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Philosophy Proponent Major idea/belief Goal/objective/ Curriculum Method of Teaching Role of the teacher Role of the school

Essentialism William Bagley The philosophy Academic knowledge The essentialist Deductive method The teacher is the Prepare students
contends that Patriotism curriculum includes the Lecture method authority of the for real life
teachers teach for character traditional disciplines content. Knowledge. situations.
learners to acquire development with such as math, natural They are expected to
basic knowledge, skills the back to basic science, history, foreign be intellectual and
and values. method. language and literature. moral models of their

Constructivism Jerome Bruner Is based on the belief

that learning occurs as
learners actively
involved in a process
of meaning and
Linguistic philosophy Jurgens Habermas & Believes and wants its To develop Verbal communication The experimental Provide experiential Offers language
Hans-Georg Gadamer students to believe communication skills Nonverbal method is the most learning to learn courses such as
that solutions to in different communication popular teaching language. English and other
philosophical languages Para verbal strategy used by the foreign languages.
problems can be (multilingualism) communication teachers under this
found by reformation Foreign language philosophy since it is
of language or a the most effective
deeper and better way of teaching
comprehension of the language and
language. communication..
Behaviorism Wilfred Sellars Focuses on human Concerned with the Behaviorist teachers Positive Conditioned students Agents for shaping
B.F. Skinners behaviour modification of the teach students to reinforcement through grades and students’ behavor
Ivan Pavlov Behaviourists believe students’ behaviour trespond favourably to Negative attitudes towards Develop social and
Edward Thorndike that behaviour can be by providing for various stimuli in the reinforcement their performance. mental values
Albert Bandura conditioned by favourable environment. Positive punishment Support and praise
altering the environment. Negative with evidence.
environment. punishment Shapes the behaviour
contracts of the students.
George Berkeley Philosophical theory
that maintains that
Idealism the real is of the
nature of thought or
that the object of
external perceptions
consists of ides.