли утверждение:


All the oceans and seas cover three-fifths of the earth’s surface.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

2. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The world ocean produces about 130 billion metric tons of organic
matter per year.
a) в тексте нет информации
b) истинным
c) ложным

81
3. Определите, является ли утверждение:
The oceans are considered to be a major source of food that can provide
the world with the total amount of calories needed in the future.
a) ложным
b) в тексте нет информации
c) истинным

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The mineral resources of the sea have only recently begun to be known.
a) истинным
b) в тексте нет информации
c) ложным

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
One of the major aims of oceanography is to estimate the interaction of
the ocean and the atmosphere.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 1
d) 4

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Estimates of the yearly fish harvest.
a) 4
b) 1
c) 3
d) 2

7. Ответьте на вопрос:
What are the three major subdivisions of the world ocean?
a) The three major subdivisions of the world ocean are the
Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and the Southern Ocean.
b) The three major subdivisions of the world ocean are the
Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean.

82
c) The three major subdivisions of the world ocean are the
Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean.
d) The three major subdivisions of the world ocean are the
Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Indian Ocean.

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The biological productivity in the sea should be controlled.
b) The world ocean should be studied thoroughly as it is seen as a
major source of food for the future.
c) The study of the two minor subdivisions of the world ocean.
d) There are regions of high and low productivity in the oceans.

TEXT 8
Swimming

(1) Swimming is an act of moving through the water by using the arms,
legs, and body in motions called strokes. The most common strokes are
the crawl, backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, and sidestroke.
Swimming is an integral part of almost all water-based activities. It is
also a competitive sport itself.

(2) Some scientists believe that human beings are born with an
instinctive ability to use their arms and legs to stay afloat. That instinct,
however, disappears within a few months after birth. Later in life many
children and adults learn to swim in order to be safe around the water,
to have fun, and to participate in competition. People can swim in any
body of water large enough to permit free movement. These areas
include ponds, lakes, rivers, the ocean, and pools. Most people enjoy
swimming in water that is between 18° and 29°C.

(3) In many parts of the world, people learn to swim by imitating


others, most often their parents, brothers, sisters, and friends. Most
youngsters in North America also take lessons at swim clubs,
community centers, schools, or recreational facilities. Instructors teach
students skills that will make them safe, efficient, and confident
swimmers. Beginners first put their heads in the water and blow

83
bubbles by exhaling. Gradually, students progress to floating, treading
water, and ultimately, learning the techniques of the major strokes.

(4) Students use various pieces of equipment during these lessons.


Water-wings are inflatables worn around the upper arms; they allow
children to float easily. Kickboards are buoyant boards that students can
rest their arms on; this keeps their upper bodies afloat and allows them
to concentrate on kicking correctly. Pull-buoys are foam floats that
swimmers hold between their thighs to keep the lower body high and
flat on the surface of water; using them, students can learn the arm and
upper body movements of various strokes. Paddles are small, firm
boards fitted over the hands; they force students to pull their arms
through the water correctly. Fins worn on the feet allow swimmers to
go faster and to develop proper body position and power.
(Microsoft Encarta, 2008)

1. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The majority of scientists state that humans are born with an instinctive
ability to float in water.
a) ложным
b) в тексте нет информации
c) истинным

2. Определите, является ли утверждение:


In rivers and oceans, all swimmers should respect the power of nature.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

3. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Water-wings prevent children from floating.
a) в тексте нет информации
b) ложным
c) истинным

84
4. Определите, является ли утверждение:
Instructors teach students skills that will make them protected, affected,
and self-assured.
a) ложным
b) истинным
c) в тексте нет информации

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Human beings can swim in any body of water permitting free
movement.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
During their lessons students can learn various strokes with the help of
different equipment.
a) 4
b) 3
c) 2
d) 1

7. Ответьте на вопрос:
What are paddles used for?

a) They help students learn the arm movements of various strokes.


b) They keep the lower body high and flat on the surface of water.
c) They allow swimmers to go faster.
d) They make students’ arms move through the water right.

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) Competitive swimming is one of the most popular participant
sports in the world.
b) Swimming is a valuable activity.

85
c) Human beings have been swimming for thousands of years.
d) People can swim in ponds, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, and pools
large enough for their free movement.

TEXT 9
First Aid

(1) Despite the variety of injuries possible, several principles of first aid
apply to all emergencies. The first step is to call for professional
medical help. Determine that the scene of the accident is safe before
attempting to provide first aid. Next, assess the scene, asking
bystanders or the injured person’s family or friends about details of the
injury or illness, any care that may have already been given, and
preexisting conditions such as diabetes or heart trouble.

(2) First aid requires rapid assessment of victims to determine whether


life-threatening conditions exist. One method for evaluating a victim’s
condition is known by the acronym ABCs, which stands for:
A – Airway – is it open and unobstructed?
B – Breathing – is the person breathing? Look, listen, and feel for
breathing.
C – Circulation – is there a pulse? Is the person bleeding externally?
Check skin color and temperature for additional indications of
circulation problems.

(3) Once obvious injuries have been evaluated, the injured person’s
head should be kept in a neutral position in line with the body. If no
evidence exists to suggest potential skull or spinal injury, place the
injured person in a comfortable position. Positioned on one side, a
victim can vomit without choking or obstructing the airway.

(4) Before treating specific injuries, protect the victim from shock -a
depression of the body’s vital functions that, left untreated, can result in
death. Shock occurs when blood pressure (pressure exerted against
blood vessel walls) drops and the organs do not receive enough blood,
depriving them of oxygen and nutrients. The symptoms of shock are
anxiety or restlessness; pale, cool, clammy skin; a weak but rapid pulse;

86
shallow breathing; bluish lips; and nausea. These symptoms may not be
apparent immediately, as shock can develop several hours after an
accident. To prevent shock, the victim should be covered with blankets
or warm clothes to maintain a normal body temperature. The victim’s
feet should be elevated. Because of the danger of abdominal injuries,
nothing should be administered by mouth.
(Microsoft Encarta, 2008)

1. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Several principles of first aid can be applied to some emergencies.
a) истинным
b) в тексте нет информации
c) ложным

2. Определите, является ли утверждение:


First of all it’s necessary to evaluate a victim’s condition with the help
of the ABC method.
a) в тексте нет информации
b) ложным
c) истинным

3. Определите, является ли утверждение:


In some cases the injured person may be placed in a comfortable
position.
a) ложным
b) истинным
c) в тексте нет информации

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Shock always develops immediately after an accident.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
To provide first aid it’s necessary to assess the scene of the accident.

87
a) 2
b) 4
c) 3
d) 1

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Skin color and temperature should be checked.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 1
d) 4

7. Ответьте на вопрос:
What are the symptoms of shock?
a) The symptoms of shock are uneasiness; ashen, warm, clammy
skin; a weak but rapid pulse; shallow breathing; bluish lips; and
nausea.
b) The symptoms of shock are distress or restlessness; pale, cool,
dry skin; a weak and slow pulse; shallow breathing; bluish lips;
and nausea.
c) The symptoms of shock are anxiety or restlessness; white, cool,
clammy skin; a feeble but rapid pulse; deep breathing; pale
lips; and sickness.
d) The symptoms of shock are worry; pale, cold, clammy skin; a
weak but quick pulse; not deep breathing; bluish lips; and
nausea.

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) Each student should know how to provide first aid.
b) First aid skills are essential for life.
c) Primary school students should be taught how to provide first
aid.
d) Any person can be saved with the help of the ABCs.

88
TEXT 10
Internal-Combustion Engine

(1) Internal-Combustion Engine is any type of machine that obtains


mechanical energy directly from the expenditure of the chemical energy
of fuel burned in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the
engine. Four principal types of internal-combustion engines are in
general use: the Otto-cycle engine, the diesel engine, the rotary engine,
and the gas turbine.

(2) The Otto-cycle engine, named after its inventor, the German
technician Nikolaus August Otto, is the familiar gasoline engine used in
automobiles and airplanes; the diesel engine, named after the French-
born German engineer Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel, operates on a
different principle and usually uses oil as a fuel. It is employed in
electric-generating and marine-power plants, in trucks and buses, and in
some automobiles. Both Otto-cycle and diesel engines are
manufactured in two-stroke and four-stroke cycle models.

(3) The efficiency of a modern Otto-cycle engine is limited by a


number of factors, including losses by cooling and by friction. In
general, the efficiency of such engines is determined by the
compression ratio of the engine. The compression ratio (the ratio
between the maximum and minimum volumes of the combustion
chamber) is usually about 8 to 1 or 10 to 1 in most modern Otto-cycle
engines. Higher compression ratios, up to about 15 to 1, with a
resulting increase of efficiency, are possible with the use of high-octane
antiknock fuels. The efficiencies of good modern Otto-cycle engines
range between 20 and 25 percent - in other words, only this percentage
of the heat energy of the fuel is transformed into mechanical energy.

(4) The efficiency of the diesel engine, which is in general governed by


the same factors that control the efficiency of Otto-cycle engines, is
inherently greater than that of any Otto-cycle engine and in actual
engines today is slightly more than 40 percent. Diesels are, in general,
slow-speed engines with crankshaft speeds of 100 to 750 revolutions
per minute (rpm) as compared to 2500 to 5000 rpm for typical Otto-

89
cycle engines. Some types of diesel, however, have speeds up to 2000
rpm. Because diesels use compression ratios of 14 or more to 1, they
are generally more heavily built than Otto-cycle engines, but this
disadvantage is counterbalanced by their greater efficiency and the fact
that they can be operated on less expensive fuel oils.
(Microsoft Encarta, 2008)

1. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The Otto-cycle engine is named after the Dutch technician who created
it.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

2. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Internal-combustion engine is one of the most important inventions of
the mid- to late 1800s.
a) в тексте нет информации
b) ложным
c) истинным

3. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The diesel engine is more effective than Otto-cycle engine.
a) ложным
b) в тексте нет информации
c) истинным

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The compression ratio is the ratio between the minimum and maximum
volumes of the combustion chamber.
a) ложным
b) истинным
c) в тексте нет информации

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The rotary engine is one of the four types of internal-combustion
engines.

90
a) 4
b) 3
c) 1
d) 2

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The diesel engine uses oil as a fuel.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 4
d) 1

7. Ответьте на вопрос:
What is the average crankshaft speed of diesels?
a) 100 to 750 rpm
b) 2500 to 5000 rpm
c) up to 2000 rpm
d) 500 rpm

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The introduction of the internal-combustion engine led almost
immediately to the development of the automobile.
b) The essential parts of Otto-cycle and diesel engines are the
same.
c) Unlike steam engines and turbines, internal-combustion
engines develop no torque when starting.
d) Diesels are more effective and use cheaper fuel than Otto-cycle
engines.

TEXT 11
Travel Operators and Resorts

(1) In 1841 an English Baptist missionary named Thomas Cook


arranged a railway excursion from Leicester to Loughborough for a
temperance group. Three years later the railroad – the Midland
Counties Railway Company – agreed to make the excursion a

91
permanent feature if Cook would provide the passengers. He became
the first travel agent, and the company he founded – Thomas Cook and
Son – went on to become one of the world’s leading travel agencies
with offices around the world. In the late 1950s, before the jet age,
there were about 3,000 travel agents in the United States. By the late
1980s there were more than 20,000, with tens of thousands more
worldwide.

(2) A travel agent is a retailer, an intermediary between the prospective


traveler and all the components of a trip. Agents book and sell airline,
train, bus, and ship tickets. They reserve hotel rooms and arrange for
ground transportation at the destination. For these and other services
they are paid a commission by those whose wares they sell. Tour
operators are companies that arrange every aspect of a travel package.
They bring together all the elements of a trip for travelers or for groups
of travelers: plane reservations and tickets, hotel arrangements, ground
transportation, entertainment, and more. All these components are sold
together as a package. Travelers may deal directly with a tour company,
or they may book tours through a travel agent.

(3) Today there is a great deal of overlapping between the services of


travel agents and tour operators. Companies like Thomas Cook and
American Express perform both services, and many independent travel
agencies put together tour packages for customers. Among the other
major tour companies now operating around the world are: Maupintour,
Cartan, Four Winds Travel, International Weekends, Olson Travel,
Hemphill-Harris Tours etc.

(4) Resorts are special-purpose destinations. They may be places in the


sun to get away from winter’s cold; they may be places in the snow to
enjoy skiing and other winter sports; or they may be health resorts such
as Hot Springs, Arkansas, or Baden-Baden, Germany. Modern resorts
have their antecedents in health spas dating back to the late Middle
Ages in continental Europe and in seaside resorts that emerged in
England in the 18th century. Spa is the name of a town in Belgium that
has long been noted for its beneficial mineral waters. There are a great
many similar towns and cities in Europe and England to which people

92
have gone for centuries, hoping for cures for a variety of ailments. The
first well-known sea resort was Brighton, England, still a popular
summer vacation spot.
(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)

1. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Thomas Cook founded the world famous company which has many
branches all over the world.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

2. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The function of tour operators and travel agents is to provide customers
with information on habits and ways of all countries.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

3. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Tour operators are responsible for all points of travel program.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Modern resorts are situated mainly in Britain and Belgium.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
There are many popular health resorts in different European towns now.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3

93
d) 4

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The work of a travel agency can be compared with that of a retailer
who operates like an intermediary between the seller and the customers.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

7. Ответьте на вопрос:
What are the differences between travel agents and tour operators?
a) Travel agents are paid a commission by the ware seller while
tour operators book tours through a travel agent.
b) Travel agents reserve hotel rooms and organize ground
transportation while tour operators are responsible for
entertainment and tickets.
c) Tour operators arrange trips for groups of travelers while travel
agents mainly deal with individuals.
d) Tour operators are companies that sell all the elements of a trip
as a package while travel agents sell various services as
retailers.

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The major kind of travel arranged by such famous companies
as Cartan, Four Winds Travel, Tez Tour, Trafalgar Tour and the
like.
b) The history of development of travelling business in the world.
c) The main trends and activities of companies organizing
different travels.
d) The main functions of travel agents and tour operators.

TEXT 12
What an Economy Is

(1) An economy is the wealth-producing segment of society. Wealth is


defined as the total produce of agriculture and manufacturing. Without

94
products there can be no wealth. This means, of course, that money is
not wealth. Money is a means of exchange and may be called the
economic equivalent of wealth.

(2) Economies exist because all human beings have needs and desires.
All human physical needs are the same: food, clothing, and shelter.
Desires, on the other hand, are virtually infinite. No one actually needs
a television set, automobile, stereo set, or microwave oven. But such
commodities have become so common in modern industrialized
societies that few people would do without them. The needs of society
are satisfied by the production of goods – society’s wealth. The desires
are satisfied in the same way.

(3) Wealth – all products taken together – is produced by labor. This


type of labor can therefore be called productive labor. Much of
society’s labor does not create wealth. It is thus called nonproductive
labor. To say that it is nonproductive is not to say something negative
about it. Most forms of nonproductive labor are necessary in civilized
societies. The labor of those who work in government, education,
religion, athletics, some of the arts, and the military does not produce
products. Therefore it does not create wealth to add to the prosperity of
a nation. But these services are needed because no society is entirely
economic in its nature, though most modern societies are basically
economic units or collections of such units.

(4) The products that are wealth serve to create money. Without
products there would be no need for money. If every family grew its
own food, built its own housing, and made its own clothing, it would
have no need for money – unless, of course, it had desires that it could
not satisfy within the household. Money emerges as a product
substitute, a means by which unlike products can be exchanged for each
other. It is much easier to use money to buy a pair of shoes than to trade
a cow for 20 pairs of shoes that are not needed. Money facilitates the
movement of goods. It becomes a standard that people in a society use
in exchange for what they need and want. It also helps keep production
going. The person who produces shoes and sells them obtains money to
buy more leather and to make more shoes.
(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)

95
1. Определите, является ли утверждение:
Non- productive labour is not very important because it doesn’t make
anything useful for prosperity of the society.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

2. Определите, является ли утверждение:


People in every society have much more desires the society can offer.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

3. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The quantity of manufactured goods depends on human requirements.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Money is not necessary in the household capable to satisfy all its needs
and desires.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Both productive and non-productive labour play an important role in
the life of the society.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The prosperity of the society depends on proper combination of all
branches of industry and farming.

96
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

7. Ответьте на вопрос:
What is the main purpose of economy?
a) It satisfies the needs and desires in the same way.
b) It exists only to provide basic needs – shelter, food, clothing.
c) It helps to produce such commodities as a TV set, an
automobile or a microwave oven.
d) It serves to satisfy the needs and desires of all human beings in
every society.

8. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The main functions and aims of economy.
b) The needs and desires of human beings.
c) Wealth and prosperity of all modern societies.
d) Money as a means of exchanging and the economic of wealth.

97
ЧАСТЬ II
Тест № 1

1. Заполните пропуск.
To work for this company you need a university … .
a) co-education
b) degree
c) term
d) failure

2. Заполните пропуск.
‘I’ll be … a meeting today between 2 and 3pm.’
a) attending
b) attaining
c) attacking
d) attempting

3. Заполните пропуск.
Learning … are basically statements which clearly describe an
anticipated learning outcome.
a) methods
b) objects
c) objectives
d) practices

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is the study of what pulls an individual to start, direct, sustain, and
finally end an activity.
a) Education
b) Achievement
c) Motivation
d) Avoidance

98
5. Заполните пропуск.
There is a … of ways of behaving when we are communicating with
others.
a) vary
b) variety
c) various
d) variant

6. Заполните пропуск.
Many women work full time, leaving their children in the care of … .
a) others
b) other
c) anyone
d) everyone

7. Заполните пропуск.
You’re standing too near the camera. Can you move a bit … away?
a) far
b) farther
c) more far
d) farthest

8. Заполните пропуск.
I would like some … coffee, please.
a) a
b) the
c) -
d) an

9. Заполните пропуск.
During the course … the 1600s this situation changed dramatically.
a) of
b) in
c) at
d) on

99
10. Заполните пропуск.
… these innovations, in the 21st century broadcasting remained the
single most important component of mass communication.
a) In spite
b) Despite
c) Although
d) Despite of

11. Заполните пропуск.


The theory … in the last 30 years by Russian linguists.
a) developed
b) were developed
c) has been developed
d) is developed

12. Заполните пропуск.


The question is easy … .
a) to answer
b) answer
c) answering
d) to answering

13. Заполните пропуск.


The traffic was moving slowly because a bus had … and was blocking
the road.
a) broken up
b) fallen down
c) fallen over
d) broken down

14. Заполните пропуск.


… you speak French before you moved to Paris?
a) Can
b) May
c) Could
d) Might

100
15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Phil: How about a cup of coffee?
Lucy: _____________________
a) Don’t bother about seeing me off.
b) What else is new?
c) What for?
d) It’s not a bad idea, but maybe some other time.

16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Manager: I’d like to make an appointment with Mr. Bill.
Secretary: _____________________
a) What do you want?
b) When would it be a good time for you?
c) Sorry, but I don’t know.
d) I’m afraid not. I’m sorry.

17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Student: Could you tell me something about what is expected with our
essays?
University teacher: _________________
a) Is there anything you want?
b) No. You must do them anyway.
c) Yes. We’ll be looking carefully at your writing style and ability
as much as at the content of your essays.
d) Care killed the cat!

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Reservations clerk: Northwind Airlines. Can I help you?
Passenger: _________________
a) Hello. I’d like to reconfirm my flight, please.
b) What flight was it?
c) I should be at the airport at 3.30 p.m.
d) I am not quite happy about with your idea.

101
19. Заполните пропуск.
The United Kingdom consists of … .
a) England, Scotland, Wales
b) Great Britain and Northern Ireland
c) England and Scotland
d) Great Britain, Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic.

20. Заполните пропуск.


Washington, D.C., is a … .
a) state
b) country
c) district
d) city

21. Заполните пропуск.


Canada is subdivided into … provinces.
a) 3
b) 10
c) 8
d) 4

22. Заполните пропуск.


The founder of the Lake School of poets was … .
a) G.G. Baron
b) R.L. Stevenson
c) W. Wordsworth
d) R. Burns

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) Lingua Services Galactic Ltd


69 Milk Street
LONDON SW7 6AW
(2) 12 September 2010
(3) I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours faithfully,

102
(4) I should be grateful if you would send us your brochure and
price list about your translation services.
We are currently developing our sales literature and web sites
and are interested in translating these into five languages apart
from English.
(5) Dreamtime Movies Universal Ltd
54 Oxford Road, Skagnes SK3 4RG
Tel: 0223 123 4567 Fax: 0223 765 4321
Email: info@dreamtimemovies.com.uk
(6) _____________
Andrea Philips
Marketing Manager
(7) Dear Sirs,

24. Перед Вами конверт.


New Jersey Power Company
5695 South 23 Road
(1) Ridgefield, (2) NJ 08887
(3) Mr. Frederick Wolf
Director of Marketing
(4) Smith Printing Company
590 (5) Sixth Avenue
Milwaukee, (6) WI 53216

Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на


конверте с тем, что она обозначает.
a) ___ the addressee
b) ___ the ZIP Code in the return address
c) ___ the town the letter comes from
d) ___ the street name in the mailing address
e) ___ the ZIP Code in the mailing address
f) ___ the addressee’s company name

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.
……………………………………..
Dear Mr Barron

103
Bilingual Personal Assistant

I wish to apply for the post of Bilingual Personal Assistant advertised in


today’s issue of the New York Times.
You will see from the enclosed resume that I have ten years' experience
in the publishing field, the last seven as a bilingual secretary. I have
also traveled widely, accompanying the vice president on trips to Asia.
……………………………………..
a) CV
b) Resume
c) Letter of application
d) Letter of enquiry / request

26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения


пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
служебной записки.

To : S M Chan, (1) _________


(2) ___ : Samantha Barrows, Office Manager
Date : 12 October 2010
Subject : (3) ____________

At the monthly (4) ______ on Tuesday, 9 October 2010, you requested


information about the possible purchase of a microwave oven. I would
now like to present these details. ………………
S.B.

a) ____ Purchase of a microwave oven


b) ____ From
c) ____ staff meeting
d) ____ General Manager

27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

Psychology

(1) Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Its immediate goal
is to understand humanity by both discovering general principles and

104
exploring specific cases, and its ultimate aim is to benefit society. In
this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a
psychologist, and is classified as a social or behavioral scientist.
Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in
individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological
and neurological processes that underlie certain functions and
behaviors.

(2) Psychologists explore such concepts as perception, cognition,


attention, emotion, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior,
and interpersonal relationships. Some, especially depth psychologists,
also consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical
methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between
psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing
empirical and deductive methods, some – especially clinical and
counseling psychologists – at times rely upon symbolic interpretation
and other inductive techniques. Psychology incorporates research from
the social sciences, natural sciences, and humanities.

(3) While psychological knowledge is typically applied to the


assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also applied
to understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of
human activity. Although the majority of psychologists are involved in
some kind of therapeutic role (clinical, counseling, and school
positions); many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related
to mental processes and social behavior (typically in university
psychology departments) and/or teach such knowledge in academic
settings; and some are employed in industrial and organizational
settings, and in other areas.

(4) From the 1890s until his death in 1939, the Austrian physician
Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a method of investigation of
the mind and the way one thinks; a systematized set of theories about
human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or
emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict. Freud’s
psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods,
introspection and clinical observations. Clinically, Freud helped to

105
pioneer the method of free association and a therapeutic interest in
dream interpretation.
(Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia)

Определите, является ли утверждение:


The fundamental purpose of psychology is to bring advantage to
society.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

28. Определите, является ли утверждение:


All psychologists employ symbolic interpretation and other inductive
methods.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Psychologists can be employed in industry.
a) истинным*
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


In his psychoanalytic theory Freud employs empirical methods only.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Some psychologists explore the unconscious mind.
a) 2
b) 3
c) 1
d) 4

106
32. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует
следующая информация:
Psychological knowledge can be taught at educational establishments.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 4
d) 1

33. Ответьте на вопрос.


What methods do psychologists generally employ?
a) empirical methods
b) quantitative models
c) inductive methods
d) symbolic interpretation.

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The word ‘psychology’ literally means, ‘study of the soul’.
b) Psychoanalytic theory and therapy were criticized by
psychologists and philosophers.
c) Psychology has practical value and psychological knowledge
can be applied to different spheres of human activity.
d) The study of psychology in philosophical context dates back to
the ancient civilizations.

107
Тест № 2

1. Заполните пропуск.
Only students who are … on this course may enter the classroom.
a) renamed
b) enrolled
c) revised
d) retaken

2. Заполните пропуск.
Today’s … covers our new policy on over-time pay.
a) agenda
b) ageing
c) agency
d) aggregation

3. Заполните пропуск.
The term … refers to individuals who can function in more than one
language.
a) bilinear
b) bilingual
c) educator
d) native speaker

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is the ability to read and to write at a standard appropriate both to the
individual’s needs and to society’s expectations.
a) Literature
b) Education
c) Learning
d) Literacy

5. Заполните пропуск.
The mutual … of each other’s position leads to more open
communication.
a) acceptable
b) accept
c) acceptance
d) accepted

108
6. Заполните пропуск.
Society in the US is faced with many moral dilemmas and decisions
about … future.
a) its
b) it’s
c) his
d) it

7. Заполните пропуск.
The traffic isn’t particularly bad today. It’s no … than usual.
a) bad
b) badly
c) worse
d) worser

8. Заполните пропуск.
People say she’s … honest person.
a) the
b) an
c) -
d) a

9. Заполните пропуск.
We can distinguish … particular North American, Caribbean, Southern
African, and Australasian English.
a) in
b) to
c) into
d) between

10. Заполните пропуск.


He is … in Paris or in London.
a) neither
b) either
c) whether
d) or

109
11. Заполните пропуск.
These epic explorations … some 50,000 years ago.
a) begun
b) begin
c) have begun
d) began

12. Заполните пропуск.


Are you thinking of … London?
a) to visiting
b) to visit
c) visit
d) visiting

13. Заполните пропуск.


I didn’t enjoy the trip very much at the time, but when I … on it now, I
realize it was a good experience.
a) look about
b) look down
c) look back
d) look through

14. Заполните пропуск.


I’m learning English because I want … to speak to people when I’m in
Britain.
a) be able
b) can
c) to can
d) to be able

15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Martin: ______________
Lilly: Sorry. I’m busy this weekend.
a) I wonder if you might be interested in skiing this weekend?
b) Could I ask you something if you’re not too busy? I wonder if
you could go skiing this weekend.

110
c) How about going skiing this weekend?
d) I wondered if you were free at the weekend to go skiing with
me.

16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Mr. Middleton: _______________
Ms. Terry’s secretary: Would 9:00 on Thursday be okay?
a) I’m going to see Ms. Terry.
b) I’d like to schedule a meeting with Ms. Terry.
c) Where is your boss?
d) I’ll come round on Thursday.

17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Student: _____________
Mr. Fitch: Hello. Yes. Can I help you?
a) Excuse me, are you Mr. Fitch? Dr Addlestone’s assistant?
b) Are you Mr. Fitch?
c) I want to see Mr. Fitch.
d) Hi, what about a small talk?

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Immigration officer: May I have your passport and form I-94, please?
Paul Redfield: ____________
a) Don’t bother, please.
b) Here you are.
c) I’m not going to ruin your plans.
d) That’s great!

19. Заполните пропуск.


Great Britain includes … .
a) England, Wales and Northern Ireland
b) Great Britain and Northern Ireland
c) England and Scotland
d) England, Scotland, Wales

111
20. Заполните пропуск.
Thanksgiving Day is celebrated in … .
a) December
b) February
c) November
d) August

21. Заполните пропуск.


The capital of Canada is … .
a) Ottawa
b) Toronto
c) Quebec
d) Montreal

22. Заполните пропуск.


… fought against racial discrimination in the 1960s.
a) Abraham Lincoln
b) Frank Lloyd Wright
c) Emily Dickson
d) Martin Luther King, Jr.

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) Enclosure: Invoice #223


(2) Dear Mr. Davis,
(3) Sampson’s Stationary
30 Silverstone Ave
Kamloops, BC
V2A 8B1
Tel: 250-429-0002
(4) Our ref: #223
(5) Sincerely,
(6) February 21st, 2010
(7) ____________
Maria McPhee
Accountant

112
(8) Our records show that you have an outstanding balance dating
back to January, 2010. Your January invoice was for $445.00
and we have yet to receive this payment. Please find a copy of
the invoice enclosed. ……
(9) Mr. Ken Davis
Hanson’s Montessori School
15 Main St.
Kamloops, BC
V2A 7B5

24. Перед Вами конверт.


(1) LANCASHIRE ENTERPRISES plc
Enterprises House
17 Ribblesdale Place – Winckley Square
Preston (2) PR1 3NA
(3) Seaboard Industries Plc
(4) Grand Avenue
(5) HOVE
(6) BN3 2LS
Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на
конверте с тем, что она обозначает.

a) ___ the addressee’s company name


b) ___ the street name in the mailing address
c) ___ the writer’s company name
d) ___ the ZIP Code in the mailing address
e) ___ the ZIP Code in the return address
f) ___ the town in the mailing address

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.
……………………
Each party will at all times keep confidential and will not copy,
reproduce, publish, disseminate or otherwise disclose, without the prior
written consent of the other, any business, systems or other confidential
information of the other party (including but not limited to any non-
public information of that other party relating to its software, data,

113
systems, trade secrets, product plans, designs, ideas, concepts, costs,
prices, finances, marketing plans, business opportunities, research and
development and other know how)…
……………………..

a) Letter of enquiry / request


b) Contract
c) Letter of complaint
d) Letter of invitation

26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения


пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
служебной записки.

To : (1) _____________
From : John Smith, (2) ____________
Date : January 5, 2009
(3) ___ : Company Merger

Effective January 1, we will become a wholly owned subsidiary of


ABC, Inc. Principals at ABC have asked me to let you know of their (4)
_____ to continue operating this division on a autonomous basis and to
retain all the employees who are currently on the payroll. …………..

J. S.
a) ____ Subject
b) ____ all staff members
c) ____ sincere intentions
d) ____ President

27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

Arts

(1) The arts is a vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative


endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than “art,” which as a
description of a field usually means only the visual arts. The arts

114
encompasses visual arts, literary arts and the performing arts - music,
theatre, dance and film, among others. This list is by no means
comprehensive, but only meant to introduce the concept of the arts.

(2) A good definition of the arts is given by the Free Dictionary as


“imaginative, creative, and nonscientific branches of knowledge
considered collectively, esp. as studied academically.” The singular
term art is defined by the Irish Art Encyclopedia as follows: “Art is
created when an artist creates a beautiful object, or produces a
stimulating experience that is considered by his audience to have
artistic merit”. So, one could conclude that art is the process that leads
to a product (the artwork or piece of art), which is then examined and
analyzed by experts in the field of the arts or simply enjoyed by those
who appreciate the arts.

(3) The same source states: “Art is a global activity which encompasses
a host of disciplines, as evidenced by the range of words and phrases
which have been invented to describe its various forms.” Examples of
such phraseology include: Fine Arts, Liberal Arts, Visual Arts,
Decorative Arts, Applied Arts, Design, Crafts, Performing Arts, and so
on. The term art commonly refers to the “Visual Arts,” as an
abbreviation of creative art or fine art. For example, the History of art
is described as “the history of the visual arts of painting, sculpture and
architecture. It is the history of one of the fine arts, others of which are
the performing arts and literature. It is also one of the humanities. The
term sometimes encompasses theory of the visual arts, including
aesthetics.”

(4) In the article for Fine art, we read: “Confusion often occurs when
people mistakenly refer to the Fine Arts but mean the Performing Arts
(Music, Dance, Drama, etc.). Furthermore, creative writing is
frequently considered a fine art as well. More work will be required to
standardize the use of the terms “art” and “fine art,” but for the purpose
of this article the definition of “the arts” is not problematic, because it
includes all the arts. One artist has even suggested that “it would really
simplify matters if we could all just stick with visual, auditory,

115
performance or literary – when we speak of The Arts – and eliminate
“Fine” altogether.”
(Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia)

Определите, является ли утверждение:


The term “art” is usually referred to the visual arts.
a) в тексте нет информации
b) ложным
c) истинным

28. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The Free Dictionary gives the best definition of the arts.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The terms “art” and “fine art” can be confused.
a) истинным
b) в тексте нет информации
c) ложным

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


At York University (Toronto, Canada) Fine Arts is a faculty that
includes the visual arts, design and the “Performing Arts”.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Art can be understood as the process that leads to a product.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 1
d) 4

116
32. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует
следующая информация:
The performing arts include music, theatre, dance and film, etc.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 4
d) 1

33. Ответьте на вопрос.


What are the arts according to the definition given by the Free
Dictionary?
a) The arts are imaginative, creative, and scientific branches of
knowledge considered collectively, esp. as studied
academically.
b) The arts is an extensive subdivision of culture, composed of
many creative tries and disciplines.
c) The arts imaginative, creative, and nonscientific branches of
knowledge regarded collectively, esp. as studied academically.
d) The arts is a global activity which encompasses a large number
of disciplines.

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) “The arts” is a broader term than “art”.
b) The definition of “the arts” is not a problem, because it
includes all the arts.
c) It is necessary to standardize the use of the terms.
d) The history of the arts begins with the history of art.

117
Тест № 3

1. Заполните пропуск.
There will be no way to … this test if you fail.
a) cheat
b) enroll
c) retake
d) revise

2. Заполните пропуск.
Last year’s … was a failure. We need to re-think our business plan.
a) issue
b) commence
c) agenda
d) strategy

3. Заполните пропуск.
Students with learning … receive special education services.
a) disabilities
b) failure
c) dysfunction
d) discrepancy

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is the ability to recall information, experiences, and feelings
accurately; or to copy or re-enact procedures correctly.
a) Attention
b) Memory
c) Behaviour
d) State of mind

5. Заполните пропуск.
Many societies are becoming more and more diverse with people of …
cultural backgrounds living together.
a) differ
b) different
c) difference
d) differentiate

118
6. Заполните пропуск.
Many immigrants tended to live close to … in a particular part of a
town.
a) everybody
b) themselves
c) other
d) each other

7. Заполните пропуск.
I thought Christy was younger than me, but in fact she’s slightly … .
a) older
b) elder
c) old
d) the oldest

8. Заполните пропуск.
They went hiking in … Himalayas.
a) an
b) -
c) the
d) a

9. Заполните пропуск.
We constantly communicate to those … us.
a) across
b) around
c) between
d) to

10. Заполните пропуск.


… language changes in time and space, English has changed too.
a) After
b) In order that
c) Before
d) As

119
11. Заполните пропуск.
I … you in the park yesterday.
a) see
b) saw
c) was seeing
d) have seen

12. Заполните пропуск.


She doesn’t mind … on the night shift.
a) working
b) to working
c) to work
d) work

13. Заполните пропуск.


Nobody believed Jane at first but she … to be right.
a) came out
b) turned out
c) worked out
d) carried out

14. Заполните пропуск.


You … see that new film. It’s fantastic!
a) might
b) ought
c) must
d) have to

15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Larry: Would you like to go and see a movie?
Pam: ______________
a) I don’t think it’s the whole reason.
b) This will kill me.
c) It’s no use asking me.
d) Okay. Sounds good.

120
16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Receptionist: Green Products. Can I help you?
Client: ____________
a) We should talk about the matter.
b) Who are you?
c) Hello! Could you connect me to Adam Long, extension 321,
please?
d) I have a right to know where Adam Long is.

17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Counselor: Come in, Lisle. I haven’t seen you in quite a while, have I?
How can I help you?
Lisle: _____________
a) Will you help me?
b) If you have a few minutes... I need you to help me sort out my
credit hours.
c) I need to sort out my credit hours.
d) What if I ask Mr. Miller to help me?

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Bill Nichols: Excuse me. May I see that laptop for a moment?
Sales clerk: _____________
a) Sure. You mean this one?
b) No, you may not.
c) What for?
d) Take it easy, will you?

19. Заполните пропуск.


The Union Jack is … .
a) the prince
b) the flag of Britain
c) the king of Britain
d) one of the towers in Westminster

121
20. Заполните пропуск.
The American flag has … stripes.
a) thirty
b) thirteen
c) fifty
d) ten

21. Заполните пропуск.


The symbol of Canada is a … leaf.
a) oak
b) linden
c) maple
d) birch

22. Заполните пропуск.


The first president of the United States was … .
a) Abraham Lincoln
b) George Washington
c) Thomas Jefferson
d) George Bush

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) Dear Mr. Gore


(2) Enc
(3) Benson Bank plc
34-38 Market Place
New Malden
KT3 5TZ1
(4) We anxiously await your response.
Sincerely,
(5) ____________
Theodor Holler
Financial Manager
(6) New Form Plastics Moulds Ltd
Needham Industrial Estate
Oxford

122
OX8 7HH
Tel: +44 20 123 4567
Fax: +44 20 765 4321
(7) I refer to our recent telephone conversation regarding our
company’s credit and banking requirements.
As you are aware, we are a growing business with
correspondingly increasing capital requirements. We have
enclosed for your information, our recent financial statements
along with our business plan and budget for the forthcoming
fiscal year. ……………….
(8) 27 April 2010

24. Перед Вами конверт.


(1) Newtown Electronics
36 (2) Barton Road
Hatfield
Herts (3) HT9 7PQ
(4) Mr Cotton
(5) Gummersall & Palmer
Windsor House
1008 East End Road
(6) London SW16 7UJ

Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на


конверте с тем, что она обозначает.
a) ___ the addressee’s company name
b) ___ the street name in the return address
c) ___ the writer’s company name
d) ___ the ZIP Code in the return address
e) ___ the town in the mailing address
f) ___ the addressee

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.
…………………………………
I regret that we have had a less than satisfactory experience with Alicia
Johnson, whom you sent to us as a temporary secretary on June 10. Her
curt nature of dealing with customers on the phone resulted in three

123
separate complaints made to me by displeased callers. Unfortunately, I
was forced to let her go after the first day.
Since I know your firm to have reputation of providing decent services,
I am confident my experience is merely an uncommon aberration.
Nonetheless, I trust this information to be useful to you.
………………………………….

a) Letter of application
b) Letter of complaint
c) Letter of confirmation
d) Letter of invitation

26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения


пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
служебной записки.

(1) ___ : Graduate Council Members


From : (2) ________
Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences
Date : September 5, 2010
Subject : (3) ________

After a review of the pharmaceutics curriculum in the Department of


Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, five new courses are being submitted
for approval.
Please find the enclosed information for each course: a (4) _______, a
syllabus, and a Request for New Course Number form.
J. D.
a) ____ Dr. Jane Doe
b) ____ New Graduate Course Application form
c) ____ To
d) ____ ULM Course Offerings

27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

Harvard University

(1) Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in


Cambridge, Massachusetts, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts

124
legislature. It was named after its first benefactor, John Harvard.
Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States.
The university comprises ten separate academic units with campuses
throughout the Boston metropolitan area.

(2) Harvard employs over 2,000 faculty to teach and advise


approximately 6,700 undergraduate and 13,600 graduate and
professional students. Eight U.S. Presidents have graduated from
Harvard and 75 Nobel Laureates have been affiliated with the
university as students, faculty, or staff. Harvard is also the alma mater
of sixty-two living billionaires. The Harvard University Library is the
largest academic library in the United States, and the second largest
library in the country. Harvard is a large, highly residential research
university. The university offers 46 undergraduate concentrations
(majors), 134 graduate degrees, and 32 professional degrees. For the
2008–2009 academic year, Harvard granted 1,664 baccalaureate
degrees, 400 master degrees, 512 doctoral degrees, and 4,460
professional degrees.

(3) The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises a


minority of enrollments at the university and emphasizes instruction
with an ‘arts & sciences focus.’ Between 1978 and 2008, entering
students were required to complete a ‘Core Curriculum’ of seven
classes outside of their concentration. Since 2008, undergraduate
students have been required to complete courses in eight General
Education categories: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding, Culture
and Belief, Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning, Ethical Reasoning,
Science of Living Systems, Science of the Physical Universe, Societies
of the World, and United States in the World. Harvard offers a
comprehensive doctoral graduate program and there is a high level of
coexistence between graduate and undergraduate degrees.

(4) Harvard’s academic programs operate on a semester calendar


beginning in early September and ending in mid-May. Undergraduates
typically take four half-courses per term and must maintain a four-
course rate average to be considered full time. In many concentrations,

125
students can elect to pursue a basic program or an honors-eligible
program requiring a senior thesis and/or advanced course work.
(Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia)

Определите, является ли утверждение:


The Harvard University library is one of the largest libraries in the
USA.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

28. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Most U.S. Presidents graduated from Harvard.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The school color is crimson, which is also the name of the Harvard
sports teams and the daily newspaper.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Harvard’s academic year starts at the beginning of September and ends
in mid-May.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Harvard is a large research university.
a) 2
b) 3
c) 1
d) 4

126
32. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует
следующая информация:
Now undergraduate students are required to complete courses in eight
General Education categories.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 4
d) 1

33. Ответьте на вопрос.


How many professors, lecturers, and instructors work at Harvard
University?
a) more than 4,460
b) 1,664
c) 2,000
d) more than 2,000

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) Harvard is the alma mater of a great number of living
billionaires.
b) Full-time undergraduate program requires four years of study.
c) Harvard University has the second largest library in the
country.
d) Harvard University is one of the largest universities in the
world, famous not only for its academic activities but also for
its research work.

127
Тест № 4

1. Заполните пропуск.
You should spend at least 2 hours a day … for your test.
a) boarding
b) revising
c) retaking
d) enrolling

2. Заполните пропуск.
The main … of the company is to double last year’s exports.
a) objective
b) comment
c) staff
d) failure

3. Заполните пропуск.
Before schooling, a considerable amount of … learning takes place,
provided that children are growing in literate environments.
a) environmental
b) literacy
c) complementary
d) formal

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is a self-contained subdivision of a programme of study which is
taught and assessed as a discrete unit.
a) School year
b) Lesson
c) Term
d) Module

5. Заполните пропуск.
Humanistic psychology investigated how religious or spiritual … may
have correlations with longer lifespan and better health.
a) identify
b) identical
c) identity
d) identifier

128
6. Заполните пропуск.
Some people are very selfish. They only think of … .
a) them
b) themselves
c) each other
d) they

7. Заполните пропуск.
That church is … building in the town.
a) the eldest
b) the oldest
c) an eldest
d) oldest

8. Заполните пропуск.
Simon loves … jazz music.
a) a
b) an
c) -
d) the

9. Заполните пропуск.
Environmental context deals … the physical background of the
communication.
a) with
b) for
c) to
d) in

10. Заполните пропуск.


… you join the tennis club, I will too.
a) Although
b) Unless
c) While
d) If

129
11. Заполните пропуск.
What … you … when your computer crashed?
a) was … writing
b) have … written
c) were … writing
d) are … writing

12. Заполните пропуск.


Avoid … silly mistakes.
a) making
b) to make
c) make
d) to making

13. Заполните пропуск.


You can’t really take … something once it has been said.
a) off
b) back
c) in
d) at

14. Заполните пропуск.


… I ask you a question? How old are you?
a) Must
b) May
c) Will
d) Should

15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Host: Please come and see us again. I’ll walk you to the door.
Guest: _____________
a) See you.
b) Fine.
c) Thank you. It was nice seeing you.
d) We’ll meet again, I’m sure!

130
16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Chief: You might have let me know you weren’t coming.
Employee: ___________
a) I really must apologize for letting you down.
b) It doesn’t really matter much, does it?
c) In a manner you are right.
d) Excuse me.

17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Student: Would you mind if I finish this test at home?
Teacher: ___________
a) You don’t need to be smart to ask about it.
b) You must be joking!
c) You mustn’t talk to me like that.
d) You know that’s impossible.

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Waiter: Well, anything else, sir?
Guest: ___________
a) No. Thank you. Could I have the bill, please?
b) I leave the choice to you.
c) What’s the matter?
d) I have no choice but to go.

19. Заполните пропуск.


The currency of the UK is … .
a) pound, consisting of 100 nickels
b) dollar, consisting of 100 nickels
c) pound, consisting of 100 cents
d) pound, consisting of 100 pence

20. Заполните пропуск.


Americans celebrate Independence Day on … .
a) July 4
b) December 25
c) February 14
d) January 1

131
21. Заполните пропуск.
Canadian Parliament consists of … .
a) the House of Representatives and the Senate
b) the House of Representatives and the House of Commons
c) the House of Commons and the House of Lords
d) the House of Commons and the Senate

22. Заполните пропуск.


America was discovered by … .
a) Amerigo Vespucci
b) George Washington
c) Christopher Columbus
d) The pilgrims

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) Dear Sirs,


(2) Enc
(3) Société Misr de Filature et de Tissage Fin
KAFR EL DAWAR A.R.E.
EGYPT
(4) Lupton Bros Ltd
P.O. Box 8
Accrington
Lancashire BB5 1RJ
England
(5) Yours Faithfully
LUPTON BROS LTD
(6) 15 January 2006
(7) Your ref.: 5769F/KED
Our ref.: GE/tt
(8) We are pleased to inform you that the goods ordered as per the
purchase order No. 5769F/KED have been dispatched in
accordance with your instructions.

132
We trust that the goods will be to your complete satisfaction
and look forward to hearing from you again. We also enclose
for you the information some changes to our current price list.

24. Перед Вами конверт.


(1) Eurofreight Ltd
49 Tenterlowe Lane
Hillingdon
Middlesex (2) MU8 8DE
Mrs. Theresa Templeton
(3) Managing Director
(4) Glaxo Chemicals Ltd
237 (5) Sutton Common Road
(6) London SW11 3BY

Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на


конверте с тем, что она обозначает.
a) ___ the city in the mailing address
b) ___ the addressee’s position
c) ___ the ZIP Code in the return address
d) ___ the street in the mailing address
e) ___ the writer’s company name
f) ___ the addressee’s company name

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.
……………………………….
I would like to invite you to a seminar that I’m confident will interest
you.
The 3D Technologies Seminar held at the Toronto SkyDome on June
13, 2010 will feature lectures by several key programmers and
designers in the field of 3D modeling, with topics including trilinear
filtering, anti-aliasing and mipmapping.
…………………………….
a) Letter of enquiry / request
b) Letter of invitation
c) Letter of application
d) Letter of complaint

133
26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения
пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
служебной записки.
To : (1) ____, President, Bucknell University
(2) ___ : Bettner, Jensen & Zappe, Inc.
Subject : (3) ___
Date : March 11, 2010

In response to a recent study of higher education nationwide,


Bettner, Jensen & Zappe, Inc. has completed extensive testing to
determine how the information retention rates of students can be
increased at Bucknell University. Results indicate that it would more
effectively serve Bucknell students’ (4) ___ if the average length of
each class were reduced from three hours/week, to two, thus allowing
for more recreational time on the part of the professors.

a) ___ From
b) ___ academic needs
c) ___ Request for decrease in class hours per week
d) ___ William D. Adams

27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

Logic

(1) One of the more complex disciplines associated with the field of
philosophy is logic. The term comes from the Greek word logos, which
has such a variety of meanings that it becomes difficult to give a precise
definition of logic. Among the meanings of logos are “reason,” “rule,”
“discourse,” “sentence,” “word,” “ratio,” “account,” “rational
principle,” and “definition.” Because of the number of possible
interpretations, the subject matter of logic has variously been defined as
“the laws of thought,” “the rules of right reasoning,” “the principles of
valid argumentation,” and “the study of truths (true statements) based
solely on the terms they contain.”

134
(2) The last definition, and probably the least known one, implies the
curious notion that the “facts” of logic need not necessarily coincide
with the everyday realities of life. If a statement, or proposition, is
analyzed solely within itself, the statement may be logically true even
when contradicted by sense, experience, or knowledge. Or it may be
logically true, even if the facts it presents are doubtful or uncertain. As
an example, the philosopher Aristotle used the following proposition as
a simple, logical truth: “If sight is perception, the objects of sight are
objects of perception.” One can grasp the truth of the statement,
regardless what opinions he holds about the relationship of sight and
perception. This is a very simple “if-then” proposition. If, within its
own terms only, the “if” statement is true, it follows that the “then”
statement is true. Thus even a seemingly ridiculous statement such as
“If all animals are purple, then cows are purple,” is correct in its
reasoning.

(3) Such a use of so-called true statements, without regard for the
everyday realities, may seem frivolous and insignificant. In fact, such
logic, which moves from premise to premise in a strict and logical
sequence, is quite useful in the areas of computer science and
mathematics. A computer will execute a program if the statements are
in a prescribed order and correctly stated with regard to the capabilities
of the computer. The statements themselves may be totally untrue in
terms of factual knowledge, or they may be completely true. Among
other things, this allows people who use computers to have them
answer “what-if” sorts of problems.

(4) In mathematics virtually all argumentation is carried out in logical


terms. The truth of a mathematical proposition has no necessary
relation to the wider world of truth or knowledge. What matters is
moving correctly from one premise to the next in precise, sequential
order. Only in this way can the abstract statements of mathematics be
demonstrated as true. The techniques used in mathematical logic have
been adapted by other sciences, particularly physics, chemistry, and
astronomy.
(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)

135
Определите, является ли утверждение:
There are a lot of meanings for the Greek word “logos”, but nowadays
the main subject of logic as a science is the principles and rules of
proper thinking.
a) в тексте нет информации
b) ложным
c) истинным

28. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Pure logical statements absolutely coincide with the real life.
a) ложным
b) истинным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Logic is widely used in different sciences such as psychology and
physics.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


It is always right that if the “if” statement is true, it follows that the
“then” statement is also true.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The illustration of a simple logical truth explained by a well-known
ancient philosopher.
a) 4
b) 1
c) 3
d) 2

136
32. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует
следующая информация:
The interpretation of the definition of logic in terms of modern
scientific reasoning.
a) 2
b) 3
c) 1
d) 4

33. Ответьте на вопрос.


Why can’t one always use pure and strict logical statements in everyday
life?
a) Logical statements are always uncertain and can never be true.
b) Logic depends only on the ability to move from one fact to
another and everyday life doesn’t.
c) Real life is true regardless any logical sequences.
d) Sometimes logical statement is analyzed solely within itself
without considering some important aspects of reality.

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The basis of logic as a scientific discipline and the possible
fields of its applying.
b) The origin and definition of logic as a science.
c) Spheres of using logic such as computering, programming,
philosophy and mathematics.
d) Applying the knowledge of logic in everyday life.

137
Тест № 5

1. Заполните пропуск.
University … find difficulties getting jobs these days.
a) fellows
b) matriculates
c) graduates
d) entrants

2. Заполните пропуск.
The sales team have … a few ideas on how we can improve our sales
figures.
a) attended
b) brainstormed
c) solved
d) commenced

3. Заполните пропуск.
The influence of … on children has been the subject of increased
attention among parents, educators, and health care professionals.
a) media
b) literacy
c) research
d) mediator

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is the ability to apply and interpret numbers and numerical
information.
a) Literacy
b) Numeracy
c) Mathematics
d) Arithmetic

5. Заполните пропуск.
Further … leads to the use of monocultures.
a) industrial
b) industry
c) industrialization
d) industrialist

138
6. Заполните пропуск.
a) Sue was too surprised to say … .
b) anything
c) any
d) something
e) some

7. Заполните пропуск.
By far … way to see a big city is to take a sightseeing bus tour.
a) more easy
b) easier
c) most easy
d) the easiest

8. Заполните пропуск.
His name starts with … L.
a) a
b) an
c) -
d) the

9. Заполните пропуск.
Broadcasting is now just one of several delivery systems available …
listeners and viewers.
a) to
b) at
c) of
d) by

10. Заполните пропуск.


I didn’t have money, … I went to the bank.
a) so
b) because
c) since
d) for

139
11. Заполните пропуск.
Many natural resources … by the end of the century.
a) have disappeared
b) will disappear
c) disappear
d) will have disappeared

12. Заполните пропуск.


I’m tired. I’d rather … out this evening, if you don’t mind.
a) not going
b) not go
c) not to go
d) don’t go

13. Заполните пропуск.


Young people under 25 … half the population of the district.
a) make up
b) put up
c) take up
d) bring up

14. Заполните пропуск.


I’m sorry I’m late. I … to the doctor’s.
a) should have gone
b) must have gone
c) have to go
d) had to go

15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Hostess: How about some more pie?
Guest: _____________
a) Yes, here you are.
b) I can’t tell you how grateful I am.
c) I’m really full. Thanks anyway.
d) I’m not particularly keen on it.

140
16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Clerk: I’m sorry. Mr. Smith is out of the office right now. Can I take a
message?
Mrs. Norman: ____________
a) Yes, have Mr. Smith call Sarah Norman when he gets in,
please.
b) Yes, I’d like to speak to Mr. Jones, please.
c) Yes, I’ll put you through.
d) You can.

17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
University service representative: ___________
Student: Here you are.
a) Could I see your student ID card, please?
b) Where is your student ID card?
c) It’s your student ID card, isn’t it?
d) I wonder if you might be interested in showing your student ID
card.

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Daniel Adams: I’d like to check out now. My name’s Adams, room
312. Here’s the key.
Receptionist: __________
a) It’s very nice of you.
b) One moment, please, sir. ... Here’s your bill.
c) How much did you intend to pay?
d) Suppose we could find another solution?

19. Заполните пропуск.


The head of the government in the UK is … .
a) the Queen
b) the Speaker
c) the Lord Chancellor
d) the Prime Minister

141
20. Заполните пропуск.
‘Yankee’ may mean … .
a) a Northerner
b) an American
c) a person who lives in England an Englishman
d) an Indian

21. Заполните пропуск.


Canadian culture is a blend of aboriginal, British and … traditions.
a) French
b) American
c) Indian
d) Mexican

22. Заполните пропуск.


The inventor of the electric lamps and the gramophone is … .
a) Alexander Graham Bell
b) Alva Edison
c) Michael Faraday
d) Henry Ford

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) I look forward to hearing from you.


Yours faithfully,
(2) Lingua Services Galactic Ltd
69 Milk Street
LONDON SW7 6AW
(3) ____________
Andrea Philips
Marketing Manager
(4) Dreamtime Movies Universal Ltd
54 Oxford Road, Skagnes SK3 4RG
Tel: 0223 123 4567 Fax: 0223 765 4321
Email: info@dreamtimemovies.com.uk
(5) Dear Sirs
(6) 18 September 2010

142
(7) I should be grateful if you would send us your brochure and
price list about your translation services.
We are currently developing our sales literature and web sites
and are interested in translating these into five languages apart
from English.

24. Перед Вами конверт.


(1) Sovereign Assurance Ltd
London Regional Marine Branch
24 Lime Street
(2) London EC3 7JE
(3) Mr. Mark Land
(4) Turnpike Trading Co Ltd
Unit 5
Watery Lane Trading State
(5) Gunnerbury (6) MI5 3TH

Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на


конверте с тем, что она обозначает.
a) ___ the addressee’s company name
b) ___ the town the letter comes from
c) ___ the town in the mailing address
d) ___ the writer’s company name
e) ___ the addressee
f) ___ the ZIP code in the mailing address

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.
………………………………….
Vacations will be granted at times most desired by employees in order
of their seniority within their work shifts, but the final right as to
allotment and scheduling of vacation periods is reserved to the
Company in order to assure the orderly operation of its business.
Except in cases of emergency, a vacation period once assigned will not
be cancelled by the Company except with agreement of the employee.
………………………………….

143
a) Letter of invitation
b) Contract
c) Memo
d) Letter of application

26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения


пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
служебной записки.

(1) ___ : Design Team #362


From : (2) ___
Date : May 27, 2010
(3) ___ : Project Schedule

As a result of yesterday’s meeting, I suggest we follow the project


schedule listed below. Remember, we must submit a (4) ___ by noon on
July 2.
W.B.W.

a) ___ Subject
b) ___ To
c) ___ Proposal
d) ___ W.B. Working

27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

The Spheres of Anthropology

(1) The science of anthropology is divided into two major disciplines,


physical anthropology and cultural anthropology. Each of these is
basically an independent science, though specialists in one field
frequently consult and cooperate with scholars in the other. Physical
anthropology is generally classified as a natural science, while cultural
anthropology is considered a social science.

(2) Physical anthropology is concerned with the biological aspects of


human beings, including their physical variations. In trying to learn

144
about human origins and evolution, physical anthropologists often
study the fossils of earlier humans and related humanlike forms.
Physical anthropologists rely on observations and measurements of
various physical traits in living humans and animals as well as in
fossils. An important tool is the comparative analysis of DNA and other
genetic codes, both between different populations of humans and
between humans and other animals, especially primates. (Primates are
an order of mammals that includes human beings as well as apes and
monkeys.)

(3) Cultural anthropology deals primarily with the development of


human societies in the world. It is a study of group behavior, the origins
of religion, social customs and conventions, technical developments,
and family relationships. In describing and analyzing the diverse
peoples of the world, cultural anthropologists use the methods,
concepts, and data of several subfields and related disciplines.
Ethnography involves compiling a descriptive study of a particular
human society, based mainly on fieldwork. A major subfield of cultural
anthropology is linguistics, the study of the history and structure of
language. Cultural anthropologists also often study a group’s folklore
by collecting its oral history. Like physical anthropologists, cultural
anthropologists also rely on archaeology in studying the human past.

(4) Because anthropology is such a wide-ranging discipline,


investigating as it does every facet of all human societies, it must draw
upon research done in many other disciplines to form its conclusions.
Among these disciplines are history, geography, geology, biology,
anatomy, genetics, economics, psychology, and sociology, along with
the highly specialized tasks of linguistics and archaeology already
mentioned.
(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)

Определите, является ли утверждение:


Cultural anthropology is mainly based on archeological data in
studying the human past.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

145
28. Определите, является ли утверждение:
Both physical and cultural anthropology are considered to be natural
sciences.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Physical anthropology also analyzes the difference between humans
and apes.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The science of anthropology is very essential for the development of
medicine.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The work of anthropologist presupposes everyday observations and
complete involvement into the life of human society.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

32. Укажите, какой части текста соответствует следующая


информация:
The two branches of anthropology are not the same from the scientific
point of view.
a) 2
b) 1
c) 4
d) 3

146
33. Ответьте на вопрос:
Why is physical anthropology considered to be a natural science and
cultural anthropology to be a social science?
a) The first one analyses the fossils while the second one dwells
on the structure of language.
b) The former studies mainly human origin and evolution while
the latter deals with human behavior, religion, customs and
family relationship.
c) Both sciences rely on archeology in studying the past of human
society.
d) The main method of physical anthropology is the descriptive
analysis and cultural anthropology uses comparative analysis.

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The division of physical and cultural anthropology.
b) The interdependence of many social sciences.
c) Aspects and methods of anthropology as a wide-ranging
discipline.
d) The history of ethnography, linguistics, archeology, psychology
and anthropology.

147
Тест № 6

1. Заполните пропуск.
You need an educational … in mathematics if you want to be an
engineer.
a) benefit
b) institution
c) loan
d) background

2. Заполните пропуск.
There’s no meeting today. It’s been … for tomorrow at 12.
a) changed
b) rescheduled
c) disposed
d) cancelled

3. Заполните пропуск.
Proper nutrition is crucial for the appropriate growth and … of children.
a) treatment
b) development
c) deliverance
d) deficiency

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is the official recognition that an organization meets specific
requirements to be able to deliver instruction.
a) Assessment
b) Administration
c) Accreditation
d) Application

5. Заполните пропуск.
Infection with HIV does not … mean that a person has AIDS.
a) necessary
b) necessity
c) necessarily
d) necessitate

148
6. Заполните пропуск.
The box was too heavy for me to lift … .
a) by myself
b) myself
c) my own
d) of mine

7. Заполните пропуск.
Sherlock Holmes is one of … detective heroes in crime fiction.
a) more popular
b) the popularest
c) the most popular
d) most popular

8. Заполните пропуск.
… Irish are known for their sense of humour.
a) A
b) The
c) An
d) -

9. Заполните пропуск.
One important kind of subculture is that formed … an immigrant
community.
a) of
b) with
c) by
d) on

10. Заполните пропуск.


The windows were open … it was hot.
a) if
b) for
c) even if
d) before

149
11. Заполните пропуск.
A new hotel is going to … next year.
a) build
b) building
c) be building
d) be built

12. Заполните пропуск.


Why not … your telegram from London?
a) send
b) to send
c) sending
d) to sending

13. Заполните пропуск.


She … as chief executive of the Book Trust.
a) took out
b) took in
c) took away
d) took over

14. Заполните пропуск.


… you please help me translate this letter?
a) Could
b) May
c) Should
d) Must

15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Deb: Our departure is scheduled for 7:45 in the morning. Could you
take me to the airport?
Harry: ___________
a) Don’t make up your mind yet.
b) No, but thanks for inviting me.
c) Sure. We’ll have to leave the city at about 5 o’clock then.
d) That’s the best thing that has ever happened to me.

150
16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Employee: ____________
Chief: I’m sorry. I don’t have time right now.
a) They say you’re not too busy now.
b) Could I ask you something if you’re not too busy?
c) What about a small talk?
d) I want to talk to you.

17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Student 1: This training session is difficult. I had a really hard time
reading that training manual.
Student 2: ____________
a) I agree. Her speech was really well done.
b) I am going to the meeting soon.
c) I’m going to write it down again for you.
d) Me too. It was very intensive.

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Customer: Good morning, madam. I’m looking for the shoe
department.
Shop assistant: __________
a) It’s on the second floor on your left.
b) Really?
c) You can ask the head manager of the department.
d) Me too.

19. Заполните пропуск.


England consists of … .
a) districts
b) states
c) counties
d) regions

151
20. Заполните пропуск.
The present US constitution was proclaimed in … .
a) 1773
b) 1787
c) 1867
d) 1929

21. Заполните пропуск.


The first inhabitants of North America were … .
a) Indians and Dutch
b) Indians and Englishmen
c) Indians and Spaniards
d) Indians and Eskimos

22. Заполните пропуск.


The longest-reigning monarch of the UK is … .
a) Queen Elizabeth I
b) King George III
c) Queen Victoria
d) Queen Elizabeth II

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) Mr. Tony Jackson


Manager
Dept. of Accounting
Wal-Mart Chain Stores
#24 Mary St. cor. Molly St.
Chicago City, IL
(2) _____________
Tony Williams
Bank Manager
Chicago Division
(3) Dr. Mr. Jackson,
(4) May 19, 2010
(5) Truly Yours,
(6) Bank of America, Chicago Division
#67 Black Street Drive
Chicago, IL

152
(7) We regret to inform you that the latest payment forwarded to us
dated May 15, 2010 appears to have a discrepancy. The amount
paid is not matching the balance required. It lacks two thousand
dollars to finish the payment terms. The total bill was seven
thousand dollars while you only sent five thousand dollars.
……………

24. Перед Вами конверт.


The Crown Trade Centre
23-41 (1) Gresham Road
(2) Manchester (3) MA4 1HQ
Mr John Tidmarsh
(4) Head Buyer
(5) C. & M. Berry Industrial Paints
Wellford Mill Lane
Leyland
Preston (6) PR5 1LE

Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на


конверте с тем, что она обозначает.

a) ___ the addressee’s position


b) ___ the ZIP Code in the return address
c) ___ the addressee’s company name
d) ___ the ZIP Code in the mailing address
e) ___ the street in the return address
f) ___ the town the letter comes from

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.

Sandra R. Roberts
The Astor Center for History of Art
16 Franklin Avenue
Tarrytown, NY 15943
Tel. 919 243 1555

153
Objective: Director of a university archives or special collections.
Qualifications
Extensive experience in archival processing and cataloging.
Broad knowledge of automation applications for special collections
cataloging.
Supervised a large staff of catalogers.
Nationally recognized for work related to special collections
management.
Professional experience
…………………………….

a) CV
b) Memo
c) Job application
d) Contract

26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения


пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
телефакса.

To: Ms Linda Haverkamp


Fax No: +49(0)211 535553
(1) ___: John Williams
Fax No: +44(0)171 2804025
(2) ___: 21 Aug 2010
(3) ___: 1

Dear Linda,
This is to confirm that I sent you the required documents yesterday.
(4) ___,
John Williams

a) ____ Pages
b) ____ From
c) ____ Best regards
d) ____ Date

154
27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

Tourism

(1) Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The


World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who “travel to
and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than
twenty-four hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure,
business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity
remunerated from within the place visited.” Tourism has become a
popular global leisure activity. In 2008, there were over 922 million
international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 1.9% as compared to
2007. In 2009, international tourist arrivals fell to 880 million,
representing a worldwide decline of 4% as compared to 2008. The
region most affected was Europe with a 6% decline.

(2) The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten countries
as the most visited from 2006 to 2009 by the number of international
travellers: France, the USA, Spain, China, Italy, the UK, Turkey,
Germany, Malaysia, Mexico. When compared to 2006, Ukraine entered
the top ten list, surpassing Russia, Austria and Mexico, and in 2008,
surpassed Germany. In 2008, the U.S. displaced Spain from the second
place. Most of the top visited countries continue to be on the European
continent, followed by a growing number of Asian countries.

(3) The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as


the top ten tourism earners for the year 2009: the USA, Spain, France,
Italy, China, Germany, the UK, Australia, Turkey, Austria. It is
noticeable that most of them are on the European continent, but the
United States continues to be the top earner. The following countries
are reported as the top ten biggest spenders on international tourism for
the year 2009: Germany, the USA, the UK, China, France, Italy, Japan,
Canada, Russia, the Netherlands.

(4) Tourism is vital for many countries, such as Egypt, Greece,


Lebanon, Spain and Thailand, and many island nations, such as the
Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles, due to the

155
large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and
the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated
with tourism. These service industries include transportation services,
such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs, hospitality services, such as
accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment
venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music
venues and theatres.
(Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia)

Определите, является ли утверждение:


According to the World Tourism Organization tourists are people who
can stay in places where they don’t normally live for more than a year.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

28. Определите, является ли утверждение:


In 2009, international tourist arrivals dropped.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The ten most visited countries are located on the European continent.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


In 2009, the UK occupied the eighth place among the top ten tourism
earners.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:

156
Tourism is essential for many countries.
a) 2
b) 3
c) 1
d) 4

32. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The U.S. displaced Spain from the second place in the list of the most
visited countries.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 4
d) 1

33. Ответьте на вопрос.


What are the service industries associated with tourism?
a) These service industries include transportation, hospitality, and
entertainment services.
b) These service industries include air transportation services,
accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and
entertainment venues.
c) These service industries include sea transportation services,
hospitality services, and entertainment venues.
d) These service industries include transportation services,
hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels
and resorts, and amusement parks.

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) Tourism is one the most popular global leisure activities.
b) As a result of the late-2000s recession, international travel
demand suffered a strong slowdown.
c) International tourism receipts grew to US$944 billion in 2008,
corresponding to an increase in real terms of 1.8% from 2007.
d) In 2009, Russia occupied the ninth place among the top ten
biggest spenders on international tourism.

Тест № 7

157
1. Заполните пропуск.
… are the main institutions that provide higher education in the UK.
a) Colleges and high schools
b) Colleges
c) High schools
d) Colleges and universities

2. Заполните пропуск.
The company has decided … the meeting as it is no longer interested in
the project.
a) to transfer
b) to obey
c) to commence
d) to cancel

3. Заполните пропуск.
School readiness refers to the extent to which a child exhibits the …,
skills, and knowledge necessary to be successful in elementary school.
a) behaviour
b) identity
c) progress
d) activity

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is a collection of work that demonstrates and documents the
student’s learning progress over time.
a) Schoolbag
b) Briefcase
c) Portfolio
d) Folder

5. Заполните пропуск.
Two related … principles underlie the operation of generators and
motors.
a) physics
b) physical
c) physic

158
d) physicist

6. Заполните пропуск.
She didn’t tell … about her plans.
a) nobody
b) somebody
c) anybody
d) no one

7. Заполните пропуск.
Frank told me that since he retired he feels … energetic than he used to.
a) much more
b) the more
c) much
d) the most

8. Заполните пропуск.
Would you like … apple?
a) the
b) an
c) a
d) -

9. Заполните пропуск.
In some European states, culture is very closely linked … nationalism.
a) between
b) to
c) in
d) around

10. Заполните пропуск.


There was nothing else to do … to agree.
a) but
b) or
c) whether
d) as
11. Заполните пропуск.
The speaker … for very long when he was interrupted.

159
a) didn’t talk
b) hasn’t talk
c) doesn’t talk
d) hadn’t been talking

12. Заполните пропуск.


I came … if you had any news of our friends.
a) ask
b) asking
c) to ask
d) to have asked

13. Заполните пропуск.


How rude – I was in the middle of telling her a story and she just … !
a) hung up
b) hung back
c) hung out
d) hung in

14. Заполните пропуск.


She … leave the hospital next week.
a) will can
b) will be able
c) will be able to
d) can to

15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Emily: I bought some great house plants yesterday.
Maria: ____________
a) That’s nice of you to say so.
b) Really? Do you have a lot of sunlight in your house?
c) It was a silly thing to do.
d) Well, it’s time for me to leave.

16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.

160
Manager 1: What did we cover in the meeting last week?
Manager 2: ______________
a) Why should I know?
b) I like that book cover too.
c) The boss is looking for you.
d) We took a look at the sales figures.

17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Student: __________
Professor: Yes, I have a few minutes now. What did I write on it?
a) Should I rewrite my essay?
b) Do you have time? I want to know what is wrong with my
essay.
c) Would you have a minute? Could I just ask you about the
comment you wrote on my last essay?
d) What about a minute for me? Is my essay OK?

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Waitress: __________
Bill Nichols: Yes, I am thank you. I’ll have three scrambled eggs with
country ham, toast and jam, please.
a) Good morning. You are going to leave, aren’t you?
b) Good morning. Are you ready to order?
c) I’m all ears. And you?
d) This table is reserved.

19. Заполните пропуск.


Since 1065 English monarchs have traditionally been crowned at …
a) Westminster Abbey
b) Buckingham Palace
c) the Tower of London
d) St. Paul’s Cathedral

20. Заполните пропуск.


The first Europeans to settle Manhattan were … .

161
a) the Dutch
b) the Spaniards
c) the English
d) the Italians

21. Заполните пропуск.


The name “Canada” comes from … .
a) the Inuit word meaning country.
b) the German word meaning unity.
c) the Metis word meaning peace.
d) the First Nations word “kanata” meaning village.

22. Заполните пропуск.


Charles Mackintosh, a Scottish chemist, invented … .
a) an umbrella
b) waterproof fabrics used for raincoats
c) rubbers
d) galoshes

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) James T Brown


Sales Manager
(2) Dear Ms Philips
(3) Thank you for your letter of 22 January enquiring about our
translation services.
Lingua Services Galactic offer a full range of translation
services to help you in the development of sales literature and
web sites. I have pleasure in enclosing our latest brochures and
price list from which you can see that our prices are highly
competitive.
(4) Lingua Services Galactic Ltd
69 Milk Street, LONDON SW7 6AW, UK
Tel: +44 20 123 4567 Fax: +44 20 765 4321
Email: info@linguaservicesgalactic.com
(5) Enc. 3
(6) Ms Andrea Philips

162
Dreamtime Movies Universal Ltd
54 Oxford Road
Skagnes
SK3 4RG
(7) I look forward to calling you in a few days.
Yours sincerely,
(8) 16 November 2010

24. Перед Вами конверт.


The Steel Box Company Ltd
(1) Smithington Lane
(2) Sheffield (3) SH7 4AG
England
TGH Bleche Handelsgesellschaft mbH
(4) 99 Rombacher Hütte
(5) 44795 Bochum
(6) Germany

Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на


конверте с тем, что она обозначает.
a) ___ the ZIP Code in the mailing address
b) ___ the street name in the return address
c) ___ the ZIP Code in the return address
d) ___ the house number
e) ___ the town the letter comes from
f) ___ the country of destination

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.
…………………………..
I am interested in working as Director of Studies for your organisation.
I am an EFL language instructor with nearly 10 years’ experience to
offer you. I enclose my resume as a first step in exploring the
possibilities of employment with Interplay Languages.
……………………………
a) Letter of complaint
b) Letter of invitation

163
c) Letter of application
d) Letter of request

26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения


пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
служебной записки.

(1) ___ : IT Department Heads


From : Brian Flint, (2) ___
Date : 3 December 2010
(3)___ : Professional development

A seminar on Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 is being held at


Advanced Training Inc. on December 16, 2010 at 11 a.m. It is being
conducted by (4) ___ and should be extremely informative.
We are strongly recommending that every member of the IT
departments attend this seminar. We will, of course, pay the entrance
fees for all those attending.
B.F.
a) ____ Subject
b) ____ Personnel Department
c) ____ Microsoft certified trainers
d) ____ To

27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

Culture

(1) Culture lies at the heart of human development and civilization.


Culture is what makes people hope and dream, by stimulating our
senses and offering new ways of looking at reality. It is what brings
people together, by stirring dialogue and arousing passions, in a way
that unites rather than divides. Culture should be regarded as a set of
distinctive spiritual and material traits that characterize a society and
social group. It embraces literature and arts as well as ways of life,
value systems, traditions and beliefs.

164
(2) As Dario Fo rightly pointed out, “even before Europe was united in
an economic level or was conceived at the level of economic interests
and trade, it was culture that united all the countries of Europe. The
arts, literature, music are the connecting link of Europe.” Indeed,
Europeans share a common cultural heritage, which is the result of
centuries of creativity, migratory flows and exchanges. They also enjoy
and value a rich cultural and linguistic diversity, which is inspiring and
has inspired many countries across the world.

(3) The originality and success of the European Union is in its ability to
respect Member States’ varied and intertwined history, languages and
cultures, while forging common understanding and rules which have
guaranteed peace, stability, prosperity and solidarity - and with them, a
huge richness of cultural heritage and creativity to which successive
enlargements have added more and more. Through this unity in
diversity, respect for cultural and linguistic diversity and promotion of a
common cultural heritage lies at the very heart of the European project.
This is more than ever indispensable in a globalizing world.

(4) In today’s Europe, cultural exchanges are as lively and vibrant as


ever. The freedom of movement provided for by the EC Treaty has
greatly facilitated cultural exchanges and dialogue across borders.
Cultural activities and the demand for cultural goods are spreading,
with unprecedented access thanks to new communication tools. At the
same time, globalization has increased the exposure to more diverse
cultures from across the world. This has heightened our curiosity and
capacity to exchange with and benefit from other cultures, and
contributed to the diversity of our societies. However, this has also
raised questions about Europe’s identity and its ability to ensure
intercultural, cohesive societies.
(http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2007)

Определите, является ли утверждение:


Europeans have nothing in common.
a) истинным

165
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

28. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Culture includes arts and literature, ways of life, value systems,
customs and beliefs.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


In modern Europe, cultural exchanges are as active and full of energy
and enthusiasm as ever.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


As was recognized by the conclusions of the 2007 Spring European
Council, creative entrepreneurs and a vibrant cultural industry are a
unique source of innovation for the future.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The EC Treaty provided the freedom of movement which has made
cultural exchanges and dialogue across borders easier.
a) 2
b) 3
c) 1
d) 4

32. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The arts, literature, and music connect and unite Europe.

166
a) 3
b) 2
c) 4
d) 1

33. Ответьте на вопрос.


What has increased the exposure to more diverse cultures from all over
the world?
a) The European Union
b) A common cultural heritage
c) Global warming
d) Globalization

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) Europe’s cultural richness is based on its diversity.
b) Culture is an indispensable feature to achieve the EU’s strategic
objectives of prosperity, solidarity and security, while ensuring
a stronger presence on the international scene.
c) Cultural activities and the demand for cultural goods has spread
throughout the European Union.
d) The EU’s culture programmes have been very productive.

Тест № 8

1. Заполните пропуск.

167
At high schools students get … education.
a) higher
b) secondary
c) primary
d) basic

2. Заполните пропуск.
Mr. Portman asked the secretary to take the … for tomorrow’s meeting.
a) minutes
b) brainstorm
c) insurance
d) comment

3. Заполните пропуск.
Flexible … is used so that students and teachers can have enough time
for a variety of instructional strategies and more personalized
interactions.
a) opportunity
b) development
c) subject
d) scheduling

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is the ability to do something at grade level.
a) Precision
b) Profession
c) Proposition
d) Proficiency

5. Заполните пропуск.
The magnetic field of a permanent magnet is … enough to operate only
a small practical dynamo or motor.
a) strongly
b) strong
c) stronger
d) strength
6. Заполните пропуск.

168
We cancelled the meeting because … of the people we invited were
able to come.
a) no
b) any
c) none
d) nobody

7. Заполните пропуск.
I think you have … better work than I do.
a) a much
b) a more
c) more
d) the most

8. Заполните пропуск.
This is … best website on the Internet!
a) the
b) a
c) -
d) an

9. Заполните пропуск.
Women now expect and have the right … similar treatment and
opportunities as men.
a) at
b) on
c) to
d) about

10. Заполните пропуск.


The arrangement was more a formality … a genuine partnership of two
nations.
a) or
b) than
c) as
d) but
11. Заполните пропуск.

169
It is already 9:30 pm and I … here for over an hour.
a) am waiting
b) wait
c) have been waiting
d) waiting

12. Заполните пропуск.


“He says he was talking to John.” – “He couldn’t … to John. John
wasn’t here.”
a) be talking
b) have been talking
c) talking
d) have talked

13. Заполните пропуск.


Why don’t you … next weekend?
a) come over
b) come down
c) come through
d) come off

14. Заполните пропуск.


Johnny … come to work yesterday because he was sick.
a) can’t
b) isn’t able
c) wasn’t able
d) couldn’t

15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Frank: I’m going to Table Top Mountain this weekend.
Mark: _____________
a) That sounds interesting. Is it far?
b) What’s the big idea?
c) It doesn’t matter at all.
d) Why, sure!

170
16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Client: Good morning. Is this Robertson, Miller and Ward?
Secretary: ___________
a) I would like to hold please.
b) Yes, how can I help you?
c) Please have Ms. Miller call me when she gets in.
d) Sorry, I don’t know.

17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Student: Thanks very much for your time, Dr Wescott. I really
appreciate it.
Professor: ___________
a) I cannot see any reasons why you should thank me.
b) Thank you.
c) You may thank yourself for that.
d) My pleasure, Jason. See you in class.

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Immigration officer: What’s the nature of your visit? Business or
pleasure?
Lilly March: __________
a) Pleasure. I’m visiting my relatives.
b) With pleasure.
c) The pleasure was all mine.
d) You’re such a pleasure to talk to.

19. Заполните пропуск.


The Union Jack is … .
a) a skirt
b) a flag
c) a musical instrument
d) an expensive food

171
20. Заполните пропуск.
The Statue of Liberty was a gift to the United States from the people of
….
a) Russia
b) Italy
c) England
d) France

21. Заполните пропуск.


The prize for the National Hockey League championship is … .
a) The Stanley Cup
b) The Grey Cup
c) The Brier Cup
d) The Mann Cup

22. Заполните пропуск.


Agatha Christie wrote … .
a) Harry Potter
b) Alice in Wonderland
c) Murder on the Orient Express
d) Romeo and Juliet

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) We have great pleasure in announcing that we shall shortly be


opening a new branch of the Britannia Rock Building Society
within easy reach of your home address.
We would like to invite you to the new branch’s open day on
Monday, May 1st between 10 am and 3.30 pm when the
Britannia Rock will be pleased to extend its hospitality to all
visitors caring to participate in light refreshment.
(2) _____________
Hardy Winter
Chief Executive
(3) Dear Mr and Mrs Galsworthy,
(4) Britannia Rock Building Society
24-26 Old Cattle Market

172
Manchester MA6 7BR
(5) Yours sincerely
Britannia Rock Building Society
(6) 15 April 2007
(7) Mr & Mrs William Galsworthy
42 Acacia Avenue
Rotherham RO14IK

24. Перед Вами конверт.


(1) Eurofreight Ltd
49 (2) Tenterlowe Lane
Hillingdon (3) MU8 8DE
England
Hudson Mechanical Engineering Inc.
(4) 782 Fairweather Street
(5) Boston MA 02116
(6) USA

Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на


конверте с тем, что она обозначает.
a) ___ the addressee’s country
b) ___ the ZIP Code in the return address
c) ___ the sender
d) ___ the addressee’s house number
e) ___ the street in the return address
f) ___ the town in the mailing address

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.
……………………
Dear Dr. Mayer,
I am writing to invite you to attend Second International Conference on
Synchrotrone Radiation in Materials Science, in Vienna, Austria, March
25-30, 2005. The conference is organized by the University of Vienna
and Austrian Physical Society.
……………………

173
a) Letter of enquiry
b) Memo
c) Letter of application
d) Letter of invitation

26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения


пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
служебной записки.

To : (1) ___
From : Claire McElroy
Date : (2) ___
(3) ___ : Demonstration of new office equipment

The Sales Manager of Smart Equipment will visit us on (4) ___ to


demonstrate their new computer and fax-machine which you are sure to
be interested in. Please arrange the time to meet him so that all your
staff could be present.
C.M.

a) ____ 28 September
b) ____ Subject
c) ____ 8 September 2010
d) ____ Secretarial Supervisor

27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

The Early History of Preschool Education

(1) The earliest institutions for educating very young children were
charitable enterprises that were founded to care for the children of the
rural and urban poor while their parents worked. In 1767, in what is
now the Alsatian region of France, Johann Friedrich Oberlin organized
an infant school called the salle d’asile (“hall of refuge”) for the care
and schooling of small children while their parents worked in the fields.
The idea was soon caught on, and within a few years similar schools
had been founded in a number of French and German cities. In 1833 the

174
French government made these infant schools part of the national
educational system.

(2) In 1816 the noted Scottish social reformer Robert Owen founded an
“Institute for the Formation of Character” as part of his model
community at New Lanark, Scotland. It took care of workers’ children
at the cotton mills, from about 18 months to 10 years of age; and there
were separate infant classes for 2- to 5-year-olds. The New Lanark
experiment led to the opening of England’s first infant school in
London in 1818 by James Buchanan, the man who had directed Owen’s
institute.

(3) In Italy, a Roman Catholic priest named Ferrante Aporti started an


infant school at Cremona in 1829. He had been dissatisfied with the
progress made by children in elementary schools. Therefore, in order to
prepare them for later schooling, he devised an educational plan that
combined intellectual, physical, and moral training for preschool
children. The chief drawback of these early maternal schools was that
they were largely copies of schools for older children. Young children
were required to sit in rows in large classrooms, recite lessons, and
spend hours doing reading, writing, and arithmetic.

(4) The change in direction of schooling for the very young came with
Friedrich Froebel, the German founder of the kindergarten. He believed
that childhood was a special phase in life, during which the individual
learned largely through play. He felt that young children should not be
subjected to formal instruction, as were older children, but should learn
through “self-activity” in play and imitation. They should also be
allowed to rest during the day and not be forced into rigid classroom
patterns of schooling. Froebel opened his first kindergarten at Bad
Blankenburg in 1837. Within 25 years after his death in 1852, his
educational theories had spread to the extent that kindergartens had
been started in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Canada, Great Britain,
Hungary, Japan, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States.
(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)

175
Определите, является ли утверждение:
The earliest schools for little children were established not only for
working class families but for the rich ones too.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

28. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The Scottish reformer tried to separate the children according to their
age.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Early maternal school usually provided children with educational and
social programs and developed some vocational skills.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Educational theories of Frederik Froebel are widely spread throughout
the world.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The poor progress made by children in elementary schools made an
educator think of preparing them at the earlier stage.
a) 4
b) 1
c) 3
d) 2

176
32. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует
следующая информация:
Educators began to realize that little children should be taught
specifically, i.e. through playing and imitation.
a) 1
b) 4
c) 2
d) 3

33. Ответьте на вопрос:


What conditions should be considered in the process of educating little
children?
a) The children need strict and clear instructions during play and
study.
b) Preschools shouldn’t copy the schools for older children.
c) Little children needn’t any formal instructions, they are eager
to learn through “self-activity”.
d) The children shouldn’t study at all, they should only play and
rest.

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The earliest foundation of infant school model for the care and
education of small children.
b) Childhood is a very special phase in the life of kids and should
be paid particular attention.
c) Preschool education combines intellectual, physical and moral
training to prepare children for future life.
d) Different countries, such as Germany, Canada, Great Britain
and others have the same system of kindergartens.

177
Тест № 9

1. Заполните пропуск.
… is the academic head of a faculty.
a) Professor
b) Tutor
c) Dean
d) Graduate

2. Заполните пропуск.
All … should work together to achieve the goals of the company.
a) employers
b) employees
c) applicants
d) interviewees

3. Заполните пропуск.
Customary responsibilities for teachers include planning and executing
instructional lessons, … students, and communicating with parents.
a) accepting
b) assessing
c) excepting
d) acquainting

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development
generally occurring between puberty and legal adulthood.
a) Adolescence
b) Transformation
c) Transmission
d) Emancipation

5. Заполните пропуск.
… believe that most mountains are formed by movements in the earth’s
crust.
a) Geologize
b) Geology
c) Geological

178
d) Geologists
6. Заполните пропуск.
I see … reason why I should do so.
a) any
b) no
c) no one
d) none

7. Заполните пропуск.
… pollen in the air, the greater the chance of hay fever.
a) More
b) More and more
c) The more
d) The most

8. Заполните пропуск.
Do you like … pink?
a) the
b) an
c) -
d) a

9. Заполните пропуск.
Stereotypes are usually based … different factors.
a) on
b) in
c) for
d) at

10. Заполните пропуск.


I waited … it got dark.
a) so that
b) in order that
c) until
d) if

179
11. Заполните пропуск.
Mike … to come over last night, but he didn’t.
a) is supposed
b) supposed
c) was supposed
d) is being supposed

12. Заполните пропуск.


None of the locals had any desire … us off-load the plane.
a) helping
b) help
c) not to help
d) to help

13. Заполните пропуск.


Congratulations! You have succeeded … getting the Saudi contract.
a) in
b) on
c) from
d) with

14. Заполните пропуск.


I … to work tomorrow.
a) must
b) should
c) could
d) have

15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Anne: Do you know the new girl in the mailroom?
Richard: ___________
a) No, but I think she’s Cathy’s friend.
b) You know perfectly well what I mean.
c) For myself, I say No.
d) It’s no use asking me.

180
16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Head of the department: Do you think you can meet the deadline?
Clerk: ___________
a) Sure, pick me up at 7 pm.
b) Yes, we’re meeting at the nightclub at 9 pm.
c) Yes, I will finish the report by Wednesday morning.
d) Let’s come back tomorrow.

17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Librarian: Please print your name and student number clearly in the
blanks on each card.
Student: __________
a) I know.
b) Yes, I do.
c) Thanks very much for your help!
d) I wonder if you know what it means.

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Customer: __________
Shop assistant: Certainly. We take Visa, Master Card and American
Express.
a) I speak by the card. And you?
b) Can I pay by card?
c) Can I get a visa?
d) You’re going in with good cards.

19. Заполните пропуск.


Nowadays the Tower of London is … .
a) a palace
b) a prison
c) a museum
d) a church

181
20. Заполните пропуск.
Jack-o’-lanterns are associated chiefly with the holiday of … .
a) New Year’s Day
b) Christmas
c) Columbus Day
d) Halloween

21. Заполните пропуск.


Most of the early European settlers in Canada worked in the …
industry.
a) mining
b) fur trade
c) forestry
d) shipping

22. Заполните пропуск.


The first man on the Moon was … .
a) Yuri Gagarin
b) John Glenn
c) Neil Armstrong
d) Alan Bartlett Shepard

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) 12 December 2005


(2) We were given your name by our mutual business associate,
Neil Smith at Medical Systems Ltd, who recommended that we
contact you. …
(3) Genesis Medical Ltd
115 Gloucester Road
London SW 7 3WW
(4) ______________
Bill Jambor
Project Executive
(5) Dear Sirs,
(6) LANCASHIRE ENTERPRISES plc

182
Enterprises House
17 Ribblesdale Place
Winckley Square
Preston PR1 3NA
(7) Yours faithfully,
Lancashire Enterprises plc

24. Перед Вами конверт.


(1) Hitech Software Inc.
400 (2) Sunnyvale Blvd
San José (3) CA 94021
(4) Mr B. Jambor
Project Executive
(5) Computronic Inc.
56-57 Trinity St
Austin (6) TX 75110

Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на


конверте с тем, что она обозначает.
a) ___ the addressee
b) ___ the sender
c) ___ the ZIP Code in the mailing address
d) ___ the street in the return address
e) ___ the ZIP Code in the return address
f) ___ the addressee’s company name

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.
……………………………………..
Thomas Crown
17 King’s Terrace, Richmond, Surrey, UK
Tel: +44 181 123 456 Email: tc@repu.co.un

Objective Seeking an International Sales Management position in


Information Technology where my extensive sales
experience will be used to the full

183
Experience 2003-present Intelel Inc. London, UK
National Sales Manager
Increased sales from £60 million to £100 million.
Implemented Internet sales grossing £25 million.
…………………
Education 1992-96 London University London, UK
BA, Business Administration & Information Systems
…………………

a) CV
b) Letter of application
c) Letter of enquiry / request
d) Letter of confirmation

26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения


пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
служебной записки.

To : Department Heads
(1) ___ : Debora Lynn
Date : (2) ___
(3) ___ : Annual Bonus Leave

Starting January 1, we will introduce the following modification of our


company policy with regard to annual leave: every year one employee
from each department will be awarded special annual bonus leave for
outstanding performance. ……………….
(4) ___

a) ____ D.L.
b) ____ 17 December 2010
c) ____ Subject
d) ____ From

27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

Elizabeth I

184
(1) Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen
regnant of England and Queen regnant of Ireland from 17 November
1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or
Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the
Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess,
but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after
her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her brother, Edward
VI, bequeathed the crown to Lady Jane Grey, cutting his sisters out of
the succession. His will was set aside, and in 1558 Elizabeth succeeded
the Catholic Mary I, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for
nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.

(2) One of her first moves as queen was to support the establishment of
an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme
Governor. It was expected that Elizabeth would marry, but despite
several petitions from parliament and numerous courtships, she never
did. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and
siblings. One of her mottoes was “video et taceo” (“I see, and say
nothing”).This strategy, viewed with impatience by her counsellors,
often saved her from political and marital misalliances.

(3) Though Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs and only half-
heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military
campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland, the defeat of the
Spanish Armada in 1588 associated her name forever with what is
popularly viewed as one of the greatest victories in English history.
Within 20 years of her death, she was celebrated as the ruler of a golden
age, an image that retains its hold on the English people.

(4) Elizabeth’s reign is known as the Elizabethan era, famous above all
for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as
William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring
prowess of English adventurers such as Sir Francis Drake. Some
historians are more reserved in their assessment. They depict Elizabeth
as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler. Towards the end of her
reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her
popularity to the point where many of her subjects were relieved at her

185
death. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a
dogged survivor, in an age when government was ramshackle and
limited. Such was the case with Elizabeth’s rival, Mary, Queen of Scots,
whom she imprisoned in 1568 and eventually executed in 1587. After
the short reigns of Elizabeth’s brother and sister, her 44 years on the
throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a
sense of national identity.
(Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia)

Определите, является ли утверждение:


Elizabeth I had neither brothers nor sisters.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

28. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Elizabeth’s strategy was supported by her advisors and often saved her
from political and marital misalliances.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Elizabeth’s reign is known as a golden age.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity, and a
cult grew up around her.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:

186
Elizabeth I had been imprisoned before she became the Queen.
a) 2
b) 3
c) 1
d) 4

32. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Elizabeth I is sometimes characterized as hot-tempered.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 4
d) 1

33. Ответьте на вопрос.


How is Elizabeth I sometimes called?
a) Anne Boleyn
b) Good Queen Bess
c) Lady Jane Grey
d) Mary

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The defeat of the Spanish Armada is one of the greatest
victories in English history.
b) Elizabeth I became the Supreme Governor of an English
Protestant church.
c) Elizabeth I is one of England’s greatest monarchs.
d) Elizabeth’s reign provided stability for the kingdom.

187
Тест № 10

1. Заполните пропуск.
… programmes usually involve one or two years of postgraduate study.
a) Bachelor’s degree
b) Master’s degree
c) Doctor’s degree
d) Honours degree

2. Заполните пропуск.
I think I am going to … when I am sixty five and go to Spain.
a) give up
b) retire
c) hire
d) employ

3. Заполните пропуск.
The intensive individualized attention allows … to identify the
student’s level of expertise.
a) the tutor
b) the fresher
c) the sophomore
d) the colleague

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is the continuous building of skills and knowledge throughout the
life of an individual.
a) Distance learning
b) Lifelong education
c) Formal education
d) Lifelong learning

5. Заполните пропуск.
Certain words are vulgar and not acceptable in … society.
a) politeness
b) polite

188
c) politesse
d) politely
6. Заполните пропуск.
The majority of teenagers have good relationships with … parents.
a) their
b) they
c) them
d) theirs

7. Заполните пропуск.
The British people have a … reserved nature than Australians.
a) -
b) far
c) far more
d) far most

8. Заполните пропуск.
Is there … university near your house?
a) -
b) a
c) an
d) the

9. Заполните пропуск.
An almost uncountable range of immigrants has arrived … the capital
over the years.
a) at
b) for
c) in
d) to

10. Заполните пропуск.


I shall not go … the weather is fine.
a) unless
b) lest
c) no matter how
d) but

189
11. Заполните пропуск.
I … many pictures of the pyramids before I went to Egypt.
a) saw
b) had seen
c) have seen
d) seen

12. Заполните пропуск.


She used … long hair but she cut it some time ago.
a) have
b) having
c) to have
d) to having

13. Заполните пропуск.


I will attend … this matter as soon as possible.
a) to
b) on
c) of
d) with

14. Заполните пропуск.


… you please be quiet? I’m trying to read.
a) Should
b) Shall
c) Would
d) Can

15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
John: Thank you very much for helping me.
Sue: ___________
a) You don’t mention it.
b) No mention of it.
c) You mention it.

190
d) Don’t mention it.

16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Secretary: I think we got disconnected. I’ll put you through now.
Mr. Mory: _____________
a) OK. Thanks.
b) How can I help you?
c) Please tell her that Mr. Franco called.
d) What a splendid idea!

17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Professor: What can I do for you, Newman?
Student: ___________
a) I’m afraid we’ll have to talk about your Advanced
Communications course.
b) I was wondering if it would be possible for me to audit your
Advanced Communications course, next term.
c) Are we both thinking about the same thing?
d) It may interest you to know what made me audit your
Advanced Communications course.

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Operator: Pacific Bell. May I help you?
Dave: ____________
a) I don’t think we should talk about the matter.
b) To offer to do that is mighty nice of you.
c) I like you asking me.
d) Yes. I’d like to set up a telephone service, please.

19. Заполните пропуск.


… is the most famous British newspaper which has never been
connected with any party or government .
a) The Guardian
b) The Times

191
c) The Daily Express
d) The Financial Times
20. Заполните пропуск.
The reason for the first Thanksgiving Day was … .
a) thanks God for good harvest
b) thanks Indians for help
c) thanks King James I
d) thanks good and warm weather

21. Заполните пропуск.


Most French speaking Canadians live in … .
a) Ontario
b) Nova Scotia
c) Quebec
d) British Columbia

22. Заполните пропуск.


The British sailor who claimed the east coast of Australia for Great
Britain was … .
a) Francis Drake
b) James Cook
c) Ernest Shackleton
d) Robert Falcon Scott

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) Thank you for your letter. I am afraid that we have a problem
with your order.
Unfortunately, the manufacturers of the part you wish to order
have advised us that they cannot supply it until November.
Would you prefer us to supply a substitute, or would you rather
wait until the original parts again available?
(2) I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely,
(3) GREENMAN INDUSTRIAL ESTATE
6 Pine Estate, Bedford Road, Bristol, UB28 12BP
Telephone 9036 174369 Fax 9036 3624

192
(4) James Sawyer, Sales Manager,
Electro Ltd,
Perry Road Estate,
Oxbridge UN54 42KF
(5) Dear Mr Sawyer,
(6) 6 August 2005
(7) ____________________
Simon Tramp
Sales Manager

24. Перед Вами конверт.


Hudson Engineering Inc.
(1) 782 Fairweather Street
(2) Boston (3) MA 02116
USA
Mr. Theo Kohl
(4) Managing Director
(5) German Optic GmbH
20 Industrieplatz
80992 München
(6) Germany

Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на


конверте с тем, что она обозначает.
a) ___ the addressee’s company name
b) ___ the ZIP Code in the return address
c) ___ the town the letter comes from
d) ___ the country in the mailing address
e) ___ the house number in the return address
f) ___ the addressee’s position

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.
……………………………………..
The Customer will provide all necessary stationery, electricity,
telecommunication facilities, other consumables, materials and
apparatus and all necessary and safe facilities for the provision by the

193
supplier of the Services, including, without limitation, such office
accommodation, office space and car parking space where available at
the Site(s) and any other Customer location, and such remote access to
any Customer equipment and software as the supplier may require to
perform the Services.
……………………………………..

a) Letter of confirmation
b) Letter of complaint
c) Contract
d) Memo

26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения


пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
телефакса.
(1) ___: Polish Chamber of Commerce
Fax No: +4822 274673
From: Bill Jambor, (2) ___
Fax No: +44(0)171 2804025
Date: (3) ___
Pages: 1

Dear Sirs,
I would be pleased if you could send me details of Polish companies
able to supply the following equipment: …
(4) ___,
Bill Jambor

a) ____ To
b) ____ Yours faithfully
c) ____ 04 Nov 2010
d) ____ Finchley Trading Company

27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

Britain set to become most populous country in EU

194
(1) Britain will become one of the world’s major destinations for
immigrants as the world heats up and populations continue to soar.
Statistics from the United Nations show that, on average, every year
more than 174,000 people will be added to the numbers in the UK and
that this trend will continue for the next four decades. By then, only the
United States and Canada will be receiving more overseas settlers, says
the UN. This increase in British numbers is likely to put considerable
strain on the country’s transport, energy and housing.

(2) However, such increases could also produce benefits for the nation,
bringing in immigrants who could provide a vital supply of young
workers. Demographers point out that, by 2050, more than a third of
the UK population will be aged 60 or over. By then there will be a
desperate need for bus drivers, care-workers and others to keep the
country running and immigrants could fill this gap. In addition, there is
the issue of humanitarian responsibility. Britain is likely to be one of
the few nations to survive the worst effects of climate change while
other nations, particularly those in the developing world, have their
farmland and fishing grounds destroyed. It could be argued that the UK
has a moral duty to provide shelter for as many refugees as its shores
can support.

(3) At the same time, Britain’s population will rise from its current level
of 61 million to 72 million by 2050. The nation will then be the most
populous in the European Union, outstripping Germany, whose
population will slump from 82 million to 71 million people as its
immigration figures plummet. The rise in population indicates that the
country is set for some considerable overcrowding. Britain's land area
is only two-thirds that of Germany, yet it will soon support the same
number of citizens.

(4) But many climatologists believe that by then life on the planet will
already have become dangerously unpleasant. Temperature rises will
have started to have devastating impacts on farmland, water supplies
and sea levels. Humans – increasing both in numbers and dependence
on food from devastated landscapes – will then come under increased
pressure. The end result will be apocalyptic. By the end of the century,

195
the world’s population will suffer calamitous declines until numbers are
reduced to around 1 billion or less. One of the few places to survive the
worst impacts will be Britain. Its climate will be one of the least
affected by global warming. As a result, everyone will want to live
here. Britain will become one of the world’s lifeboats.
(Robin McKie, The Observer, March 2009)

Определите, является ли утверждение:


In the next four decades only the UK will be receiving a great number
of immigrants, says the UN.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

28. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Increases of the population can have some advantages as well.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


German population is expected to decrease in the future.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Global warming won’t modify the British climate.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The territory of Britain is smaller than the territory of Germany.
a) 2
b) 3

196
c) 1
d) 4
32. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует
следующая информация:
In 40 years there will be lack of young workers in the UK.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 4
d) 1

33. Ответьте на вопрос.


How many people will be added to the population of the UK every year
according to the UN statistics?
a) over 174,000 people
b) less than 174,000 people
c) 174,000 people
d) about 174,000 people

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) Britain will be one of the world’s ‘lifeboats’ in the future.
b) By 2050, more than a third of the UK population will be aged
60 or over.
c) Scientists have stopped worrying about population because
other issues – acid rain, climate change and others – have
occupied their attention.
d) Our planet is now dangerously overpopulated.

197
Тест № 11

1. Заполните пропуск.
… usually marks the completion of three or four years of undergraduate
study.
a) An advanced degree
b) A doctor’s degree
c) A master’s degree
d) A bachelor’s degree

2. Заполните пропуск.
I’m really not enjoying my job at the moment. I want to … .
a) quit
b) employ
c) acquire
d) recruit

3. Заполните пропуск.
The … process is based on the submission of written applications and
supporting credentials.
a) acquisition
b) admissions
c) participation
d) prolongation

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number
of ideas for the solution of a problem.
a) Grouping
b) Belief revision
c) Brainstorming
d) Interaction

5. Заполните пропуск.
… for me, he spoke very good English.
a) Luck

198
b) Lucky
c) Luckily
d) Luckiness
6. Заполните пропуск.
Did they do … research before they found a cure?
a) many
b) much
c) some
d) a few

7. Заполните пропуск.
Richard got … good marks than Fred in the examinations.
a) less
b) few
c) fewer
d) a few

8. Заполните пропуск.
What’s … name of the hotel where you’re staying?
a) an
b) -
c) a
d) the

9. Заполните пропуск.
Four … 10 people born abroad have their home in London.
a) out of
b) in
c) from
d) out

10. Заполните пропуск.


Aggressive behaviour offends … isolates someone else’s rights.
a) whether
b) as
c) but
d) or

199
11. Заполните пропуск.
There’s somebody walking behind us. I think we … .
a) are following
b) are followed
c) are being followed
d) are being following

12. Заполните пропуск.


I wondered whether … him or not.
a) to address
b) address
c) addressing
d) to addressing

13. Заполните пропуск.


My answer depends … who is asking the question.
a) from
b) on
c) for
d) off

14. Заполните пропуск.


Jim gave me a letter to post. I … remember to post it.
a) can
b) may
c) must
d) needn’t

15. Заполните пропуск.


Jane: What are your plans for the weekend?
Sybille: _____________
a) Cold weather is hard to deal with sometimes.
b) I like ice fishing.
c) We’re going skiing in Montana.

200
d) I don’t have a schedule printed out yet.

16. Заполните пропуск.


Celia: Hello. My name is Celia Timms and I would like to speak to
your manager please.
Receptionist: ___________
a) No, I prefer to hold, thanks.
b) Sure. I’ll put you through.
c) Yes, that sounds good. Please have her call me.
d) He will come sure enough.

17. Заполните пропуск.


Student: ___________
University service representative: Sure. I need to see your student ID
card, please.
a) I’d like to get a pass for the Intramural Activities Center,
please.
b) Where is the Intramural Activities Center?
c) The Intramural Activities Center is over there.
d) Give me a pass for the Intramural Activities Center.

18. Заполните пропуск.


Cashier: Hello. May I help you?
Paul Ryefield: ______________
a) Your support might help the movement along.
b) I’d like to change some Euro into US dollars, please.
c) Don’t be longer than you can help.
d) It can’t be helped.

19. Заполните пропуск.


The head of the state in the UK is … .
a) the Prime Minister
b) the Major
c) the Queen
d) the Speaker

201
20. Заполните пропуск.
In the USA the laws are … .
a) the same in all states
b) different in every state*
c) different in richer states
d) different for different races

21. Заполните пропуск.


The first European settlers in Canada came from … .
a) France
b) Germany
c) England
d) Italy

22. Заполните пропуск.


On the Yalta Conference in 1945 the USA was represented by … .
a) Harry S. Truman
b) Dwight D. Eisenhower
c) Franklin Roosevelt
d) Herbert Hoover

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) 27 February 2010


(2) TGH Bleche Handelsgesellschaft mbH
Rombacher Hütte 99
44795 Bochum
Germany
(3) Yours faithfully,
(4) We regret to inform you that the current worldwide recession in
the steel industry has led to a collapse in the market for viably
priced metal boxes made in Europe. …
(5) Dear Sirs,
(6) ___________
Terence Hill
Chief Accountant
(7) The Steel Box Company Ltd
Smithington

202
Sheffield SH7 4AG
England
e-mail: steel.box@netcom.co.uk
24. Перед Вами конверт.
(1) Prendergast & Johnson
Investment Consultants
52 (2) Carter Lane
London (3) EC2 6ZG
(4) Mr. Gerald Lambert
Director
(5) Lowndes Lambert
Trading Group
(6) Bullrush Lane
London E3 8JL

Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на


конверте с тем, что она обозначает.
a) ___ the addressee’s company name
b) ___ the ZIP Code in the return address
c) ___ the sender
d) ___ the street name in the return address
e) ___ the street name in the mailing address
f) ___ the addressee

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.
……………………………………..
This letter shall confirm your acceptance of verbal order communicated
to you on May 23 2010. A copy of our purchase order containing the
state terms is attached.
Unless we receive objection within ten days of your receipt of this
order, we shall expect delivery of all ordered goods on the date
indicated.
……………………………………..
a) Letter of enquiry / request
b) Memo
c) Letter of invitation

203
d) Letter of confirmation
26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения
пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
служебной записки.

To : (1) ___
(2) ___ : Steven Bradshaw
Date : June 2, 2010
(3) ___ : Nadine Prentice’s Employment Status

Nadine Prentice initiated a meeting with the management to discuss her


current employment status given her on-going leave without pay as of
29 March 2010. …
(4) ___

a) ____ Subject
b) ____ From
c) ____ S.B.
d) ____ Files

27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

On Some Famous Trends in Preschool Education

(1) Probably the most famous name in the history of preschool


education is Maria Montessori. She began her studies of educational
problems while working at the Orthophrenic School in Rome, Italy, in
1899. In 1907 she opened her Casa dei Bambini (Children’s House).
Within a few years her methods had become world famous, and
Montessori schools were started in many countries. According to the
Montessori theory children go through a series of phases during which
they are particularly ready to learn certain skills such as reading and
arithmetic. If these early periods are missed in the schooling process,
later difficulties in learning may result. Therefore, she believed, all
children should be given a measure of freedom to work at their own
pace, without the tension that results from being in competition with
others. The amount of freedom allowed was not absolute, however, for

204
she believed that all freedom must be combined with self-discipline and
a respect for authority.

(2) Group training of children below kindergarten age gained impetus


in England shortly before World War I, under the guidance of Margaret
and Rachel McMillan. They established nursery schools in the slum
districts of London to help improve the physical and mental condition
of children living in these poorer areas. The aim of the nursery schools
was to make up for any neglect of the children at home and to provide
early schooling and care.

(3) The 20th century has also been a time of experiments in “collective
upbringing” in several societies. Early in the century, when Jewish
settlers were arriving in Palestine, they established communes called
kibbutzim. The early kibbutzim freed parents for work by caring for
their children. All children from birth to 1 year lived in an infant house
and were cared for by one or two kibbutz members. Later, they resided
in a toddler house until they were 4 years old. In many modern
kibbutzim children live with their parents until school age but spend
their days with the other kibbutz children.

(4) Kindergartens were introduced into the United States by German


immigrants. The first kindergarten was opened in Watertown,
Wisconsin, in 1856 by Margaret Schurz, wife of the German-born
reformer and politician Carl Schurz. One of the first distinctly
American kindergartens was started in Boston by Elizabeth Peabody in
1860. In 1873 St. Louis became the first city to make kindergartens part
of the public school system.
(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)

Определите, является ли утверждение:


The foundation of Montessori theory was the necessity to go through
several stages of learning at different time, so it can help good progress.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

205
28. Определите, является ли утверждение:
Margaret and Rachel McMillan developed the famous method of Maria
Montessori.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The method of Maria Montessori appeared in 1899 and soon gained the
world popularity.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


In modern kibbutzim kids live with their mothers only and attend infant
school.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
The variety of society types caused the appearance of different models
of upbringing in the collective.
a) 3
b) 1
c) 4
d) 2

32. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Kindergartens became the essential part of American educational
system in the 19th century.
a) 3
b) 1
c) 4
d) 2

206
33. Ответьте на вопрос.
What are the main principles of Montessori method?
a) The major point is to give children absolute freedom and self-
respect.
b) To learn social manners children should show individual
initiative.
c) Children are allowed some freedom, but not absolute, the
competition prevents from gaining good progress and each
child may work according to his abilities.
d) Children should be ready to learn reading and arithmetic so that
they wouldn’t have any difficulties in learning.

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The differences in approaching the process а preschool
education in America and Italy.
b) Preschool system of learning can free the parents from
upbringing and education of their children.
c) Montessori became the founder and creator of the whole
system of preschool education.
d) In spite of different approaches all methods of preschool
education have much in common and should be the integral
part of educational system.

207
Тест № 12

1. Заполните пропуск.
The class … is easy to remember since we have class every day at the
same hour.
a) room
b) paper
c) schedule
d) thesis

2. Заполните пропуск.
My … is ok, I can cover all my monthly expenses.
a) salary
b) bonus
c) loan
d) mortgage

3. Заполните пропуск.
The … domain of knowledge concerns with what students know and
understand.
a) psychomotor
b) affective
c) cognitive
d) learning

4. Заполните пропуск.
… is a specific learning disability characterized by difficulties with
accurate and /or fluent word recognition.
a) Dysfunction
b) Dysmnesia
c) Dyslexia
d) Distinction

5. Заполните пропуск.
Sea ice or glaciers have covered a … portion of the planet’s surface
during Ice Ages.
a) signify

208
b) signification
c) significant
d) significance

6. Заполните пропуск.
I asked two people the way to the station, but … of them could help me.
a) none
b) either
c) both
d) neither

7. Заполните пропуск.
Susan is better-looking than Ada; however, Liz is … one.
a) the best-looking
b) better-looking
c) good-looking
d) as good-looking as

8. Заполните пропуск.
Marseille is one of the most prosperous cities in … Mediterranean.
a) a
b) an
c) -
d) the

9. Заполните пропуск.
Religion, … sex and politics, should not be discussed in polite
company.
a) alongside
b) along of
c) along with
d) along

10. Заполните пропуск.


It looks … there will be a storm.
a) as
b) as though
c) as far as

209
d) as ever
11. Заполните пропуск.
When Carol called last night, I … my favorite show on television.
a) was watching
b) watched
c) watch
d) were watching

12. Заполните пропуск.


Obese people risk … from heart diseases.
a) to suffer
b) suffering
c) suffer
d) to suffering

13. Заполните пропуск.


They have agreed … our proposal to speed up the whole project.
a) in
b) about
c) to
d) for

14. Заполните пропуск.


I … rather stay at home than go out.
a) could
b) would
c) must
d) shall

15. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Linda: When did you settle on a name for the baby?
Samantha: ____________
a) We haven’t talked about the upcoming deal yet.
b) Last week. We decided on Liam for a boy.
c) We should go out tonight.
d) That sounds great.

210
16. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации
общения.
Client: I’m sorry. Could you speak a little bit louder? The line is
breaking up.
Clerk: _____________
a) I’m sorry. You have the wrong number.
b) He’s out of the office right now. Can I have him call you back?
c) I’m not sure.
d) Hang on. Let me switch from my cordless to my other phone.

17. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Student 1: David failed his exam.
Student 2: ____________
a) That’s great news.
b) Oh, that’s too bad.
c) You’re an intelligent person.
d) Good for him!

18. Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации


общения.
Peter Noll: ____________
Hotel manager: Good morning, sir. We’ve got an available room for
two nights next week.
a) Good morning, I would like to rent a room from you, please.
b) Good morning, I would like to book a room for two nights,
please.
c) Good morning, I often stay up nights in my room.
d) Good morning, could you make room for me?

19. Заполните пропуск.


The Norman invasion of England in … brought Britain into the
mainstream of western European culture.
a) 1171
b) 1491
c) 1066

211
d) 1215
20. Заполните пропуск.
The two major parties in the US are … .
a) the Democrats and the Conservatives
b) the Democrats and the Republicans
c) the Democrats and the Socialists
d) the Republicans and the Socialists

21. Заполните пропуск.


The tower in the center of the Canadian Parliament buildings in Ottawa
is called the … .
a) Tower
b) Peace Tower
c) Peace Center
d) Flag Tower

22. Заполните пропуск.


The United Kingdom’s first woman prime minister, who held the office
of PM for longer than anyone in the 20th century was … .
a) Nancy Witcher Astor
b) Marie Stopes
c) Diana Spencer
d) Margaret Thatcher

23. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.

(1) Krankenhaustechnik GmbH


Düsseldorfer Str. 90
45145 Essen
Germany
(2) Dear Sirs
(3) Mediquip Ltd
Richmond Industrial Estate
Richmond
Surrey SU9 1JK
United Kingdom
(4) _______________
David Vance

212
Managing Director
(5) 12 July 2006
(6) Yours faithfully,
Mediquip Ltd
(7) We are pleased to announce that our newly formed company
“Mediquip Ltd”, Company Registration No. 2391824, will start
trading in Europe as from September 1st. …

24. Перед Вами конверт.


Cornwall Plastics Ltd.
49 (1) Torrington Road
(2) Penzance PE3 9IK
(3) Cornwall
(4) Slumberland Foam Inc.
(5) 92 Fence Rail Road
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PA49721
(6) USA

Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на


конверте с тем, что она обозначает.
a) ___ the country in the mailing address
b) ___ the street name in the return address
c) ___ the county the letter comes from
d) ___ the addressee’s house number
e) ___ the town the letter comes from
f) ___ the addressee’s company name

25. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится


представленный ниже отрывок.
……………………………………..
To: Team Leaders
From: M. Jones
Date: January 3, 2010
Subject: 2010 Relay for Life
The organizational meeting for the 2010 Relay for Life campaign will
be January 20th. Please arrange to attend this very important event. The
theme for this year’s Relay is “The Colors of Cancer” and each team
will be assigned their color at the meeting. …

213
……………………………………..
a) Letter of invitation
b) Resume
c) Memo
d) Contract

26. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения


пропусков так, чтобы они отражали особенности оформления
телефакса.

(1) ___: Mr. John Greenman


Fax #: +1 503 690 3037
(2) ___: Stephen Herzog
Fax #: +1 503 259 2639
Date: 19 Nov 2010
(3) ___: 2

Dear Mr. Greenman,


We hereby confirm your order for laminated security glass as per your
fax of 14 November.
We enclose our pro forma invoice as requested and would ask you to
notify us as soon as the L/C has been opened.
Yours faithfully,
(4) ___

a) ____ Pages
b) ____ To
c) ____ Stephen Herzog
d) ____ From

27. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

The Social Sciences Captive to Philosophy

(1) The subject matter of the social sciences was carefully studied long
before the sciences themselves were named. The naming did not
happen until the 19th century. Before then, the courses that are studied

214
today as political science, law, ethics, psychology, or economics all fell
within the province of philosophy. The classical Greek philosophers –
especially Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle – believed that anything
humans could experience or think about was worth investigating.

(2) Aristotle claims that all human beings, by nature, desire to know.
Among the things people wanted to know were why people acted the
way they do and where human institutions came from and how they
functioned. As the thought of the ancient world was dominated by
philosophy, so the thought of the Middle Ages was permeated by
Christian theology. Although the physical sciences began to come out
from under the umbrella of philosophy late in the Middle Ages, the
subject matter of the social sciences was kept within the confines of
philosophy and theology. The chief reason for this was that the subject
matter of the social sciences – human behavior – was related to the
content of theology and thus came under the jurisdiction of the church.

(3) The rebirth of learning, or Renaissance, which appeared at the end


of the Middle Ages, was no more favorable to an independent
development of the social sciences. Renaissance scholars were devoted
to the ancient Greek and Latin texts, especially the works of Plato and
Aristotle. Much Renaissance writing therefore consisted of little more
than commentaries on ancient writers, and little new ground was broken
until the 17th century. Even then, however, the dominance of
philosophy was obvious. Discourse about human nature and human
institutions (government, the arts, religion, and economy) was mainly
presided over by philosophers.

(4) To say that philosophers tended to monopolize theoretical


discussion about what the social sciences are today does not in any way
minimize the enormous contributions made by these men. Hobbes,
Locke, Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and others wrote
brilliantly about the functions of government (political science) and the
nature of society (sociology). Locke, Hume, George Berkeley, and Kant
tried to clarify how the mind works (psychology). Adam Smith, the
“moral philosopher,” wrote the first great treatise on economics, ‘The
Wealth of Nations’.

215
(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)
Определите, является ли утверждение:
Christian theology was the basis of the thought of the ancient and
Middle Age times.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

28. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The term “social sciences” appeared many centuries ago.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

29. Определите, является ли утверждение:


The works of Renaissance scientists were mainly based on the writings
of ancient philosophers.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

30. Определите, является ли утверждение:


Such sciences as law, ethics and psychology appeared in Greece in the
Middle Ages.
a) истинным
b) ложным
c) в тексте нет информации

31. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:
Many famous scholars didn’t only make scientific research but also
made a great contribution to the development of philosophy.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

32. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует


следующая информация:

216
Social sciences didn’t develop independently but were the part of
theology for a long time.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

33. Ответьте на вопрос.


What is the subject-matter of all social sciences?
a) They study the human behavior in scientific research.
b) They study theology and environment.
c) They study the human personality, the relations and interactions
of people within the society.
d) They study theoretical discussions and work of famous
philosophers.

34. Определите основную идею текста.


a) The description of theoretical works of ancient and modern
philosophers.
b) The origin and development of social sciences as an
independent branch of knowledge.
c) The development of political science, law, ethics, psychology
and economics.
d) Ancient Greek and Latin texts as the main part of Renaissance
philosophy.

217
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18. en.wikipedia.org - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia
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219
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Предисловие ………………………………………………….. 3
Часть I. ………………………………………………………... 5
Лексика ……………………………………………………….. 5
Учебная лексика ………………………………………………. 5
Деловая лексика ………………………………………………. 8
Профессиональная лексика ………………………………….. 11
Термины (дефиниции) ………………………………………... 14
Грамматика ………………………………………………….. 17
Словообразование …………………………………………….. 17
Местоимения ………………………………………………….. 20
Степени сравнения прилагательных ………………………… 23
Артикли ……………………………………………………….. 26
Предлоги ………………………………………………………. 29
Союзы …………………………………………………………. 32
Глагол и его формы …………………………………………... 35
Неличные формы глагола ……………………………………. 38
Фразовые глаголы …………………………………………….. 41
Модальные глаголы …………………………………………... 44
Речевой этикет ……………………………………………….. 47
Культура и традиции стран изучаемого языка …………. 54
Чтение ………………………………………………………… 62
Текст 1 …………………………………………………………. 62
Текст 2 …………………………………………………………. 65
Текст 3 …………………………………………………………. 68
Текст 4 …………………………………………………………. 71
Текст 5 …………………………………………………………. 74
Текст 6 …………………………………………………………. 77
Текст 7 …………………………………………………………. 80
Текст 8 …………………………………………………………. 83
Текст 9 …………………………………………………………. 86
Текст 10 ………………………………………………………... 89
Текст 11 ………………………………………………………... 91
Текст 12 ……………………………………………………….. 94

220
Часть II. ………………………………………………………. 98
Тест № 1 ……………………………………………………….. 98
Тест № 2 ……………………………………………………….. 108
Тест № 3 ……………………………………………………….. 118
Тест № 4 ……………………………………………………….. 128
Тест № 5 ……………………………………………………….. 138
Тест № 6 ……………………………………………………….. 148
Тест № 7 ……………………………………………………….. 158
Тест № 8 ……………………………………………………….. 168
Тест № 9 ……………………………………………………….. 178
Тест № 10 ……………………………………………………… 188
Тест № 11 ……………………………………………………… 198
Тест № 12 ……………………………………………………… 208
Список источников …………………………………………… 218

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