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Some Ideas for Agricultural Development

in Tibet

Matsuji Matsuda
Faculty of Liberal Arts, Shinshu University
(Manuscript Received December 26, 1984, Accepted May 30, 1986)


The present state of agriculture in Tibet, which has long been shrouded in mystery, is
introduced, and some proposals for its sound development are presented, taking into
account the latest information obtained from a research tour in August 1984.
Land classification on the basis of potential productivity based on reliable information
is urgently needed for effective and conservative land use because the natural environ
ment of Tibet is now being more and more overloaded by the rapid expansion of arable
land and by overgrazing in grasslands.
Irrigation systems are expected to be expanded because the shortage of rainfall (445
mm/yr in Lhasa) is serious in many places and the water resources of the Himalayas are
abundant in Tibet.
The physical and chemical properties of soil need to be improved by applying organic
manure as widely as possible.
Establishment of an integrated international research institute for agriculture and
nature conservation is proposed because the Tibet Automonous District faces many
difficulties in its modernization, which are too complex and require for their solutions
too high a level of science and technology for Tibet alone to supply.


Tibet, at an average altitude of more than 4,000 m, is popularly called the roof of the
world; the Tibetan plateau is in fact still rising at the rate of ca. 1.3 mm a year.1) Most of
the plateau is considered to act as a gigantic radiator; i.e., the surface is strongly heated by
solar radiation in summer to produce low atmospheric pressure, while the strong cooling
of the surface in winter produces high atmospheric pressure. Thus, the plateau deter
mines the distribution of atmospheric pressure that characterizes the weather systems in
the Northern Hemisphere, especially in the Asia monsoon area.2,3) The physical condi
tions of Tibet are much more severe than those of other parts of the world which lie in
the same latitude.
On the other hand, the fundamental resources for agricultural production such as
solar energy and water are abundant in Tibet. This fact suggests that agriculture and
stock farming there have great potential for the future. In fact, Tibet was almost meeting

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her own food demands even before 1951. Since the emancipation of the serfs in that year,
agricultural production has been greatly increased by the opening of new farmlands,
land improvement, irrigation systems, the introduction of agricultural machinery, plant
breeding, and improvement of cultivating systems.
The People's Republic of China has set a target of quadrupling her Gross National
Product by the year 2000. Following the master plan, the Tibet Autonomous District
also is endeavoring to reach this target by further opening of farmlands and by finding
the methods to solve energy, transportation and education problems. The modernization
of agriculture, which is still terribly backward, is an especially important problem which
confronts Tibet today. But there is danger that the modernization effort will sacrifice the
natural environment itself, which is extremely delicately balanced.
Here, the agriculture of Tibet, which has been shrouded in mystery, is introduced and
some proposals for its sound development are presented, taking into account the latest
information obtained from a research tour in August 1984 headed by Dr. J. Shimokobe,
chief director of the National Institute for Research Advancement.


1. Land and climate

Tibet is one of the autonomous districts within the People's Republic of China. It lies in
the southwestern part of China, and to the north of the Himalayas. Its total area is about
1,220,000 sq km, ca. three times that of Japan. The average height of the district exceeds
4,000 m, so it experiences severe meteorological conditions. Major rivers such as the
Yangtze, the Brahmaputra and the Mekong have their cradles in the district, as presented
in Figure 1. Immense amounts of resources are thought to be hidden under the ground,
though reliable information is lacking. The district is divided into one city, 5 regions
and 75 prefectures. The population is ca. 1,930,000, 95 percent of whom are Tibetan; 4
percent are Chinese and the remaining 1 percent belong to minorities such as the Kahi,
Mongpah and Rohbah tribes. Tibet is therefore considered to be an almost mono-racial
The area of arable land is about 3,500,000 mu (ca. 233,450 ha); it is classified into four
regions according to natural features, namely 1) the middle courses of the Yarlung
Zangbo River, 2) the valley in the southern part of Tibet, 3) the Hengduan Shan region
and 4) the region of Nagqu and Ngari.
The monthly meteorological data for Lhasa are presented in Table 1.
Solar radiation in Lhasa amounts to 8346.5 MJ•Em-2/year owing to the great transmis
sion coefficient resulting from the clean and thin air layer.

The distribution of air temperature in Tibet has a wide range according to both

latitude and altitude. The main general feature of the distribution is that it is low (yearly

mean, ca. -3•Ž) in the Northwest and high (yealy mean, ca. 10•Ž) in the Southeast. The

amplitude of seasonal variation is relatively small and that of the daily variation is rather

great (max. ca. 23•Ž) in compariosn with other places situated in the same latitude.2)
Precipitation reaches ca. 4,500 mm/year in the Southeast where the monsoons con
verge and only ca. 150 mm/year in the Northwest2)

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Figure 1 Map of Tibet

Table 1 Monthly meteorological data for Lhasa

# The period of mean: 1951-1970

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2. Agriculture
The middle course of the Yarlung Zangbo River, including Lhasa, the capital of Tibet,
forms the center of agricultural production; wheat, rape, peas and potatoes are cultivated
there once a year. The main yearly cropping patterns are shown in Table 2.

Table 2 Main cropping patterns in the semi-arid region in Tibet

Most of the arable land in Tibet is too sterile to be productive owing to the lack of
bacterial activity in the cold and dry soil. To overcome this difficulty, an irrigation
system that included 31 dams for agricultural use and 7,000 canals (total length ca. 5,000
km) had been constructed by 1981. It is reported that the irrigation system covers 65.5
percent (ca. 152,850 ha) of the total arable land.
To increase the productivity of soil, manure, leaf mold, green manure and chemical

fertilizer are applied. Manure is applied at 0.75 t/10a and chemical fertilizer at

9.0•`22.5kg /10a. In Japan, by compariosn, 150 kg of chemical fertilizer per 10a is used.

Mechanization of agriculture is also proceeding. It is reported that about 28.3 percent

of the tillage process, 4.7 percent of harvesting and 78.6 percent of threshing has been
An experimental agricultural station has been established to increase productivity per
unit area through plant breeding and other methods.
In the eastern part of Tibet, agriculture is practiced halfway up Hengduan Shan on
natural slopes, in a number of valleys that have cut their way through the foothills of the

3. Orchards and Forestry

The valley in the southern part of Tibet has a moderate climate with annual precipita
tion of 4,500 mm, which permits the cultivation of maize, rice, tomatoes, cucumbers,
watermelons, sugar cane, oranges and bananas. In low areas below 600 m in the south
ern part of Medog, many tropical plants can be seen, and gum trees, coffee trees and
pineapples are cultivated.
Many species of orchard trees have been imported to the region so that large quantities
of pears and apples are produced, of a quality equal to that of the homeland of China.
Golden Delicious apples produced here took first prize at a contest held in the southwest
ern district of China. It is reported that 30 orchards in the region contain 350,000 fruit
trees, and the total area of the orchards is ca. 334 ha. All the products are consumed
locally owing to poor transport facilities for export.
ith respect to forestry, timber resources in Tibet are reported to rank fifth in China,
surpassed only by those of Heilongjiang, Sichuan, Jilin and Yunnun Sheng. The total
forest area in Tibet is ca. 3,101,550 ha. It is especially concentrated in the downstream
area of the Yarlung Zangbo River, where the timber resources are estimated to be ca. 2,000

Irrigation Engineering and Rural Planning No.10 1986


The number of higher plant species in Tibet is reported to reach 4,500, consisting of
100 families, 300 genuses and 1,400 species. At present, 1,334 ha of afforestation is being
undertaken every year.
200,000 m3 of trees are cut down and processed at 13 timber mills in the region to
produce 100,000 m3/year. About 70 percent of the process has been mechanized. It is
reported that 4,500 or more workers are engaged in forestry.

4. Stock farming

Stock farming is mainly practiced in cold regions at high altitudes, including Nagqu and
Ngari, where the annual precipitation is less than 300 mm and mountainous desert with
short grasses prevails as illustrated in Photo. 1. The grassland here is superior to that of
other districts such as Qinghai, Nei Mongol and Xinjiang uygur. The total area of the
region is ca. 82,708,000 ha, and ca. 40,020,000 ha are now in actual use.

Photo. 1 Stock farming at the altitude of ca. 4,300 m (goats in the foreground and yaks in
the background)

Stock farming in Tibet is considered to have begun ca. 4,000 B.C., and it has depended
entirely on nature up to now. Its progress has been rather slow in comparison with its
long history, although in recent years the number of head of livestock has been greatly
increasing, from 9,740,000 in 1952 to 23,460,000 in 1980. The kinds and numbers of
livestock are summarized in Table 3. All these livestock have adapted themselves to the
severe environmental conditions of the region. Yak in particular have a great capacity to

Irrigation Engineering and Rural Planning No.10 1986


adapt to low temperatures and the scarcity of atmospheric oxygen, such that they can live
normally even at altitudes of 5,500 m or higher.
Various attempts to increase production have been made: more than a thousand canals
for grassland use have been built; harmful small animals such as field mice which gnaw
at the roots of the grasses have been put down over an area of 246,790 ha; and noxious
plants have been cleared over 13,340 ha.
Eight breeding farms have been established, and 40 species of breeding stock imported
from New Zealand, Australia and the Netherlands are used together with 700 species of
Nnative breeding stock . It is reported that there are about 1,000 veterinaries in Tibet it
The nomads are now being encouraged to settle down in order to raise their living
standards and to facilitate the education of the younger generation, who are of vital
importance to the future development of Tibet. It is reported that the great majority of
the nomads have already settled down, and multiple agriculture, combining stock farm-
ing, forestry and cultivation, is being promoted.
5. Total agricultural output

It is reported that total agricultural output in 1983 amounted to 574,000,000 yuan. The
breakdown of the output is given in Table 4.

Table 4 The breakdown of agricultural output (1983)



1. Significance of potential productivity

The agriculture of Tibet faces many difficulties in the process of its modernization. But
it also has great possibilities for the agricultural development owing to its opulent water
resources, solar energy and so on. The efficient utilization of these resources is the
fundamental requirement in the agriculture of Tibet. To meet these practical needs, the
relationship among production factors must be clarified first of all.
A vast number of factors relate to the production process overall: solar radiation, plant
temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, the assimilation and transpiration rates of
the plant, leaf area and soil conditions, including chemical and physical properties of
soil, topographic nature, soil water content and fertility are the main factors.
All these factors act together and contribute to the complicated process of mass produc
tion. The next equation can be formulated as the actual productivity (PA).


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PA: actual productivityL: leaf area index

Rn: net radiationOp: temperature of plant
C: carbon dioxide concentration E: assimilation intensity
y: respiration intensity
B: soil conditions including chemical and physical properties of the soil, topographic
nature, soil moisture and fertility level. Suffixes 1 and 2 denote potential and actual
conditions, respectively
m: other miscellaneous factors.

In equation (1), Rn,Bp, C, B are the physical environmental factors of plant productiv
ity and L, E, y, are factors, mainly physiological, of the plant itself.
Therefore, the optimum conditions required for the achievement of maximum mass
production can be obtained from investigation of the relationship between the physical
and physiological factors. The relations presented by equation (1) are shown in block (B)
of Figure 2,7) namely meteorological factor M=f(Rn,Op, C), plant factor V=g(L,E,y),
actual soil and water factor B9=h(S9, W9) and other environmental factors EN.
Physiological investigation has shown that there is a close relation between assimila

tion intensity and net radiation and temperature, namely, that the assimilation intensity

can be expressed by the function of net radiation and temperature: E=f(Rn,Įp). Respira

tion intensity is considered to be a simple function of only the temperature Op, namely: ƒÁ=(ƒÆp)

. Carbon dioxide concentration in the air is assumed to be constant though it

changes with time of day and has a tendency to increase from vear to vear.

Equation (1) may then be reduced to the next equation by taking the above relation
into account:

This gives the actual productivity under actual physical conditions.

When soil conditions B, including soil moisture and fertilizer, are available to a
sufficient extent, and technologies are well developed, then mass production can proceed
at the potential rate. Produtivity under favorable conditions is called potential produc
tivity (PP)4) and can be expressed as follows:

The relations of the above equation are shown in block (A) of Figure 2.
The estimation of this value everywhere in a given area will have the following effects.:
1) Potential productivity will give theoretical ground to the ultimate production level;
namely, it will become one of the targets of agricultual activities.
2) Potential productivity will stimulate reconsideration of the technologies used in
regions with low production.
3) Potential productivity will help decision makers to decide how land can be used
4) Potential productivity will itself offer a method of land classification.
Thus, the estimation of potential productivity is now our main interest in considering
the progress of agriculture in Tibet.

2. Land classification by potential productivity as the premise of conservative land use

The expansion of arable land is one of the fundamental agricultural goals of the Tibet
Autonomous District, but it is clear that nature is being more and more overloaded in the
process. Avoiding increasing vectors of exploitation of land and saving the land from

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Figure 2 Production scheme

PP: Potential productivity, PA: Actual productivity, S: Soil condition, W: Water condition,
M: Given conditions such as climate, V: Vegetation, AP: Deficit of productivity, EN: Other
environmental factors, FO: Organic matter, FC: Chemical fertilizer, SP: Physical properties
of soil, IRR: Irrigation, DR: Drainage, IN: Blight and noxious insects, WR: Water resour
ces, 0 T: Others. Suffixes 1 and 2 denote potential and actual conditions, respectively.

impoverishment, which has reportedly occurred in some places in Tibet, are vitally
essential to the healthy development of agriculture.
Further, putting the proper crop in the proper place is a basic principle of agricultural
production, but there is little information about this in Tibet.
These facts remind us that the collection of scientific information about each place and
proper land classification are urgent issues. It is true that agriculture in Tibet has
adapted itself to the four environments described in the previous section, but more
detailed evaluation of land productivity must be carried out in each area in order to
modernize agriculture.
To meet these practical needs, the concept of potential productivity and a system of
land classification based on it will be proposed.
As shown in Figure 2, actual productivity (PA) of a given crop under given climatic
conditions is mainly restricted by soil and water conditions. These two factors have the
possibility of attaining the condition under which potential productivity (PP) can be
obtained, as presented in loop (A) of Figure 2. The PP indicates the maximum produc
tivity in an arbitrary place that must be the ultimate target of agricultural activities.
Activities toward the PP level are one of the fundamentals of effective and conservative
land use. The potential productivity can be estimated as the function of M,5,6)V,S1 and
W1in each place in Tibet, and it will offer an important kind of land classification by
Under the maximum potential conditions, no soil and water conditions restrict pro
ductivity, so that PP is to be approximately formulated as follows, assuming that leaf
area is constant at an optimum value:

where 8: declination, La: latitude, El: elevation, Or: orientation of the slope, In: inclina
tion of the solpe, Cl: cloudiness

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The value obtained by equation (4) represents not only the PP but also "an integrated
resource picture of the place concerned" including the land and climatic characteristics
such as 8, El, Or, In, Cl, Op,etc. It is therefore possible•to classify land from the point of
view of the so-called "integrated resources".
The difference (AP) between PP and PA is called the production deficit, which must be
reduced as far as possible toward zero by improvement of the conditions restricting
productivity; i.e., AP is the main source of feedback when considering the improvement
of the technologies presently employed as shown in loop (B) of Figure 2.7)
Land classification by PP thus obtained will give a theoretical basis on which to decide
for or against the development plan, by helping to indicate which takes precedence,
increasing productivity of the present arable land or reclamation of new land. It is also
reported that half of the grasslands in actual use in Tibet (20,010,000 ha) have now
degenerated. This fact shows us that the impact of human activities on nature by
overgrazing has reached serious proportions in Tibet. Therefore, the proper number of
livestock to be grazed in each area must be estimated on the basis of the potential
productivity of the grassland. The proper management of the grasslands is a major
premise in the settlement of the nomads.
To eliminate the difficulties of attaining PP in each place, water, soil and other
conditions shown in the loop (B) of Figure 2 must be improved as far as possible.
3. Intensification of irrigation

Though Tibet is situated in a typical semi-arid region, it has vast amounts of water
resources. The discharge is estimated to be ca. 320,000,000,000 m3 which is surpassed in
China only by the basin of the Yangze River. Many feasibility studies have focused on
the effective use of water resources in the process of modernization, which demands far
more enemy than before.
The seasonal variation of the water balance of Lhasa is presented in Figure 3. In spite
of opulent resources, the balance is nearly -2,000 mm/year (precipitation: 445
evaporation: 2,414 = 1,969 mm/year) as shown in the figure. This means that supple- -
mental irrigation is essential for the modernization of agriculture. To deal with this,
7,000 or more irrigation canals had been constructed by 1981, as noted above. But it is
reported that agriculture suffered from great damage by drought in the years from 1981 to
1983, and this in spite of the fact that there was plenty of water in the rivers. This leads us
to doubt the effectiveness of the irrigation systems. Drought damage is probably not

Figure 3 Seasonal variations of the water balance in Lhasa.

(Mean data for 1951-1970)

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uncommon in Tibet, and continuous collection of hydro-meteorological data is vital.‘ A

rational irrigation plan based on reliable data is probably the only way to avoid succes
sive damage.
The arable lands are along the main rivers, on small alluvial fans at confluences, and
in the small valleys of tributaries where they join the main rivers, as illustrated in Photo.
2. The upper halves of the fans seem to be left uncultivated because of excessive dryness.
Constructing irrigation systems for such inorganic dry areas would be a useful way to
create new land in the fans; it should be easy to conduct water there by canals because of
the slopes, though pipeline system would also have to be considered. At any rate, deliver-
ing water from rivers to the upper areas of fans (fan heads) to irrigate whole deltas would
be a major contribution to the modernization of agriculture in Tibet because the other
conditions for production such as solar radiation and river water are excellent.

Photo. 2 Aovillage and arable lands on a small alluvial fan

Not only must irrigation be expanded, but poor drainage of land also has to be
improved. The arable lands along the Lhasa He(river) were developed by reclamation of
both land and water areas, and there are still many poor drainage areas whose improve
ment would increase total agricultural production. Thus, the actual water condition W2
has to be improved to attain the potential conditions W1 as illustrated in Figure. 2.
It is reported that a thousand or more irrigation canals have been constructed for the
grasslands. Greater prosperity may be expected in such areas by adding cultivation to the
stock farming already practiced there. Some stock farmers who have a good water supply
on their land are already engaged in cultivation on the side; the present situation will be
much improved by extension of the irrigation systems.
The regional activities of the stock farmers extend from the southwestern part of Asia
to Nei Mongol Zizhiqu Dixing; and they form one great cultural area in spite of its being
divided into several countries and administrative districts. Since the cultural area has its
own style of living, prudence will be necessary when introducing a different kind of
culture such as cultivation of land. Rapid construction and improvement will have a
marked impact on the natural environment, and much emphasis must be placed on
coexistence with nature in every case. The heart of nature is order, which is also one of
the norms of culture. Developments that ignore this can only have a deleterious effect on
the culture of Tibet itself.

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4. Improvement of soil fertility

There is much more inorganic color than there is green in the scenery of Tibet, as shown
in Photo. 3, which means that the productivity of soil is often not a high level.
Agriculture is the work of growing and harvesting crops within the reproduction
limits which are set by soil conditions. In well-controlled farm land, fertility has accum
ulated in the soil over many years, and such soil enables the crops to reproduce. On the
other hand, exploitive agriculture leaves nothing in the soil after harvesting, and the
renroductivity declines toward zero.
It is reported that organic matter and N, P and K are scarce in the soil of Tibet owing to
its short history of cultivation and to the deterioration of the soil's physical properties.
The modernization of agriculture cannot be achieved without resolving these problems.
Increasing the level of organic matter in the soil may be difficult. For instance, even
the dung of livestock is dried and used as fuel rather than applied to the soil.
Many kinds of trees, including Salix spp and Thuja sp, can be seen not only in the
gardens of the Potala Palace and Rophulinca in Lhasa but also along the rivers and
streams, as shown in Photo. 4, and there can be no doubt of the possibility and usefulness
of afforestation with properly selected species under certain environmental controls. First

Photo. 3 Tibetan women against the background of the desert

Photo. 4 Potala Palace surrounded by trees

Irrigation Engineering and Rural Planning No.10 1986


of all, the need to plant trees must be understood and accepted by the descendants of the
nomads. Increasing the fertility of the soil must be a long-range plan carried out by
successive generations.
Mechanization has been increasing in every area of agriculture in Tibet, as previously
noted. One of the drawbacks of mechanization is that farmers cases to use draft animals,
so that there is little manure available. As a result much chemical fertilizer will have to
be applied to the soil, and unless much care is taken this is likely to exhaust the soil, as
has happened in many developed countries.
Another, indirect way to increase organic matter in the soil is to develop forms of
energy other than firewood and dung for daily life. It is reported that electricity has
become much more economic than the use of firewood in daily life in some parts of
Nepal. Hydroelectricity is a practical proposition in Tibet too because of its abundant
water resources.
Natural phenomena are continuous and move at their own pace, so any attempt to
bring about sudden and rapid progress in agriculture will only impose unreasonable
demands on nature. Agriculture is practiced through the medium of plants, and not by
assembling materials as in industry. Agricultural improvement means no more than
providing the optimum conditions for nature to take her course, and in the case of Tibet
this requires the implementation of fundamental agricultural technologies with the help
of the home government and other foreign countries.
Other environmental factors (EN) such as blight, noxious insects, poisonous herbs and
field mice are also reported to check development. These difficulties must be removed,
but there is little information on these problems at the moment.
5. Concluding Remark
For modernization, traditional wisdom must be reinforced by modern science. A close
relationship between production activities and research is particularly important in a
region with severe environmental conditions like Tibet, and undoubtedly an interdisci
plinary approach will be necessary to solve the many problems that exist.
First of all, land classification based on reliable information about each place has to be
done; vast amounts of data will be needed because of the diversity of environmental
conditions in the country. The concept of potential productivity described in the pre
vious section should prove to be one of the useful methods of classification. The classifi
cation thus obtained will enable the cultivation of the proper crop in the proper place.
Proper crops must be established and added to by the continuous selection of species,
breeding and management. Considering the poor transport facilities in Tibet, the possi
bility of self-supporting systems in rather small areas must be investigated. In such cases,
crops will have to be cultivated under arbitrary severe conditions, departing from the
concept of the proper crop in the proper place. Alternatively, crops that can survive
transport through mountainous areas must be selected.
Human impact on nature has greatly increased since the Tibet Autonomous District
began to modernize. Proper nurturing and intensification of the functions of ecosystems
must be the basis of all human activities that affect nature. The character of the ecosys
tems on the Tibetan plateau, above 4,000 m, however, are still not very well understood.
In spite of this, modernization requires the cutting of trees and expansion of arable land.
In addition to this, modernization erquires high efficiency in all situations. Uniform
ity is certainly efficient; however, monoculture will not stand up to the severe envi
ronmental conditions of Tibet, especially in the case of unusual weather conditions such

Irrigation Engineering and Rural Planning No.10 1986


as have occurred frequently of late, so uniformity must in fact be strenuously avoided. It

must also be remembered that the ecosystem maintains stability through the balance of
its many diversities.
The output of stock farming was noted in Table 4. Grease, hides and felts can stand up
to severe transport conditions, unlike vegetables and fruit, so such products, have great
potential as export goods. Raw materials have long been a major source of export but to
other shengs and to other countries, their value must be increased by manufacturing
them into carpet, cloth, overcoats and other clothes, etc. The increased energy needs of
manufacturing will be met by the development of water resources, which are said to be
equivalent to ca. 120,000,000 kW of electric power. Large development projects, how-
ever, impose a strain on nature, and it must be remembered that resources, environment
and technology are an inseparable set.
The plateau of Tibet is sometimes called the third Pole, after the North and South
Poles because of its importance to the physical dynamics of meteorology in the Northern
Hemisphere. Therefore, the meteorological phenomena in Tibet are important in
understanding not only the features of nature there but also the nature of Monsoon Asia
which has produced so many important civilizations. Meteorological and other data
must therfore be openly available to researchers in all countries and must be regarded as
common property, because natural phenomena know no national boundaries. Collab
orative studies in this area may be expected to promote the welfare of many countries
through the precise forecasting of weather.
The above problems, and many others, are all important in promoting the moderniza
tion of Tibet. They are, however, too complex and require for their solutions too high a
level of science and technology for them to be settled by Tibet alone. The establishment
of an integrated research institute in which the wisdom of both China and the rest of the
world may be concentrated is to be highly desired.

1) Zhao Songqiao: Historical review of physical geography in the last 30 years in China, Chin,
Vol. 26. No. 3. DD. 23-29, 1981:
2) Lin Zhenyao and Wu Xiangding: Some climatological characters and the crop distributions in
inghai-Xizang. height, Chiri, Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 122-128, 1983. q
3) Yasunari, T.: On the relationships between the upheaval of Himalaya and the formtion of
Asia-Monsoon climate, Southeast Asian Studies' Library, Kyoto University, No. 15, pp.375
391. 1980. -
4) Ryhiner, A.H. and Matsuda, M.: Effect of plant density and water supply on wheat production,
Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol.26, No.2, pp.200-209, 1978.
5) Matsuda, M and Baumgartner, A.: Okosystematische Simulation des Nutzeffektes der Sonnen
energie fur Walder, Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, No.94, pp.89-104, 1975.
6) Matsuda, M.: Klimatische Grundlagen fur die Berechnung der Potentiellen Produktivitat des
Suwa Beckens mittels Rasteranalyse and Multispektralen Scanner-Aufnahmen, Munchen
versitat-Schriften. Fakultat fur Physik, Wissenschaftliche Mitteilung Nr.35, 1979. Uni
7) Matsuda, M.: Land classification by the simplified potential productivity, Annual Report 1980,
Food & Agriculture Project of The Japan Committee for IIASA. Food and Agriculture System,
No.2, 1981.

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