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The Schoolcraft Families of

Schoharie, NY and Missisquoi


County, QC

By

David J. Ellis
CREATED/PUBLISHED
David J. Ellis
1 Wilshire Drive
Londonderry, New Hampshire, 03053
Edition 3.2
© 2014 David J. Ellis
Preface
Since my original publication of this work I released several updates and had decided that it
was time to let the work stand on its own. Such decisions should never be made. In 2013 I
was contacted by Dennis Rodgers, one of the much earlier researchers of the Schoolcraft
family line. Dennis was extremely helpful in highlighting some discrepancies in my
documentation of the Virginian lines, discussed in Chapter 17 and which I had included in
my second edition. Several of the facts produced by Dennis were new to me. Coupled with a
number of other changes I decided that an update to Edition 3 was appropriate.

I consider myself an amateur genealogist. It is not my profession, although it has been over
20 years since I started looking at my wife’s ancestors. I have had considerable assistance
from others. They are most likely responsible for those parts of this interpretation that are
correct. The errors are my own work, and I accept responsibility for them. I have been
careful and diligent in my research but human error is always possible.

It is not possible to list the many people who have contributed to this work. In an attempt to
address this I must acknowledge a few. Mr. Grove Schoolcraft has spent countless hours in
chasing down and verifying hundreds, if not thousands of references necessary to the
preparation of this document. I would never have had the time or patience to do that work on
my own. In the early stages of my research Ms. Francine Hart provided considerable help by
providing leads to the Boomhower family. Ms. Marilyn O’Leary is another who has provided
considerable insight into the Schoolcraft line in Clarenceville, Quebec. It is easy to focus on
the male line where the name is easy to follow. I am guilty of this. I am therefore grateful to
Ms. Lamora Magdaleno for providing much of the information about Ann Schoolcraft, the
wife of Simon Stone from Stanbridge, Quebec. Ms. Judy Antle of the Missisquoi Museum
deserves credit for the help she provided in allowing me access to some of the records held at
the Museum. One with whom I never spoke but who helped a great deal is Mr. Ed
Schoolcraft of Albuquerque, New Mexico. His work on the early Schoolcraft presence in the
Americas inspired me by his clarity of analysis and insightful use of circumstantial evidence.
Between the summer of 1985 and the summer of 1987 Ms. Ethel May Diel started and
published a Schoolcraft Newsletter. While I did not possess copies of that Newsletter when
preparing this book, a lot of the leads and clues that I obtained from others and subsequently
used have their origins in that Newsletter. In 1986 Ed Schoolcraft published his book titled
“Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country and Detailing Some Facts
and Opinions on One Particular Branch of This Family - With Regards to the Migration of
That Branch From New York, to Virginia and Kentucky”. I have used some of Ed’s analysis
and appropriately refer to it in the body of this book. In 1988 and 1989 Ed published a
newsletter titled Schoolcraft Ancestral News. When preparing this book, a lot of leads and
clues that I used have their origins in that newsletter. Most recently, Mr. Greg Parkes
acquired copies of some of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft’s original manuscripts and generously
provided copies to me. A letter from Henry to his father-in-law has added detail about
Henry’s great grandfather that is surprisingly consistent with known facts and also gives
insight into Henry’s sources. Greg generously permitted me to include his transcription of
another document in Appendix B. All these sources have guided my interpretation of the

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Schoolcraft family. To those many others who have assisted me in this work but whom I
have not explicitly named I do assure you that your assistance was greatly valued and I am
indebted to you.

This document would not have been possible without the understanding and patience of my
dear wife, Denise. In return for the countless hours she allowed me to spend on this hobby I
dedicate this work to her. She has been continually supportive of the time spent at a computer
screen when I should have been spending time with her

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Contents
PREFACE ............................................................................................................................................................. I
CONTENTS ....................................................................................................................................................... III
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................1
CHAPTER 1 : 17TH CENTURY ENGLAND .....................................................................................................5
A PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER................................................................................................................................5
HEADMASTER OF THE ROYAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL, LANCASTER ........................................................................8
JAMES SCHOOLCROFT‘S FAMILY .........................................................................................................................8
OTHER ENGLISH ANCESTORS ............................................................................................................................ 14
CHAPTER 2 : JAMES, THE AMERICAN SCHOOLCRAFT ..................................................................... 17
CHRISTIAN SCHOOLCRAFT ................................................................................................................................ 20
LAWRENCE SCHOOLCRAFT................................................................................................................................ 21
THE IGI BIRTH RECORDS FOR JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT‘S CHILDREN ................................................................... 23
JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT‘S CHILDREN ................................................................................................................... 25
JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT‘S DEATH ........................................................................................................................ 27
CHAPTER 3 : HENRY ROWE SCHOOLCRAFT‘S GRANDFATHER ..................................................... 31
THE MILITARY RECORD .................................................................................................................................... 31
JOHN SCHOOLCRAFT‘S DESCENDANTS .............................................................................................................. 33
HENRY ROWE SCHOOLCRAFT............................................................................................................................ 37
CHAPTER 4 : A MILITARY FAMILY .......................................................................................................... 41
THE MILITARY RECORD .................................................................................................................................... 41
LAWRENCE’S CHURCH LIFE .............................................................................................................................. 44
FINDING THE JACOB .......................................................................................................................................... 45
WILL THOSE CALLED PETER SCHOOLCRAFT STEP FORWARD? ......................................................................... 46
DAVID SCHOOLCRAFT ....................................................................................................................................... 49
A CASE OF RESURRECTION! .............................................................................................................................. 51
THE RELATIONSHIP OF ELISHA AND SYLVESTER SCHOOLCRAFT....................................................................... 52
JACOB FRIDENDALL .......................................................................................................................................... 53
OZIAS AND ADAM SCHOOLCRAFT IN TIOGA COUNTY ....................................................................................... 53
CHAPTER 5 : A LOYALIST FAMILY ........................................................................................................... 57
THE ANAQUASSACOOK (SCHERMERHORN) PATENT .......................................................................................... 57
THE LOYALISTS OF CAMBRIDGE ....................................................................................................................... 59
THE MILITARY RECORD .................................................................................................................................... 61
THE QUEBEC LAND GRANTS AND OATHS OF ALLEGIANCE ............................................................................... 65
CHRISTIAN SCHOOLCRAFT‘S CHILDREN ............................................................................................................ 70
CHAPTER 6 : AN EARLY DEATH ................................................................................................................ 75
LAWRENCE SCHOOLCRAFT, MARRIED TO MARIA SCHNEIDER IN 1790 ............................................................. 75
SAMUEL SCHOOLCRAFT, SOLDIER ON THE CONNECTICUT LINE ........................................................................ 77
CHAPTER 7 : THE DAUGHTERS.................................................................................................................. 81
MARGARET SCHOOLCRAFT, BORN ABOUT 1734 ............................................................................................... 81
MARIA MAGDALENA SCHOOLCRAFT, BAPTIZED SEPTEMBER 29TH, 1735 ........................................................ 82
ELIZABETH SCHOOLCRAFT, BORN DECEMBER 25TH, 1738 ............................................................................... 82
CATHERINE HELEN SCHOOLCRAFT, BAPTIZED JULY 26TH, 1741 ...................................................................... 82

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CHAPTER 8 : UNRESOLVED ISSUES IN SCHOHARIE COUNTY ......................................................... 85
RACHEL SHOECRAFT, BORN ABOUT 1788 ......................................................................................................... 86
MONTGOMERY COUNTY, NEW YORK................................................................................................................ 86
H. LAWRENCE SCHOOLCRAFT, BORN ABOUT 1787 ........................................................................................... 87
LUKE SCHOOLCRAFT, BORN ABOUT 1790......................................................................................................... 87
JACOB SCHOOLCRAFT, BORN BEFORE 1796 ...................................................................................................... 88
SOPHIA SCHOOLCRAFT, BORN ABOUT 1803...................................................................................................... 89
ANN SCHOOLCRAFT, BORN ABOUT 1805 .......................................................................................................... 89
MARY ANN SCHOOLCRAFT, BORN ABOUT 1806 ............................................................................................... 89
CHAPTER 9 : ADAM SCHOOLCRAFT, A STANBRIDGE ASSOCIATE ................................................ 91
ADAM SCHOOLCRAFT‘S CHILDREN ................................................................................................................... 95
CHRISTOPHER SCHOOLCRAFT ........................................................................................................................... 95
CATHERINE PHELPS ........................................................................................................................................... 98
CHAPTER 10 : WILLIAM SCHOOLCRAFT, A FARM BY THE LAKE ................................................ 103
WILLIAM AND CATHERINE’S CHILDREN.......................................................................................................... 105
WHERE THE CHILDREN WENT ......................................................................................................................... 108
REMAINING AMBIGUITIES ............................................................................................................................... 111
CHAPTER 11 : JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT OF ST. IGNACE DE STANBRIDGE ................................... 117
JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT JR. ................................................................................................................................ 118
ELIJAH SCHOOLCRAFT AND VAN BUREN COUNTY, MICHIGAN ....................................................................... 119
JOEL SCHOOLCRAFT AND A NAMING COINCIDENCE ........................................................................................ 120
MOSES SCHOOLCRAFT AND ANOTHER MICHIGAN CONNECTION..................................................................... 121
TWO DAUGHTERS, OR SOMETHING MORE COMPLEX ...................................................................................... 122
CHAPTER 12 : PETER SCHOOLCRAFT, LIFE ON THE BORDER ...................................................... 129
PETER SCHOOLCRAFT‘S CHILDREN ................................................................................................................. 130
SAMUEL, CHRISTOPHER AND JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT, THREE BROTHERS IN ILLINOIS ...................................... 131
ISAAC SCHOOLCRAFT, THE IMPOSSIBLE GRANDFATHER ................................................................................. 134
THE CASE FOR MATILDA, AND NANCY SCHOOLCRAFT ................................................................................... 134
THOMAS SCHOOLCRAFT .................................................................................................................................. 135
CHAPTER 13 : JOHN SCHOOLCRAFT, A FAMILY UNDER STRESS ................................................. 141
WHO IS SOLOMON DUNHAM?.......................................................................................................................... 141
SIMON SCHOOLCRAFT ..................................................................................................................................... 144
A FINAL LOOK AT JOHN SCHOOLCRAFT‘S FAMILY ......................................................................................... 145
CHAPTER 14 : MARTIN SCHOOLCRAFT OF ST. IGNACE DE STANBRIDGE ................................ 147
THREE CHILDREN THAT CAN BE PROVEN....................................................................................................... 148
THREE EARLY ANGLICAN MARRIAGES ........................................................................................................... 150
LORENZO SCHOOLCRAFT ................................................................................................................................ 151
THE STUKELY CONNECTION............................................................................................................................ 152
WHEN YOU ELIMINATE THE IMPOSSIBLE, WHATEVER REMAINS, HOWEVER UNLIKELY, MUST BE THE TRUTH... 153
MARTIN SCHOOLCRAFT‘S WIFE, HANNAH SCOFIELD ...................................................................................... 154
MARTIN’S CHILDREN ...................................................................................................................................... 155
CHAPTER 15 : ANNA SCHOOLCRAFT AND SIMON STONE............................................................... 167
WHO IS SIMON STONE? ................................................................................................................................... 170
SIMON STONE AND ANNA SCHOOLCRAFT‘S CHILDREN ................................................................................... 170
CHAPTER 16 : UNRESOLVED ISSUES IN MISSISQUOI COUNTY ..................................................... 177
THE KENTUCKY CONNECTION ........................................................................................................................ 177

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A NEW HAMPSHIRE MARRIAGE ...................................................................................................................... 179
SOME ISOLATED RECORDS WITH CONNECTIONS TO QUEBEC OR NEW ENGLAND ........................................... 179
CHAPTER 17 : THE VIRGINIANS .............................................................................................................. 183
STAFFORD COUNTY, VIRGINIA ........................................................................................................................ 183
AUSTIEN SCHOOLCRAFT AND THE EARLY LOCATIONS IN WEST VIRGINIA ...................................................... 184
AUSTIEN SCHOOLCRAFT'S CHILDREN .............................................................................................................. 185
ABOUT JOHN SCHOOLCRAFT'S WIFE ............................................................................................................... 189
GEORGE SCHOOLCRAFT .................................................................................................................................. 193
A LOUISIANA CONNECTION ............................................................................................................................ 198
OTHER EARLY SCHOOLCRAFTS ....................................................................................................................... 199
APPENDIX A : SKETCHES OF THE LIFE OF HENRY R. SCHOOLCRAFT ...................................... 205
APPENDIX B : A SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF COL. LAUREN SCHOOLCRAFT ............................... 221
APPENDIX C : SCHOOLCRAFT ANCESTRAL NEWS, VOLUME 2 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 1989, PP.
3 - 19................................................................................................................................................................... 239
LETTER WRITTEN BY MARGARET BUSH ......................................................................................................... 239
LETTER WRITTEN BY J. W. CALHOUN ............................................................................................................. 241
JOHN SCHOOLCRAFT, HIS FAMILY AND THE MASSACRE .................................................................................. 242
APPENDIX D : DOCUMENT IMAGES ....................................................................................................... 249
FIGURE 1: LANCASTER AND CATON, A COMPOSITE FROM GREENWOOD 1818 ................................................ 249
FIGURE 2: ALBANY MUSTER 1713, A. COMPANY, SOLDIER 78 ....................................................................... 250
FIGURE 3: FIRST REFORMED CHURCH, SCHENECTADY, AUSTIEN.................................................................... 251
FIGURE 4: SCHOHARIE TO ALBANY, EXTRACT FROM CÓVENS AND MORTIER 1780 ........................................ 252
FIGURE 5: DONATION BY LAWRENCE TO ST. PAUL’S CHURCH ........................................................................ 253
FIGURE 6: ANAQUASSACOOK (SCHERMERHORN) PATENT ............................................................................... 254
FIGURE 7: QUEEN’S LOYAL RANGERS, COL. PETERS COMMAND [PART OF] .................................................... 255
FIGURE 8: 3RD COMPANY ROSTER CIRCA 1778 ............................................................................................... 256
FIGURE 9: BENNINGTON BATTLEFIELD ........................................................................................................... 257
FIGURE 10: AGREEMENT OF ADAM SCHOOLCRAFT AND ISAAC AFSELSTINE ................................................... 258
FIGURE 11: JACOB ROSE FAMILY RECORD ...................................................................................................... 266
FIGURE 12: STANBRIDGE CIRCA 1830-37 ........................................................................................................ 268
FIGURE 13: MISSISQUOI COUNTY, JOSEPH BOUCHETTE [H11/300 -1831 #11 OF 12]....................................... 269
FIGURE 14: LOCATIONS ON A MODERN MAP ................................................................................................... 270
FIGURE 15: CANADIAN ARCHIVES NATIONAL MAP COLLECTION [NMC 19134] ............................................ 271
FIGURE 16: MISSISQUOI BAY CIRCA 1830 ....................................................................................................... 272
FIGURE 17: ROUVILLE MILITIA ANNUAL RETURN, 1838 ................................................................................. 273
FIGURE 18: SOUTH BEECH RIDGE CEMETERY - MCCLELLAN 1941 ................................................................. 275
FIGURE 19: EARLY WEST VIRGINIA SETTLEMENT........................................................................................... 277
APPENDIX E : OUTLINE DESCENDENT REPORTS .............................................................................. 278
JAMES SCHOOLCROFT OF CATON, LANCASHIRE .............................................................................................. 278
JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT, CHRISTENED JUNE 27TH, 1688 .................................................................................... 282
JOHN SCHOOLCRAFT BAPTIZED APRIL 28TH, 1731 ........................................................................................... 289
LAWRENCE SCHOOLCRAFT BAPTIZED MARCH 20TH, 1732/33.......................................................................... 309
CHRISTIAN SCHOOLCRAFT BORN ABOUT 1732 ............................................................................................... 355
WILLIAM SCHOOLCRAFT BORN ABOUT 1730 .................................................................................................. 364
THE DAUGHTERS............................................................................................................................................. 369
UNPLACED INDIVIDUALS IN NEW YORK.......................................................................................................... 374
ADAM SCHOOLCRAFT BORN APRIL 9TH, 1756.................................................................................................. 378
WILLIAM SCHOOLCRAFT BORN ABOUT 1767 .................................................................................................. 406
JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT BAPTIZED FEBRUARY 19TH, 1762 ................................................................................. 461
PETER SCHOOLCRAFT BORN ABOUT 1768 ...................................................................................................... 494

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JOHN SCHOOLCRAFT BORN AUGUST 12TH, 1766 .............................................................................................. 517
MARTIN SCHOOLCRAFT BAPTIZED FEBRUARY 6TH, 1764 ................................................................................ 525
ANNA SCHOOLCRAFT BORN BEFORE 1775...................................................................................................... 627
UNPLACED INDIVIDUALS FROM CANADA ........................................................................................................ 656
THE VIRGINIANS ............................................................................................................................................. 662
NAME INDEX .................................................................................................................................................. 695
ERRATA ........................................................................................................................................................... 717

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Introduction
My involvement in genealogy would not have occurred were it not for a seemingly simple
request by my mother-in-law. She asked for help in finding out about her family, which was
believed to contain Native American blood. Her mother had given her a box containing old
photographs and some small number of notes. Some of these had been handed down from her
grandmother. Some of the photographs dated back to about 1900. While it did not take long
to determine that the claim of Native American blood was true, records for that line ceased
with my mother-in-law’s great grandfather. However, on the other side of the tree was a
“Lavina Boonhower”. The name fascinated me, but there was no obvious clue to her origin.
She was really my first introduction to what genealogy entailed. With the help of others I was
directed to the work of the Rev. Harold Boomhower. He showed how the Boomhower line
might have originated in Germany in 1490 but his focus was the Boomhower name and along
the way an oversight created another problem. Lavina Boomhower was the child of Jacob
Boomhower and Orra Schoolcraft. His oversight was that he attributed Orra, who married
and lived in Stanbridge, Quebec, to Lawrence Schoolcraft and Arianne Reinhard who had not
left the Mohawk Valley in New York State. It did not seem reasonable that a young single
female would travel 300 miles, alone, to marry someone she had never met. I was hooked.

One thing that I have learnt is that there is no single interpretation for much of this data.
What seems logical one day may be disproved by new evidence the next day. Where citations
are provided you are urged to confirm these through your own endeavors. There are several
places where there is not indisputable evidence that a relationship, date or place is correct. I
have used circumstantial evidence to determine the most plausible interpretation. I have tried
to be judicial in my use of such evidence but in a few cases I have gone beyond what is
normally acceptable. In defense of this I have provided full explanation of my reasoning so
that you may be knowledgeable of it when you decide to accept or ignore my conclusions. In
those places where I present a fragment of the family tree I use four words in a very precise
way to define a family relationship:

• Proven This term signifies that the relationship it is


associated with can be determined explicitly, and beyond
reasonable doubt, from the citations or, that the body of
circumstantial evidence is so overwhelming as to leave no
reasonable doubt.
• Probable This term signifies that the relationship it is
associated with cannot be determined explicitly from the citations
but that the body of circumstantial evidence is such that it is
unlikely to be incorrect.
• Conjecture This term signifies that the relationship it is
associated with cannot be determined explicitly from the citations.
There is some circumstantial evidence pointing to the conclusion
but that evidence is not sufficient to truly establish the relationship.
Further research is required.
• Claimed This term signifies that others have claimed the
relationship exists. I have not attempted, or have been unable, to
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verify the relationship. This term is most often used with
relationships that are ancillary to the primary thesis of this work.
My desire to clearly show my confidence in a relationship has influenced my decision to
include these terms adjacent to names in the lineage of the Outline Descendent Report
format. Placement beside the name of a child indicates confidence in the child to parent
relationship. Because individuals sharing a common name can lead to ambiguity in
relationships, some may not be marked proven even though a baptismal or other reliable
document stating a relationship is available.

Where I use the abbreviation abt. with a date it implies that an approximate date has been
computed from other information. Typically it is used with a birth date. Often it reflects a
date calculated from the date of death by using the person’s stated age but it may also be the
date of a baptism when a birth date was not specified. Do not assume that the individuals
identified in this work are the only ones in the family. I have done little work to trace
descendants of the females in the tree. There are also several individuals that probably
represent unplaced children. It seemed more appropriate to publish what I do know than to
withhold information until some perceived state of completeness. Such a state will likely
never be reached.

I do not discuss individuals in chronological order of their birth. Some families may be
resolved unambiguously. By discussing those families first it is possible to reduce ambiguity
in the remaining individuals. By successively applying this principle it is possible to establish
the correct lineage in almost all situations. This is particularly true for the original
immigrants to Missisquoi Bay where birth records are very incomplete.

Always a concern with genealogy is the spelling of names. Before the 20th Century, spelling
was largely phonetic. The standardization that we enjoy today did not exist. Most of the
records that are available to us were prepared by Church ministers or by civil clerks who
used whatever spelling seemed appropriate to them. Most of our early ancestors were not
literate and so could not have produced a “correct” spelling even had one existed. In the case
of the Schoolcraft families, a considerable intersection with the Germanic community
resulted in the use of Germanic forms of their name. I have found it impossible to provide a
meaningful presentation when these spelling variations are adhered to. For this reason I have
rationalized all names to a common form and retained the original spelling only when
quoting the specific citation.

The Schoolcraft families that I shall discuss have their origins in 17th Century England.
From an initial immigrant to the Albany region of New York they established a significant
pro-Revolutionary presence in what would become Schoharie County and in the Albany
region. One member of the family chose to remove farther East into what would become
Washington County, New York. The region he removed to was less sympathetic to the
Revolutionary movement and that may have played a significant role in himself and his sons
becoming Loyalists during the Revolution. After the British defeat, that family removed into
Quebec to settle in Missisquoi County. I shall visit each of these parts of the family during
this narrative. I shall refer to various historical events. History is written by the victorious.
Good guys sometimes do bad things and bad guys sometimes do good things. Your school
history primer is probably not the best source of information. There are many good, modern,

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investigative history studies available for the periods that are important to us. Refer to these
and keep an open mind as even these can have their biases.

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Chapter 1: 17th Century England
Edward J. Schoolcraft1 analyzed the early Schoolcraft presence in the Americas and
concluded that they came from the County of Lancashire in northern England where the
family name was Schoolcroft. The essence of Ed’s conclusion is that a James and an
Augustine Schoolcroft who are found in the Americas in the very early 1700s are the same as
two individuals of the same name who are baptized in St. Mary’s Priory Church in Lancaster.
Church records, predominantly from St. Mary’s Priory Church and from the chapel at Caton,
allow us to prepare a family tree for James Schoolcroft. (Caton is a small chapelry about five
miles east from Lancaster [Appendix D, Figure 1] in the Lonsdale deanery, Archdeaconry of
Richmond.) There is some ambiguity in this family tree as only the father is specified for
most of the christenings. None the less, it is possible to see three generations of children, the
most well documented being the earliest and having a father called James Schoolcroft who
would have had to have been born before about 1615. I shall show that that person was a
Presbyterian Minister and that his great grandson was the James Schoolcroft who came to
Albany, New York around 1710. It is that person and his descendants who are the subject of
this book.

The Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire
has produced well over one hundred volumes in which are recorded transcripts of Church and
Civil records for the counties of Lancashire and Cheshire. These documents show that variant
spellings of the name Schoolcroft are, for the most part confined to the northern part of
Lancashire around the town of Lancaster, although some instances of the name occur farther
to the south. Another name, Scowcroft, is widespread in the south, around Preston and
Kirkham, but does not appear to be in the Lancaster area. Kirkham is only thirty miles from
Lancaster. It may be that these two family names represent variations in dialect across the
county and are in fact from the same family root. If that is the case then it may be possible to
trace this family back into the mid-16th century.

A Presbyterian Minister

One reason that the earliest James Schoolcroft’s family is comparatively well documented is
that he was a minister of the Church. The earliest clue is contained in a document dealing
with the recovery of the seized estate of Francis Nicholson the Younger, of Poulton, near
Lancaster, Yeoman2. Francis had helped raise an army for the Royalists and picked the wrong
side. His estate had been seized and he was attempting to recover it. Part of the transcription
of his claim is a reference to a document in Folio 579 that is described as follows:

fo. 579. Certificate signed by James Schoulcroft, minister, of Caton, declaring


that compounder took the National Covenant before him 9 January, 1648[-9],
witnessed by Hen. Porter and Christopher Atkinson, X his mark.

There is a very relevant hidden significance in this statement. The 17th century was the time
of Civil War and bitter fighting in England. There were many factors involved in this war3. It
is not my intent to make this a study of history but a summary of a few events will put the
National Covenant in context. Religious factors were crucial in the Civil War. Scotland was

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fiercely Calvinistic. Ireland was fiercely Catholic. England was mostly Protestants of either
Anglican or Puritan persuasion with some ‘closet’ Catholics. Just before the War the Puritan
and Calvinist influences dominated Parliament. Parliament believed that the King acquired
power from the people who could, in the more extreme view, dispense with him if he failed
to live up to expectations. King Charles I had a Catholic wife and was sympathetic to more
freedom for Catholics. Charles believed that his appointment came from God. God could do
no wrong, so neither could he. This came to a head in July 1637 when Charles supplied the
Scottish Calvinists with a new prayer book that did not adhere to their Calvinist beliefs. After
throwing footstools down Church aisles, the prayer book riots subsided and the Calvinists
responded in 1638 by creating the National Covenant. This was a Presbyterian concoction
that affirmed Presbyterianism, condemned the “Roman Antichrist”, and was claimed to show
how the King and the Presbyterian faith could be compatible. As Charles was a Catholic
supporter and staunch believer in the Divine Right of Kings, while the Presbyterian
movement at that time was adamant about ‘King Jesus’, all that the Covenant did was assure
the Civil War. Charles was defeated and imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. In 1647 he was
presented with the National Covenant by the victorious Presbyterians and asked to sign it.
His failure to do so was one of the factors leading to his execution. In the period following
their defeat most Royalists were required to accept the National Covenant if they had any
hopes of living some sort of normal life or recovering any of their property.

Thus we can see that not only was James Schoolcroft the minister of Caton, he was also
almost certainly a staunch Presbyterian charged with determining an individual’s adherence
to the National Covenant. This assumption of Presbyterianism is strengthened by later
references to James. James continued as minister almost to the end of the next decade4.

Thornton in Lonsdale; Caton; Bolton; Wyresdale; Ribchester. August 29th


1656
~~~~~
Ordered that Mr Humfrey Harwood, recr, doe pay unto MR JAMES
SCHOOLCRAFT minister of Caton in the County of Lancr the summe of £60
out of the pfitts by him recd out of the impropriate rectories of Bolton and
Clapham in the County’s of York and Lancaster due before the 25 day of
March last in full of all arreares to him due from these Trustees for his
augmentations till the sayd 25 day of March last: provided that his ordr be
first entred with the auditor. - JO. THOROWGOOD, JO. HUMFREY, JO.
POCOCK, EDW. HOPKINS, RI. SYDENHAM. - Lambeth M.S., vol. 970, p.
177.
~~~~~
Whereas Sr Henry Compton by indenture dated the 10th of March 1647 hath
conveyed the rectories of Bolton and Clapham in the Counties of York and
Lancaster in trust (among other thinges) for the raising of £100 a year for the
minister of Caton in the County of Lancaster, in pursuance of the sayd
conveyance and of the trust in us reposed it is ordered that Mr Robert
Stockdale, recr, doe from tyme to tyme pay unto MR JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT
minister of Caton aforesayd (approved according to the Ordinance for
Approbacon of Publique Preachers) the sayd yearely summe of £100 out of

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the profitts of the aforesayed rectories; the same to be accounted from the
25th day of March last and to be from tyme to tyme continued and paid to the
said Mr Schoolcraft for such tyme as he shall discharge the duty of the
minister of the said place or untill further order of these Trustees: provided
that this order be first entred with the auditor. - JO. THOROWGOOD, JOHN
HUMFREY, EDW. HOPKINS, JO. POCOCK, RI. SYDENHAM - Lambeth
M.S., vol. 97O, p. 176.

Significantly, these documents show that James was from Caton. The Bolton mentioned is
not the familiar large city in southern Lancashire. A small village called Bolton is about four
miles North West of Caton. Clapham is a little ambiguous. There is also a district on the
West side of Lancaster town that is also known as Clapham. However, it is not shown as
such on Greenwood’s map. The document above also refers to the County of York. There is a
village of Newby cum Clapham about fifteen miles East from Caton in West Yorkshire. I
believe that the Clapham referred to is the one called Newby cum Clapham. The sums of
money are substantial for the time and suggest that James was probably well established in
the church hierarchy.

A more significant reference appears a couple of years later:

Caton
Whereas these Trustees by their order of the 23rd of July May 3, 1659. 1658
(amongst other things) ordered the allowance of 1Os. a Lords Day should be
made to such minister as supplied the cure of the parish church of Caton in
the County of Lancaster, in the vacancy after the ejection of Mr James
Schoolcroft late minister there, about the payment and distribucon whereof
Colonel Wm. West by the said order was to be advised with; now it being
certified to these Trustees by the said Colonel West that the said cure was
supplied by divers able ministers for 31 Lords Dayes during the said vacancy,
ordered that the sume of £15.10.0 be paid into the hands of the said Colonel
West, he giving acquittance for the same; and he is hereby to make
distribucon thereof to the severall ministers aforesaid: and that Mr Lawrence
Steele, treasurer, doe pay the same accordingly. - JO THOROWGOOD,
EDWARD CRESSETT, RA. HALL, JO. HUMFREY, RI. YONG. - Lambeth
M.S., vol. 987, p.12.

Clearly Mr. Schoolcroft was no longer the minister. Lambeth Palace is the London home of
the Archbishop of Canterbury, head of the Anglican Church. These documents originated in
the Anglican Church but it was not the Anglican Church we are familiar with. Cromwell,
with justification, had accused the Church of corruption as early as 1638 and it had been
subjected to many Puritan reforms since then. What happened between 1656 and 1659 was
that the Puritan regime was faltering and on the way out. Oliver Cromwell died in 1658. His
son, who succeeded him, did not take a stand on anything and was not leadership material.
The monarchy would be restored in 1660 under Charles II. Our Presbyterian friend and
advocate of the National Covenant was most definitely on the wrong side of the fence and
may have removed from office under less than amicable circumstances. I draw attention to
the use of the phrase “Mr James Schoolcroft late minister there”. At first I felt that the word

7
“late” was being used in the context of his ministry. However, I later found that James died
in August 1657 (Table 1). In light of the many enforced demises during this period, I cannot
help wondering if James might not have been one of them.

Table 1: Caton Parish Register, burials 1585-1718


pp. 111 30 Aug 1657 Mr James Schoolcrofte.
pp. 112 4 Mar 1657 Mr rich: Schoolcroft, in ecclia.
pp. 115 8 Jul 1664 Margtt Schoolcroft in ecclia.

Headmaster of the Royal Grammar School, Lancaster

Before he became a Presbyterian minister James was a school teacher. The Athol Murray
History of the Royal Grammar School5, Lancaster pp. 39-41 discusses a headmaster called
James Schoolcroft who held the post until about 1652. He is first mentioned in 1631 but
Athol Murray concludes he may have taken the post as early as 1625. This position would
imply that James was probably actually born in the very early 1600s or late 1500s. The
History records that he home schooled at least two of his sons, Augustine and Richard, who
both entered St. John’s College, Cambridge6, 7 on April 12th, 1654. The History notes the
overlap between James’ teaching duties and his ministerial ones. The History also records
that James claimed a Master of Arts degree, although no record of that fact could be found.
James’ school was involved in a Civil War skirmish on March 18th, 1643. Later, in
December 1645 James was one of ten signatories to a letter declining to become involved
with the Scottish army under the Duke of Hamilton in 1648. That letter states that James had
taken the convenant previously discussed but also that James and the others were receptive to
re-establishing the monarchy. Murray records that James was buried at Caton on August 30th,
1657.

James Schoolcroft‘s Family

The foregoing shows that James lived in Caton throughout the Civil War and that is where
his children would have been born. As Caton is a chapelry within the Priory Church of
Lancaster and as James is a Minister it is not surprising that the christenings are actually
recorded in St. Mary’s church rather than the chapelry. Eight christenings are recorded
between 1633 and 1648 (Table 2).

Table 2: James Schoolcroft’s Children


Augustine SHOULECROFT Gender: M Christening: 3 Nov 1633 Saint Mary,
Lancaster, Lancashire, England
Richard SCHOOLCROFT Gender: M Christening: 6 Feb 1636 Saint Mary,
Lancaster, Lancashire, England
William SCHOOLCROFT Gender: M Christening: 6 Feb 1636 Saint Mary,
Lancaster, Lancashire, England
Thomas SCOWLCROFTE Gender: M Christening: 18 Oct 1638 Saint Mary,
Lancaster, Lancashire, England

8
Robert SCHOOLECROFT Gender: M Christening: 20 Feb 1641 Saint Mary,
Lancaster, Lancashire, England
Jacob SCHOOLECROFT Gender: M Christening: 19 Jan 1642 Saint Mary,
Lancaster, Lancashire, England
John SKOULECROFT Gender: M Christening: 28 Jun 1644 Saint Mary,
Lancaster, Lancashire, England
Mary SKOULECROFT Gender: F Christening: 8 Oct 1648 Saint Mary, Lancaster,
Lancashire, England

As appears customary for this time and place, the mother is not specified in any of these
baptisms. However, the Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to
Lancashire and Cheshire refers to the Will of a Margaret Schoolcroft8 of Caton in the
Lonsdale deanery that was probated at Richmond in 1664. That document comprises a single
page Will, a single page Inventory of her estate, and a single page, partly in Latin, recording
the Probate.

Every attempt has been made to transcribe each character as it was written. Case and
punctuation have been transcribed as originally written. Allowance has been made for
malformed characters when the intended character was also clear. The letter “f” is frequently
used where modern rendition would use a letter “s”. The right edge of the document is worn
away and some characters are missing. Many characters are uncertain. I have presented my
best attempt. If I had marked every instance of uncertainty as such, the resulting transcription
would be completely meaningless.

╣ or ╠ Indicates missing characters due to physical damage on the edge of the


document.
~ Indicates truly illegible characters in the body of the document.
[thus] Indicates that I have expanded an abbreviated word.

In the name of god amen, the ninte day of may in ye year


of [our] Lord one thoufand six hundred sixty four I
Margret Schoulcroft of Caton in ye county of Lanc╠
~id: being in whole minde & in good & perfect rem ╠
brance; Laude & praife be unto Allmighty god, maker &
ordeme, this my prefent [teftament], ~onterning her╠
my laft will & [teftament], in maner & forme following
ffirst I bequeath my soul into ye hands of Allmig╠
god my maker, hoping [yet] through ye meritorious de╠
& paffion of Jefus christ my onely savioure & redeem╠
, to receive free pardon & for giveneffe of all my sinnes
and my body to be buried in ye Church of Caton in ye
county of [Lancaster], Item I will [yet] all such debts & duties a╠
owe of right or of ronfrie~e to any pfon or pfons be╠
well & truly ron~en~ed & paid by my~e executor hereaft╠
named, or elfe ordain foe for to be paid without any delay╠
ro~~~adiron, And after my debts paid, & my funerall Ex╠

9
pences pformed. I give & bequeath all my goods & Ca╠
as well moveable as inmoveable & debts so╠
onto my fonne Jamesjun, Item I will &╠
╣Henry shall & may peaceably & quie╠
houfe wih ~ I now dwellin paying unto my two
sonnes James & John forty pounds of lawfull mon╠
of England after ye ~pare of one yeare after my d╠
cease ( or to ye one of them then prefent, And of this
my prefent will & teftament I make & ordeine my sone
Auguftin: Schoulcroft my [Executor], And I utterly
zexor~e & difanull all & eny other former [teftaments], wills
~egares, requefts & [executors], by me in anywife before
made. In witneffe whereof I here unto fett my
hand & seale ye day & yeare first above written XX
sealed & doe╠
[The remainder of the document is torn off.]

When this document is considered in the light of what we know about James Schoolcroft and
his family, it is clear that Margaret must be his wife. It mentions sons Augustine, James Jun.,
and John for whom baptismal records exist. (The letters “juN” are indicated just above the
name “James” where he is mentioned for the first time and may have been added by a
different hand.) Augustine, the executor, is the eldest son. The two sons James and John are
the youngest two of those baptized and are aged 22 and 19. A fourth son, Henry, is absent
from the baptismal record but marries in Caton five days after this Will is drawn (Table 3). It
seems probable that Margaret was providing for her three youngest sons. The family home
went to Henry, who was about to marry, while his brothers James and John were provided
with a cash settlement. Thus I would conjecture that neither James nor John was married at
this time and that Henry was born between 1641 and 1644 at the height of the Civil War
when records may have been lost or destroyed.

Table 3: Marriages and Christenings of James’ Later Descendants


Elizabeth SCHOULCROFT Gender: F Christening: 4 Jun 1668 Colwich, Stafford,
England
William SCOWCROFT Gender: M Marriage: 28 Nov 1773 Saint Mary, Lancaster,
Lancashire, England
Henry SCHOOLCROFTE Gender: M Marriage: 14 May 1664 Caton, Lancashire,
England
James SCHOOLCROFTE Gender: M Christening: 23 Nov 1665 Caton, Lancashire,
England
Margaret SCHOOLCROFTE Gender: F Christening: 16 Feb 1671 Caton, Lancashire,
England

10
James SCHOOLCROFT Gender: M Christening: 27 Jun 1688 Saint Mary,
Lancaster, Lancashire, England
Agustine SCOOLCROFT Gender: M Christening: 9 Nov 1690 Saint Mary,
Lancaster, Lancashire, England

The Athol Murray History of the Royal Grammar School5, Lancaster states that James’ only
daughter and two of his sons died in infancy. The only daughter may be easily identified as
Mary who would have died before 1650. The sons are more confusing as all except one can
be shown to have survived. Augustine6 and Richard7 were both admitted to Cambridge,
although Richard died9 before matriculating. William marries Margaret Knight10 in 1773.
Henry marries Elizabeth Hodgson11 in 1664. James, the son, and is alive when his mother
prepares her Will as is his brother John. The Athol Murray History states that Robert
survived to maturity. That leaves only Thomas who could be one of the two males who died
in infancy. Thus I conclude that James was father to one other, as yet unidentified, son.

To this time, I have not been able to locate Margaret’s maiden name. There is a suspicious
marriage in St. Peter’s church in Bolton between James Scowcrofte and Margeret
Greenhalgh on July 26th, 1625. However, I cannot reliably connect the James in Caton to this
event and another researcher has suggested that this James Scowcrofte died in 1632. I accept
this marriage is irrelevant to the James Schoolcroft herein. Margaret directs that her body is
to be interred in the Church of Caton. An inspection of markers in the church yard and the
church itself may yield Margaret’s age from which her lineage might be determined. (Such a
search might also reveal considerable additional information about other family members.)
Unfortunately, I do not have physical access to that region. A published listing12 includes
nothing earlier than 1775.

In Colwich, Staffordshire, just south of Lancashire, an Augustine Schoulcroft baptizes his


daughter Elizabeth in 166813 (Table 3). Augustine’s college record6 shows that he is James’
son and that he married the daughter of John Greensmith. Her name is shown to be Sarah by
the baptismal record13 of their daughter. The Wolseley papers14 include a lease from
November 16th, 1680 that identifies Augustine as the Vicar of Colwich.

Staffordshire and Stoke-on-Trent Archive Service, Wolseley Papers Ref.


D(W)1781/9/2/40: Date 16 Nov. 32 Chas. II [1680] Sir Chas. Wolseley /
Augustine Schoolcroft, Vicar of Colwich and Geo. Austine, inn holder.

In the 1680s a marriage bondsman called James Schoolcroft is operating in Heversham15.

1682 Aug 3rd Benjamin Gregge and Agnes Shaw.


Bondsmen: James Schoulcroft and Thomas Hall of p. Heversham.
Witnesses: Thomas Milner, Richard Carnthwaite
1682 Oct 23rd Richard Jackson and Alice Burrow,
Bondsmen: Richard Soul and James Schoulcroft.
Witnesses: Thomas Milner, John Croft.

11
1684 Dec 26th Matthew Foster, p. Kendale, and Jane Dodshon.
Bondsmen: William Wharton, p. Heversham, and John Hall of Kendall.
Witnesses: Thomas Milner, James Schoulcroft.

1685 Jul 6th Anthony Milner, of Scircoate, p. Halifax, and Joyce Hopkins.
Bondsman: James Schoulcroft, of Heversham.
Witnesses: Rachel Milner, James Barker.

Heversham is in Westmoreland about fifteen miles north of Lancaster and Caton at the head
of Morecambe Bay. The Ingilby Records show that a James Schoolcroft was in a legal
dispute with Elizabeth Lingard concerning Thomasin Burrowes’s Will. Thomasin is
identified as Elizabeth’s sister.

West Yorkshire Archive Service, Ingilby Records, papers in various suits Ref.
WYL230/3166: Date 1678-81. Of Burrowes v. Lingard, Schoolcroft v.
Lingard, Lingard v. Dearlove, Dearlove v. Ingilby, Ingilby v. Bellingham etc.,
connected with the will of Thomasin Burrowes the elder, sister of Elizabeth
Lingard, and arising from an action brought by Elizabeth Lingard against
James Schoolcroft, in which Peter Dearlove was pledge for Schoolcroft at the
instance of Sir William Ingilby who apparently acted at the instance of Sir
James Bellingham, so that various actions for damages followed, including
briefs, copies of orders and writs.
West Yorkshire Archive Service, Ingilby Records, Deposition by Marmaduke
Scott of Knaresborough Ref. WYL230/3171: Date 6 Sep 1679. Concerning the
trial of an issue between James Schoolcroft and Elizabeth Lingard, in which
the verdict was given against the plaintiff who refused to stand to it and
became nonsuit.
West Yorkshire Archive Service, Ingilby Records, Deposition of William
Parker Ref. WYL230/3172: Date 11 Sep 1679. Concerning the suit of James
Schoolcroft v. Elizabeth Lingard heard at York Assizes, when Schoolcroft,
seeing that the verdict would be against him, became nonsuit.
West Yorkshire Archive Service, Ingilby Records, Lawyer’s bill for case of
Schoolcroft and Dearlove v. Lingard Ref. WYL230/3178: Date c. 1680.

We can deduce from these that James was a fairly wealthy and well established individual to
be involved in a suit such as this. The mention of his being pledged by Sir William Ingilby
on the recommendation of Sir James Bellingham indicates he was ‘well connected’. Clearly
he would have some connection to Thomasin Burrowes or Elizabeth Lingard in order to be
involved in the will. That connection proved to be most interesting:

Dear Mr Ellis
Thank you for your email received here on 18 October 2005. Unfortunately
the Ingilby papers (ref. WYL230/3166) relating to the will of Thomasin
Burrowes do not include a copy of the actual will. From looking at the
documents in this bundle I have been able to find out that Thomasin Burrowes
was from Nidd, West Riding of Yorkshire. Wills for Nidd would have been

12
proved in Richmond, as confirmed in the documents. From the documents I
can also say that the will would have been proved between 1675, when there
was an amendment to the will and 1678, the date of these documents. I have
checked in our index for the surviving wills from the Archdeaconry of
Richmond, however there is no reference to the will of Thomasin Burrowes.
This would suggest that the will has not survived.
It appears from the documents that the case relating to Thomasin Burrowes’
will was heard at the Court of King’s Bench. It is possible that if a copy of the
will was submitted to the court that it may appear in the papers of the Court of
King’s Bench which are held at the National Archives. However please be
aware that the papers held here appear to be copies of the documents
submitted to the court, and as there is not a copy of the will within these
records it would appear unlikely that there will be a copy of the will in the
Court’s papers.
The contact details for the National Archives are; The National Archives,
Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 4DU, telephone +44 (0) 20 8876 3444, website
www.nationalarchives.gov.uk.
I am sorry I can not help you any further in tracing this will. Please do not
hesitate to get in contact if you wish to receive any further information.
Yours sincerely
Daniel Sudron
Archive Assistant
West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds
Chapeltown Road
Sheepscar
Leeds
LS7 3AP

Although Daniel Sudron suggests that Thomasin’s Will was proved in Richmond, it does not
appear in the index of Wills proven at that time, nor in the other places suggested. I have
concluded that it is lost. However, Elizabeth Lingard’s deposition in the Court papers does
add considerably to our understanding of this situation.

Leeds Archives [leeds@wyjs.org.uk] Thu 22-Dec-2005 06:18:


The documents in this case (WYL230/3166) are indeed very bulky. Purchasing
copies would be impractical, unless you have the budget of a small nation
(and in any case, condition prevents the copying of numbers of them). The
nature of court proceedings means that a subset is unlikely to encapsulate the
case as a whole (otherwise the lawyers would not have been kept in business -
as in Dickens’ novel “Bleak House”).
A deposition of Elizabeth Lingard, at the top of the pile, gives further
information as to the case. Schoolcroft was summonsed to appear before the
Consistory church court at Richmond in December 1676 to exhibit the will of
Thomasine Burrowes the elder and to show cause why Mr Bellingam her

13
kinsman should not have administration of her goods. JS provided a will by
word of mouth (nuncupative is the technical term), sworn by Rebecca Haynes
and Ellen Sheffield. The challenges to the legality of this later alleged will
form the nucleus of the case.
JS was the guardian of Thomasine Burrowes the younger. He would not have
to be a relative to be in this position, merely a male in a position to safeguard
her interests. This and the subsequent dispute over the will explains his
involvement.
Elizabeth Lingard also explains that JS has recently married Rebecca Haynes.
Edward Haynes her father and George Haynes her brother (married to
Elizabeth Lingard’s sister) told her this. That presumably makes him an
indirect relative anyway.
TB died at Overlevens (which doesn’t ring any bells as a local place name
with me - perhaps you’ve come across it elsewhere in your searches).
Andrew George, Senior Archivist

Apart from being able to construct the relationship between the parties we see that James is
claiming a guardianship based on a verbal Will. Although Andrew George did not recognize
the location, Over Levens, more commonly known as Levens Hall, is a stately home in
Heversham where James Schoolcroft was a marriage bondsman. The History of Heversham16
states:

1597 Thomas Bradley of Arnside sold the manors of Heversham and


‘Milthrop’ to James Bellingham of Over Levens (Levens Hall).

Notice in particular the name Bellingham. While age precludes it being the James
Bellingham of 1597, Elizabeth Lingard’s deposition clearly states that a Mr. Bellingham was
kinsman to Thomasin Burrowes the elder. By seeking guardianship of Thomasin Burrowes
the younger, James Schoolcroft may have been seeking to gain access and control of some
portion of the estate of Levens Hall. Levens Hall17 is a most desirable Elizabethan Manor
with exquisite gardens that were constructed shortly after this date.

I have only managed to construct one other family from James Schoolcroft’s sons. The son
Henry marries in Caton in 1664 and has two children. I believe that one of those children,
James, is the father of the James and Augustine Schoolcroft that came to the U.S.A. These
records (Table 3) are readily available in the Caton and Lancaster parish registers.

Other English Ancestors

There are several interesting references to Schoolcroft in southern Lancashire. Lancashire is


not really that large so these might be related, although travel was such that families tended
to stay close to where they were born and the following references are certainly a couple of
days travel from Lancaster. One of the earliest records is of Adam SCOLCROFT and his son
Richard living in Manchester in 1545. The citation comes from Society for the Publication of
Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire. Vol. 35: Pleadings and
Depositions of the Duchy Court of Lancaster.

14
WILLIAM TRAFFORD, THE KING’S AULNEGER versus ADAM
SCOLCROFTE AND OTHERS re FORFEITURE FOR CLOTH SOLD
WITHOUT SEAL.
To the Right Hon. Sir John Gage, Knight.
WILLIAM Trafford, the King’s Aulneger, in the county of Lancaster, informs
that where in the Parliament held at London, 3rd November, 21 Henry VIII.
[1529], it was ordained that any clothier putting clothes to sale before every
one of them shall be sealed with the Aulneger of the said county where they
shall be made, shall forfeit the same; one-half of which forfeiture shall go to
the King, and the other half to them who sue for the same by bill or otherwise.
So it is, that Adam Scolcroft and Richard Scolcroft, son of the said Adam, and
Henry Johnson, being clothiers and great occupiers, dwelling in Manchester,
in the county of Lancaster, the 10th August, 37 Henry VIII. [1545], sent
certain clothes made in the said county not sealed as aforesaid, to wit, the
said Adam and Richard Scolcrofte 10 pieces of clothes called Cottons, valued
at ?, and the said Henry Johnson five pieces of clothes called Rugges, of the
value of ?, contrary to the said Act, by reason whereof they are forfeited and
plaintiff claims the one-half.
Moreover, the said Adam and Richard, in order that the same clothes might
appear to be sealed, have forged, “ oon countrefayte and vntrue Sealle” like
unto plaintiff’s seal, and have therewith sealed the said 10 pieces of
“Cottons.”
Prays for Letters of Privy Seal.
Michaelmas term, 37 Henry VIII. [1545].
Privy Seal to Adam Scolcrofte, Richard Scolcrofte, and Henry Johnson to
appear Octaves of Hilary next.
Vol. xvi.
[Calendar 14.]
T 1.
37 Hen. VIII.
[1545-1567].

Another early reference is from Chorely. At an inquisition following the death of Alexander
Waddington, of the Streete on 10 Jan 1622/23 it was determined that he owed an unspecified
debt to Adame Schoulecrofte18. Chorely is about fifteen miles from Manchester but the span
of dates suggests it is unlikely that this Adam Schoolcroft is the same as the one in
Manchester. A little farther south than Chorely is a petition to recover seized estate for Seth
Hart, of Preston, in which Richard Schoulcroft19 of Bolton is identified as a “tenant, farmer
or occupier” in 10 Jul 1651. The Richard who is James Schoolcroft’s son is too young and
clearly the one from Manchester will be dead by now.

Preston is about thirty miles from Lancaster. Bolton is not very far from Staffordshire where
Augustine Schoulcroft christened his daughter Elizabeth13 at Colwich on 4 Jun 1668. This
shows that the Schoolcroft name was also found in the southern part of Lancashire.

15
1 Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country and Detailing Some Facts and Opinions on Two
Particular Branch of This Family - With Regards to the Migration of That Branch From New York, to Virginia and
Kentucky. CREATED/PUBLISHED: Edward J. Schoolcraft, 4809 Douglas MacArthur NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico
87110, 1986 (4th Printing 1993, w/revisions)
2
Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire. Royalist Composition Papers,
Vol. 36, pp. 216-217
3
A History of Britain, Simon Schama, Published by BBC Worldwide Ltd.
4 Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire. Royalist Composition Papers,

Plundered Minister's Accounts,Vol. 36, pp. 149-150


5
Athol Murray History of the Royal Grammar School, Lancaster. Master and Pupils, 1572 - 1680, pp. 39 – 41. James
Schoolcroft is first mentioned in 1631, but may have succeeded Foster in 1625. ... About two years before his sons
went to Cambridge, he ceased to be Headmaster.
6 Venn's Alumni Cantabrigienses. Part 1, Vol 4, pp. 30. Schoolecroft, Augustine. Adm. sizar (age 19) at St. John's, Apr.

12, 1654. S. of James, clerk. Bapt. Nov. 3, 1633, at Lancaster. Matric. 1654; B.A. 1657-8. Ord. deacon (Lincoln) Mar.
10; priest, Mar 13, 1660-I. C. at Colwich, Staffs', in 1659, to John Greensmith, whose daughter he married in 1666. V.
of Colwich, 1663-70. Buried Feb. 16, 1699-1700. Brother to the next. (Wm. Salt Arch. Soc., 1915).
7 Venn's Alumni Cantabrigienses. Part 1, Vol 4, pp. 30. Schoolecroft, Richard. Adm. sizar (age 18) at St. John's, Apr.

12, 1654. S. of James, clerk, Lancaster. Bapt there, Feb. 6, 1635-6. Matric. 1654. Brother of Augustine (above).
8 Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire. Lancashire Wills Proved at

Richmond, Vol. 10, Schoolecroft, Margaret, of Caton, L 1664


9 Registers of Caton (Lancashire) 1585-1718 by Henry Brierley [FHL BRITISH Film #0844812, IGI]. Caton Parish

Register, burials 1585-1718, pp. 112, 4 Mar 1657 Mr rich: Schoolcroft, in ecclia.
10 Registers of the Parish and Priory Church of Lancaster by Henry Brierley [FHL BRITISH Film #0844800, IGI].

Marriage William SCOWCROFT, M, Spouse Margaret KNIGHT or NIGHTINGALE, Date 28 Nov 1773, Place Saint
Mary, Lancaster, Lancashire, England.
11 Registers of Caton (Lancashire) 1585-1718 by Henry Brierley [FHL BRITISH Film #0844812, IGI]. Marriage Henry

SCHOOLCROFTE, M, Spouse Eliz. HODGSON, Date 14 May 1664, Place Caton, Lancashire, England.
12 FHL BRITISH Film 6414251: The parish church of St. Paul, Caton with Littledale, Caton Green Road, Brookhouse,

North Lancashire: existed 1246, O.S. map ref. SD542 646. transcribed by Barbara Baxter ... [et al.]
13 FHL BRITISH Film 417187: Parish Church of Colwich (Staffordshire) Parish registers, 1659-1871. Christening

Elizabeth SCHOULCROFT, F, Father Augustine SCHOULCROFT, Mother Sarah, Date 4 Jun 1668, Place Colwich,
Stafford, England
14 Staffordshire and Stoke-onTrent Archive Service, Wolseley Papers Ref. D(W)1781/9/2/40.
15 Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire. Marriage Bonds at

Lancaster, Vol. 74.


16 History of Heversham, www.heversham.org
17 Levens Hall, www.levenshall.co.uk
18
Lancashire Inquisitions, Vol. 17. Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and
Cheshire.
19
Royalist Composition Papers, Vol. 36, pp. 196-199. Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to
Lancashire and Cheshire.

16
Chapter 2: James, the American
Schoolcraft
Edward J. Schoolcraft1 spent some 20 years studying and understanding the early
Schoolcraft’s in America. The study included a comprehensive review of Henry Rowe
Schoolcraft’s memoirs [0] and related documents. Ed provides a very persuasive analysis of
Henry’s writing, grounded in verifiable facts that identify Henry’s departures from the truth.
Anyone reading my arguments in this document should first study Ed Schoolcraft’s work. I
accept and agree with the vast majority of Ed’s conclusions. Ed expresses the opinion that
Henry’s memoirs were prepared to intentionally mislead the reader by concealing James
Schoolcraft’s first marriage and by attributing a significant part of his grand uncle’s military
career to that of his own father. That certainly does seem to be the case when one examines
the statements concerning his father’s military career. However, recent evidence located by
Greg Parkes and contained in the Henry Rowe Schoolcraft papers now in the Library of
Congress, containers 36 and 63, does indicate that Henry is not entirely to blame for this mis-
information. Among those papers is a draft letter from Henry to his father-in-law dated
18282. In that letter Henry writes:

I know but little of the situation and circumstances of those who preceded me,
genealogically, but what I have derived from my parents, from my uncle John,
or from some collateral relatives. I attached little consequence to the subject.
Most of my relatives attached less. And it may therefore be supposed that the
topic was seldom mentioned. Many particulars are of course, forgotten and
among that number, possibly some which it might be proper to mention on an
occasion like this.

While Henry has lined through much of that paragraph I feel that he has done so not because
it was untrue but more because it was not necessary to state in his letter. Clearly a lot of
Henry’s genealogical statements are hearsay from his uncle John, and his father. Elsewhere
he refers to a conversation with his first cousin, Fanny Montressor Allen, concerning the
name “Colcraft” but it’s not clear from that statement whether or not Henry was “leading
the witness” to confirm something his father or uncle may have said. His father did have a
significant military career in the later stages and after the Revolutionary war. Perhaps during
the “old war stories” some of these facts were embellished or perhaps Henry confused them
with known records of his great uncle.

Aside from the initial references that establish the Schoolcraft presence in America, I shall
not reiterate Ed’s explanation here but will address only those few places where my own
opinion differs.

Ed located references in the Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants that showed a
Jonathan Schoolcraft came to Virginia in 1666 and that Augustine Schoolcraft came in 1714.
Both were probably indentured servants. Neither had any proven descendants, although I
refer to Augustine later in Chapter 17. Augustine, christened 09-Nov-1690, is the brother of

17
James Schoolcraft who is the focus of this chapter. Ed obtained a transcription of a letter
from the Manuscripts and History Section, New York State Library, Albany. Robert Hunter,
whose signature appears on the letter, was the British Governor of the Colony of New York.
The Col. Ingoldesby referred to in the text of the letter was the Lt. Governor of the Colony.

January 28th, 1711


I have your letter of the 8th inst as to the Palatines you have secured. As soon
as the weather will permit, I will order them to the county where the fact was
commited and order their tryal. In the mean time I’m sure you’ll take care
that none of them make their escape.
I have considered the sentence of the Court Martial of the three deserters
from Col. Ingoldesby’s company and have thought to pardon Richard Evans
and James Schoolcroft, but Robert Holding being an old offender, it is
requisite that exemplary justice should be done on him to deter others from
like offences. You are therefore, the first fair day after the receipt of this, to
draw up the men in your Garrison under their arms to cause the said Robert
Holding to be shot to death at the head of the Companys, he being sentenced
by the said Court Martial to suffer death for desertion. I am &c.
/S/ Robert Hunter

This is the first known reference to James Schoolcraft in America. Given time to desert and
then to be placed before a Court Martial by 1711 James must have been in America by 1710.
A muster roll dated October 25th, 1713 [Appendix D, Figure 2 Soldier 78] shows James
Schoolcroft stood muster as a member of A Company commanded by Capt. Richard
Ingoldesby, stationed at Albany, New York. James next appears in the Schenectady church
records in 1720 with his first wife Madalena at the baptism of Austien3 [Appendix D, Figure
3]. Ed suggests that the Dutch “ob” indicates that Austien was named for his uncle in
Virginia. Austien is the ancestor of those members of the Schoolcraft family that went south
through Pennsylvania and Virginia. I shall not be discussing that branch and refer you to Ed’s
work.

At this point it is worth revisiting that letter that Henry Rowe Schoolcraft drafted to his
father-in-law. Two paragraphs are particularly pertinent, although we must bear in mind that
this information is hearsay from one of two grandchildren, both of whom were at best in their
early teens when they last saw their grandfather. [James is stated to have gone to the New
York grants to live with a son who made his own removal to there around 1766.]

From such sources I have learned that my great grandfather came from
England, during the reign of Queen Anne, under the name of James Calcraft,
or Colcraft. He either engaged in or followed was a non-commissioned officer
in the British & Colonial army, and served in the war against Canada, about
the period that He was in garrison at Forts Edward and Anne were created on
the source of the Hudson. He had previously served in his corps of artillery
under the Duke of Marlboro on the continent, and had received a severe
injury lost an eye from the flash of a cannon in the capacity of gunner, in one
of the Duke's European engagements. Owing to these services he entertained
a high notion of his own intrepidity, and after his discharge in his old age was
18
in the habit of speaking of himself as a true Briton, and a subject of Queen
Anne. He had crossed the Atlantic in a squadron of three public ships, which
came out to New York.
After the Peace of Utrecht (1712) relieved the frontier troops he went into
garrison at Albany. (I do not know the causes that prevented him from
returning to England, or his seeking civil employment in the country.) Here he
received an honorable discharge with two of his companions, Glen and Yates.
He, for some time, practiced land surveying, and afterward acted as an
English teacher. In the latter capacity he settled in Schoharie, a German
settlement and frontier town. At this place he married the only daughter of
Christian Camerer, a wealthy German farmer, by whom he had seven
children, James, William, Lawrence, John, Elizabeth, Helen and Margaret.
He possessed a robust constitution. He lived to the advanced age of 102, and
left a numerous progeny.

Queen Anne reigned from March 8th, 1702 until August 1st, 1714. The Treaty of Utrecht was
finally signed in March 1713, although Britain and France had come to terms by October
1711 and a standing peace existed throughout 1712. In the letter above Henry seems to be
saying that James initially served in Europe under the Duke of Marlborough, then crossed the
Atlantic to continue serving in the war against Canada, which was then under French rule. At
that time he was garrisoned at Forts Edward and Anne. Following the treaty he was
garrisoned at Albany. None of this seems to conflict with the proven facts. For James to have
fought against Canada he would have had to have reached the U.S.A. before October 1711.
Robert Hunter’s letter does not state that James was in Albany and his desertion may well
have taken place at Fort Edward or Fort Anne. James’ appearance in the Albany muster is not
until 1713 which is after the Treaty of Utrecht. It is worth noting at this juncture that Henry’s
letter, that places James Schoolcraft’s arrival in the U.S.A. before 1711 conflicts with
Henry’s more frequently cited, and much later biography, that places his arrival in 1727. In
fact, even the document transcribed in Appendix B also suggests the earlier date and I am left
wondering whether the date 1727 is a printing error rather than an error on the part of Henry.

Records for enlisted men in military service in Europe probably do not exist. If he enlisted at
age 16 he would certainly have seen service from 1704 onwards. That would permit 6 or 7
years of service before his desertion during which time he may well have achieved a non-
commissioned rank. His desertion would have resulted in a reduction in rank to Private –
consistent with the 1713 muster roll. Given this degree of correlation I am prepared to accept
that he probably did have an eye injury and a robust constitution. I do note that in this letter
Henry states that James was not shy about talking of his accomplishments and so suspect a
tendency to embellish. Thus I am not prepared to accept everything that is stated in Henry’s
later document that is transcribed in Appendix B. Henry seems to have added too much detail
in the intervening 30 years between the documents for me to feel comfortable with it.

At this juncture I ask the reader to indulge me in an intriguing conjecture. Henry states that
James “crossed the Atlantic in a squadron of three public ships”. The Palatine emigration
took place in 1710. The Palatines boarded in London in December 1709 but did not actually
leave until April 1710 when they set sail from Portsmouth. They crossed in eleven transport
ships chartered by the government and were escorted by two frigates. They were

19
accompanied by Governor-Elect Hunter and because a state of war still existed it is almost
certain the sailing included a military escort. The eleven transports became separated enroute,
arriving in New York between June and October. Most interestingly, two squadrons of three
ships each arrived, one on June 14th and one on June 16th. These ships were not privately
funded with paying passengers and might well be described as “public ships”. My conjecture
is that James was one of the soldiers in the military escort and thus would have arrived in mid
June, 1710. For Henry to say that James “served in his corps of artillery under the Duke of
Marlboro on the continent” is not actually very informative. John Churchill, Duke of
Marlborough, took command of the 24th infantry regiment on December 14th, 1702. He was
victorious at the battle of Blenheim on August 13th, 1704. After that, his military command
expanded to such a degree that just about anyone in the army who was in Europe would be
able to make such a claim.

I mentioned above that James appears in a Schenectady church record. I make the point that
it is a “church record” as I do not feel that James was actually in Schenectady. Henry Rowe
Schoolcraft’s letter to his father-in-law states that James went from Albany to Schoharie. As
Schoharie did not have a church till the late 1720s, I think it likely that the parish was served
by a minister from the Schenectady church.

Christian Schoolcraft

There are three places where I depart from Ed’s conclusions. The first of these concerns
Christian Schoolcraft, who we shall see is the ancestor of those who are found near
Missisquoi Bay in Quebec. Ed concludes that Christian is a son of James and Madalena, born
after Austien. Ed’s argument commences with three children for whom birth records do not
exist: James, Christian and William. Because they do not have birth records, the initial
presumption is that we do not know who the parents are. He goes on to prove William’s
lineage through William’s will. He accepts James’ lineage because of the statement by Henry
Rowe Schoolcraft that he was the eldest son of James and Anna. He then draws the
conclusion that Austien and Christian were the only two children of James and Madalena. I
disagree with this and believe that Christian was in fact a son of James and Anna that was
born after Johannes and before Johann Lorantz.

Table 4: William, Christian and Lorentz


William Christian Lorentz
Birth 1729 1733
First Communion 1744 1748 1751
Marriage 1749 1753 1759

Births, Communions and Marriages: From St. Paul’s in Schoharie we have two pages of
communion records. These are sequential pages and titled “Register of the boys and girls,
who for the first time, have been at Holy Communion with me”. The first is for William in
1744 and it clearly indicates that this is William’s first communion4. The second page of the
record continues the list and includes both Christian in 1748 and Lorentz in 1751. Also from
St. Paul’s we have the marriage records for William in 17495, Christian in 17536 and Lorentz
in 17597. Next, Ed Schoolcraft reasons that William was born about 1729. I shall show

20
shortly that Lorentz was born in 1733. I find these dates, shown in Table 4, indicative of
three children who were born and matured in the order shown.

Elisabeth Margretha Becker: Another piece of circumstantial evidence is the age of


Christian’s wife. Elisabeth Margretha Becker8 was born on March 10th, civil year 1736, the
daughter of Andonius and Charlotte Becker. While there are exceptions, it is most common
to find marriages where the husband is only a few years older than the wife, particularly
when the wife is young. Elisabeth is seventeen and half when she marries. I find it far more
likely that Christian would be about twenty-one than that he would be about thirty, as would
be the case if he were Madalena’s son.

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft: One of Ed’s arguments actually strengthens my case. Later in his
paragraph about the children, Ed legitimately argues that Henry Rowe’s reason for “giving
the 1727 arrival date was to obscure the fact that James had been married prior to his
marriage to Anna”. This is why Henry failed to mention Austien. Therefore, why would
Henry fail to mention Austien but spend time identifying and discussing Christian?

Conclusion: I find the circumstantial evidence sufficient to prefer placing Christian as a child
of Anna Christina Kammer. Because of the ages implied from the communion and marriage
records and because Henry Rowe Schoolcraft states that John is the third son9 [Appendix A]
I believe the evidence points to Christian being the fourth son and born between Johannes
and Johann Lorantz. Given that those dates of birth are known, that they are only two years
apart, and that there are few options later than Johann Lorantz, that pretty much implies
Christian was born in the spring of 1732.

Lawrence Schoolcraft

Lawrence is often referred to using the Germanic spelling Lorentz. I chose to use that
spelling in the body of this discussion as it reduces confusion when referring to records and
to the work of others. Ed refers to Lorentz’s date of birth three times, first and second in the
body of his document where he uses a birth date of 4th September 1738. Then in Exhibit D
he uses a birth date of 20th May 1738. I do not believe that either of these dates is possible,
but that Lorentz was in fact Johann Lorantz who was born in 1733. This is based on
circumstantial evidence. While no single bit is sufficient in itself, taken in combination I feel
they substantiate my conclusion. First I show that Lorentz could not have been born on either
of the dates in 1738 and must have been born earlier. Then I establish the dates of birth for
his two wives. Because they are both born before 1738, statistically, Lorentz would be
slightly older. Lastly, the name “Johann” is used when a ‘rufname’ such as Lorentz is
present. “Johann” is dropped in later records.

IGI Records: An exhaustive search of the records of the High and Low Dutch church and St.
Paul’s church has failed to produce a birth record in the name of Lorentz. Ed refers to James,
William and Christian as being the only children without birth records, implying that he
found a record for Lorentz. I believe the record he used was the IGI. The IGI has records for
seven of James and Anna’s children. One is entered twice. Note that the date of birth for
Lorentz is one of those that Ed Schoolcraft uses. In some cases the IGI is a reliable source of
information but you must pay attention to the sources. If you trace the source of the
information for each of these eight records you find that the source is “Patron sheets, 1969-

21
1991” which are described as “Individual entry forms and family group sheets used to submit
names to the temples for temple work.” These particular records do not explicitly trace back
to a vital record although it is clear that information from vital records has been used as the
basis for some of them. Within the church, there is a desire to identify and include all of
one’s ancestors. Unfortunately, not all records submitted by church members received ‘due
diligence’. Without the ability to recover the original source information I do not consider
these to be reliable records.

Table 5: James Schoolcraft and Anna Kammer’s Family


John Loventz Schoolkraft Gender: M Birth: 20 Mar 1728 Schoharie, Schoharie, New
York
Johannes Schoolkraft Gender: M Birth: 2 Apr 1731 Schoharie, Schoharie, New
York
Margaret Schoolkraft Gender: F Birth: 7 Nov 1733 Schoharie, Schoharie, New
York
Magdalena Schoolkraft Gender: F Birth: 29 Sep 1735 Schoharie, Schoharie, New
York
Elizabeth Schoolkraft gender: f birth: 9 Oct 1736 Schoharie, Schoharie, New
York
Lorenzo Schoolkraft Gender: M Birth: 4 Sep 1738 Schoharie, Schoharie, New
York
Catharin Schoolkraft Gender: F Birth: 26 Jul 1740 Schoharie, Schoharie, New
York
Catarina Schoolcraft Gender: F Christening: 26 Jul 1741 Schoharie, Schoharie,
New York

Baptismal Records: The baptismal records for Maria10 on 29 September 1735, Elisabeth11 on
28 December 1738 and Catharina12 on 26th July 1741 limit when Lorentz could have been
born. Firstly, there will be a minimum of ten months between births due to biological
restrictions. Secondly, it is unlikely that a parent would baptize a previous child only a few
months before the birth of the next as they would wait and baptize both together as was the
case with Maria and Margaret. This means that Elisabeth’s baptism in December 1738
implies that Lorentz would be born before February 1738 or after September 1739, i.e.
excluding both the dates in Ed’s document. In fact, if we assume that Johann Lorantz who
was born in 1733 is not the same person as Lorentz, the available windows for Lorentz’ birth
are between mid 1736 and very early 1738 or between late 1739 and mid 1740, neither of
which agree with any of the claims.

Communion Records: The communion records in Table 4 may be used here. If Lorentz was
born between late 1739 and mid 1740, he would only have been eleven years old at the time
of his communion. In my opinion this is noticeably younger than appears to have been the
practice with other children.

Maria Schneider: The key to determining Maria Schneider’s date of birth is locating her
family. First consider the sponsors of Lorentz’ children:

22
• Peter Jan 9 [1760] 13: sponsors Peter Schneider and his wife.
• Jacob 18 Dec 176114: sponsors Jacob Schnider & Elizabeth Mann.
• Lorentz Nov 15 [1763]15: sponsors Peter Schneider Jun. & Maria
Elisabeth Schulkraf.
• Lysabeth Oct 18 [1775]16: sponsors Peter Schneider and his wife.
• Maria Sept 9 [1778]17: sponsors Johannes Schneyder and his wife.
That’s a lot of Schneider’s and some must be close relatives. Henry Z. Jones Jr.18 describes
several Schneider families in the Schoharie region. He includes an Anna Maria Schneider,
whose baptism on 15 March 1736/37 is recorded on the Early Baptisms of St. Paul’s church,
Schoharie19. Her father is Peter Schneider; she has a sister Elisabeth and three brothers: Peter,
Jacob and John. This serves to establish Maria’s family through names of those who were the
sponsors at her children’s baptisms. The sponsors of five of Lorentz’ children are, his father
in law Peter, his brother in law Jacob, his brother in law Peter, either his father in law or
brother in law, and lastly his brother in law John. From that we can conclude that Lorentz’
wife Maria was the one baptized on 15th March civil year 1737.

Christina Sternberg: Lorentz’ second wife, Christina, is identified from her Will in which
she names Lorentz as her husband and lists daughters Maria and Rebecca and a son
Christian, all from her previous marriage to Johannes Lawyer. The Schoharie Churches
contain several records of Christina’s children, her first marriage and her own baptism in
1732.

The Rufname: Often a person does not go by his first given name, especially if that first name
is Johann or Maria. The rufname is a common name that is used in everyday life. Examples
include Johann Wilhelm Kämer, Lorentz’ grandfather who is subsequently referred to as just
“Wilhelm” and Johann Henrich Schneider, Maria’s uncle who is subsequently referred to as
just “Henrich”. The families of both Lorentz and Maria contain several “Johann Wilhelm”
and “Johan Jacob”. I believe that “Johann Lorantz” went through later life as “Lawrence”.

Conclusion: I believe that Ed Schoolcraft used the IGI records for the birth information. The
circumstantial evidence presented shows that Lorentz’ date of birth cannot be that shown in
the IGI and must be earlier than either of the dates provided by Ed. It is rare to find a first
marriage of a young couple where the male is significantly younger than the female. The
circumstantial evidence points strongly to Lorentz being slightly older than his first wife. I
believe that Lorentz and Johann Lorantz are one and the same. Lorentz was baptized on 20th
March civil year 1733 and is about four years older than his first wife.
The IGI Birth Records for James Schoolcraft‘s Children

Before concluding the discussion of the births of James’ children it is appropriate to examine
the record. Only six of the children have baptismal records and none of these specify a date
of birth. The IGI has records for seven of James and Anna’s children (Table 5). (There are
clearly duplicate records for Catarina.) Note that the dates of birth for Johannes, Margaret
and Elisabeth in the IGI show a high degree of correlation with those that Ed Schoolcraft
uses (Table 6). Margaret’s date of birth is off by a year but that is all. It is the births of these
three children that are of concern here as the source of the dates is unclear.

23
Baptismal Records: For Johannes, Margaret and Elisabeth the baptismal record provides a
baptismal date but not a birth date. John’s baptismal record indicates April 28th, 173120. In
Margaret’s case the baptismal record is a joint one with Maria and only shows the baptismal
date of September 29th, 173510. However, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft describes her as the
eldest daughter [0] so we know she was probably born in 1734 (before Maria and after
Johann Lorantz). It is possible that Margaret’s birth may be found in one of the archives
dedicated to her son-in-law, Ethan Allen, although I have not been able to locate such a
record. Elisabeth’s baptismal record states her baptism on December 28th, 173811.
Elisabeth’s date of birth three days earlier can be found in her son’s family bible21.

Ed Schoolcraft’s View: For each of these children, Ed Schoolcraft provides a specific date of
birth that is not the same as the baptismal date. Ed refers to John’s date of birth twice, first in
the body of his document and then in Exhibit D. On both occasions, he uses a birth date of
April 2nd, 1731. Ed refers to Margaret and Elisabeth’s dates of birth only in Exhibit D where
he shows them as November 7th, 1734 and October 9th, 1736 respectively.

The IGI: I have explained earlier my concern over data from Patron Sheets. The right hand
column in Table 6 contains my suggestion regarding how these records may have come
about.

24
Table 6: IGI Birth Records - Batch Numbers 8204880, 7419301
Ed Date of
IGI Schoolcraft Baptism Comment
Assumed the birth was four
Johannes 2 Apr 1731 2 Apr 1731 28 Apr 1731
weeks prior to baptism.
John IGI probably read the year at
Lorantz 20 Mar 1728 20 Mar 1733 20 Mar 1733 the top of the page by
mistake.
There does not appear to be
justification for the IGI date
Margaret 7 Nov 1733 7 Nov 1734 29 Sep 1735
and it collides with Johann
Lorantz’ baptismal record.
Taken directly from the
Magdalena 29 Sep 1735 29 Sep 1735 29 Sep 1735
baptismal record.
There does not appear to be
justification for this. A family
Elisabeth 9 Oct 1736 9 Oct 1736 28 Dec 1738
bible shows she was born 25
Dec 1738.
There does not appear to be
justification for this and it
Lorentz 4 Sep 1738 20 May 1738
collides with Elisabeth’s
baptismal and birth record.
Misread or mistyped by one
Catarina 26 Jul 1740 27 Jul 1741 26 Jul 1741
day and a year.
Ed misread or mistyped by
Catarina 26 Jul 1741 27 Jul 1741 26 Jul 1741
one day.

Conclusion: I believe that Ed Schoolcraft used the IGI records for the birth information in his
family record sheet. From the obvious high quality of his work it is unlikely that Ed would
have taken this data at face value without verification. Therefore it is likely that further
research will reveal the original source for these IGI records. Remembering that Ed’s primary
interest would be in his own family line that descended from Austien, he may have been
more concerned with the relationships than with the specific birth dates for Austien’s step
brothers and step sisters. He was certainly interested in them by virtue of having to determine
why Henry Rowe Schoolcraft ignored James’ first family and why so much of what Henry
wrote was incorrect. However, the details of the individual birth dates are less critical in this.
I think he left the New York lines for the rest of us to sort out.

James Schoolcraft‘s Children

I shall discuss seven of James Schoolcraft’s children in subsequent chapters but his marriages
and his other children should be mentioned now so that they are not overlooked. As will also
be the case later, I shall not treat these children in chronological order. Genealogical research
encounters many ambiguities but often one family is far less ambiguous than others. By
dealing with that one first, it is often possible to remove or reduce the level of ambiguity in
the other families. This family is no exception.

25
James’ first marriage was to Magdalena, whose age and origin is not known. He had one
child by her, Austien, who married Catharina Countryman (Conterman). There are Ancestral
File records that provide a lineage for Catharina but these do not appear to be substantiated
by more reliable sources. Significantly, Henry Z. Jones22 cites an Albany Reformed Church
marriage record that seems to show Catharina’s mother was actually married to a different
Conterman than is claimed in the Ancestral File. Henry Z. Jones does acknowledge Catharina
but does not indicate any specific lineage, birth, or death information. I have only conducted
limited and fairly superficial research of this line myself. It has been stidied in depth by a
number of others, although there are still many unresolved issues. I shall be discussing this
family in Chapter 17.

James’ second marriage was to Anna Christina Kammer, the daughter of William Kammer
and Catherine Mees. The marriage can be inferred from baptismal records of the children but
Anna’s father is proven from his grandson’s Will. William Schoolcraft died shortly after his
marriage and in his Will he referred to his grandfather: “I leave to my wife Maria all my
estate and all the portion that may fall to me from my grandfather, William Cammer”.
William and his wife are witnesses the birth of their grandson, Lawrence23. It is not known
when Madalena died, but it was probably between 1721 and 1725. I think this because James
and Anna had two children, James and William, who were born prior to 1731, the year in
which Johannes was baptized. This leads me to believe that James and Anna were probably
married about 1727 which, just happens to coincide with the date that Henry Rowe
Schoolcraft gave for the arrival of James in this country. I think a possible reason for him
giving the 1727 arrival date may have been to obscure the fact that James had been married
prior to his marriage to Anna. However, Henry admits to having only limited recollection of
his ancestors when he writes to his father-in-law (excerpted early in this Chapter). James and
Anna had nine children, although Henry Rowe Schoolcraft only identifies eight of them,
omitting Maria. It is possible that Maria died shortly after her marriage to Balthasar Kern24 as
nothing is known of either of them after that date.

The first child was James Schoolcraft who was probably born about 1728 in Schoharie.
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft states that James remained a bachelor. Ed Schoolcraft states.

The oldest son, James, is the son who, along with other members of the
immediate family, followed Conrad Wiser into Pennsylvania. It is believed
that James eventually moved to Virginia where he then married. This is
probably the reason HRS thought that James had died a bachelor.

I am unsure about Ed’s conclusion regarding James. In 1745, James was in Saratoga where
he and others were captured. In the Boston Public Library there is preserved what is believed
to be the only existing copy of The Boston Gazette, or Weekly Journal, of Tuesday, August
18th, 1747. It contains a list of captives who had been taken by the French and Indians at
various times and places and carried to Canada and who in the summer of 1747 were sent
from Quebec to Boston, where they arrived on August 16th of that year. Among them was
Rev. John Norton, from whom the list published in Gazette was obtained.

Taken Nov. 19th, 1745, by M. Martin Saristoque. Jacob, John [Jun.], and
Frederick Fort, Richard Crawley [Brawley], Jacob Himstrait, John Clute

26
[Saratago], Richard Vanderbeyden [Vanderbeyden, Carrying-Place], Heither
[Hartwright] Quaquinbush, Garret [Garard] and Mary Vanderverrek
[Vanderick], Isaac Powderkirk [Ouderkerk], Kellyan Ryder [Killian
DeLidder], and James Schoolcraft all of New-York [Saratago].

The foregoing James Schoolcraft is captured in 1745 in Saratoga. This predates any of James
Schoolcraft’s grandchildren by Anna Christina Kammer. There is no implication that this
James was a young child. In fact he was probably in military service. James Schoolcraft, born
in 1688, would be 57 years old, probably too old to be in such a situation and unlikely to
have left his young family in Schoharie anyway. I conclude that this is his son, James
Schoolcraft born about 1728, who would be 17 years old and ideal for military service. I
think it quite plausible that James would have remained in Massachusetts.

Maria Magdalena Schoolcraft was baptized in 1735 with her sister Margaret. A Maria
Elizabeth married Balthasar Kern24 on September 23rd, 1764 in St. Paul’s Evangelical
Lutheran Church, Schoharie. I have been unable to locate any issue from this union or any
further information on either of them. It may be that they died and that that is why Henry
Rowe Schoolcraft overlooked them. As all the other sisters can be accounted for during this
period I am convinced that Maria Elizabeth and Maria Magdalena are one and the same.

Anna Christina Kammer appears to have died between August 1841 and August 1843. She is
identified at the baptism of Catharina12 in July 1841 but by August 1743 James Schoolcraft is
the sponsor at the baptism25 of his grandson by Austien and James’ wife is clearly stated as
Elizabeth. The only James Schoolcraft old enough to be married by 1843 is Astien's father.
This is suffient to identify that James and his wife were the sponsors. There is the possibility
that Elizabeth's name has been misrecorded and this has cast some doubt on this fact. At one
time I considered the birth of James' grand-daughter, Catharina Lisabetha26 [84], in
Tulpehocken, Berks Co., PA in 1749 to be significant as the sponsors last name “Schraff" is
so similar to "Schoolcraft". That suspicion is unjustified as a “Schraff” family is living
nearby and is more likely to be the source of the sponsor.

James Schoolcraft‘s Death

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft has stated [0]:

When far advanced in life, he went to live with his son William, on the New
York grants on Otter Creek, in the rich agricultural region south of Lake
Champlain--which is now included in Vermont. Here he died at the great age
of one hundred and two, having been universally esteemed for his loyalty to
his king, his personal courage and energy, and the uprightness of his
character.
After the death of his father, when the revolutionary troubles commenced,
William, his youngest son, removed into Lower Canada. The other children all
remained in Albany County, except Christian, who, when the jangling land
disputes and conflicts of titles arose in Schoharie, followed Conrad Wiser,
Esq. (a near relative), to the banks of the Susquehanna

27
There are several problems with this statement. James’ son William died in Schoharie in
1761 at the age of about 3027. James could not have been living with him. If James lived to
the age of one hundred and two then he died in 1790, after the Revolutionary War, not
before. Also, we have already shown above that William was not the youngest son. Before
discarding these statements I prefer to look further.

In Chapter 5 I shall show that Christian did not follow Conrad Wiser south as stated but that
he removed to Anaquassacook in the Schermerhorn Patent with his family in about 1765.
Some members of his family remained in this location through the Revolutionary War until
at least 1790 when the entire family removed to Lower Canada. Coincidentally, Christian had
a son called William who was born about 1767. In Chapter 5 I shall show that Christian
fought in the Revolutionary War for the Loyalists with his eldest sons. William would have
been too young to fight but would have been one of those sons left at home, possibly taking
on the role of ‘man of the house’ in the 1780s during his father’s absence. I believe that it is
the Schermerhorn Patent that Henry refers to as “the New York grants”. This Patent is also
very rich agriculturally. It is located on the border of Cambridge, New York and Arlington,
Vermont, adjacent to what is also known as Camden Valley. This is less than thirty miles
south of the headwaters of Otter Creek that rises in the hills south of Rutland, Vermont and
flows north into Lake Champlain. Those headwaters actually extend as far south as East
Dorset, Vermont. Henry first states James’ lived to be 102 in his letter to his father-in-law
and he is consistent in that throughout his various documents. However, as genealogists are
aware, age at death is often incorrect and usually overstated. I do not doubt that James’ lived
into at least his nineties. He would have been able to be in Anaquassacook with Christian.
Records show that at least two of Christian’s sons were still there as late as 1789. If James
lived into his nineties he would have been alive at the time of the Revolutionary War. I
believe he probably died in Anaquassacook in the late seventeen eighties, just before the
family went to Canada. I attribute the apparent conflict of dates regarding the Revolution to
ambiguous writing. The “revolutionary troubles” could be interpreted as referring to the
persecutions of the Tory’s that persisted through the seventeen eighties.

1
Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country and Detailing Some Facts and Opinions on Two
Particular Branch of This Family - With Regards to the Migration of That Branch From New York, to Virginia and
Kentucky. CREATED/PUBLISHED: Edward J. Schoolcraft, 4809 Douglas MacArthur NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico
87110, 1986 (4th Printing 1993, w/revisions)
2 Library of Congress, Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft Papers,

http://lccn.loc.gov/mm 73039115, container 36, reel 19, unbound correspondence, Jan 1826 to Dec 1829, letter from
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft to John Johnston.
3 New York, Schenectady: First Reformed Church, Baptism of Astien ob Augustien on [2 April 1720], parents Jacob

Shultgraft & Madalena Schultgraft, sponsors Phillip Schueler & Grechen Vrooman.
4 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, “Register of the boys and girls, who for the first time,

have been at Holy Communion with me.” The first is for Wilhelm Schulkraf on June 24th, 1744 stating first
communion. The second page records Christian Schulkraf on April 10th, 1748 and Lorentz Schulkraf on July 14th,
1751.
5 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Marriages Vol. 1 pp. 206 #2: Marriage on 9 May

[1749] of Wilhelm Schulkraf and Maria Elisabet Schneider Text Dom. 6. 14.
6
New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Marriage on 9 Oct [1753] of Christian Schulkraf &
Elisabet Margareth Becker on account of my absence married by Domine Schuyler.
7
New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Marriage on 23 Oct [1759] of Lorentz Schulkraf &
Maria Schneider.

28
8 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Two Baptismal Pages Possessed by St. Paul's
Evangelical Lutheran Church but not from St. Paul's: Baptism of Elisabetha Margaretha [Becker] on Mar 10 [1735/36],
parents Andonius Becker, sponsors John Phillipps Bergmann besides John Peter Knickern's daughter, Elisabeth
Margretha.
9 Personal memoirs of a residence of thirty years with the Indian tribes on the American frontiers: with brief notices of

passing events, facts, and opinions, A. D. 1812 to A. D. 1842. CREATED/PUBLISHED: Philadelphia, Lippincott,
Grambo and co., 1851. John the third son.
10 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Two Baptismal Pages Possessed by St. Paul's

Evangelical Lutheran Church but not from St. Paul's Dual baptism: Baptism of Maria Magdalena on Sept 29 [1735],
parents Schimms Schulkrafft, sponsors Pieter Mann, Margaret, his wife. Baptism of Margretha on [Sept 29 1735],
parents [Schimms Schulkrafft], sponsors Maria Elisabeth [Schoolcraft?].
11
New York, Schoharie: The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, Baptism of Elisabeth on Decemb: 28
1738, parents James Schilkragt & Anna Christina Kemmer S:H:V, sponsors Jacob Snyder & Elisabeth Snyder.
12 New York, Schoharie: The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, Baptism of Catharina on July 26, 1741,

parents Jaems Schoelkrafft & Anna Christina, sponsors Johannes Finck & Catharina Seibel.
13
New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Peter on [1760] born Jan 9 [1760], parents
Lorentz Schulkraf & Maria, sponsors Peter Schneider and his wife.
14
New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Schulkraf, Jacob on [1761] born 18 Dec
1761, parents Lorentz & Maria Schulkraf, sponsors Jacob Schnider & Elizabeth Mann.
15 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Lorentz on [1763] born Nov 15 [1763],

parents Lorentz Schulkraf & Maria, sponsors Peter Schneider Jun. & Maria Elisabeth Schulkraf.
16 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Lysabeth on [1775] born Oct 18 [1775],

parents Lorentz Schulkraft & Maria, sponsors Peter Schneider and his wife.
17 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Maria on [1778] born Sept 9 [1778],

parents Lorentz SchulCraff & Maria, sponsors Johannes Schneyder and his wife.
18 Henry Z. Jones Jr., The Palatine Families of New York, (Picton Press, Camden, ME), pp. 899 et seq.: Peter Snyder

was a freeholder at Schoharrie in 1763 (Albany Co. Freeholders). He md. Elisabetha Catharina Brucker (HJ). The ch.
of Peter² and Elisabetha Catharina were: i) Anna Maria³, bpt. 15 March 1736/37 - Sp.: Johs. Scheyver and A. Maria
Scheyver (Schoharie Luth. or Ref. Chbk.). She md. Lorentz Schoolcraft 23 Oct 1759 (Schoharie Luth. Chbk.).
19 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Anna Maria [SCHNEYDER] on Mar 13

1736/37, parents Pieter Sneyer & Elys. Sneyer, sponsors Johns. Scheyver & A. Maria Scheyver.
20 New York, Schoharie: The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, Baptism of Johannes on 28 April [1731],

parents Jacobus Schoelgraft & Anna Christina Kemmer, sponsors Johannes Ingolt & Joh: Siever & Margrieta Bekker.
21 National Archives W4578, micropublication M804, Record Group 15., New York: Jacob Rose Family Record.,

William Rose was born in Hefse Cafsel Germany Sept 14th, 1738. Elizabeth Schoolcraft was born in Schoharie New
York U.S.A. Dec. 25th, 1738. William Rose married to Elizabeth Schoolcraft in Schoharie N. Y. 1760. Jacob Rose, son
of William Rose was born in Schoharie N. Y. April 21st, 1761.
22 Henry Z. Jones Jr., The Palatine Families of New York, (Picton Press, Camden, ME), pp. 430 et seq.: Anna

Christina², bpt. June of 1704 - sp.: Jehan Wilh. Kämmer, Elsa Christina - d/o Christian Diederich there, Anna Gertraudt
- servant at Johannes Mees's from the Neuburgische country, and Johann Daniel - s/o Weyandt Wirttges at Seg.
(Niederbieber Chbk.). She md. James Schoolkraft (HJ); the will of William Schoolcraft of Schoharie 22 Sept 1760
mentioned property left by his grandfather William Canner (Fernow Wills #1551).
23 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Two Baptismal Pages Possessed by St. Paul's

Evangelical Lutheran Church but not from St. Paul's: Baptism of Johann Lorantz on [Mar 20 1732/33], parents James
Schulkraft & Anna Christina, sponsors Wilhelm Kammer & Apelonia Kammer.
24
New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Marriage on 23 Sep 1764 of Balthasar Kern & Maria
Elisabeth Schulkraf.
25 New York, Schoharie: The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, Baptism of James on August 12 1743,

parents Asten Schoelkrafft & Catharina Contriman S:H:V: sponsors James Schoelkrafft & Elisabeth S:H: Vrouw
26 Pennsylvania: Vital Records, Pennsylvania Births - SAN Vol. 1 No. 4 pp. 52 Ref. FHL Book 974.816/T1 K2h.:

Catharina Lisabetha Schul Kraft parents Asten Schul Kraft, Spon. Catharina Lisabeth Schraff. Born bpt. 18 Jun 1749 in
Host Ref. Ch., Tulpehocken, Berks Co.
27 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Deaths and Obits Vol. 1 pg 235 #3 Death on 13 Apr

[1761] of Wilhelm Schulkraf.

29
Chapter 3: Henry Rowe
Schoolcraft‘s Grandfather
Johannes, or John, is the first of James Schoolcraft’s children by Anna Christina Kammer for
whom we have a primary birth record. That record indicates Johannes was baptized on April
28th, 1731. He was probably born a few weeks earlier. Ed Schoolcraft indicates Johannes
was born on the April 2nd, 1731 but does not cite his source. It was probably the IGI Patron
Sheet entry. That Patron Sheet probably used a genealogical estimate that birth was about
four weeks prior to baptism in arriving at the date of April 2nd.

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft writes extensively of John, and of his son Lawrence, in his
memoirs. As mentioned in Chapter 2, and as explained by Ed Schoolcraft1, Henry’s memoirs
can mislead the reader regarding his great grandfather’s first marriage and his father’s
military career. The letter that I referred to in Chapter 2 indicates that a lot of Henry’s
genealogical statements are hearsay from his uncle John, and his father. If we look beyond
the exaggerated military claims to the simple genealogical facts there are many that I believe
can be relied on. Those are the ones for which no benefit or advantage would accrue from
reporting anything other than the facts. This must be tempered by alertness to the failings of
human memory. Henry never knew his grandparents and has stated that much of what he
wrote was recollections from his own father or aunts and uncles who “attached little
consequence to the subject”.

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft states that John was the third child of James Schoolcraft, that he
married Anna Barbara Boss and that there were three children called Lawrence, John and
Anne. This is likely to be correct except for any children that may not have lived to maturity.
There does not appear to be a marriage record for John and Anna but five baptismal records
can be found. The first three correlate to the children mentioned by Henry. The last two, both
called Jacob, probably represent children who did not reach maturity and thus would not be
known to Henry. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft indicates that this family removed from Schoharie
to Watervliet. The baptismal record suggests that John left Schoharie between October 1760
and October 1762. However, the baptismal record for John’s children does not indicate his
removing to Watervliet but to Loonenburg, Hellenberg and, by 1768, to Schenectady where
his brother Christian had also removed. Some of these places bear different names today. The
Cóvens and Mortier map of 17802 [Appendix D, Figure 4] is a valuable tool in determining
locations. (Be alert that this map was prepared with North towards the lower left corner.) It is
John’s grandchildren who first appear in the baptismal records for Guilderland in the late
1780s indicating that the move to the capital region did not take place till then.

The Military Record

At this point it is appropriate to discuss military service. First I wish to make the distinction
between a muster roll and a roster. In the Colonial times there was a Provincial law that
required all men between the ages of 16 and 45 to be members of the militia. That rule
carried over to the new States and when a survey of men in that age group was made for each
town, they were automatically assigned to the appropriate militia group. This caused them to
31
appear on a roster. If they were paid for actual service performed then they would also appear
on a muster roll or payroll. Thus we must be careful not to construe military service from a
roster alone, although it is likely that military service would have followed.

John appears with his brother Lawrence as privates in the muster roles of Capt. Robert
McGinnis Company3 in the summer and fall of 1755. John is no longer listed in the
December muster for this Company and Lawrence has been furloughed. Few documents
survive from the Revolution itself. John is present in the roster of the 3rd Regiment Militia as
a Sergeant. This roster applies to the period from October 28th, 1779 to November 4th, 1781.
John had a change of command from Captain Groat to Captain Slingerlandt that must have
occurred after March 4th, 1780, as the latter does not make the promotion lists before that.
Records also exist in the Levies. The Levies were short-term assignments of troops from the
Regiments so it can be hard to prove who was who. Col. John Harper’s Regiment of Levies
was from May 11th, 1780 to November 30th, 1780 and includes a Johannis Schoolcraft. Col.
Marinus Willett’s Regiment of Levies was from April 1782 to December 1782 and includes
John who appears to have been assigned, at different times, to three Captains - Capt. James
Cannon, Capt. Joseph Harrison and Capt. Stephen White. John probably came from the 3rd
Regiment Militia, as that is the only Regiment listing the name John Schoolcraft. We do not
know whether this record in the Levies is for the father or for his son of that same name.

John’s two sons both served in the Revolutionary War. The roster of the 3rd Regiment
Militia includes two privates, John Jr. and Lawrence who, because this is a Rensselaerwyck
Regiment, would almost certainly be the children of John who were born February 12th,
1758 and October 20th, 1760. (Private Lawrence is Henry Rowe Schoolcraft’s father so this
is further evidence in support of Ed Schoolcraft’s analysis that Henry’s father was only a
private.) Pension records4 for both exist confirming actual service:

SCHOOLCRAFT John, NY Line, S30689, appl 16 Aug 1832 Albany Co NY


aged 72 on 21 Oct 1832 & it appeared sol had lived in Albany Co NY during
the Rev.
SCHOOLCRAFT Lawrence, NY Line, S42260 (see N.A. Acc #874 #050158
not ½ pay), appl 14 Dec 1830 Oneida Co NY aged 73, sol enl at Johnstown
NY & later enl at Watervliet NY, in 1830 sol had wife aged about 72.

Further detail of Lawrence’s record5 shows:

Lawrence Schoolcraft aged 73 years upwards, a resident of said Co. who


being first duly sworn doth on his oath make the following declaration in
order to obtain the provisions of the Acts of Congress of the 18th March 1818,
and the 1st May 1820 --that he the said Lawrence Schoolcraft enlisted in the
town of Johnstown in the State of New York in the month of January 1776 in a
Company commanded by Capt. Andrew Fink in the 1st New York Regiment
commanded by Col. Goese VanSchaack, for the term of one year--that he
continued to serve in said Corps until January 1777 when he was discharged
at Saratoga. That he enlisted again at Watervliet in the Co. of Albany on the
15th day of April 1777, for the term of three years or during the war, in the
Company commanded by Capt. Henry Tieborst in the 3rd New York Regiment

32
commanded by Col. Peter Ganservort--that he continued to serve in said.
Corps. until the 20th day of April 1778--when he was discharged from service
(on procuring Godfrey Byers as a substitute, who was received in his place,
who served to the end of the war) as will appear by said discharge hereto
annexed--at Fort Schuyler.

The Revolutionary War Records, (Brainbaugh, Vol. I) also state that:

Schoolcraft, Lawrence (AC. 50,158) Pvt., Orgn not known. He resided in


Vernon, Oneida Co., N.Y. for 32 years previous to his death, and previous to
that time he lived in Guilderland, Albany Co., N.Y. He died 7 June 1840,
leaving no widow, and no will, but 4 children. His pension was payable at the
Albany Agency, N.Y. His son Henry Rowe Schoolcraft was living in 1840 in
Detroit, Wayne Co., Michigan. Lawrence Schoolcraft was living with Joseph
Pixley at the time of his death.

I believe the foregoing deals appropriately with the Revolutionary War period. However, it
does not mention what military career Private Lawrence Schoolcraft might have had after
that. When his daughter dies in Vernon in 1829 the obituary in the Albany Gazette does refer
to her as being the “youngest daughter of Col. Lawrence Schoolcraft”. Lawrence was 71
years old at the time and probably left the funeral arrangements to one of the sons. It is
possible that Henry Rowe Schoolcraft wrote the obituary but it may have been another
relative. We may, in fact, not know precisely when the military record was embellished or
who started doing it.

John Schoolcraft‘s Descendants

Although John Schoolcraft and Anna Boss’s children are known from baptismal records, I
believe the later generations are incomplete. Most of the descendants of this family removed
from those parts of New York where good early records exist to parts that were less well
documented. I shall not spend time explaining all the children and grandchildren as they may
be seen in the genealogical report that follows. I shall instead focus only those situations
where the situation may not be obvious from the citations alone.

Lawrence was John Schoolcraft and Anna Boss’s eldest child and was Henry Rowe
Schoolcraft’s father. I am indebted to Greg Parkes for retrieving and providing a crucial
document6, without which it is not possible to accurately determine Lawrence’s family.
Merely relying on the baptismal record leaves an incomplete picture and misidentifies some
children. His transcription of that document is presented in Appendix B. Greg has also been a
great help in crystallizing my thoughts on this particular branch of the family.

Henry states that his parents married in 1781 and attributes thirteen children to their
marriage. He further states6 that they lived initially “near the falls of the Tawasentha, &
afterwards at the village of Hamilton, in Albany county”. The first location is generally
known as Norman’s Kill while Hamilton village is known today as Guilderland and is about
four miles away from the first.

33
Eleven baptismal records can be located; the earliest two are in Schoharie. It may be that
Lawrence initially lived in Schoharie after his marriage or it may be that he merely returned
for the baptisms as that is where his relatives and friends lived. The third baptism is a child
called Lawrence who is born in Norman’s Kill. There then follow eight more baptisms in
churches that are in the Guilderland vicinity.

The baptismal record actually contains two children called Lawrence. The third record in
sequence is actually held in a Schenectady church but has a notation that the child was born
in Norman’s Kill. The fifth record in sequence is apparently for another child called
Lawrence, but no date of birth is provided and his baptism conflicts with the birth of Henry.
Normally I would explain this as no more than the reuse of the name, presuming the first
child to have died. In this instance, however, I think a different explanation is at work. Many
churches require a person to be baptized into that church before they are considered members
of the congregation. For children, this would permit religious instruction. Baptisms from
other congregations are usually accepted but the first Lawrence was born in Norman’s Kill
and his record is in Schenectady. I suspect that he was in fact baptized by a travelling
minister who was serving the Norman’s Kill congregation. That would explain the record
being in a church as distant as Schenectady. The parents may not have realized where the
baptism was actually recorded and a second baptism in their new church is the easiest way to
resolve this. I believe that only one child called Lawrence was born and that he was baptized
twice. Later I shall discuss additional evidence that supports this hypothesis but to introduce
that at this point would only serve to confuse. Before leaving Lawrence, I must explain a
mis-identification. Jonathan Pearson7 shows a child, Lawrence, who dies in Schenectady on
July 28th, 1851 at age 63. Jonathan also provides Lawrence’s birth date and location of May
2nd, 1786 in Norman’s Kill. However, examination of the census record shows that the
Lawrence who dies in Schenectady is not that son of Lawrence and Margaret but is their
nephew who was born September 29th, 1788. It is not apparent to me where Jonathan
Pearson located the death information but I believe he incorrectly attributed it to Lawrence
and Margaret’s son whose baptismal record just happens to be located in the First Reformed
Church of Schenectady.

Thus ten children can be determined from baptismal records. This is where a crucial
statement by Henry6 comes into play.

While living near the falls of the Tawasentha, & afterwards at the village of
Hamilton, in Albany county, death had removed his daughter Kate, at 7 years
of age, & had made repeated inroads on the year of infamy, with drawing
from the family, uncle, three infant male children & one female Anna Maria,
who died in 1801 on her first birth day. In proportion as these had numbered
but few years in the subliminary scenery & made but slight advance to
individuals of character, the shock of their loss was of temporary duration.

Firstly, a daughter, “Kate” who would probably have been Catherine, dies at age seven. It is
immediately tempting to assume she is Anna Catharina who was born March 26th, 1798.
However, that cannot be as that Catherine marries Willette Sherman. Furthermore, Henry
clarifies this with the statement6:

34
About 1816, he returned to his homestead & farm at Vernon, where the family
had continued to be permanently located, on his final return from New
England [illegible] his second daughter Catherine, from the scene of her
education, at one of the most celebrated & efficient female schools, and she
was united in marriage to W. H. Shearman of Oneida county.

Clearly there is another child called Catherine who is born before, and therefore dies before
1798. Henry’s parents marry in 17818. The first three male children are born approximately
one and a half to two years apart from that date. Then there is a birth hiatus from May 1786
till October 1790 during which time the family appears to move from Norman’s Kill to
Hamilton. It is early in this hiatus that I think the first Catherine is born. Her death would
thus be about 1795, before the birth of the second child called Catherine. The next child
mentioned by Henry is Anna Maria who died on her first birthday in 1801. The baptismal
record shows Anna Maria was born on April 21st, 1800. But in Sault St. Marie, Michigan,
we have another Anna Maria who married John Hulbert. Henry provides the answer to this
problem when he states6:

“... and in 1825, on a return visit to the parents at Vernon, took to this new
scene of enterprize, his youngest son James, & his daughter Anna Maria.”

Clearly the name Anna Maria has been re-used. Examination of the Michigan death record
for this second Anna Maria shows that she was born about December 28th, 1802, shortly
after the death of the first. At this point we have added two more female children to the list
bringing the total to twelve. Now we return to that statement of Henry that identifies Kate6. It
states that three male infants died within the same year and seemingly in the same year as
Kate. Looking at the twelve children we had identified, all of the males except two can be
shown to have survived into the 1800s. The two that did not are Jacob and Lawrence. Clearly
they must have died about 1795 and about the same time as Kate. A third as yet unidentified
child must exist. Here is where we deal with my earlier references to Lawrence. Had there
been two children called Lawrence then one would have had to have died before the other.
As the second baptism demands a birth in or before 1792, the first one would have died
before that. The second could then have died in 1975 shortly after Kate. That, however,
would be a total of thirteen children but only two males would have died in the space of
about one year. Thus we may conclude that the baptisms of Lawrence had to be duplicates
and that a third unidentified male had to have been born, probably in the later part of the birth
hiatus, and then to have died about 1795.

While discussing deaths in this family it is appropriate to consider one more. In 1828 Willette
Sherman writes to Henry Rowe Schoolcraft9:

“I have to communicate to you the painful intelligence of the death of your


niece Margaret C. Schoolcraft, she died Saturday morning the 17 instant after
a distressing ilness of several months, ... Your sister Helen is in poor health
and I fear will not long survive Margaret. Yours,
W. H. Sherman.”

35
Greg Parkes reports the cemetery markers for members of the family who are buried in
Vernon. One of them is this otherwise unidentified Margaret C. Schoolcraft who died aged
23. As she is now clearly identified as Henry’s niece we may deduce that she is a child of
Henry’s brother John who died in 1806. No other brother is old enough to have fathered a
child born in 1805. In fact John’s death record in the Albany Register notes that he left a
widow and two small children. One of them was John Lawrence Schoolcraft. Clearly the
other was Margaret.

Henry’s youngest brother met an untimely death in Sault St. Marie.

Rome Citizen Death Recordings


SCHOOLCRAFT - From the Detroit Daily Advertiser - Melancoly Event. --
We regret to learn JAMES SCHOOLCRAFT, Esq., was killed at the Sault St.
Marie last Sunday afternoon. He was returning from a small field of his back
of the village when he was fired upon from a thicket and must have instantly
expired. A ball and two buck shot struck his right arm, and passed through the
vital parts of his body -- the ball lodging in his left arm. He was found lying
on his face.
Suspicion of his murder immediately rested upon an old man named Tanner,
who had frequently threatened Schoolcraft. The night before the murder he set
fire to and burned his own house, and fired random shots at several persons
during the day. A party of soldiers with a large number of Indians started at
once in pursuit, but had not yet caught him.. -- One of the soldiers had a
glimpse of him in the woods and fired but missed him. -- Mr. J. K. Livingston
has offered a reward of $100 for his capture. Tanner is said to have been a
native of Pennsylvania or Kentucky, whence he was stolen when a child by the
Indians, and has mostly lived with them. Some account of his capture by the
Indians was published a few years ago.
Mr. Schoolcraft was a younger brother of H. R. Schoolcraft, Esq., not of New
York, and was for several years a Representative in our Legislature. At his
death he was sutler to the post at Fort Brady, and also engaged extensively in
the fur and other trade. He leaves a wife, now in this city, and young children
to mourn their loss. (RCJu.21/1846)

John’s second son, also called John, was married twice. The determination of that is not
immediately apparent. The clue is in contained in the baptismal record of a grand daughter by
a daughter from his first marriage which was to Maria Truax. He and his second wife, Maria
Catherine McKinney, are sponsors at that baptism.

Baptism of Maria Reginia [Fisher] on 14-Feb-1808 born 1-Jan-1808, parents


John H. Fisher & Anna Schoolcraft, sponsors John Schoolcraft & Maria
McKinny

Another grandchild of John Schoolcraft and Maria Truax by their son John Wyngaart
Schoolcraft is Nelly F. Schoolcraft. Her daughter’s marriage is recorded in Laconia, NH
where it states that Nelly was born in Lyons, NY. I believe this is no more than an erroneous
record as I have seen no evidence to suggest that Nelly’s parents were ever near Lyons.

36
Henry Rowe SCHOOLCRAFT

Henry Rowe SCHOOLCRAFT.

37
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft is perhaps the most well known member of the Schoolcraft family.
His biographical information was discussed extensively in Chapter 2. Henry was a
geographer and geologist who traveled extensively throughout the Great Lakes region
documenting many Native American cultures and languages. Henry claimed to be the
original recorder of the legend of Hiawatha. Henry’s work, which included the discovery of
the source of the Mississippi river, is well documented and available online10 [Appendix A],
in the Library of Congress Archives. The reader is referred to that source for further
information. Henry’s work was not without controversy11. I cite one such report here not
because I necessarily assert it’s accuracy but because it indicates the need for caution on the
part of researchers like ourselves when extracting facts from these early accounts. The report
is from 1872, shortly after Henry’s death and thus not too remote from Henry’s own writings.

When Mr. Schoolcraft published his Notes on the Iroquois, he did not give Mr.
Clark that credit which it is believed he should have done, for his legend of
Hi-a-wat-ha; and when Prof. Longfellow published his celebrated Song of Hi-
a-wat-ha, the curiosity of the public was considerably excited in regard to
some of the incidents referred to in that elaborate and popular poem. A warm
controversy arose between Mr. Clark and Mr. Schoolcraft, in which Mr. Clark
asserted his claims to the honor of having first published the legend, which
had suddenly assumed such prominence in the public mind, and which he had
obtained from two aged chiefs of the Onondaga tribe. Mr. Schoolcraft, in
reply, imputed to Mr. Clark motives unworthy of a gentleman, and
superciliously ignored his claim to that honor; and Mr. Clark, in turn, clearly
convicted Schoolcraft of plagiarism, if not of untruthfulness. It is not my
province to enter into that controversy, nor even to express any opinion upon
the merits of the case only so far forth as the interests of historic truth
evidently require.
That Mr. Schoolcraft did Mr. Clark great injustice in that matter is made quite
clear by Mr. Francis Parkman in his late work, The Jesuits in North America
in the Seventeenth Century, a work which presents the Indian traditions more
fully, perhaps, than any other now before the public. Mr Parkman says, “In
all Mr. Schoolcraft’s productions, the reader must scrupulously reserve his
right of private judgement.” He also says of Mr. Schoolcraft’s six large
quarto volumes, entitled, The History, Condition, and Prospects of Indian
Tribes, “It is a singularly crude and illiterate production, stuffed with
blunders and contradictions, giving evidence on every page of a striking
unfitness either for historical or philosophical inquiry, and tasking to the
utmost the patience of those who would extract what is valuable in it from its
oceans of pedantic verbiage.” From this view of Mr. Schoolcraft’s historical
work, it is almost an unavoidable inference, that Mr. Clark had altogether the
best side in that controversy, and that his claim to the honor of having first
published the legend of Hi-a-wat-ha, is just. Several years ago, Mr. Clark sent
this Society a long account of this unpleasant affair, which may be found
among the Society’s manuscripts.

The foregoing was extracted from a report by the New England Historic, Genealogical
Society, January 1872, pp. 86-87. The author was not evident.
38
1 Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country and Detailing Some Facts and Opinions on Two
Particular Branch of This Family - With Regards to the Migration of That Branch From New York, to Virginia and
Kentucky. CREATED/PUBLISHED: Edward J. Schoolcraft, 4809 Douglas MacArthur NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico
87110, 1986 (4th Printing 1993, w/revisions)
2 Cóvens and Mortier map of 1780
3 Berthold Fernow, New York: New York in the Revolution, (originally published as Documents Relating to the

Colonial History of the State of NY, Vol. XV, Albany, NY 1887; Reprinted for Clearfiled in 1999 by Genealogical
Publications Co, Baltimore), Muster Rolls for Capt. Robert McGinnis Company, last half of 1755.
4 Genealogical Abstracts Of Revolutionary War Pension Files Volume III: N-Z Abstracted by Virgil D. White 1992
5
Military Service Records Section, National Archives, Washington, D.C. (File No. S42260)
6 Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft Papers, http://lccn.loc.gov/mm73039115,

container 63, reel 51, unpublished manuscript by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. “A Sketch of the Life of Col Lauren [sic]
Schoolcraft”
7 Contributions for the Genealogies of the Descendants of the First Settlers of the Patent and City of Schenectady:

LOURENS, of Noormanskil, and Margaret Row. Ch: Lourens, b. May 2, 1786, d. in Schenectady, July 28, 1851, a.
63ys.
8
Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft Papers, http://lccn.loc.gov/mm73039115,
container 63, reel 51, unpublished manuscript by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. “A Sketch of the Life of Col Lauren [sic]
Schoolcraft”: In 1781, he married Miss Margaret Anna Barbara Rowe, a native of Fishkill, Dutchess county, N.Y. by
whom he had a family of thirteen children.
9 Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft Papers, http://lccn.loc.gov/mm73039115,

container 36, unbound correspondence, Jan 1826 to Dec 1829, letter from Willette Sherman to Henry Rowe
Schoolcraft: I have to communicate to you the painful intelligence of the death of your niece Margaret C. Schoolcraft,
she died Saturday morning the 17 instant after a distressing ilness of several months, ... Your sister Helen is in poor
health and I fear will not long survive Margaret. Yours, W. H. Sherman.
10 Library of Congress Archives, http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html
11 New England Historic, Genealogical Society, January 1872, pp. 86-87. The author was not evident

39
Chapter 4: A Military Family
A comprehensive discussion identifying Lawrence was presented in Chapter 2, page 21.
Lawrence is the youngest son of James Schoolcraft and Anna Christina Kammer. His
baptismal record indicates “Johann Lorantz” was baptized on March 20th, ecclesiastical year
1732, civil year 17331. He was probably born a few weeks earlier. His family is one of the
larger and better understood ones as they remained in the Schoharie region where the early
records are more complete than other locations. None the less, there are several places where
ambiguities and confusion can arise and this chapter will address those.

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft2 states that Lawrence is the ancestor of persons of that name in
Schoharie County. Lawrence had two wives. He marries Anna Maria Schneider on October
23rd, 1759. Anna Maria was born on the March 15th, 1736/37 in Schoharie. Anna’s family is
documented in “The Palatine Families of New York”3. This source also shows that the Maria
Schneider who married Wilhelm Schoolcraft is a stepsister to this Maria’s father. Lawrence
and Anna Maria have ten children whose baptisms are recorded. His second wife is Christina
Sternberg, the widow of John Lawyer with whom she had eleven children. Christina’s will4
identifies several of her children by John Lawyer but also identifies her as the wife of
Lawrence Schoolcraft.

The Military Record

As the chapter title suggests, Lawrence was a military man. Not only did he rise to become
Adjutant of the Fifteenth Regiment, Albany County Militia at Schoharie but five of his sons
also saw service, some in the Revolutionary War. Lawrence first appears with his brother
John as privates in muster roles of Capt. Robert McGinnis Company5 in the summer and fall
of 1755. By the December muster for this Company Lawrence is furloughed. Ed Schoolcraft6
has previously laid out the case proving much of the military record during the Revolutionary
War.

No records exist to indicate that Lawrence Schoolcraft ever made a


declaration of service as an Adjutant during the Revolutionary War in
accordance with the provisions of any of the Pension or Land Grant Acts of
Congress, passed in March 1818, May 1820, June 1832, and July 1836.
Because of this, we must look elsewhere for information concerning his
service.
One source of proof of his service is found in a book titled “New York in the
Revolution” prepared under the direction of the Board of Regents-New York
State Archives, by Berthold Fernow, printed by Weed, Parsons, and Co.,
Albany, New York - 1887. (See listing for 15th Regiment, Colonel Peter
Vrooman, Commander.) Further proof is found in the Military service
Records Section, National Aichives, Washington, D.C. (See declarations of the
following persons: John Schoolcraft, File No. S15221; Jacob Schoolcraft, File
No. W19323; and Lawrence Schoolcraft, File No. R9267.) I am convinced
these three Schoolcrafts are sons of Lawrence Schoolcraft, the Adjutant.

41
On October 3rd, 1832, John Schoolcraft (S15221), in the Court of Common
Pleas in Schoharie (now Albany) Co., New York, made a declaration in
support of his application for a pension as provided for by an Act of Congress
for service performed during the Revolution. He states that he was 67 years
old at that time (actual date of birth was 31 January, 1765). He further states
that during the spring of 1780, he served for approximately 3 months; during
the spring of 1781, he served for approximately 3 months; and during 1782,
he served from 1 April to the end of that year. He states that he performed his
services under Col. Vrooman, Col. VanShaick, Capt. Stubrach; and Capt.
Gray. This declaration also contains a statement by Jacob Schoolcraft
wherein he states that “He has been well acquainted with John Schoolcraft,
the applicant for a pension, ever since the American Revolution, that he, this
disponent, has frequently seen the said John Schoolcraft in the Militia Service
as he has stated in his declaration.”
On 5 October, 1832, Jacob Schoolcraft (W19323), in the Court of Common
Pleas in Schoharie (now Albany) Co., New York, made a declaration in
support of his application for a pension as provided by an Act of Congress for
service performed during the Revolution. He states that he was 70 years old at
that time and was born on 18 December, 1761; that he served for one or two
months in the fall of 1776 in a Company commanded by Capt. Christian
Stubrach of Col. Peter Vrooman’s Regiment, and as soon as he joined his
Company, he was appointed Orderly Sergeant. In 1777, he served from spring
until late fall, again as orderly Sergeant in the same Company in which he
had served in the previous year. During the years of 1778 and 1779, he again
served from spring until late fall, as Orderly Sergeant, in the same Company
and Regiment, which were commanded by the same officers. He states that he
served continuously from the spring of 1780 until May 1783 in the same
Company and Regiment commanded by the same Officers, again as Orderly
Sergeant. He further states that John Schoolcraft can testify to the truthfulness
of his statements.
On 11 June, 1854, Lawrence Schoolcraft (R9267) appeared before Amos
Cray, a Justice of the Peace, in Albany Co., New York and made a declaration
in support of his application for a pension as provided by an Act of Congress
for service performed during the Revolution. He states that he was 88 years
old at that time (actual date of birth was 28 March, 1767) . Lawrence states
that he served from April to November 1778, in a Company commanded by Lt.
Jacob Snyder, and that his brother Peter Schoolcraft, served in the same
Company with him,--in the year 1779, he served in a Company commanded by
Lt. Peter Snyder, and Jacob Snyder was Ensign. This service was performed
between June and mid-August,-during 1780 he served from spring until the
end of December and states that much of his service in 1780 was as a
substitute for his brother John Schoolcraft, and his officers were Capt.
Christian Stubrach, Lt. Jacob Snyder, and Lt. John Duty. He also states that
his brothers, Jacob, Peter, and John were all soldiers in Capt. Stubrach’s
Company belonging to Col. Peter Vrooman’s Regiment. He states that he
continued to serve from the year of 1780 until the close of hostilities in 1782,

42
and that his father, Lawrence Schoolcraft was the Adjutant of Col. Vrooman’s
Regiment. He states that he is “Quite certain that his father was never a
Private in the Militia under Col. Peter Vrooman and his recollection is
distinct on this subject”. He also states that his “Father was on duty at
Albany, Stillwater, and Saratoga until within a few days of the taking of
Burgoyne, when he returned to Schoharie, and immediately thereafter
resumed the duty of Adjutant of Col. Vrooman’s Regiment, and remained as
Adjutant of said Regiment until the close of the War”.
Of the three declarations referred to above, only two, those of John and Jacob
Schoolcraft were allowed. The declaration made by Lawrence Schoolcraft
was not allowed because he could not furnish adequate proof of his service. I
will not attempt to make any judgment as to the fairness of the decision made
to disallow the declaration made by Lawrence. However, after taking all the
facts into consideration concerning Lawrence Schoolcraft, the Adjutant, and
the declarations made by John, Jacob, and Lawrence Schoolcraft, --I am
convinced that Lawrence’s declaration, to a great degree, bears the import of
the truth.
Unfortunately, there is no evidence that the fourth son, Peter Schoolcraft, ever
made a declaration in connection with his service. Records do exist, however,
to support the statements made by Lawrence that Peter Schoolcraft did
perform some service during the American Revolution. (See “New York in the
Revolution”.)

In fact I believe there is evidence that five sons were involved in the Revolutionary War, or
at least in the few years immediately following it. One of them, Jacob, went on to achieve the
rank of General7. If you extract all the Schoolcraft references from New York in the
Revolution by the State Comptroller8 and group them by Regiment and the associated Levies
they break into three groups. The largest by far is the 15th Regiment Militia from the united
districts of Schoharie and Duanesburg under Col. Peter Vrooman. The 3rd Regiment Militia
also known as the 1st Rensselaerwyck Battalion under Philip P. Schuyler includes the
ancestors of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft that were discussed in Chapter 3, page 31. The 16th, or
Cambridge Regiment under Col. John Blair, Col. Lewis Van Woert includes members of
Christian Schoolcraft’s family and will be discussed in Chapter 5, page 61. There are also
numerous short-term assignments to the Levies. As mentioned previously, one cannot
necessarily conclude that actual service was performed based only on an individual’s
appearance in a roster. An examination of the content is informative.

To return to the roster of the 15th Regiment, this roster applies to the period from July 1778
to April 8th, 1781. The simplest one to locate is the Adjutant Lawrence Schoolcraft, born
March 20th, 1732/33 who is the son of James and Anna. Because this regiment was raised in
Schoharie the recruits would come from that area. They all correlate to children of Lawrence,
the Adjutant, and are all privates. The first is Peter born January 9th, 1760 who had three
Captains within his time with the regiment - Christian Brown, Dirck Miller, and Christ’n
Stubragh. As none of these made Captain till February 20th, 1778, Peter’s service, if any,
would not have been before that. (I noticed that the dates of their commissions predate the
Regiments active service so be careful what conclusions you draw regarding dates. Peter may

43
have changed Companies or the Company command may have changed.) The second is
Jacob born December 18th, 1761 who had four Captains. Capt Geo. Rechtmyer was probably
first as he was commissioned in 1775, long before the others. Christian Brown, Dirck Miller,
Christ’n Stubragh are the same ones as commanded Peter so this may indicate that Jacob was
assigned before Peter. Third we have William born January 1st, 1769 who was commanded
by Storm Becker. There’s a problem with this one in that William is only age twelve in 1781.
There is not an alternative William, therefore I conclude these rosters must cover a period of
time extending out into the mid 1780s. Fourthly there is Lawrence Jr. born March 28th, 1767.
This has the same age problem as William but as he is identified as “Lawrence Jr.” it is
fairly obvious who he is. I consider it significant that he is in the ‘index’ of all New York
troops but is not listed in the Regimental roster. This would be the situation if that roster only
went to April 8th, 1781, although that still leaves a problem with William. He had four
changes of command - Christian Brown, Dirck Miller twice and Christ’n Stubragh. Lastly,
John appears in the Levies under Col. Marinus Willett, with his brother, Peter.

Lawrence’s Church Life

Lawrence Schoolcraft plays a substantial role in St. Paul’s church. In 1781 and 1784,
Lawrence is an elected elder and trustee of the church. His children follow his example with
John, Lawrence [Jr.], William and grandson David figuring in lists dated 1810 - 1815, 1818 -
1819, 1826 - 1828, 1829 - 1831, and 1833. Lawrence makes a sizeable donation to the church
in 17869 [Appendix D, Figure 5]. His frequent attendance at communions substantiates his
church involvement. There is but one cloud.

In researching this family an interesting reference appears in the records of St. Paul’s Church.
It is a note written by Domine Braun on September 8th, 1791 when he is preparing to leave
Schoharie, which is subsequently cancelled out, presumable when he did not leave. The
content is particularly intriguing:

Dearest Brother, whosever comes here to feed this flock, be watchful; set
cautiously in finding out your friends; flee from those who at first appear as if
abounding in friendship; believe me, the serpent is concealed with amicable
words, surrounding you with deceitful hearts. There are three who delight in
giving laws to the whole body, and in the end overthrow everything. I will
disclose to you one, with indeed a true heart; that may be relied upon;
question him, he will tell you everything; he is named in Latin Johannes
Advocatus Senior. Turn the name underscored with a line into the English
language, and you will find him near the Reformed Church. In the meanwhile
have patience, and may the Spirit of Jesus Christ be with you in all things.
Pray for me. I am your most obedient servant.
Schoharie, Sept. 8, 1791. A. T. Braun.

It is easy to determine that John Lawyer Sr. is the person explicitly referred to. What of the
other three? The persons most likely to be involved would be elders or trustees who would
have easy access to the minister and also be in a position to influence Church policy. One of
these is Lawrence Schoolcraft. Lawrence is also the Camp Adjutant, a position dependent on
ones ability to effectively direct the actions of others and make rules governing their

44
behavior. The military are necessarily well known for their ‘command and control’ approach
to people management. I believe that Lawrence was probably one of the persons referred to
in this quotation and that it shows he did not restrict his people skills to his military career.

Finding the Jacob

A significant problem when researching this family is the preponderance of individuals


named Jacob, Lawrence and John. Many of them have wives called Maria or Catherine. It is
only possible to disambiguate these individuals by first allocating those relationships for
which no ambiguity exists. Then, by paying close attention to the locations, the churches
being used, sponsors at ceremonies and biological limitations it is possible to allocate the
remainder. Too try and include the more complex explanations, by using citations and notes
alone, makes any Genealogical Report almost impossible to read. In order too resolve that, I
shall discuss the appropriate ones now.

One key fact is not intuitive and might reasonably be referred to as “finding the Jacob”! The
census and early church records for the late 1700s and very early 1800s identify at least four
individuals called Jacob in Schoharie, although one can be confidently presumed to have died
an infant. Lawrence’s son John had a son Jacob who is referred to as Jacob Jr. Lawrence’s
son Jacob also had a son called Jacob who did not use the designation “Jr.” but who
sometimes used a middle initial of “J” or “I”. Lawrence’s son Jacob also had a son John
who is referred to as John Jr. while Lawrence’s son John had a son John who did not use the
designation “Jr.”. I.e. Jacob Jr. is the son of John and John Jr. is the son of Jacob. This
information is conveyed in the Wills of their parents10:

Will of Jacob Schoolcraft of Schoharie: Dated Aug 11, 1834: Probated Jun 3,
1839: Mentions wife Mary Catherine, daughter Sophia Schoolcraft, daughter
Betsey Zimmer, son Jacob I., son John Jr., grand-daughter Rachel Bennett,
grand-daughter Caty Ann Shaver, grand-daughter Caroline Woolford:
Executors son John Jr., son-in-law John Zimmer Jr.: Witnesses Ezra Gallup
Jr. of Schoharie, George Zimmer of Schoharie, Darius Coye of Schoharie:
Vol. 3, pg. 335

This Will associates Jacob I. and John Jr. to parents Jacob Schoolcraft Sr. and Maria
Catherine Zimmer.

Will of John Schoolcraft of Schoharie: Dated Oct 10, 1831: Probated Sep 6,
1849: Mentions son Jacob Jr., wife Mary Catherine, daughter Elizabeth wife
of John Schultes: Executors daughter Elizabeth, son Jacob Jr.: Witnesses
Isaac Barber, Jacob I. Schoolcraft, Cicero Barber: Vol. 4, pg. 363

This Will associates Jacob Jr. with parents John Schoolcraft Sr. and Maria Catherine Schell.
(The fourth individual called Jacob is a son of Jacob Sr. born in 1783 who died before 1785.)

Identifying these three persons called Jacob is only a part of the task. Jacob Schoolcraft Sr.
marries Maria Catharina Zimmer. Jacob I. Schoolcraft marries Catherine Salsburg. Jacob
Schoolcraft Jr. marries first Eva Settle and second Catherine Steiner. Most of Jacob Sr.’s
family can be determined without ambiguity as it is before 1805 and thus before the other

45
two marry. By taking care to observe the mother’s names and sponsors it is possible to
correctly allocate the children born after 1805. Jacob Schoolcraft Jr. and Eva Settle have
eight children and Eva is explicitly identified with each birth although the maiden name on
one shows a minor anomaly and is recorded as “Zell”, aka a variant of the maiden name of
Jacob’s mother. Jacob I. Schoolcraft and Catherine Salsburg have ten children. In each case
Catherine is named as the mother and in some Jacob is identified by his middle initial.

Emery and Miles Schoolcraft, grandsons of Jacob I. Schoolcraft by Ira Schoolcraft, born
April 10th, 1823. This photograph might have been taken at Cedar Rapids, Nebraska, where
Emery rented a horse barn11. Photograph kindly provided by Grove Schoolcraft.

Will Those Called Peter Schoolcraft Step Forward?

Between 1802 and 1822 five people called Peter are born to descendants of Lawrence
Schoolcraft and Anna Maria Schneider. The first is a grandson by Peter Schoolcraft and
Beata Marinus who is born in Schoharie on February 16th, 1802. A great grandson by David
Schoolcraft and Rachael Westfall is born in Guilderland on April 19th, 1806. A great
grandson by Jacob Schoolcraft and Eva Settle is born in Schoharie on December 2nd, 1814.
A great grandson by William Schoolcraft and Mary Zimmer is born in Schoharie on January
22nd, 1819. A great grandson by Lawrence Schoolcraft and Hannah Gleichmann is born in
Schoharie on April 2nd, 1822. Clearly there is ample room for confusion and census records

46
are a good way to start resolving it. These show how the families stayed in close proximity
and can help in determining who is related to whom. Note that in Table 7 the records for
Peter [09-Jan-1760] are from Rensselaerville and Berne. Records before 1850 are from
Schoharie, 1850 and later are from Wright.

Table 7: Census Records from Schoharie or Wright [dwelling or page]


1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850
Peter [9-Jan- pp. pp.
1760] 192.28 127.20
William [28-
Feb-1799] dw. 14
Peter [22-Jan- Richmond
1819]
Peter [16-Feb-
1802]
Jacob [18-Dec- pp. pp. pp. pp. pp.
1761] 200.13 1170.15 31.39 189.16 23.16
David [22-Jan- pp. Tioga
1781] 23.18 Co.
Peter [19-Apr- pp.
1806] 182.02
John [31-Jan- pp. pp. pp. pp. pp. pp.
1765] 200.11 1170.11 32.09 187.38 22.20 182.24
Jacob [abt. pp. pp. pp. pp.
1784] 32.10 190.07 23.17 182.24
dw. 160
Peter [2-Dec-
1814]
Lawrence [28- pp. pp. pp.
Albany Co.
Mar-1767] 1170.12 32.08 187.37
Lawrence [13- pp. Tioga
Tioga Co.
Feb-1794] 24.03 Co.
Peter [2-Apr-
1822] Tioga Co.

First I shall determine Peter [22-Jan-1819]. In 1850 he is living in a two family residence in
Richmond (Table 7). His brother Ezra is the second family and their father is living with
Ezra. Peter’s wife Lena is identified.

Federal Population Schedule 1850: pg. 281: Richmond Twp., Schoharie Co.,
NY, dwelling 14, family 14. Schoolcraft, Peter P age 29 sex M Farmer born in
NY, [Schoolcraft], Luna age 33 sex F born in NY, [Schoolcraft], May M age
11 sex F Student born in NY, [Schoolcraft], William M age 7 sex M Student
born in NY, [Schoolcraft], Lorenzo age 5 sex M Student born in NY

His Will shows that he died between March 25th, 1860 and October 12th, 1862.

47
Copied and compiled by Gertrude A. Barber, 1938, Abstracts of Wills,
(Abstracts of Wills, Letters of Administration and Guardianship, Schoharie
Co., NY), Vol. 5 pg. 10, Will of Peter P. Schoolcraft of Richmondville, NY:
Dated Mar 25, 1860: Probated Oct 12, 1862: Mentions son William Miner,
son Lorenzo, son Irving P., daughter Catherine Elizabeth, daughter Nancy
Maria, wife Lena: Executors Dr. Chase of Richmondville: Witnesses Lyman
Baker, Peter Miller.

The 1860 census shows his wife staying with her father in law, indicating that Peter probably
died before June 1st, 1860.

Federal Population Schedule 1860: pg. 847: Richmond Twp., Richmondville,


Schoharie Co., NY, dwelling 178, family 135. Schoolcraft, William age 61 sex
M farmer born in NY, [Schoolcraft], Maria age 65 sex F born in NY,
[Schoolcraft], William M. age 17 sex M born in NY, [Schoolcraft], Munzo age
16 sex M born in NY, [Schoolcraft], Elizabeth age 6 sex M born in NY,
[Schoolcraft], Ervin age 3 sex M born in NY, [Schoolcraft], Lana age 45 sex
F born in NY

The foregoing proves that Peter [22-Jan-1819] married Lena and lived and died in Richmond.

Peter [2-Apr-1822] may now be determined as he is the only person of that name in Tioga
County and appears to have removed there with his father. Now that Peter [22-Jan-1819] has
been eliminated, there is strong correlation with age in the 1850 census record and his birth
date in 1822. He is married to Angeline Bakeman.

A Peter Schoolcraft marries Christina Becker in Schoharie on March 19th, 1835. Evidence
identifying that this is Peter [2-Dec-1814] comes from the 1850 census and from three
baptisms in St. Paul’s, Schoharie on September 7th, 1836. Table 7 shows Peter is living in
dwelling 160 in Wright in 1850 where his father, Jacob Jr., is head of household. This
association is confirmed as Peter’s son, George Becker Schoolcraft, is baptized with Peter’s
brother Gideon’s twins, Maria Malvina and Joseph Miner Schoolcraft.

Peter [19-Apr-1806] is another one I show in the census records in Table 7. With a birth date
only four years from Peter [16-Feb-1802] we must be careful. However, in this particular
case Peter consistently states an age in 1850, 1860, 1870 and 1880 that is exactly appropriate
to his birth in 1806. For this reason I am satisfied that the correct Peter is identified and that
he is the only one involved. He marries twice. In 1850 he is shown with Phoebe who is
widely claimed to be Phoebe Cheeseboro. (I have not pursued a citation that confirms this.
Her mother is apparently in the household in 1850.) In 1860, 1870 and 1880 he is shown with
Leah. I am grateful to Harold Miller of the Berne Historical Society for the following
analysis.

Esther Schoolcraft shown in the 1860 census, born about 1852, and an
implied daughter of Peter Schoolcraft, is actually Esther L. Wright, his step-
daughter who married Edgar Weidman. In the 1880 census, Edgar Weidman
age 22 is married but his wife is not living with him. He is working on the
farm of James Young, on page 357D of the census. On the next page, 358A,

48
about 7 households away, is Ester L. (Estella) Weidman who is married but
not living with her husband. Since she is the stepdaughter of Peter
Schoolcraft, she must be the daughter of Leah. Since we know Estella’s
maiden name is Wright, then Leah’s married name was Wright. I identify her
as Leah Van Arnem, widow of Jervis Wright who died August 22nd, 1855. The
census was two weeks before the birth of Bertha on July 16th, 1880 so Estella
was staying with her mother until the baby was born.

Peter [19-Apr-1806] first married Phoebe Cheeseboro and second married Leah Van Arnem.

It only remains to say that there does not appear to be any record of Peter [16-Feb-1802]. His
father is missing from the census record after 1800 in Berne. His brother William is
enumerated in 1820 but then does not appear in the census record till 1850 in Richmond.
Further study may shed light on what happened to this branch of the family.

David Schoolcraft

The David that I wish to discuss was born on January 22nd, 1781. He has an uncle of the
same name who was born on October 25th, 1773. The available church, census and other
records suggest that only the one who was born in 1781 married and had any family. David
first marries Rachel Westfall on February 26th, 1805. Their first child is born in 1806 and the
second, Rachel Schoolcraft, is born on December 28th, 1809. It is this second child that
proves that her father was the David born in 1781, as her grandparents are the sponsors at her
birth and she is mentioned in her grandfather’s Will. David and his family are shown
consistently in the census record from 1810 through 1860. He dies in Newark on November
7th, 1861. Eight more children are found to a mother usually called Anna and once referred
to as Nancy.

There is nothing in the foregoing that is particularly unusual and I would not be discussing
David were it not for one fact. It is commonly asserted that his second wife, Anna, was
actually two persons. David’s second marriage is claimed to Anna Schaffer on September
14th, 1807 with the first child, called Catherine, who is often claimed to be born born about
1808. Anna is claimed to have died about 1824 following the birth of Ira, who was a cripple
and mentally handicapped, possibly due to birth complications. David’s third marriage is
claimed to Anna Zimmer on October 9th, 1824 by whom three more children were born. The
problem with these assertions is that the second marriage and the birth of the first child by
that marriage seriously conflict with David’s proven marriage to Rachel Westfall. If the facts
pertaining to the second marriage are correct then clearly there is another person called David
Schoolcraft.

I have contacted several persons whose names have been associated with these assertions and
none have been able to identify the original person who made the assertions. A search of
typical records where these facts might be expected to be recorded has not even yielded
confirmation of the maiden names of the second two wives. I do not expect that such
assertions would have been made without some basis. Most likely the facts are partially
correct but contain errors that are concealing the true fact. Until this is resolved I continue to
show the second and third marriages as being to a single person called Anna, maiden name
unknown, and at a date later than the birth of Rachel Westfall’s last child.

49
Before leaving David it is appropriate to discuss his daughter Eva and the claimed daughter
Catherine that was mentioned above. Daniel Zimmer’s obituary proves that he married
someone called Eva Schoolcraft.

Source unstated:
Daniel Zimmer, one of the oldest residents of East Newark was found dead in
bed at home. He had been feeble several months; but around the house. Tues.
night he went up to his room as usual. He did not get up as early as usual, his
daughter, Miss Josephine, who kept house for him, went up and found he had
died during the night.
He was born in Knox , Albany Co., NY in 1814 and came with his father to
this town in 1832, when they moved onto a tract of land where the farm of
Alexander Saddlemire is now located. All that section at that time wa s
pathless forest, and to get to the point where his village is located , the settlers
followed a trail down around by way of the McCullough neighborhood. In
1835 Daniel married Mrs. Eva Schoolcraft who died in 1876. Two children
born to them: Sylvenus Zimmer of Maine and Miss Josephine at home. The
funeral held from his home Rev. J. B. Cook officiating.

The census record shows that Eva was born variously in 1820, 1822 or 1823. This is close
enough to September 1818 that one might consider the case closed. However, living very
close by is Peter and Eva Sperbeck. The 1880 census shows that Eva’s maiden name was
also Schoolcraft. This potential ambiguity must be resolved. Earlier census records show Eva
Sperbeck to be born in 1817 and also to be called Eva Ann.

David’s brother, Jacob I. Schoolcraft, had a daughter called Eva Ann born October 25th,
1815. That Eva’s brother Jacob is buried in Tioga County in 1849 and her father is buried
there in 1853. Thus there is a connection to the county to account for finding Eva Ann there.
However, as her father and his family remained in Schoharie through 1840 she cannot be the
same Eva that married Daniel Zimmer in 1835 as Daniel was already in Newark at that time.
On the other hand, David Schoolcraft’s family did go to Tioga county between 1830 and
1835. Thus we may conclude that Eva Schoolcraft, daughter of David, is the one that married
Daniel Zimmer and that Eva Ann Schoolcraft, daughter of Jacob, is the one that married
Peter Sperbeck. This conclusion is strengthened by examination of the census record. In 1880
Eva Schoolcraft, the presumed daughter of Jacob, is enumerated twice. Once she is living
with her son-in-law in Newark Valley12. Secondly, she and her son-in-law are enumerated in
Liverpool, Onondaga County13, with Eva’s widowed sister-in-law, Catherine Chase
Schoolcraft. This is sufficient to prove that we have placed the appropriate Eva with the
appropriate parent.

In the beginning of this section I mentioned the claimed Catherine Schoolcraft, daughter of
David and his wife Anna. Daniel Zimmer had a brother called David who is claimed to have
married that Catherine. The census records show Catherine was born variously in 1819,
1821, or 1822. A number of online genealogies claim she was born about 1808. Others claim
she was born in 1814 and a few that she was born specifically on May 7th, 1814. This last
date is a clue to one problem. David Schoolcraft had a son called Paul who married Catherine
Zimmer, who was a sister to Daniel Zimmer. Paul and Catherine are buried in the East

50
Newark cemetery. That record shows the names Schoolcraft and Zimmer. This points
strongly to someone confusing the wife of Paul Schoolcraft with the wife of David Zimmer
and getting her married name and maiden name mixed up! The problem with “Catherine
Schoolcraft” at this time is that I have no evidence to prove Catherine’s maiden name was
Schoolcraft. Nor do I have any evidence to prove her parents. For that reason I am refraining
from even showing her as a claimed descendent of David Schoolcraft.

A Case of Resurrection!

There is an apparent contradiction between the death records associated with Mary (Settle)
Schoolcraft and the 1880 census that I shall explain here. The error is in the 1880 census that
has identified Sylvester Schoolcraft’s paternal grandmother instead of his maternal
grandmother, Mary Zimmer. Jacob Schoolcraft and Maria Catharina Zimmer have a son John
Schoolcraft Jr. born 14th October 1790. This is proven by both baptismal record and a Will.

The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation at Schoharie, NY. 1728-
1816 Doop book, Baptism of Jan on 9 Nov [1790] born 14 Oct, parents Jacob
Schulkraft & Maria Catharina, sponsors Johannes Schulkraft & Maria
Catharina.
Gertrude A. Barber, 1938, Abstracts of Wills, Letters of Administration and
Guardianship, Vol. 3, pg. 335, Will of Jacob Schoolcraft of Schoharie: Dated
Aug 11, 1834: Probated Jun 3, 1839: Mentions wife Mary Catherine,
daughter Sophia Schoolcraft, daughter Betsey Zimmer, son Jacob I., son John
Jr., grand-daughter Rachel Bennett, grand-daughter Caty Ann Shaver, grand-
daughter Caroline Woolford: Executors son John Jr., son-in-law John
Zimmer Jr.: Witnesses Ezra Gallup Jr. of Schoharie, George Zimmer of
Schoharie, Darius Coye of Schoharie.

John Jr. Schoolcraft and Mary Settle are married and have a son Elisha. This is proven by
baptismal record and a Will.

Beaver Dam Reformed Dutch Church at Berne, NY. pg. 152, Baptism of
Schoolcraft, Elisha on [Bet 1812 Sepr. 27 & October] born Sept. 28 1812,
parents John Schoolcraft & Mariah Settle, sponsors Johanas Schoocraft &
Maria Catharine Shal.
Gertrude A. Barber, 1938, Abstracts of Wills, Letters of Administration and
Guardianship, Vol. 5, pg. 31, Will of John Schoolcraft Jr. of Schoharie: Dated
Aug 14, 1862: Probated Dec 8, 1862: Mentions son Elisha, son Isaac, son
Hiram, daughter Nancy Maria, grand-son Sylvester, son of Elisha
Schoolcraft, grand-daughter Mary, daughter of Hiram Schoolcraft, wife
Mary: Executors son Hiram: Witnesses John Gebhard of Schoharie, John P.
Shafer of Schoharie.

The Will also establishes that Elisha had a brother called Hiram and a son called Sylvester.
Records of the High and Low Dutch Congregation and an obituary establish that Mary Settle
died 1st November 1864. The obituary, through reference to Hiram confirms that it truly is
Elisha’s mother (Sylvester’s grandmother) who has died.

51
High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation at Schoharie, NY. List of
members: Schoolcraft, Mary Settle wid. of John Schoolcraft Died Nov. 8,
1864.
Schoharie Republican Newspaper, Death on Nov 1 [1864] of Mary
Schoolcraft In this village on Tuesday Nov 1 at the residence of her son Hiram
Schoolcraft. Relict of the late John Schoolcraft Jr, in the 74th year. S.R. Nov 3
1864.

This conclusively proves the lineage and the death of Mary Settle, yet the 1880 census
apparently shows that Sylvester’s widowed grandmother, Mary Settle is living him.

Federal Population Schedule 1880: pp. 297A: Turin, Lewis Co., NY:
Sylvester Schoolcraft Self male married white age 31 born in NY
occupation Farmer father born in NY mother born in NY
Elma Schoolcraft Wife female married white age 31 born in NY
occupation Keeping House father born in NY mother born in NY
Leroy Schoolcraft Son male single white age 7 born in NY father born
in NY mother born in NY
Anna Schoolcraft Mother female white age 67 born in NY father born
in NY mother born in NY
Mary Schoolcraft GMother female white age 88 born in NY father
born in NY mother born in NY
Lillian Cook Other female single white age 17 born in NY occupation
House Keeper father born in NY mother born in NY

The Mary Schoolcraft is in reality Mary Zimmer born about 1791 and who married John
Dominick June 16th, 1812 in St. Paul’s church, Schoharie. She is Sylvester’s maternal
grandmother not his paternal one. The 1880 census enumeration has included an incorrect
surname.

The Relationship of Elisha and Sylvester Schoolcraft

Before leaving this family, it is worth examining an inconsistency in the relationship of


Elisha and Sylvester Schoolcraft. An undated list of members of the High and Low Dutch
Congregation indicates that Elisha may have had a second wife called Anna Maria Hiltz.
John Schoolcraft’s Will dated in 1862, states that Sylvester is the son of Elisha.

Gertrude A. Barber, 1938, Abstracts of Wills, Letters of Administration and


Guardianship, Vol. 5, pg. 31: Will of John Schoolcraft Jr. of Schoharie: Dated
Aug 14, 1862: Probated Dec 8, 1862: Mentions son Elisha, son Isaac, son
Hiram, daughter Nancy Maria, grand-son Sylvester, son of Elisha
Schoolcraft, grand-daughter Mary, daughter of Hiram Schoolcraft, wife
Mary: Executors son Hiram: Witnesses John Gebhard of Schoharie, John P.
Shafer of Schoharie.

Sylvester is born about 1848, determined from the 1850 census where he is shown in Elisha’s
family at age two. Elisha marries Anna Maria Dominick in 1832 and two children are proven
to these parents in 1834 and 1839. Records of the Lewis County Court refer to Elisha
52
obtaining guardianship of Sylvester in 1864, implying that Elisha was not the natural father.
If Sylvester were the child of Anna Maria Hiltz and Elisha had married about 1849 then the
guardianship action would be appropriate - Elisha might be adopting a son from Anna Maria
Hiltz’s previous marriage. The problem is that in 1860, Anna Maria Dominick’s parents are
living with Elisha. This does not make sense if Elisha had remarried.

Sylvester is certainly Elisha’s adopted child. His mother is not known but for now I show her
as Anna Maria Dominick. The reference to Anna Maria Hiltz in the High and Low Dutch
Congregation may be no more than confusion with Elisha’s sister in law, Catherine Maria
Hiltz.

Jacob Fridendall

Before we move on from these Wills we should consider grandson, Jacob Fridendall, who is
mentioned in Maria Catherine Zimmer’s Will.

Gertrude A. Barber, 1938, Abstracts of Wills, Letters of Administration and


Guardianship, Vol 3. pg. 215: Will of Mary Catherine Schoolcraft of
Schoharie : Dated Feb 18, 1835 : Probated Aug 7, 1837 : Mentions Betsey
Zimmer, daughter Sophie Schoolcraft, grand-daughter Mary Catherine
Zimmer, grand-daughter Caty Eliza Wolford, grand-son Jacob Fridendall :
Executors John C. Zimmer, Peter Zimmer : Witnesses William Schoolcraft of
Schoharie, Ezra Gallup Jr. of Schoharie

This indicates one of her daughters married someone called Fridendall. That daughter cannot
be Maria as Adam Weidman’s family’s bible shows that Maria died in 1823 while still
married to Adam. Elizabeth marries John Zimmer and a substantial family can be shown that
culminates in twins in 1833. While not conclusive, this would suggest that Elizabeth is not
that daughter as there are only two years between that event and her mother’s will, dated in
1835. Very young children were rarely mentioned in Wills as the survival rate was low.
Catherine marries John Wolford as is proven by the Beaver Dam Reformed Church
communion and member’s records dated April 2nd, 1831 that mark her as dead. Her death
before her mother would be a reason to include her daughters, Caty Eliza and Caroline, one
in each of their grandparent’s Wills. We cannot be sure precisely when Catherine died, but
her widowed husband, John Wolford, married her sister, Sophia, on August 27th, 1836 with
Caty Eliza Wolford as a witness. Thus it would seem that Sophia is the only daughter who
could have married a Fridedall, and that that marriage would have been before her marriage
to John Wolford.

Ozias and Adam Schoolcraft in Tioga County

This branch of the family has several descendants that remove to Tioga County. They are the
descendants of the brothers Jacob, born December 18th, 1861 and Lawrence, born March
28th, 1867. There is an otherwise unidentified Ozias Schoolcraft who dies on 11-Jan-1826
and is buried in the East Newark cemetery. That record is used to compute his birth date on
October 8th, 1794. Table 8 shows others in this region for later years. It is clear from this
information that David and Lawrence are the heads of the families that go into Tioga County.
It is curious that Ozias is buried there this soon as the earliest census records for the others

53
are in 1840. Both David and Lawrence are still in Schoharie in 1830. This may indicate Ozias
was the first to leave Schoharie. Given his age, he would have to be a son of either Jacob
born in 1761 or Lawrence born in 1767. I do not like placing too much trust in ages from
death records but if his age is correct then he could not be a child of Lawrence as that would
clash with the birth of Lawrence on 13th February 1794. Given that the name Ozias is also
reused in Jacob’s line, I believe Ozias to be the child of Jacob Schoolcraft and Maria
Catharina Zimmer.

Table 8: Newark and Owego Census Records [dwelling or page, age]


1840 1850 1860 1870
th
Descendants of Jacob December 18 , 1761
David [22-Jan-1781] pp. 60.24 dw. 243, ae. 69 dw. 260, ae. 79
Paul [26-Oct-1811] pp. 59.21 dw. 198, ae. 49 dw. 467, ae. 58
Ozias [about 1845] dw. 327, ae. 22
Adam [1-Jan-1815] dw. 252, ae. 34 dw. 262, ae. 45 dw. 306, ae. 55
Ira [24-Feb-1823] dw. 260, ae. 27
Elijah [28-Dec-1829] dw. 262, ae. 29
John [14-Oct-1790]
Elisha [28-Sep-1812]
John [8-Sep-1834] dw. 260, ae. 26 dw. 457, ae. 37
Ozias [8-Oct-1794]
Adam [10-Oct-1800] pp. 57.10
Descendants of Lawrence March 28th, 1767
Lawrence [13-Feb-1794] pp. 59.25 dw. 349, ae. 52 dw. 424, ae. 66 dw. 469, ae. 76
Jacob [15-Jun-1819] dw. 425, ae. 41 dw. 469, ae. 47
Peter [2-Apr-1822] dw. 858, ae. 28 dw. 421, ae. 36
Philip [about 1848] dw. 857, ae. 2
Minor [about 1826] dw. 426, ae. 35 dw. 468, ae. 40
Seneca [about 1832] dw. 76, ae. 28 dw. 383, ae. 37
Percy [about 1835] dw. 81, ae. 35

In the 1840 census record for Tioga County is an Adam Schoolcraft. I include this person as
Adam [10-Oct-1800]. That record shows six children and a female care giver. Because there
are no other known persons called Adam Schoolcraft that are close to the age range stated,
and because he has brothers who are also there, it seems to be an unambiguous record.
However, his wife, Catherine Schoolcraft, dies on January 18th, 1837 in Clay, just outside
Syracuse. That is a substantial distance from Tioga County. I conjecture that after his wife’s
death, Adam may have joined his brothers for family support and found a second wife who
may have had prior children of her own to account for the misaligned counts in the census.
By 1850 Adam has removed to Belvidere, Illinois.

54
1 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Two Baptismal Pages Possessed by St. Paul's
Evangelical Lutheran Church but not from St. Paul's: Baptism of Johann Lorantz on [Mar 20 1732/33], parents James
Schulkraft & Anna Christina, sponsors Wilhelm Kammer & Apelonia Kammer.
2 Personal memoirs of a residence of thirty years with the Indian tribes on the American frontiers: with brief notices of

passing events, facts, and opinions, A. D. 1812 to A. D. 1842. CREATED/PUBLISHED: Philadelphia, Lippincott,
Grambo and co., 1851.
3 The Palatine Families of New York, Volume 1, Henry Z. Jones Jr., Picton Press, Camden, ME
4 Copied and compiled by Gertrude A. Barber, 1938, New York: Abstracts of Wills, (Abstracts of Wills, Letters of

Administration and Guardianship, Schoharie Co., NY), Vol. 1, pp. 209: Will of Christina Schoolcraft daughter of
Lambert Sternbergh and the wife of Lawrence Schoolcraft : Dated Sep 23, 1808 : Probated : Mentions daughter
Rebecca wife of Daniel Budd, daughter Maria, grand-daughter Christina eldest daughter of Christian Lawyer :
Executors husband Lorentz Schoolcraft, daughter Maria, daughter Rebecca : Witnesses Peter Wiesmer, Samiel Snyder,
Noah Dudley.
5 New York: State Archives, Annual Report of the State Historian: Muster roll of Capt. William McGinnis Company

dated 1755.
6
Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country and Detailing Some Facts and Opinions on Two
Particular Branch of This Family - With Regards to the Migration of That Branch From New York, to Virginia and
Kentucky. CREATED/PUBLISHED: Edward J. Schoolcraft, 4809 Douglas MacArthur NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico
87110, 1986 (4th Printing 1993, w/revisions)
7 New York, Schoharie: Republican Newspaper, Death on 12 [Aug 1834] of Jacob Schoolcraft In this town on the 12th.

Gen. Jacob Schoolcraft in his 74th year. S.R. Aug 26 1834.


8 Berthold Fernow, New York: New York in the Revolution, (originally published as Documents Relating to the

Colonial History of the State of NY, Vol. XV, Albany, NY 1887; Reprinted for Clearfiled in 1999 by Genealogical
Publications Co, Baltimore)
9 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Miscellaneous Vol. 2 pg 56 On 17 Abrill 1786:

Laurence Schulgraft Receipt for £30 (joint with Johannes Lawyer).


10 Copied and compiled by Gertrude A. Barber, 1938, Abstracts of Wills, Letters of Administration and Guardianship,

Schoharie Co., NY, Vol. 3, pg. 335 and Vol. 4, pg. 363.
11 Nebraska: Newspaper, Omaha Daily Bee, September 24th, 1890: A barn belonging to George McClintock, four

miles west of Cedar Rapids, was burned. The place was rented by E. A. Schoolcraft, who lost one horse, some
machinery and other goods. One horse was saved by Mrs. Schoolcraft by great personal risk, but she burned her hands.
12 Federal Population Schedule, 1880: FHL Film 1254937 National Archives Film T9-0937 pp. 133C: Newark Valley,

Tioga Co., NY : James M. CLIFFORD Self male married white age 35 born in KY occupation Farmer father born in
PA mother born in PA: Celia A. CLIFFORD Wife female married white age 33 born in NY occupation House Keeper
father born in NY mother born in NY: Fred W. CLIFFORD Son male single white age 13 born in NY occupation At
Home father born in NY mother born in NY: Eva A. CLIFFORD Dau female single white age 11 born in NY
occupation At School father born in NY mother born in NY: Eva SCHOOLCRAFT MotherL female white age 60 born
in NY occupation Lives Here father born in NY mother born in NY.
13 Federal Population Schedule, 1880: FHL Film 1254906 National Archives Film T9-0906 pp. 229B: Liverpool,

Onondaga Co., NY : Cath. A. SCHOOLCRAFT Self female white age 61 born in NY occupation Keeping House father
born in RI mother born in NY: William M. SCHOOLCRAFT Son male single white age 29 born in NY occupation
Laborer father born in NY mother born in RI: James M. CLIFFORD Self male married white age 35 born in KY
occupation Farmer father born in PA mother born in PA: Celia A. CLIFFORD Wife female married white age 33 born
in NY occupation House Keeper father born in NY mother born in NY: Fred W. CLIFFORD Son male single white age
13 born in NY occupation At Home father born in NY mother born in NY: Eva A. CLIFFORD Dau female single
white age 11 born in NY occupation At School father born in NY mother born in NY: Eva SCHOOLCRAFT MotherL
female white age 60 born in NY occupation Lives Here father born in NY mother born in NY.

55
Chapter 5: A Loyalist family
This chapter will present Christian Schoolcraft and identify his children. It will not discuss
Christian’s later descendants as they will be the subject of subsequent chapters.

It is widely accepted that the progenitors of the Schoolcraft name in Quebec were the sons of
Christian Schoolcraft and Elizabeth Margaret Becker. I have not located any document that
would conclusively prove this for all cases but the circumstantial evidence from Military
Records; Oath’s of Allegiance and Land Grant documents dating from about 1790 is
substantial. Gen. Gabriel Christie records that Christian and at least some of his sons,
including Adam, were residents of Noyan1 aka Christie’s Manor. These documents mention
the six sons whose births can be proven, one more whose birth has not been proven, and a
proven son-in-law (implying a daughter). The discussion in Chapter 2, page 20 shows that
Christian Schoolcraft was born in Schoharie NY in the spring of 1732. He married Elizabeth
Margaret Becker October 9th, 1753 in St. Paul’s Lutheran Church, Schoharie2. Elisabeth was
the child of Adonius Becker and his wife Charlotte3. Christian’s first two children, Margaret
and Adam were born in Schoharie. Between the birth of Adam on April 9th, 17544 and the
baptism of Christian on September 25th, 17595 the family removed to Schenectady. The
family stayed in Schenectady till at least the baptism of Martin on February 6th, 17646 but
they had left the town by August 1766. When John is baptized in Schoharie on August 12th,
1766, a note on his baptismal record is particularly significant and represents the first of
several clues regarding this Loyalist branch of the family. Entry 3 for the year 1767 on page
82 of Vosburgh’s transcription of the records of St. Paul’s Lutheran church in Schoharie7
reads:

Johannes, Aug. 12 Christian Schulcraf Lorentz Schulcraf


Auf Quaschen 1766 Elisabeth Margarath and his wife
Kill Maria.

John is born in “Quaschen Kill”. It seems likely that Christian and Elizabeth Margaret have
returned to Schoharie to visit Christian’s brother and his wife who are the sponsors at John’s
baptism.

The Anaquassacook (Schermerhorn) Patent

The Anaquassacook Patent was situated in the old town of Cambridge on the border with
Arlington, Vermont and south of the Battenkill River. Today, most of this land lies in the
town of Jackson although the earlier name of Anaquassacook can still be found on some
modern maps, as can the Camden Valley Road. The significance of this region is best
understood from a 1783 property claim8 made in Montreal by Peter Miller.

A New Claim Received in England.


343. Evidence on the Claim of PETER MILLER, late of Albany County,
Montreal
N. Y. Province. 15th February, 1788
Claimt. Sworn.

57
Says he was in Montreal in 1783 & sent his Claim to England by Major
Leake.
N.B. - By the copy from England the Claim appears to have been sworn to at
Montreal, 17th Octr., 1783.
He is a native of Ireland. He came to America in 1770. He soon after settled
in Cambridge district, Albany County, & lived there in 1775. Says that he
never joined the Americans & came to Canada in 1776 with Capt. Sherwood.
After he came in he served in Coll. Peters’ Corps., & with Major Leake.
He now lives at Missisqui Bay.
Property:
No. 1 100 acres of Land in Camden on a Lease forever from Mr. DeVaznes,
of N. York. He had Cleared 16 acres, with a House, etc.
No. 2 210 acres in Quasencooke, Albany County. Produces Lease forever
from Ryn. Schormorhorn to Peter Miller in Considn. of £7 N. Y. Cury. per an.
Conveys 200 acres of Land as described, 14th March, 1774.
Says he built a House & Improvements which he pd. £39 for it. After the
purchase he fenced it & cleared many acres. Thinks it cost him £250 York.
His family were turned from this farm. It is in Possession of the Landlord.
He lost 2 Mares & 2 Colts, 6 Cows, 2 Oxen, a Steer, some Sheep & Hogs.
Farming Utensils. Hay. His wife saved their furniture.
Wits. Christian Schoolgrave, Sworn.
Says he knew Claimt. in Charlotte County before the War. He was a Loyal
Man.
Remembers No. 1. He had considerable Clearance & No. 2. He had cleared
30 acres & had a House, etc. He had 2 Horses, 2 Colts, 6 Cows, 2 Oxen. Says
the rebels took all these.
The Lands in Possession of the Owner.

There are several locations mentioned in this claim. Peter Miller’s reference to “Cambridge
district, Albany County” establishes the general location of the property claim and is
reasonably unambiguous. His reference to “Quasencooke, Albany County. Produces Lease
forever from Ryn. Schormorhorn” is referring to Anaquassacook and the Shermerhorn
Patent. His earlier reference to “Camden” refers to the fertile valley where today’s Camden
Valley Road in Salem NY exists. A map from an 1895 Atlas of New York [Appendix D,
Figure 6, Jackson - right hand side half way down] that depicts the grant using data from the
original period. These locations can be found on this map. The Anaquassacook Patent is the
highly irregular region south and west of the Battenkill River. The river enters the map from
Vermont on the east side and is the dark line flowing slightly south of west to the middle of
the map whence it makes a sharp turn to flow north. This river forms the northernmost
boundary of the patent. Lot one of the patent is in the northernmost extent beside the river
near the top of the map. The western boundary is the solid straight line extending south to the
bottom of the map, east for about a mile to Ashgrove, then north-east for about four miles
back to the river and the Vermont border. Camden is shown just north of the river, outside
the patent, and beside the Vermont border. Christian’s reference to “Charlotte County” is the

58
name of the old county in northern New York, that included the patent, and that was
subsequently divided to form Washington County. This claim establishes that Peter and
Christian were in Anaquassacook between 1770 and 1775.

The true significance of John Schoolcraft’s baptismal record can now be seen. John is born in
“Quaschen Kill” which I believe to be Anaquassacook. This shows that Christian moved his
family from Schenectady to Anaquassacook between the spring of 1764 when Martin is
baptized and the summer of 1766 when he visits his brother in Schoharie and baptizes John.
Christian is still in Anaquassacook in 1779 as he is included on the October 23rd, 1779 Tax
List for the Cambridge District of Albany County, New York. This document is located in
the Garret Y. Lansing Papers in the New York State Archives9. While Peter Miller’s property
claim shows Christian to be in Montreal in February 1788 when the claim is reviewed, not all
the family had reached Quebec and even he may not yet have established a permanent
residence in Quebec. One of his sons still remained in Anaquassacook in 1790. Christian’s
son James, who is recently married10, is enumerated in the 1790 census11. A second
enumeration for a John Schucraft12 has been suspected of being Christian’s son John. I do not
believe this is the case, even though James and John are apparently enumerated fairly close to
each other. John Schoecraft baptizes four children in the Protestant Presbyterian
Congregation of Cambridge between June 21st, 1792 and January 13th, 1793. John Shoecraft
can be traced to Ulster Co., New York where he is shown to be the uncle of Rachel Shoecraft
who is discussed in Chapter 8, page 86. The Garret Y. Lansing Papers in the New York State
Archives show that Christian’s eldest son, Adam Schoolcraft possessed jointly with Ichabod
& Christian Cook 400 acres in Lot 24 of the Schermerhorn Patent in 1790. This lot is also
shown on the map mentioned above. It is a large area of land in a bow in the river and almost
on the Vermont State line and, due to it’s proximity to Camden, probably represents the
general location that Christian and his family were formerly living. This land record does not
necessarily mean that Adam was still a resident of the town at this time. He might have
already left for Quebec, but not yet relinquished his lease, which would explain his absence
from the census record.

The foregoing suggests that Christian and his family, except for James, probably left for
Quebec between about 1788 and 1790.

The Loyalists of Cambridge

The Battle of Bennington was fought in what was Albany County at a location only a few
miles south from where the Schoolcraft’s were living. An article by Joe Parks13, speaking at
the Symposium on the Battle of Bennington in October 2000, traces the origin of claims that
“large numbers of ancestors left their oxen and plows in the field, rushed towards the sound
of cannons with their hunting pieces, to help turn back the enemy” [i.e. the British] to Levi
Chandler Ball. Ball had collected information from family legends and written the same in a
series of articles in the mid 1800s called “The Annals of Hoosick”. Joe Parks explains how
Ball’s well-meaning endeavor came about and also led to several “vanity” histories of
Washington County. Joe further explains how Nelson Gillespie tried unsuccessfully to
corroborate Ball’s work in 1904. Joe himself reports trying to substantiate the claims, finding
that from a list of sixty-four individuals known to be in the region at the time and a list of ten
regiments, only five men from the region could be proven to have taken part in the Battle.

59
There undoubtedly were many other participants than these but this was not the strongly
Revolutionary region claimed in the “vanity” histories. There is no clear and single reason
for the Loyalist sentiment in this region. One factor is probably the friction between the
aristocratic land owning elite of the Hudson Valley and their tenant farmers on grants such as
the Shermerhorn patent. The farmers did not own the land but instead they owned the title to
leases on the land. In perpetuity, farmers owed these landlords a fixed annual rent. The
farmers were responsible for all taxes on the land, but had no right to any of the resources on
the property. Should a farmer choose to sell his title to a lease, the landlord was owed a
proportion of the sale price. Of particular relevance in the case of Christian Schoolcraft is his
friendship with Peter Miller. Peter’s ancestry is Palatine and he was strongly Loyalist. He and
his family are well documented in “The Loyalists of the Eastern Townships of Quebec”,
1783-84 to 1983-84 Bi-centennial, Sir John Johnson Centennial Branch U.E.L., Stanbridge
East, Quebec, Canada 1984. During Queen Anne’s rule many Palatines were settled in
Ireland, which is where Peter was born. By the 1760s these individuals found the U.S.A.
more attractive and settled in the Camden valley. They were, for the most part, strongly
Loyalist.

Before continuing into the Revolutionary War activity I wish to point out an ambiguity. The
military records refer only to Christian Schoolcraft without any disambiguating feature such
as “Sr.” or “Jr.”. As Christian invariably appears with Adam and James, the first and third
sons, it is possible that the Christian involved in the military action is his second son.
However, some events involving capture are difficult to rationalize if only one person called
Christian is involved. I believe that Christian Sr. is most likely to have been the one in
service, and assume so in the following discussion.

After the Revolutionary War commenced, a group of individuals from the Camden Valley
under the leadership of Edward Carscallen14, made their way north to New Haven. There
they joined local Loyalists led by Justus Sherwood and continued north to Crown Point in
October 1776. All were assigned to the Queen’s Loyal Rangers commanded by Col. John
Peters who formed them into a Company under Captain Justus Sherwood. A return made by
Col. Peters15 [Appendix D, Figure 7] after the Battle of Bennington that shows Christian and
his sons Adam and James entered the Queen’s Loyal Rangers on June 25th, 1777 and left (to
Captain Samuel McKay) on August 24th, 1777. A more recent roster16 [Appendix D, Figure
8] for the 3rd Company prepared by Sherwood shows that the Company was formed on the
day before the Schoolcraft’s entered it. Thus we can conclude that Christian and his sons
were part of Edward Carscallen’s initial group from the Camden Valley. Peter Miller,
mentioned in the property claim discussed previously is also part of the same group as is
Garret Miller, his brother, who made a similar claim to Peter. Descendants of Christian marry
into the Miller family, although I presently think it may be a different branch than Peter.
Other branches are found in Alburg, Vermont and Clarenceville, Quebec. A Ralph Miller
from Clarenceville is conjectured to be the father in law of one of Christian Schoolcraft’s
children.

The Military Record

Col. John Peter’s report15 implies that Christian and his sons saw service in General
Burgoyne’s campaign. I encourage you to read a history of this campaign such as that by

60
Mary Beacock Fryer14. To set context for subsequent analysis I shall summarize the more
relevant features here. Mary has written that the Queen’s Loyal Rangers were initially
quartered on the south shore of the St. Lawrence, near Montreal, and departed south from
there some time after June 12th, 1777. They captured Fort Ticonderoga on July 6th, 1777,
and then sailed farther down Lake Champlain to Skenesborough. The main force continued
from there to fight at Hubbardton, Vermont, on July 7th, 1777. Justus Sherwood’s 3rd
Company was not involved in that battle as he had been sent to forage for supplies.
(Hubbardton was so close to Sherwood’s home in New Haven that he knew the country very
well.) From there they continued to the battle of Bennington on August 16th, 1777. In that
battle Colonel Baum’s German troops took a massive number of casualties on the hill that is
now the historical site. Captain Sherwood deployed to the south and east of the hill on a ridge
overlooking a meadow by the Walloomsac River. The actual location was to the south of
Caretaker’s and Cottrell Roads and on the east bank of the river directly opposite the
battlefield caretaker’s building, known as the Tory redoubt shown in the center of the map
[Appendix D, Figure 9]; note that the map is oriented with North to the right hand edge).
Here Sherwood’s 3rd Company fought part of John Stark’s New Hampshire Militia. Of the
311 men in Col. John Peters’ Queen’s Loyal Rangers at Bennington, 111 were killed or
missing. On August 20th twenty-four men in Justus Sherwood’s Company asked for a
transfer out of the 3rd Company into Captain Samuel McKay’s Company. Col. Peter’s told
them to stay put or go to jail - they all chose jail. Burgoyne intervened and sent them to
Captain McKay as Burgoyne needed every fighting man and could not afford to have them
locked up. After Bennington, Burgoyne retreated towards Saratoga. On September 19th,
1777 they fought at Freeman’s Farm, referred to as Stillwater by Justus Sherwood, and then
again on October 7th at Bemis Heights, also near Freeman’s Farm. After this Burgoyne
realized he was defeated and ordered Col. John Peters and his men to escape and make for
Canada. Burgoyne surrendered on October 17th, 1777 in Saratoga. The only Queen’s Loyal
Rangers captured with Burgoyne were Justus Sherwood and 10 privates. Col. John Peters
escaped with just under 80 others. About 500 of the Queen’s Loyal Rangers died in the 1777
action.

Christian and his sons Adam and James were with Sherwood through the Battle of
Bennington. However, all three, together with Peter Miller, Ichabod Cook who occupies land
with Adam in 1790, and others demanded transfer17 out of Sherwood’s command:

To His Excellency Sir Guy Carleton that of the most Honr. order of the Bath
Govr. & Commander in Chief of the Provinces Quebec General &
Commander in Chief of His Majesty’s Forces.
The Memorial of Justus Sherwood.
May it Please your Excellency your Memorialist Begs leave to Represent that
a number of men to the amount of twenty four that Existed under me in Col.
Peters Corps. Rec’d money and cloathing was Voluntarily mustered and
returned as Soldiers in my Company of which I have a Certificate Signed by
Capt. Cambel D. Company of Muster they was Essentially with me in Scouts
and Skirmishes against the Rebels until the twentieth of August when by
Persuasion from Capt. McKay who flatters them that they should soon be
Discharged they left me and joined him. I informed General Burgoyne that

61
those men had Petitioned you Excellency (where they was in Canada) to leave
Jessup and join me as I had conducted them safely ~~~ the Army and that they
had ~~~ in this month of May while ~~~ The General said it was never his
intention that they should leave and advised me to make myself Easy found I
should have Employ & Receive Capts Pay wheather I has the men or not I
was obliged to put up with the wrong done me But determined as soon as
possible to make to your Excellency or to General Sir William How for
Redress. Since I have the happiness to be once more under your Excellencys
Protection and Commissiond I Beg leave to inform that from upwards of Sixty
men which I had before the defeat at Wallum peak I am Reduced to the twenty
four at present I had before the defeat and so I think no man has had so much
Fatigue and Anguish as I have to Bring those men unto his Majesty’s Service
that are now with Capt. McKay I humbly Pray your Excellency to Consider
my Case and if in your wisdom it seems meet will Please to Grant me those
men for the Ensuing Campaign which Favour shall and as far as Possible be
greatfully acknowledged By Your Excellency’s Most humble and most
Devoted Servant
Justus Sherwoo[d]
Montreal
March 9th 1778
Names of the men you from our to Capt. McKay.
David Dulmage Alexander McGongal Daniel McGrillobray
Justis McKains James Hogel Frances Jones
John Embery Seley Stiles Ichabod Cook
Andrew Embery John Carscallen Adam Schoolcraft
John Lawrence James Parrigo Christian Schoolcraft
James Carscallen Peter Miller Jacob Schoolcraft
Paul Hick Peter Dettler Valentine Detler
William Busteed Samuel Pariyant
Endorsed - Mr. Sherwood’s Memorial

Obviously all three survived the Battle of Bennington. However, their eventual transfer to
Samuel McKay did not gain them much. When Col. Peter’s makes his return of the Queen’s
Loyal Rangers on December 14th, 178018 all three are identified as having been taken
prisoner. This return is divided into the current muster and, on the last four pages, those who
are no longer with the Company having been captured or killed. Christian and Jacob are
shown on page 8 as no longer being with the Corps. having been taken prisoner at Stillwater.
Adam is listed on page 9 as having been taken prisoner at Bennington. Clearly Adam
survived Bennington as he transferred to McKay after that. The confusion over when an
individual was taken prisoner is understandable with three major battles and the surrender so
close together. I believe this statement regarding Adam’s capture at Bennington should
probably refer to Stillwater.

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The claims regarding the disposition of prisoners vary and the truth is that it probably all
occurred but not everyone was treated the same. I have found reports of prisoners being
dragged through the streets of Bennington behind horses and of others being force-marched
through deep snow in winter. Lion G. Miles wrote for the Hoosick Historical Society that:

As a general rule, the victors turned them over to the states from which they
came and each jurisdiction disposed of them according to its own rules. Those
who were found bearing arms at the battle usually were treated more severely
than the others. New York State sent them to prison ships in the Hudson River
but, in the confusion of the times, neglected to procure sufficient evidence
against them and released many. The Albany County commissioner in
Cambridge complained that they have been sent home to the great
dissatisfaction of the friends of liberty. Some of whom are the worst of
villains, others not quite so bad; others again, as soon as the battle went
against them, ran off to their homes.

An early release was the case here, as Christian appears twice before the Commissioners for
Detecting and Defeating Conspiracies in the spring of 1778.

April 18, 1778: Christiaen Schoolcraft and James Small were brought before
this board, and nothing appearing against them. Ordered That they be
discharged and permitted to return to their usual place of abode.
May 15, 1778: Ichabod Cook on Recognizance in.... £100_.
Christiaen Schoolcraft his Bail. in.... £100_.

In this second appearance, Christian is posting bail for a friend which would indicate that
Christian is no longer under suspicion himself. Neither Adam nor James is mentioned in
these reports.

At this point it is appropriate to introduce the name Christopher Schoolcraft. The Missisquoi
County records abound with instances of this name and yet have few if any occurrences of
the name Christian after 1800. The transfer of the men from Justus Sherwood to Samuel
McKay provides the answer. Sherwood refers to Adam, Christian (page 3)17 and Jacob when
transferring them to Samuel McKay. However, when McKay accounts for them a few weeks
later in December of 1777 he lists them as Adam, Christopher (page 5)19 and Jacobus.
Clearly the names Christopher and Christian are being used synonymously and refer to the
same person.

In 1778 Christ., Adam, Christopher and Cobus Schoolcraft appear in New York roster for the
16th (Cambridge) Regiment20 of the Albany County Militia under Col. Van Woert. I believe
that “Cobus” is a miswritten or misread “Jacobus” (i.e. “James”). While the original sources
used to compile the list of names for the Militia’s are believed to be military, there is
ambiguity regarding their reliability. (Many of the original sources were destroyed in a fire.)
I believe some facts may have come from sources that did not necessarily imply service.
Some respected researchers disagree with me. The evidence that they fought as Loyalists in
1777 is substantial and indisputable. I consider three possibilities regarding their appearance
in records of the 16th Regiment.

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1. It has been suggested that, following their capture at Saratoga, a condition of their
release might have required service for the Revolutionary cause. I am not very
convinced of this as the concept of placing men of dubious loyalty in service to fight
against those they recently aided seems a great risk.

2. In the Colonial times there was a Provincial law that said that all men between the
ages of 16 and 45 had to be members of the militia. That rule carried over to the new
States and when a survey of men in that age group was made for each town then they
were automatically assigned to the appropriate militia group. I.e. they may have been
on a roster but only if they are on a muster roll or payroll as well would they have
necessarily served. That may be the situation here. Following the capture at Stillwater
and subsequent release, Christian Sr., Adam and James returned to Anaquassacook.
Being normally resident in the town, they would have been placed on the roster, as
would Christian Jr. who is listed as Christopher. (Martin, the fourth son born in 1764
would be under age sixteen.) If the original source of this list of men in the 16th Regt.
was in fact a roster, then this is likely the reason that Christian, James and Adam are
included.

3. As I shall show shortly, Christian Jr. did serve for the Revolutionary cause, was
captured at Fort Ann, imprisoned and appears on a Loyalist Regimental list as
“billeted”. That Regimental list also includes men in active service and those who
were killed or captured during battle, including Christian Sr. and his sons Adam and
James who are listed as “taken prisoner at ...”. If the Loyalist forces accounted for
prisoners like Christian Jr. on their rosters, surely it is likely that the Revolutionary
forces did likewise. If the original source of this list of men in the 16th Regt. was a
monthly return or muster roll, then I believe it is very plausible that Christian, Adam
and James are on that list of the 16th Regiment because they were “billeted” with
them during their imprisonment.

Certainly it is doubtful that Adam ever served for the rebels as he rejoined Capt. Leake’s
Corps. at St. John’s, Quebec, on August 24th, 178021.

Returning to Col. Peter’s return of the Queen’s Loyal Rangers on December 14th, 178018, on
page 5, an entry for a Christian Schoolcraft indicates he is “billeted”. Elsewhere in that same
document are the entries for Christian, Adam and James that list them as “prisoner at
Stillwater”. It has been reported by Chris McHenry that the Haldimand Papers include a list
of Rebel prisoners held at Montreal in 1780. Included is a list “Taken Ft. Ann All in Arms”
that includes “Christr. Schoolcraft 19”22. The number beside each name on the list is
undoubtedly the age implying that “Christr.” is Christian’s son of that name. On October
10th and 11th, 1780, Major Carlton attacked Fort Ann, which would correspond to the
capture. This is probably evidence that Christopher who appeared in the roster for the 16th
Regiment was mustered for the Rebels and was captured at Fort Ann. Col. Peter’s return of
the Queen’s Loyal Rangers correlates with the prisoner list showing that, while a prisoner,
Christian Jr. was “billeted” with the Queen’s Loayal Rangers, probably at St. John’s which is
a few miles south of Montreal.

64
In conclusion, I believe that Christian Sr., Adam and Jacob fought for the Loyalist cause,
took part in the Battles of Bennington and Stillwater, were captured at Stillwater and
subsequently released to return to their home in Anaquassacook. They, with Christian Jr.,
were listed on the roster of the 16th Regiment. Only Christian Jr., who had not previously
fought for the Loyalists, actually saw service for the Rebels. He was captured at Fort Ann
and taken to Quebec where he was billeted in the Queens Loyal Rangers.

The Quebec Land Grants and Oaths of Allegiance

Starting in the 1780s and continuing through the 1790s many Loyalists and refugees went
north. Initially they congregated just south of the border. Merrill Dennison23 writes.

In the summer of 1782 a party of 197 Loyalists then camped at Burlington VT


included family names that occurred up to 1784 include: Barron, Struthers,
Friott, Linton, Cameron, Stillman, Scott, Ward, Leech. Dunham, Stone,
Clapper, Schoolcraft, Salls, Curtis, Wilcox, Tryon, Vaughn, Ruyter, Dewer,
Filer and Grifts. These were soon followed by Derik, Mosher, Beerworth,
Hawley and others.

Each of the family names in Gen. Gabriel Christie’s list of residents of Noyan1 is also
included in Merrill Dennison’s list from 1782. We have seen from previous evidence James
was still in Cambridge, New York, as late as 1790 and that Adam must have been there at
least until almost that date. Once across the border they gathered in the region around
Missisquoi Bay at places like Caldwell’s Manor and Christie’s Manor. The British
government was resistant to opening lands for settlement that were too close to the border
and most Land Grants were not made till after the close of the century. Regardless, many
applications were made in the period prior to this and the Schoolcraft’s were among the
applicants.

One of the earlier references is from Phillip Ruiter’s Day Book (Montgomery Papers) dated
1788. An account of work done in surveying the Missisquoi Bay area includes 13 days
performed by “John Schoolcraft”. While this may be Christian’s son who was aged 22 at the
time, I think it was probably Christian who was aged 56. Christian is more likely as he is
known to have been in Quebec by this time and is also recorded as “John” in the Granby
petition. Others, contemporary to this period, have used the names “Christian”, “Christ
John” and “John” to refer to the same person. This source is reported to be available at the
Missisquoi Historical Society and a copy is available in the Summer 1986 issue of the
Schoolcraft Newsletter, Vol. 2 No. 1 pp. 424.

On May 25th, 1790, Gen. Gabriel Christie prepares a description of his property in Noyan1
aka Christie’s Manor that includes a list of its present residents:

Isle aux Noix or Noyan A Seigneurie situated on the east side of the River
Richelieu Joining Sabrevois on the North & Foucault or what is commonly
called Callwell Manor on the South; being Two Leaugues in Front by three
Leagues in depth; the Rhumb de vent being due East & West, The half of the
said Seigneurie only belongs to M. General Gabriel Christie.

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The Original Grant to M. Chavey Noyan was Ratifyd by the King on
the 25th day of March 1745.
Sale of the aforesaid by Monsieur D. Noyan & Madame Noyan his
spouse to Mefs. Lieut. Col. Gabriel Christie and Captain John Campbell
dated 27th March 1764 - the half of which being now the property of M. Genl.
Gabriel Christie –

List of the present Inhabitants on the Premifses.


No
Name No Name
1 Abraham Fryot 10 John Ward
2 George Linton 11 William Leech
3 Capt: Duncan Cameron 12 Dudley
4 James Struthers 13 Allen & Dunham
5 Garret Barien 14 Simon Stone
6 Abner Stillman 15 Solomon Dunham
7 Walter Scott Senr. 16 Adam Clapper
8 Walter Scott Junr. 17 Adam Schoolcraft
9 Thomas Scott 18 Schoolcraft & Sons
G Christie

Although it does add credence to the earlier assumption that Christian Schoolcraft and most
of his family had reached Quebec by 1790, even this is not solid proof that the individuals
named were actually in residence. Christie, and others, used location tickets in this period
and people who came and got location tickets may not have stayed25. Note that this, and
Dennison’s reference, also includes the individuals Simon Stone and Solomon Dunham that
will discussed later.

One of the earlier land applications is Alex Taylor’s letter of October 21st, 1794 and his
undated petition that others have marked with 1788. This refers to his and his Associates
prior land grant petition for the town of Stanbridge dated June 3rd, 1783. With this letter is a
list of Associates dated July 23rd, 1795. Entries 31, 33, 34 and 3526 of the list on page 4 are
Solomon Dunham [father in law of John Schoolcraft, Adam Schoolcraft, Christian
Schoolcraft and Simon Stone [the spouse of Anne Schoolcraft]. While some were probably
actually in Quebec as early as the original application in 1783 we know that James at least
wa still in Anaquassacook till about 1790. I do not believe that we should conclude that any
of the names on the list were necessarily in Quebec very much before the date of the list
itself. In this particular instance, I am also concerned that only one “Christian Schoolcraft”
takes the Oath at Missisquoi Bay just prior to the date of this list, implying that the other had
died. Alex Taylor’s application certainly does date early enough to have included Christian
Sr. and it may be that this list was generated by Taylor from earlier records. Christian Sr. is
the most likely to be involved in an application dating into the 1780s.

An application that is significant to Schoolcraft research is Henry Caldwell’s application for


the town of Granby. Henry’s letter of March 1795 refers to a warrant of survey granted on
May 3rd, 1792 as a result of his and his Associates prior land grant application for the town
of Granby. This letter includes a statement of recommendation dated February 6th, 1795 and

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a list of Associates that must pre-date February 6th, 1795. The list includes Christian and all
his sons27:

ln. 1: John Schoolcraft Sr. of Christie’s Manor.


ln. 2: John Schoolcraft Junr. of Christie’s Manor.
ln. 3: James Schoolcraft of Christie’s Manor.
ln. 4: Adam Schoolcraft of Christie’s Manor.
ln. 5: Martin Schoolcraft of Christie’s Manor.
ln. 6: William Schoolcraft of Christie’s Manor.
ln. 7: Peter Schoolcraft of Christie’s Manor.
ln. 8: John Schoolcraft of Christie’s Manor.
ln. 13: Solomon Dunham of Christie’s Manor. [Father in law of John
Schoolcraft].
ln. 14: Simon Stone of Christie’s Manor. [Spouse of Anne Schoolcraft].

There is a problem with this list. Three people called John Schoolcraft are listed. Before we
merely conclude that the first two are father and son who really are called “John”, consider
that Christian’s son John is born in August of 1766. By the time of this list he is 29 years old.
Even if he married at sixteen a son of his would be no older than 12 and certainly would not
be old enough to receive a land grant. I find it very curious that even though both Christian
Sr. and his son by that name were alive only a few years earlier, neither is apparently listed.
Yet one of them is available to take an Oath of Allegiance a few months later. Occasionally
one finds the name “Christian” written as “Christjohn”. Writing in 1886 of the Histoire de
la Paroisse de Notre-Dame des Anges de Stanbridge, Abbé Isidore Desnoyers uses the
phrase “Christian or Christjohn” when stating that name. Spelling is certainly nothing to be
relied on before 1900 and this alternate form may or may not have phonetic significance.
Either because of this alternate form or by virtue of a basic error in the list, I suspect that
lines 1 and 2 of that list are in reality Christian and his son of the same name. There is no
sign of a second John, let alone a third, in any of the subsequent records that I have
examined.

Primary evidence of presence in Quebec is obtained from the Oaths of Allegiance. In order to
take this Oath the individual had to appear in person. I have located two distinct sets of these.
First is a collection of documents commencing in early 1795, taken at Missisquoi Bay, and
with some documents dated 1797. Next is a set where each name is associated with a specific
town. This second set is really a precursor to the grants and assures that each recipient of a
grant has sworn allegiance to the Crown. However, the list of Oath takers does not always
correlate precisely with the final list of grantees. This second set of oaths was taken mostly in
1800. From the first set we have:

Page 3: 12th May 1795

ln. 35: Peter Schoolcraft.


ln. 36: William Schoolcraft.
ln. 37: Martin Schoolcraft.

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ln. 38: Simon Stone. [Spouse of Anne Schoolcraft].
ln. 40: Solomon Dunham. [Father in law of John Schoolcraft].
ln. 42: Ralph Miller. [Father in law of William Schoolcraft].
Page 4: 25th May 1795
ln. 10: Adam Schoolcraft, going to Stanbridge.
ln. 11: James Schoolcraft, going to Hatley.
ln. 12: Christian Schoolcraft.
ln. 13: John Schoolcraft.

With only a single Christian Schoolcraft listed, this may indicate that one or other had died.
After Amos Lay’s petition for the town of Ely on 23rd March 1796 there is no sign of either
of them. Table 9 identifies most of the Land Grants and Oaths of Allegiance on which the
Schoolcraft names are found.

Table 9: Land Applications, Grants and Oaths of Allegiance


Township Land Associates
Application
Gen. Gabriel
Simon Stone, Solomon Dunham, Adam Schoolcraft,
Noyan QC Christie
Schoolcraft & sons.
25 May 1790
John Schoolcraft, John Schoolcraft Jr., James
Henry Caldwell Schoolcraft, Adam Schoolcraft, Martin Schoolcraft,
Granby QC
6 Feb 1795 William Schoolcraft, Peter Schoolcraft, John
Schoolcraft, Simon Stone, all of Christie’s Manor.
Oath of
Peter Schoolcraft, William Schoolcraft, Martin
Allegiance
Schoolcraft, Simon Stone all of Christie’s Manor QC.
12 May 1795
Oath of Adam Schoolcraft going to Stanbridge, James
Allegiance Schoolcraft going to Hatley, Christian Schoolcraft, John
25 May 1795 Schoolcraft all of Christie’s Manor QC.
Simon Stone, Christopher Schoolcraft, Martin
Abner Bingham
Milton QC Schoolcraft, John Schoolcraft, William Schoolcraft, all
20 Jul 1795
of Christie’s Manor.
Hugh Finlay
Stanbridge QC Adam Schoolcraft.
22 Jul 1795
Alex Taylor
Stanbridge QC Christian Schoolcraft, Adam Schoolcraft, Simon Stone.
23 Jul 1795
Thomas Scott
Durham QC John Schoolcraft of St. Armand.
18 Sep 1795
Amos Lay
Ely QC Christian Schoolcraft of Caldwell’s Manor.
23 Mar 1796
Sieur Gabriel
Foucault QC28 Christie 14 Jul Simon Stone 4 x 30 arpents in the 8th Range
1797

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Sieur Gabriel
Foucault QC28 Christie 15 Jul Ralph Miller 4 x 26 arpents
1797
Oath of
Hatley QC Allegiance James Schoolcraft
circa 1800
Oath of
Stanbridge QC Allegiance Adam Schoolcraft
circa 1800
Crown and Clergy
Multiple applications to lease: Peter Schoolcraft lot 9
Sutton QC 10 Aug 1801 to 27
range 5.
Apr 1807
Crown and Clergy Applicants to lease: Martin Schoolcraft lot 14 range 9,
Stanbridge QC
24 Aug 1801 James Schoolcraft lot 15 range 9.
Land Granted
Stanbridge QC Adam Schoolcraft lot 12 range 7
1 Sep 1801
Land Granted
Sutton QC Simon Stone lot 28 range 4
8 Jul 1802
Land Granted
Durham QC John Schoolcraft lot 10 range 5
25 May 1802
Lease granted: William Schoolcraft lot 13, range 10.
Crown and Clergy
Stanbridge QC James Schoolcraft lot 15, range 9. Simon Stone lot 13,
13 Mar 1805
range 7.

From the successful applications the subsequent grants of land were made. When the
Stanbridge Land Patent was finally approved on September 1st, 1801 Adam Schoolcraft
received 5 lots of 200 acres each although an agreement signed by all Associates in October
1799 meant that he only kept lot 12 in range 7. The Sutton Land Patent shows that a Simon
Stone received lot 28 in range 4. It is not clear if this is the same one that married Anna
Schoolcraft. I am inclined to think it is not Anna’s husband because Simon is authorized to
lease lot 13, range 7, in Stanbridge29 on March 13th, 1805. An 1803 land sale in Ascot30
involves a Simon Stone from Templeton, New Hampshire [sic], who is represented by his
son, Isaac Stone. The Stone family in Templeton, Massachusetts is well documented and that
Simon is much older than Anna’s husband. I believe Anna’s husband is the one who received
land in Foucault from Gabriel Christie. On May 25th, 1802 John Schoolcraft is granted land
in Durham as a result of Thomas Scott’s petition. He received 6 lots of 200 acres although an
agreement he signed in October 1801 meant that he only kept lot 10 in range 5. John removes
from Durham to Stanbridge by 1807 and later sells the land in Durham31 in 1814. Several of
the others apply for Crown and Clergy land and settle in towns consistent with such grants
being made. I have not been able to verify if this land was indeed granted or whether they
acquired land through conventional purchase.

At this point we have enough information to summarize the family’s movement. Christian
Schoolcraft is born in Schoharie, New York in the spring of 1732. He marries Elizabeth
Margaret Becker October 9th, 1753 in Schoharie. Christian’s first two children, Margaret and
Adam, are born in Schoharie. Between the birth of Adam on April 9th, 1754 and the baptism
of Christian on September 25th, 1759 the family removes to Schenectady. The family stays
in Schenectady till the baptism of Martin on February 6th, 1764. Between then and John’s

69
baptism on August 12th, 1766, the family removes to Anaquassacook. In the fall of 1776
Christian and his sons, Adam and James, travel to Montreal with Edward Carscallen. They
are part of General Burgoyne’s campaign and are captured at Stillwater in September, 1777.
They are probably imprisoned on the Hudson and returned to Cambridge before April 18th,
1778. By August 24th, 1780 Christian’s son, Adam, has rejoined the Loyalist forces and is
stationed in St. John’s, Quebec. By the fall of 1780, Christian’s son, Christian Jr., has been
mustered with the 16th Regiment, captured at Fort Ann, and sent to Montreal where he is
imprisoned and billeted with the Queen’s Loyal Rangers in December 14th, 1780. By
October 17th, 1783, Christian Sr. is in Montreal with Peter Miller. On March 26th, 1789, his
son James who had apparently remained in New York, is married in Sandgate, Vermont, the
town adjoining Anaquassacook, New York. James, is enumerated in Cambridge in 1790.
Adam still holds a joint lease on land in Anaquassacook in 1790, although Adam’s name on
this lease may be merely left over from an earlier time. On May 25th, 1790 Adam
Schoolcraft and Simon Stone are present in Noyan1. In that same document Gabriel Christie
also refers to “Schoolcraft and sons” as being residents. It is very probably that this refers to
Christian Schoolcraft Sr., indicating he was still alive at that time and was in Quebec. By
February 6th, 1795 the entire family is located beside Missisquoi Bay, Quebec. This is the
last time that both Christian and his son by that same name are found in the same document.
One might conclude that either Christian Sr. or Christian Jr. died between February 6th and
May 25th, 1795, as only one person called Christian takes the Oath of Allegiance. However,
the wording of Henry Caldwell’s application leaves open the possibility that the list of
applicants attached may be from an earlier date than February 6th. The subsequent references
in land grant applications are ambiguous regarding whether it is the father or the son. I
believe that Christian Sr. probably died sometime between May 25th, 1790 when Gabriel
Christie records him in Noyan and May 25th, 1795 when he fails to sign the Oath of
Allegiance. The locations of the children will be explained more fully in later chapters.

Christian Schoolcraft‘s Children

In the foregoing discussion the reader will have noticed the introduction of several names in
the context of being Christian’s children but names for which no baptismal record or other
evidence has been presented. It is appropriate to deal with this issue before continuing. The
children for which we have baptismal records are those born before August 12th, 1766, viz.
Margaret, Adam Christian, James, Martin and John. Two others, William and Anna can be
proven and yet two more, Peter and Maria, can be inferred with reasonable confidence.

A crucial document in identifying several of the early Schoolcraft’s in Missisquoi County is


the posthumous sale of land by Adam Schoolcraft to Isaac Asseltine. Adam and Isaac had
been discussing this sale just prior to Adam’s death. Adam died without a will and his
widow, Catherine Phelps, did not have the resources to probate the estate. She gathered
relatives and abutters and made them part of an agreement notarized by Leon Lalanne on
January 12th, 1807 [Appendix D, Figure 10], whereby she was able to conclude the sale to
Isaac Asseltine. The document is lengthy and not easy to decipher but the more significant
sections are transcribed in Chapter 9.

70
Wording in this document explicitly identifies that William is a brother to Adam and that
Simon Stone is a brother-in-law. The death record of George Stone32 identifies that Simon
Stone was married to Anna Schoolcraft.

At the present time I have not been able to locate any evidence that would conclusively prove
that Peter Schoolcraft is Christian’s child. His death recorded in Frelighsburg Anglican
church33 indicates that he was born about 1768. An analysis of his land transactions and
census records indicates that he probably lived in Sutton till the early 1820s and then
removed to Eccles Hill in St. Armand East. He married Mary Stolicker, identified by a land
sale34. Her baptism in the Reformed Dutch church, Hillsdale, NY under the name of Maria
Stalker shows that she is the daughter of John Stalker, whose family is described in his land
petition35, and who is an abutter to Adam identified in the document discussed earlier. Given
the continued association of Peter with the others, I firmly believe he is another child of
Christian.

Only the name Maria Schoolcraft remains to be examined. On August 3rd, 1805 Baltus
Boomhower takes out a search warrant against Adam Clapper Sr. on behalf of Maria
Schoolcraft who may have been robbed by the accused:

To James Prentice appointed this to execute.


District of Montreal
County of Bedford
Whereas it appears to me Philip Ruiter One of his Majesty’s Justices of the
peace afsigned to keep the peace in the said District by the information on
Oath of Boltus Bomhower of the Township of Stanbridge in the said County
aforesaid Yeoman that the following goods or articles, to wit, to four run of
Woollen yarn a One dollar & a half in money have on or about the tenth day
of July last past by some person or persons unknown, been feloniously taken
and carried away out of the house of Maria Schoolcraft in the Township of
Stanbridge aforesaid in the County aforesaid And the said Boltas Bomhower
hath probable cause to suspect and doth suspect that the said yarn & money
or part thereof are concealed in the dwelling house of Adam Clapper Sen. of
the Township of Stanbridge & County aforesaid, Yeoman.
These are therefore in the name of our Lord the King to authorize and require
you with necefsary and proper appointments to enter in the day time into the
said dwelling house of the said Adam Clapper Sen. in the Township of
Stanbridge & County aforesaid, and there diligently to search for the said
goods or articles and if the same, or any part thereof shall be found and also
the body of the said Adam Clapper by me, or some other of the Justices of our
said Lord the King afsigned to keep the peace in the District aforesaid, to be
disposed of and dealt with according to law.
Given under my hand & seal at Saint Armand in the said District this third
day of August and in the year of Our Lord Christ one thousand eight hundred
and five.
Philip Ruiter

71
My reasoning in this matter is that if Maria Schoolcraft were not of age she would almost
certainly be living with her parents or guardian and they would be dealing with any matter
such as this, not Baltus Boomhower. Hence I would construe that Maria is probably born
before 1784. Further, as all the Schoolcraft children except Christian Jr. can be shown to be
alive at this time and none of them are acting for her, the possibilities for her father are
considerably reduced. I have not been able to locate a second conclusive reference to Maria
after this date but have found one reference in the 1861 census36, that is probably her. This
census reference shows that an “M. Schoolcraft” who was a spinster aged 81 died in St.
Armand West within the previous year, i.e. an unmarried female born about 1780. Such a
date can only represent a child of Christian Sr.

The actual locations that Christian’s children settled will be examined individually in
subsequent chapters. However, some general comments now will simplify later discussions.
The locations can be determined with varying degrees of accuracy from a combination of old
maps, from Notarial and land records, and from census enumeration. When I discuss these
locations the reader should keep in mind that the individuals being discussed did not
necessarily live in the locations depicted at the same time. For example, I shall show that
Adam Schoolcraft lived on the banks of Pike River from the very late 1700s till his death in
1805. Simon Stone did not arrive in St. Ignace de Stanbridge till 1810 and James Schoolcraft
did not arrive there until after 1820. None the less location is an important factor when
studying these families. A map37 [Appendix D, Figure 13], prepared by Joseph Bouchette in
1831 shows the roads and villages as they would have existed in the 1820s. It is both
interesting to visit the actual locations and also to compare how the road patterns and
settlements have changed between then and now. Today this region is intensly agrigultural
with very rich farm land and, except for the town of Bedford, the villages are mostly small
clusters of houses. It was not always so and a study of map and census data for the 1850s
shows that the population density was much greater around that time. A map from about
185038 [Appendix D, Figure 15], shows individual houses along the roads. There were very
many more of them in 1850 than can be seen today.

1
Lib. Arch. Can. RG1 L3L Vol. 59, pp. 30122-30123. May 25, 1790. Gen. Gabriel Christie’s list of present residents of
"Isle aux Noix or Noyan A Seigneurie" includes "Abraham Fryot, Goerge Linton, Capt. Duncan Cameron, James
Struthers, Garret Barien, Abner Stillman, Walter Scott Sr., Walter Scott Jr., Thomas Scott, John Ward, William Leech,
Allen & Dunham, Simon Stone, Solomon Dunham, Adam Clapper, Adam Schoolcraft, Schoolcraft & Sons.
2 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Marriage on 9 Oct [1753] of Christian Schulkraf &

Elisabet Margareth Becker on account of my absence married by Domine Schuyler.


3
New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Two Baptismal Pages Possessed by St. Paul's
Evangelical Lutheran Church but not from St. Paul's: Baptism of Elisabetha Margaretha [Becker] on Mar 10 [1735/36],
parents Andonius Becker, sponsors John Phillipps Bergmann besides John Peter Knickern's daughter, Elisabeth
Margretha.
4 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Adam on May [1756] born Apr 9 [1756],

parents Christian Schulkraf & Elisabet Margareth, sponsors Adam Becker and Elisabeth Schulkraf.
5
New York, Schenectady: First Reformed Church, Baptism of Christiaan on Sep 25 [1759], parents Christiaan
Schoolcraft & Elizabeth Margarita Beckker, sponsors Pieter Levengteyn & Apolona Levengteyn.
6 New York, Schenectady: First Reformed Church, Baptism of Martinus on Feb 6 [1764], parents Christiaan

Schoolcraft & Elizabeth Margarit Bekker, sponsors Henderick Hauqe & Eva Bekker.
7 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Johannes Auf Quaschen Kill on [1767]

born Aug 12 1766, parents Christian Schulkraf & Elisabeth Margareth, sponsors Lorentz Schulkraf and his wife Maria.

72
8 Loyalists in the American Revolution, United Empire Loyalists Part I, Volume XII - Montreal, 1787-1788, pp. 407.
The Report of the Bureau of Archives 1904. A Loyalist claim made by Peter Miller shows he had land in
“Quasencooke” (Annaquassacook Patent about five miles east of Cambridge NY) and “Camden” (Camden Valley
about three miles farther east). This claim is witnessed by “Christian Schoolgrave” who states he knew the claimant in
Charlotte county (now Washington County that includes Cambridge NY). This claim is sworn in Montreal on 17th
October 1783 showing Christian was alive and in Montreal at that time. It also shows he was in Camden Valley with
Peter Miller in the early 1770's and therefore the reference to “Quaschen Kill” in John Schoolcraft's birth is also
referring to Annaquassacook.
9 New York: State Archives, New York State Library call number: KT 13324, Garret Y Lansing Papers, Box 1, File 2:

1779 Cambridge District, Albany County, NY Tax List, December 27th, 1779, Schoolcraft, Christian DJE: Also
claimed to be on the list in October 23, 1779.
10
Vermont, Sandgate: Congregational Church, (Edited by Royden Woodward Vosburgh), pp. 24, March 26 1789
James Schoolcraft & Clary Horton.
11 Federal Population Schedule, 1790: Cambridge, Albany Co., NY, pp. 315.43, James Schoolcraft. Male: 1 >16,

female: 2.
12
Federal Population Schedule, 1790: Cambridge, Albany Co., NY, pp. 315.49, John Schucraft. Male: 1 >16, 2 <16,
female: 2.
13
The Hoosick Township Historical Society of Hoosick Falls, New York.
14 “King's men: The soldier founders of Ontario” by Mary Beacock Fryer. Dundurn Press (1980)
15 Col. John Peter's - Corps Return after Bennington, undated presumed late 1777
16 Capt. Justus 3rd Co. Return - dated 1778
17 War Office Papers - Headquarters Records. Military and Provincial Memorials. 1776-1781. W. O. 28. Vol. 9. Capt.

Justus Sherwood - Memo Concerning Transfer of Men to Capt. McKay dated 9th March 1788.
18 Col. John Peter's - Corps Return dated 14th December 1780
19 Roll of Men Under Capt Samuel McKay - Names of Men in the Campaign dated 20th December 1777.
20 Roster of the 16th Regiment Militia: This roster seems to apply to the period from 13 Apr 1779 to 30 Nov 1780. It

shows four individuals, all privates. Christian and three of his sons. Adam, Christopher [Christian] and Cobus
[Jacobus].
21 Haldimand Papers, PAC, B167-35, Ottawa, Ontario, 3 Sep 1777, St. Johns, Canada. Subsistance account of Captain

Leake's Corps. From September 3, 1777 to 24 October 1777 being 52 days: Stephen Young, Peter Young, Christian
Snyder serving with Maj. Rogers at St. Johns, Adam Schoolcraft rejoined from the Colonies 24 August 1780.
22 Rebel Prisoners at Quebec by Chris McHenry, Wholesale House, Barber and Taylor, 380 Edison Way, Reno NV

89564: Transcribed records from Haldimand papers MSS 21,843 Ottawa: Among list of about 60 prisoners in Montreal
about 1780 marked “Taken Ft. Ann All in Arms”. Age stated as 19 yrs.
23 Ethel May Diel, Schoolcraft Newsletter, published 1985 - 1987: Vol. 2 No. 1 pp. 3 Summer 1986: Source “The

Barley and the Stream”, a history of the Molson family. In summer of 1782 a party of 197 Loyalists then in Burlington
agree to go to Caldwell's Manor. Names include Barren, Struthers, Friott, Linton, Cameron, Dunham, Stone, Clapper,
Schoolcraft, Salls, Tryon, Ruyter, Hawley.
24 Ethel May Diel, Schoolcraft Newsletter, published 1985 - 1987: Vol. 2 No. 1 pp. 4 Summer 1986: Image of a page

form Philip Ruyter's day book shows “John Schoolcraft spent 13 days aiding in the survey of Dunham. This may
actually have been 'Christ John Schoolcraft', his father, as that confusion appears elsewhere.
25 Francoise Noel, Professor of History, Director of the Institute for Community Studies and Oral History Nipissing

University, North Bay, ON: Private communication April 4th, 2006.


26 Alex Taylor's Petition for Stanbridge
27 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Lower Canada Land #1630512: Petition for Town of Granby, 28-Mar-1795
28
Abbé Isidore Desnoyers, 1886, Histoire de la Paroisse de Saint-Jacques de Foucault, pp. 2: In 1797, Seigneur Gabriel
Christie made several grants. 8e Rg pros la Baie: 14 Juill à Simon Stone 4x30 arp 42#. … à Ralph Miller 4x26 ~ àu
mémes 4x25 arp …
29 Lib. Arch. Can. RG1 L3L Vol. 60, pp. 30196-30217. Mar 13, 1805, pp. 30216. Authorization to lease Crown and

Clergy land. James Schoolcraft, range 9, lot 15; William Schoolcraft range 10, lot 13; Simon Stone range 7, lot 13;
Elijah Spears range 9, lot 19.
30 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne: 21st Sept. 1803, Sale by Gilbert Hyatt to Simon Stone.
31 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne, 10th June 1814: Sale by John Schoolcraft to Anthony Stockham.
32 Quebec, Dunham: Methodist Church Records, Folio 16th: George Stone of the Township of Stanbridge, farmer, son

of late Simon Stone and his wife Anna Schoolcraft died on the Twenty Fourth day of November in the year of our Lord
Two Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty Five and was buried on this Twenty Seventh day of the same month and year
in the presence of the subscribing witnesses by me R. A. Flanders, Minister. Witnesses Francis Welch and Lorenzo D.
Seagal.

73
33 Quebec, Frelighsburg: Anglican Church Records, Peter Schoolcraft, of Franklin the State of Vermont died on the
eleventh day of April Two thousand eight hundred and fourty two, in the seventy fourth year of his age, and was buried
on the twelfth day of the same, in this parish in presence of the subscribing witnesses by me. Signed James Reid Pastor,
Witnessed Joseph Vincent and James Schoolcraft.
34 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne, 10th January 1833 Peter Schoolcraft to Patrick Small:

...personally appeared Peter Schoolcraft of the Seignory of St. Armand aforesaid and Mary Stolicker his wife...
35 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Petition of John Stalker to Robert Prescott, Leut. Gov. 28th Nov 1796: …who

has a wife and eight children…


36 Quebec: Census, 1861: Dist. 1, pp. 2.37, St. Armand West, Missisquoi Co., 1 story, 1 family frame house, P.

Cammel age 29 M/S born in C. E. occ./rel. farmer, C of E, M. Schoolcraft age 81 F/S born in C. E. occ./rel. spinster, C
of E., died age 81 in last year, non family member, P. Parker age 19 M/S born in C. E. occ./rel. laborer, C of E.
37
Canadian Archives National Map Collection, Ottawa: H11/300 - 1831 #11 of 12. Map of the District of Montreal
Lower Canada, Joseph Bouchette 1831.
38 Canadian Archives National Map Collection [NMC 19134]. Missisquoi region map circa 1850.

74
Chapter 6: An Early Death
William Schoolcraft was introduced in Chapter 2. No birth record exists for William but it
has been reasoned that he was born about 1729 in Schoharie. He married Maria Elizabeth
Schneider on May 9th, 1749 in Schoharie. Maria Elizabeth Schneider was the half aunt of
Anna Maria Schneider who married William’s brother Lawrence. William died in Schoharie
on April 13th, 1761 and his Will may be used to determine his grandfather. To the extent of
my knowledge, no children are attributed to this marriage by other researchers because no
baptisms are recorded in Schoharie. Until recently I held the same opinion. However, some
records in the Schoharie region lead me to conjecture that this marriage did have issue. It is
that conjecture that I shall discuss here.

None of the individuals discussed in this chapter have a primary record that clearly identifies
their parents. In order for them to be considered as a possible child of William Schoolcraft
two conditions are expected:

• The individual would be born in the period between William’s


marriage, May 9th, 1749 and within a few months of his death,
April 13th, 1761.
• While not a strict requirement, the individual would be likely to be
living in or near Schoharie.

Lawrence Schoolcraft, Married to Maria Schneider in 1790

A Lawrence Schoolcraft is identified from his marriage to Maria Schneider at the High and
Low Dutch Reformed Congregation in Schoharie on the 19th January 17901. This implies he
is born before about 1772. No witnesses are recorded at the marriage that would help identify
Lawrence. Maria, born June 9th, 1960, is the daughter of George Henry Schneider and
Elizabeth Zimmer. It is likely that Lawrence is a similar age to Maria, i.e. probably born
within a few years of 1760, and thus could be William Schoolcraft’s son.

Sponsors are recorded at the baptism of their two children. The second child, Christian, is
sponsored by Christian Lawyer and his wife Elizabeth Schneider who were married August
30th, 17912. Christian Lawyer, born December 25, 1768, is the son of John Lawyer and
Christina Sternberg and is the step son of Lawrence Schoolcraft who was born in 1733.
Christian’s wife, Elizabeth, was born December 28th, 1769, the daughter of Peter Schneider
and Maria Catharina Sternberg. Thus there is a connection to both the Schoolcraft and the
Schneider families, although neither is close enough to imply who Lawrence might be. The
sponsors of the other child are Adam Zimmer and Margaret Schaeffer. Adam was born April
9th, 1749. Again, there is a distant connection between Adam Zimmer and Maria Schneider’s
mother but not close enough to provide clues to Lawrence Schoolcraft. When sponsors do
not provide clues other approaches must be tried.

Lawrence is unlikely to be James Sr.’s son who is baptized in 1733 because that implies a 27
year age discrepancy between Lawrence and Maria Schneider. This suggests that Lawrence
would be a grandchild of James Sr. He is born far too early to be a great grandchild. James Jr.

75
is excluded as he is unmarried. We can positively eliminate that he is the child of John
Schoolcraft who already had a son called Lawrence born on February 12th, 1758 and who
married Margaret Rowe around 1780. They had a substantial family with proven children
born between October 25th, 1782 and August 16th, 1808. Between 1784 and 1786 this
Lawrence left Schoharie for Schenectady and from there went to Guilderland. The conflict of
location and a substantial family in the period leading up to, and following, 1790 precludes
the Lawrence who married Margaret Rowe from being the same one who marries Marie
Schneider in 1790. We can positively eliminate that he is the child of Lawrence Schoolcraft
who had two sons called Lawrence. The Lawrence born on November 15th, 1763 dies a
month later and the Lawrence born on March 28th, 1767 marries Arianne Reinhard on
August 15th, 1790. Clearly the Lawrence who marries Marie Schneider January 19th, 1790 is
not the same person as marries Arianne Reinhard as there is a serious date clash with the
marriages as well as a substantial family by Lawrence and Arianne in the period following
1790. Christian does not have a documented son called Lawrence. However, Christian has
left the Schoharie region completely by 1768 and there is little reason to suppose that one of
his children would return and marry in 1790, particularly as the rest of the family were
Loyalists who went to Quebec after the Revolutionary War.

Table 10: Schoharie Census Records [page.line]


1790 1800 1810 1820

Lawrence [20-Mar-1732/33] 200.12 1170.14

Jacob [18-Dec-1761] 200.13 1170.15 31.39 189.16

Jacob J/I. [11-Feb-1785] 32.01

John Jr. [14-Oct-1790] 190.17

John [31-Jan-1765] 200.11 1170.11 32.09 187.38

Jacob Jr. [about 1784] 32.10 190.07

Lawrence Jr. [28-Mar-1767] 1170.12 32.08 187.37

William [1-Jan-1769] 1170.13 32.02 188.02

David [25-Oct-1773] 32.13 188.04

Widow Elizabeth [bef. 1766] 32.11

Christian [18-Jul-1792] 188.01

One possibility that must be considered is that Lawrence Schoolcraft might be a grandchild
of James Schoolcraft by his son Austien. However, by 1749 Austien has removed into
Pennsylvania with his family and no record of his return to the Schoharie region is known.

76
The census record provides a little more help. The 1790 Schoharie record, Table 10, shows a
Lawrence on pp. 200.12. That is most likely James’ son baptized in 1733. In 1800 the record
shows Lawrence on pp. 1170.14 with his sons, including Lawrence Jr., on adjacent lines. By
1810 only one Lawrence is listed in Schoharie on pp. 32.08. As he is in the midst of the other
sons of Lawrence Sr. it is most likely he is also a son of Lawrence Sr. It is strange that the
Lawrence Schoolcraft and Maria Schneider under discussion here do not appear in the
Schoharie record. Yet by 1820 Christian, a son of Lawrence and Maria Schneider shows up
in the midst of Lawrence Sr.’s sons. I find it curious that in the 1810 enumeration an
Elizabeth Schoolcraft, over age 45, is enumerated with two children aged 10 but not yet 16.

Elizabeth is too old to have married a great-grandson of James and Anna (Kammer)
Schoolcraft. If we consider the sons of Lawrence and Anna Maria (Schneider) Schoolcraft
we find that Jacob, William, Lawrence and John, who live nearby, all have wives who are
still alive and apparently still with their husbands. Their son, Peter, married Beata Marinus
and while they are absent from the 1810 census record, they were living in Berne since
before 1790 and Beata’s name is not a match to Elizabeth. There was another son called
David, born in 1773, but no record of any family has been located. Further more, he would
be at least 8 years younger than Elizabeth and would have married about age 22 to comply
with the 1810 census record. While not impossible it is not common to find that large an age
gap when the marriage age is young. John and Anna Barbara (Boss) Schoolcraft had two
male children with families. However, one was living in Guilderland and one in Vernon at
this time and both were still fathering children with wives whose names are not Elizabeth.

The foregoing presses for consideration of another possibility. William Schoolcraft died in
1761 and left a widow called Maria Elizabeth. In Chapter 2 I explained the use of rufnames.
Suppose for the moment that Maria Elizabeth was using her rufname, Elizabeth. When
William died in 1761 the entire family was located in Schoharie. It likely that Elizabeth
would have remained there, possibly living with a relative of her’s or William’s. She would
not necessarily show in the 1790 or 1800 census. She may well have been living with
William’s brother, Lawrence, as he is not enumerated in 1810. Clearly the two children in the
1810 census are not William’s. No record of Lawrence Schoolcraft who married Maria
Schneider on January 19th, 1790 is found after the birth of their two children. I conjecture
that the parents died between 1792 and 1800 and that their two children, Margaret and
Christian, went to live with their widowed grandmother, Maria Elizabeth Schneider. The
1810 census is incorrect in stating the ages of the two children, who are 18 and 20, but is
otherwise supportive of this interpretation.

The foregoing leads me to conjecture that William Schoolcraft and Maria Elisabeth
Schneider are a plausible choice as parents, implying Lawrence would be born before 1761. I
conjecture that after his father’s death, Lawrence’s uncle of the same name may have
maintained close contact with the family which may account for Christian Lawyer being a
sponsor at the baptism of a child and also for Christian Schoolcraft living in such proximity
to his cousins in 1820. Regardless, there is no proof so this remains conjecture on my part.

Samuel Schoolcraft, Soldier on the Connecticut Line

Having opened the possibility that William Schoolcraft did father children, other potential
children may now be examined. Samuel Schoolcraft first appears in Stonington, CT where he
77
served on the Connecticut line and met his wife. However, it is clear that after the
Revolutionary War he returned to the Schoharie region. The most informative reference is in
fact the Revolutionary War Pension Files3:

SCHOOLCRAFT Samuel, Mary, CT Line, W5999, BLW #1108-100-15 Feb


1825. sol appl 3 Oct 1820 at SCHOHARIE NY age 64, sol had enl at New
London CT, in 1820 sol had wife Mary aged about 60 & they were living at
Middleburg in Schoharie Co NY, on 7 Feb 1825 sol appl for BLW in Albany
Co NY, wid appl 3 Aug 1837 Huron Co OH aged 76 & she referred to sol as
formerly of Exeter in Otsego Co NY, sol m Mary Baley 22 Sep 1784 (she was
then aged 22 & she [sic] was aged 26) & they had pledged to each other as
husband & wife as much as 6 yrs prior to their marriage & after their
marriage they had 4 children of which 3 were living in 1837, sol & wid had m
at Stonington CT, sol d 18 Apr 1828 aged 70, family data, Samuel Schoolcraft
b 26 Jul 1794, Eunice Schoolcraft b 11 Jun 1797, Dianthee b 5 Jun 1799,
Martha Schoolcraft b 22 Jun 1804, the son Samuel, Jr. d 13 Nov 1815,
Cynthia (no last name) b 3 Mar 1819.

Samuel was born about 1756. He meets the age criteria for being William’s child. The
Schoharie County connection is greatly strengthened by three census records that show he
lived there for over twenty years.
• 1790 pp. 22.08, Stonington, CT
• 1800 pp. 141.18, Berne, NY
• 1810 pp. 41.06, Middleburg, NY
• 1820 pp. 215.02, Middleburg, NY

He is unlikely to be James Sr.’s son as James would have been almost seventy and there is no
indication of his having had any children after 1741. James Jr. is unmarried, Lawrence does
not marry for another three years, and those of John’s children that survived to maturity are
documented by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. Christian could be the father but, born in 1756,
Samuel would have removed to the Schermerhorn Patent with his father when young. He
would probably have supported the Loyalist’s in the Revolutionary War, as did Christian, his
sons and most of the other residents of that region. I showed in Chapter 5 that Christian
Schoolcraft was part of a group that went to Canada in support of the Loyalist cause. I think
it unlikely that Samuel is Christian’s child.

The pension and census records show no ties to Virginia. If he were from Austien’s line and
is from one of the Virginia branches he would almost certainly have been part of the
Virginian line, along with others from that branch of the family. (Jacob born 1759 and John
born 1757 both appear in the VA Line4, 5.)

This leaves William Schoolcraft and Maria Elisabeth Schneider as the plausible choice. They
were married on the May 9th, 1749 and William died on the April 13th, 1761 so there is
ample time for a family, although none has been proven. I conjecture that Samuel was raised
in Schoharie by his widowed mother. His pension file showed that he enlisted in New
London on March 1st, 1776 under Capt. Shipley for 9 months. He then reenlisted
immediately after for 3 months in service at Rhode Island and served until June 9th, 1783, at

78
which time he was serving under Col. Samuel B. Webb. It appears that he met Mary Baley
about the same time as he enlisted but that they did not marry till six years later.

I have not been able to discover any reason why Samuel would have enlisted in Connecticut
if he had been raised in Schoharie. This is a significant weakness in my considering him to be
William’s son. However, his age and his obvious affinity for Schoharie county after his
military service make the forgoing seem plausible. Regardless, there is no proof so this
remains conjecture.

1
The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, at Schoharie, NY. Marriage on 19 Jan. [1790] of Lorentz
Schulkraft with Maria Schneider.
2
St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, at Schoharie, NY. Event Marriage: Elisabeth SCHNEIDER : F : Spouse
Christian LOWYER : Date 30 AUG 1791 : Place Saint Pauls Evangelical Lutheran Church, Schoharie, Schoharie, New
York.
3
Abstracted by Virgil D. White, Genealogical Abstracts Of Revolutionary War Pension Files, SCHOOLCRAFT,
Samuel.
4 Abstracted by Virgil D. White, Genealogical Abstracts Of Revolutionary War Pension Files, SCHOOLCRAFT John,

VA Line, S7468, sol was b 13 Feb 1757 in Hampshire Co VA & he lived in Ohio Co VA at enl & in 1781 he moved to
Monongahalia Co VA & also enl there & after the Rev he lived in Lewis Co VA where he app 2 Jul 1833, on 27 Apr
1860 sol's wid Nancy Schoolcraft made aff'dt in lewis Co VA aged 76, sol had m Nancy Brown 18 Jul 1804 in Harrison
Co VA & sol d 6 Mar 1850 in Lewis Co VA.
5 Abstracted by Virgil D. White, Genealogical Abstracts Of Revolutionary War Pension Files, SCHOOLCRAFT Jacob,

VA Line, R9268, sol was b in 1759 in Hardy Co VA & he lived in Augusta Co VA at enl & after the Rev he lived in
Monongahalia Co VA then moved to Harrison Co VT[sic] then moved to Lewis Co VA where he appl 25 Nov 1833.

79
Chapter 7: The Daughters
Most of us know that there is a tendency to focus on the males in genealogy as they carry the
family name that we are researching. It takes a conscious and continual effort to research the
female lines as they carry the husbands name and are less likely than the husband to be found
in ancillary references such as legal or land documents. Like most, I have not been as diligent
with the female lines as with the male ones. In this chapter I present what I know and advise
that those who desire more information consult with researchers of the appropriate family
lines.

Margaret Schoolcraft, Born About 1734

Margaret is baptized on September 29th, 1735 with her sister Maria Magdalena. In Chapter
2, page 25 I explained why I believe she was the first female child who would thus have been
born in Schoharie about 1734. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft writes [Appendix A]:

Margaret, the eldest daughter, married Col. Green Brush, of the British army,
at the house of Gen. Bradstreet, Albany. Her daughter, Miss Francis Brush,
married the celebrated Col. Ethan Allen, after his return from the Tower of
London.

Greg Parkes has researched Margaret as much as anyone that I know and I am indebted to
him for the following. Greg has referred to Ethel Diel, to a hagiographic biography of Ethan
Allen by John Pell, and to documents at the Fort Ticonderoga Museum. [The following is
presented with clarifying edits to remove ambiguities]:

Margaret had a daughter, evidently with John Montressor, whom she was
seeing without benefit of clergy. John Montressor and his father were British
Army engineers who did much of the design of forts Niagara and Ticonderoga
during the French and Indian War. The child, Frances (Fanny), was born in
Boston. After the war, John Montressor dumped his colonial baggage at the
tideline, went home to a proper Scottish lady and a lifetime of unsuccessfully
nagging the Crown for monies he believed his due for services in America.
Margaret then married Crean Bush on August 10th, 1765. He was an Irish
lawyer and also an Army officer. He committed suicide at some point, and she
then married Patrick Wall, a New York City doctor. She did well financially
with both marriages, and could pass for rich, in Vermont anyway. Margaret
and her daughter each received 20,000 acres of Vermont land from Bush.
They went to Vermont in 1784 to perfect their claim, where Fanny met and
wowed Ethan Allen and became his second wife. Margaret died in April 1805
in Westminster VT.
Portraits of both ladies, along with some of their possesions are in the Fort
Ticonderoga museum.

Margaret’s death is recorded in Westminster, Vermont, and confirms that she was married to
Patrick Wall. Census enumerations show that Patrick was resident in Westminster in 1790,

81
1800 and 1810. That Margaret’s daughter was John Montressor’s child is evidenced by her
grave marker1 in Burlington, VT which states “Frances Montezuma wife of Dr. Jabez
Penniman who died Oct 13, 1834 aged 74 years. Formerly wife of Gen. Ethan Allen”. Ethan
Allen, his wives and children have been written about by many others2. I shall not reiterate
that information here. I also mentioned in Chapter 2, page 25 that Margaret’s claimed date of
birth might exist in papers associated with Ethan Allen, her son-in-law.

Maria Magdalena Schoolcraft, Baptized September 29th, 1735

Maria is baptized as Maria Magdalena but uses the name Maria Elizabeth at her marriage.
Maria marries Balthasar (Baltus) Kern on September 23rd, 1764 in Schoharie. After that, I
have not been able to locate any information on her, her husband or any children. A Jacob
Kern marries Anna Elizabeth Wanner in 1759, so Jacob might be Balthasar’s brother. Jacob
and his wife baptize five children in St. Paul’s church in the following few years. Strangely,
the surname Kern does not appear in the early census records for Schoharie or Berne. The
1790 Schoharie census enumerates several individuals with the surname Kenis Kern. Two on
page 201, one on page 204 and three on page 208. The surname Kenis Kern also appears in
Rensselaerville (Berne). Because Henry Rowe Schoolcraft does not even acknowledge Maria
as one of James Schoolcraft’s children, I think she probably died shortly after her marriage
and without issue.

Elizabeth Schoolcraft, Born December 25th, 1738

Elizabeth marries William Rose on October 30th, 1760 in Schoharie. Their first eight
children are baptized in the Schoharie churches and the ninth in Reformed Dutch Church in
Warwarsing. The family is well documented in a handwritten family record, apparently from
a family bible that belonged to the eldest son, Jacob, and which is part of his pension papers
held in the National Archives3 [Appendix D, Figure 11]. The family record provides the birth
information for Elizabeth and William as well as substantial family details. William and
Elizabeth left Schoharie and went south, initially into Ulster County but by 1800 had reached
Colchester, Delaware County. William died in Colchester in 1819 and Elizabeth died three
years later in Chenango, Broome County. Their son, Jacob, raised his family in Tomkins
County. My research of this family has been limited to the content of the family record.

Catherine Helen Schoolcraft, Baptized July 26th, 1741

The baptismal and marriage records refer to Catherine. The name Catherine is also used at
the baptism of each of her nine children. None the less, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft lists Helen
as the last of James’ children and does not include a Catherine. Henry might have been
mistaken in the name or Helen might have been her middle name. Catherine marries William
Heens in 1761 in Schoharie. The record is undated but is recorded between two entries that
were made on October 16th and November 4th. Nine children are baptized in Schoharie.
Despite the fact that they baptize their eighth child on August 30th, 1789 and their ninth on
March 12th, 1792, I am unable to locate any census enumeration for William Heens or Hines
in either Schoharie or Rensselaerville (Berne) during 1790. It seems unusual for a family that
large to be included in another household. There is an enumeration for a Peter Heen in
Rensselaerville but his family only numbers two adult males and a female.

82
1 Vermont: Cemetery Records, Burlington, Elmwood Ave. cemetery: Frances Montezuma wife of Dr. Jabez Penniman
who died Oct 13, 1834 aged 74 years. Formerly wife of Gen. Ethan Allen.
2 Web sites for Fort Ethan Allen and the Ethan Allen Homestead Museum, hagiographic biography of Ethan ALLEN

by John Pell. [http://www.ethanallenhomestead.org/, http://personalweb.smcvt.edu/thefort/]


3 National Archives W4578, micropublication M804, Record Group 15., New York: Jacob Rose Family Record.

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Chapter 8: Unresolved Issues in
Schoharie County
Before continuing by looking at Quebec families, which will take us away from Schoharie
County, I wish to address some of the unresolved issues in the New York families. It is
possible to determine the relationships of many of the individuals who carry the Schoolcraft
name and show an affinity to the Schoharie, New York region. Those relationships have been
presented in previous chapters. A few unplaced individuals remain with birth dates before
about 1810. In all probability these are grandchildren or great grandchildren of James
Schoolcraft. The choices are relatively limited and because of that I shall detail them here.
Many of them contain strong clues that suggest a family relationship but I have been unable
to close that final link. Firstly, there are some conditions that can be used in analyzing these
individuals:
• Unless the individual is born before 1743 they are very unlikely to
be a child of James. While absence of evidence is not evidence of
absence, James’ third wife Elizabeth is likely to be no more than
about fifteen years his junior so her child bearing years are pretty
much exhausted by 1755. I believe James may be removed from
consideration as a parent.
• Austien, his son by Madelana, has four children, three apparently
born in Schoharie, but the entire family has removed to
Pennsylvania sometime between 1745 and 1749. I believe Austien
may be removed from consideration as a parent.
• The eldest son James by Anna Christina did not marry till after he
left the region and may be excluded from consideration.
• There are no unambiguously proven children of William. If any
did exist they would be born between 1749 and 1761.
• John’s grandson, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, identifies three of
John’s children. Each is found in church records with two others
that probably did not reach maturity. There would seem little
motive for Henry to conceal additional children. If any more
children existed they would probably also have died before
maturity. I believe that John Schoolcraft and Anna Boss can be
eliminated as possible parents.
• Henry Rowe Schoolcraft states that his own parents, Lawrence
Schoolcraft and Margaret Rowe, had thirteen children. From
baptismal records and Henry’s writing as explained in Chapter 3,
page 33, all these children have been accounted for. I believe that
Lawrence Schoolcraft and Margaret Rowe can be eliminated as
possible parents.
• Christian’s children are born after his marriage in 1753. Birth gaps
do exist but by 1766 Christian has left the region, taking his family
with him. It is unlikely that any child of his would have returned to

85
Schoharie. I believe Christian may be removed from consideration
as a parent.
• Lawrence’s children are born after his marriage in 1759. Birth gaps
do exist.

Rachel Shoecraft, Born About 1788

My reason for including Rachel Shoecraft is that Rachel is misrecorded as Rachel


Schoolcraft. Between February 5th, 1808 and December 23rd, 1812 three children are
baptized in the First Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, Charleston, Montgomery Co., New
York1, 2, 3. The parents are Francis H. & Rachel Pruyne. In one of the baptisms the mother’s
maiden name is recorded as Schoolcraft and in the others as Shoecraft or Shoocraft. There
are some transcriptions by others that show one or both of the Shoecraft baptism as
Schoolcraft. No record of the marriage is apparent. However, the Reformed Protestant Dutch
Church Of Caughnawaga, Fonda, Montgomery Co., New York records the marriage of David
Pruin and Maryte Shewgraft on August 29th, 1799. A child, Hendrick is christened in 1800
with the mother recorded as Maryte Shewraft.

The foregoing is indicative of two brothers who might have married two sisters. Online
genealogies for the Pruyn and Shoecraft families claim this to be the case and that Mary and
Rachel’s parents were Jacob and Catalina (Sammon) Shoecraft. Baptisms and a marriage
correlating to this claim are found in the Reformed Dutch Church, Shawangunk, Ulster Co.,
New York:

• Marriage of Jacob Shoecraft and Catalina Sammon on April 21st,


1781.
• Baptism of Marretye, parents Jacob Shoecraft and Catelina
Sammons on June 29th, 1783.
• Baptism of Rachel, parents Shoecraft and Catelyntie Sammons in
1788.
• Birth of Sarah, parents Jacob Shoecraft and Catelyntie Sammon on
February 7th, 1791.
• Birth of Lina, parents Jacob Shoecraft and Cathelyntie Sammon on
July 3rd, 1793.
• Birth of Mathew Sammon, parents Jacob Shoecraft and Catlyntie
Sammon on May 30th, 1795.

In conclusion, Rachel is not a member of the Schoolcraft family and the two baptismal
records from the First Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, Charleston, are incorrect in
showing her to be a Schoolcraft. The Shoecraft family is claimed to be of German origin.
John Shoecraft, Rachel’s uncle, was mentioned in Chapter 5 as he is sometimes thought to be
Christian’s son, John Schoolcraft.

Montgomery County, New York

Montgomery County lies just to the north of Schoharie and just to the west of Schenectady.
The earliest reference to Schoolcraft in this county is Richard Skulgraft who is enumerated at
Palatine in 17904, apparently with a wife but no children. All that can be determined from

86
this record is that he is born before 1776. Jacob Rose, the son of William Rose and Elizabeth
Schoolcraft who were discussed in Chapter 7, page 82, is also enumerated in Montgomery
County in 1790 but at Chemung (Herkimer). This is only 24 miles west of Richard. However,
the Rachel Shoecraft, discussed above is only 11 miles east of Richard at Fonda in the early
1800s which raises the possibility that Richard may not truly be a Schoolcraft.

For the present, let’s assume that Richard is indeed a Schoolcraft who is born before 1776.
He cannot be a son of James Sr. He cannot be a son of John Schoolcraft and Anna Barbara
Boss as that family is already fully defined. If he were a son of Lawrence Schoolcraft and
Anna Maria Schneider it is very strange that he is not in the Schoharie baptismal record.
Lawrence is a church elder and has been baptizing all his children since his marriage in 1759
till the last child in 1778 and there are few noticeable gaps in the birth sequence. It is possible
that Richard is another child of William Schoolcraft and Maria Elizabeth Schneider who
were discussed in Chapter 6. Without a more precise idea of his true age we cannot even
conjecture this much.

Richard is important to us as he might be the ancestor of a fairly extensive Schoolcraft family


headed by William Schoolcraft who is enumerated in Mohawk and later Palatine in 18505,
18606, 18707 and 18808. William is born about 1822 and married to Cecilia VanDenburgh.
Cecilia’s family appears to be in Fonda, Montgomery County in the 1830s so presumably she
and William met in Montgomery County. Their family in 1860 and 1870 includes a child
called Rachel who is subsequently identified as a sister in 1880, possibly indicating her true
parents died between 1858 and 1860. Rachel is an uncommon name in the Schoolcraft lines
and suggests a family relationship to maybe John Wyngaart Schoolcraft who has a daughter
called Rachel or David Schoolcraft and Rachel Westfall. I have been unable to determine a
viable connection between Rachel and either of these two families so at this time it appears
this name is no more than a coincidence.

H. Lawrence Schoolcraft, Born About 1787

Lawrence is identified from an 1871 death notice in the Schenectady Evening Star stating
“H. Lawrence Schoolcraft, d. 18 May 1868 (81 yrs)”. By 1871 the mobility of individuals
has increased to such a degree that this record in Schenectady does not necessarily convey
any great significance. In fact, the death notice does not even convey that he died in
Schenectady and being a few years after the event it is very likely he did not die in that town.
If he were a grandchild of James, then he would need to be a child of Lawrence Schoolcraft
and Anna Maria Schneider. However, they have a good record of baptizing children with the
last one being in 1778. A nine year gap in births with Anna Maria being 51 years old
suggests this is unlikely. However, he probably is a great grandchild of James. We can
eliminate that he is the child of John Schoolcraft and Maria Truax who was born and
baptized on September 29th, 1788 in Helderberg as he died on July 28th, 1851 in
Schenectady. Lawrence Schoolcraft and Anna Maria Schneider have three children, Peter,
Jacob and John, who marry soon enough to be potential parents.

Luke Schoolcraft, Born About 1790

Luke appears in an 1860 census record for Wright9 where he is living with a wife called
Catherine who is three years older than he. With him are Harriet Haferly age 16 and Lydia

87
Schermerhorn age 38. He is living very close to other Schoolcraft’s in Wright who are very
likely to be related. I do not believe “Luke” to be his baptismal name.

Table 11 shows the census entries for Wright for the period 1840 to 1880. The individual
who most closely matches Luke is John Schoolcraft who was born on 14th October 1790.
However, John is also listed in Schoharie where he keeps a hotel. He dies in Schoharie on 5th
November 1862. His wife Mary Settle remains with him throughout his life and dies in
Schoharie on 1st November 1864. Wright is the town adjacent to Schoharie and to the East,
towards Berne. I suspect that John may have had a second residence in Wright near his
grandchildren. Mary, his wife, may actually be called Mary Catherine. I believe this to be the
most plausible explanation for Luke although I cannot eliminate his being a previously
unidentified grandchild of Lawrence Schoolcraft and Anna Maria Schneider by one of the
other children.

Table 11: Wright Census Records [dwelling or page, age]


1840 1850 1860 1870 1880
Schoharie
Peter [09-Jan-1760 Probably dead as no record since 1800.
Jacob [18-Dec-1761] Died in 1834.
David [22-Jan-1781] Tioga County in 1840 and later.
Peter [19-Apr-1806] dw 116, ae 44 dw 627, ae 54 dw 114, ae 64 pp. 358A, ae 74
Jacob I. [11-Feb-1785] pp. 181.01 dw 157, ae 64 Died in 1853.
John [14-Oct-1790] pp. 178.20 dw 1841, ae 58 dw 184, ae 71 Died in 1862.
(Schoharie) (Schoharie)
Isaac [5-Oct-1816] pp. 178.05 dw 233, ae 34 dw 627, ae 45
John [31-Jan-1765] pp. 124.24 Died in 1849.
Jacob Jr. [about 1784] pp. 124.24 dw 160, ae 65 dw 805, ae 75 Died 1869
Gideon [7-Nov-1812] dw 154, ae 36 dw 843, ae -- dw 85, ae 57 pp. 361D, ae 67
Peter [2-Dec-1814] dw 160, ae 35 dw 805, ae 45 dw 69, ae 55 pp. 363C, ae 65
Jacob [13-Nov-1823] dw 845, ae 36 dw 49, ae 46 pp. 363C, ae 56
Lawrence [28-Mar-1767] Knox in 1830 and later.
William [29-Jul-1799] pp. 170.08 Probably dead as Ezra is living with relatives.
Ezra [23-Sep-1837] dw 48, ae 12 dw 391, ae 22 dw 602, ae 32 pp. 268D, ae 43
(Berne)
William [1-Jan-1769] dw 274, ae 81 Died in 1850.
David [25-Oct-1773] Probably dead as no record since baptism.
Luke & Catherine dw 839, ae 70

Jacob Schoolcraft, Born Before 1796

Jacob and Caty are listed as the parents of Ann Eliza who is born 12th May 1814 in
Schoharie10. This Jacob is very unlikely to be the son of Lawrence Schoolcraft, born 18th
December 1761, due to his wife’s age. This Jacob cannot be the grandson of Lawrence called
Jacob I. and born 11th February 1785 as that creates a conflict with the birth of Jacob
Sylvester. This Jacob cannot be the grandson of Lawrence called Jacob Jr. and born about
1784, as his wife is Eva Settle and it would also create a conflict with the birth of Peter. This

88
suggests that this Jacob is a previously unidentified person who would probably be a child of
Peter Schoolcraft and Beata Marinus, Lawrence Schoolcraft and Arianne Reinhard or
William Schoolcraft and Christine Reinhard.

Sophia Schoolcraft, Born About 1803

Ed Schoolcraft reports11 a citation found in the Albany State Library that shows a Sophia
Schoolcraft who dies in December or 1869, aged 66. There is no indication if this Sophia was
a spinster or a widow, or even a widow using her maiden name. I have failed to find a
plausible match. There is a Sophia, the daughter of Jacob Schoolcraft and Maria Catharina
Zimmer whose birth year is very close. However, her death is in 1888 although only based on
a members entry in the Schoharie High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation church
book. Possibly that entry is incorrect. The 1860 census does imply that that Sophia had
separated from her second husband and no record has been found for her in either 1870 or
1880.

Ann Schoolcraft, Born About 1805

Ann should be readily identifiable but she is not. She is found in the 1860 census for Weston,
Middlesex Co., MA12 where she is in the household of Francis Slack. Very few Schoolcrafts
from New York went into Massachusetts. One was Frances Schoolcraft, the daughter of John
Schoolcraft [Appendix E] and Maria Catherine McKinney who had married Robert Slack in
1822. Robert and Frances are found in Weston in 1850 and it seems that by 1860 Robert has
died. One expects that Ann is related to Frances Schoolcraft, either as a sister or sister-in-law.
Unfortunately, no suitable match appears to exist. Frances does have a step-sister called
Anna but she is twenty years older than the one enumerated in Weston.

Mary Ann Schoolcraft, Born About 1806

Mary is another who should be readily identifiable but is not. She is from Rotterdam, NY and
marries Giles Van Vorst in 1847 at Schenectady13. With this location it is hard to imagine
that she is not one of the descendants of either the John Schoolcraft and Maria Catherine
McKinney, mentioned in connection with Ann, or else Lawrence Schoolcraft and Margaret
Rowe, the parents of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. She is Giles’ second wife and, from the 1850
census14, has a child called Elizabeth by him.

1
New York, Charleston: First Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, (International Genealogical Index - United States),
Baptisms pp. 10. Baptism of Abraham on Feb 5th [1808] born Dec 22nd 1807, parents Francis H. Pruyne & Rachel
Shoocraft.
2
New York, Charleston: First Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, (International Genealogical Index - United States),
Baptisms pp. 17. Baptism of Sarah Maria on [June] 27th [1810] born May 19th 1810, parents Francis H. Pruyne &
Rachel Shoecraft.
3
New York, Charleston: First Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, (International Genealogical Index - United States),
Baptisms pg 23. Baptism of Daniel on 23rd [Dec 1812] born Dec 3rd 1812, parents Francis H. Pruyne & Rachel
Schoolcraft.
4
Federal Population Schedule, 1790: Palatine, Montgomery Co., NY, pp. 114.1.37, Richard Skulgraft. Male: 1 >16,
female: 1.
5 Federal Population Schedule, 18-Jul-1850, pp. 368B.22, dw. 196, Mohawk, Montgomery Co., NY, fam. 216, William

D. Schwolcraft age 28 sex m labourer born in NY, Cecilia age 29 sex f born in NY, Cyntha age 5 sex f born in NY,
William A. age 3 sex m born in NY, James W. age 5 mos. sex m born in NY.

89
6 Federal Population Schedule, 9-Jul-1860, pp. 96, dw. 6581, Mohawk, Montgomery Co., NY, fam. 742, William
Schoolcraft age 38 sex M farmer born in NY, Cecelia age 39 sex F born in NY, Cynthia A. age 15 sex F born in NY,
William O. age 13 sex M born in NY, John W. age 10 sex M born in NY, Isaac M. age 8 sex M born in NY, Eva F. age
5 sex F born in NY, Rachael C. age 1 sex F born in NY, Angelica Dulihot age 21 sex F maid born in NY, Hiram Cole
age 18 sex M laborer born in NY.
7 Federal Population Schedule, 21-Jun-1870, pp. 19.11, dw. 142, Mohawk, Montgomery Co., NY, fam. 165, William

D. Schoolcraft age 48 sex m farmer born in NY, Cecilie age 48 sex f born in NY, William D. age 22 sex m farm laborer
born in NY, Isaac M. age 17 sex m farming born in NY, Rachel C. age 11 sex f born in NY, Alexander L. age 8 sex m
born in NY, Edward F. age 5 sex m born in NY.
8
Federal Population Schedule, 1880: FHL Film 1254865 National Archives Film T9-0865 pp. 346A: Palatine,
Montgomery Co., NY : William SCHOOLCRAFT Self male married white age 58 born in NY occupation Farmer
father born in NY mother born in NY: Celia SCHOOLCRAFT Wife female married white age 58 born in NY
occupation Keeping House father born in NY mother born in NY: Rachel SCHOOLCRAFT Sister female single white
age 21 born in NY occupation At Home father born in NY mother born in NY: Alexander SCHOOLCRAFT Son male
single white age 18 born in NY occupation At Home father born in NY mother born in NY: Edward SCHOOLCRAFT
Son male single white age 18 born in NY occupation At Home father born in NY mother born in NY: Fox LEAMON
Other male single white age 21 born in NY occupation Servant father born in NY mother born in NY.
9
Federal Population Schedule, 18-Aug-1860, Wright Twp., Schoharie Co., NY, dwelling 839, family 856, Luke
Schoolcraft age 70 sex M cooper born in NY, Catherine [Schoolcraft] age 73 sex F born in NY, Harriet E. Haferly age
16 sex F born in NY, Lydia S. Schermerhorn age 38 sex F born in NY
10 St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church at Schoharie, NY. Vol. 2 pg. 108 # 25, Baptism of Ann Eliza on 19 Jun 1814

born 12 May 1814, parents Jacob Schoolcraft & Caty.


11 Ed Schoolcraft, SAN (Schoolcraft Ancestral News), Newsletter published 1988 & 1989, SAN Vol. 2 No. 2 pp. 68,

History of Albany Co. NY State Library. Newspaper References: Died. “Dec 1869, Sophia Schoolcraft, age 66.”
12 Federal Population Schedule, 3-Jul-1860, pp. 18.34, dw. 126, Weston, Middlesex Co., MA, fam. 140, Francis Slack

age 59 sex f born in NY, Sarah age 31 sex f born in NY, John L. age 27 sex m law student born in NY, Francis M. age
24 sex m born in NY, Robert H. age 22 sex m born in NY, Peter D. age 21 sex m born in NY, Ann Schoolcraft age 55
sex f born in NY, Eliza Slack age 74 sex f born in MA, Adeline Flagg age 59 sex f born in MA.
13 Charlotte Taylor Luckhurst, New York, Schenectady: Reformed Dutch Protestant Church, (Film 0532958), Film

0532958 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church of Schenectady Marriages: 1847 December 24 of Giles Van Voast and
Mary Ann Schoolcraft Giles of Schenectady, Mary of Rotterdam.
14 Federal Population Schedule, 8-Oct-1850, dw. 61, Glenville, Schenectady Co., NY, fam. 61, Giles Van Vorst age 49

sex m mason born in NY, Mary age 44 sex f born in NY, James age 20 sex m laborer born in NY, Abner age 15 sex m
none born in NY, George age 11 sex m born in NY, Joseph age 9 sex m born in NY, Wm. age 7 sex m born in NY,
Charles age 4 sex m born in NY, Jane A. age 5 sex f born in NY, Elizabeth age 7 mos. sex f born in NY, Maria age 70
sex f born in NY.

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Chapter 9: Adam Schoolcraft, A
Stanbridge Associate
The reason I choose to work on Adam’s family next is not just that he is the eldest son. In all,
there are seven male children by Christian Schoolcraft in Missisquoi County, all except one
of whom can be shown to have had extensive families. This leads to considerable confusion
unless the analysis is approached in a very specific order. By successively eliminating
options it is possible to resolve most of the relationships. Adam’s family is the most well
defined as he is known to have had only five children, four of those can be positively
identified and the fifth is so highly probably as to leave only the slightest possibility of error.

Adam is born on April 9th, 17561 in Schoharie. The posthumous sale of land2 to Isaac
Asseltine in 1807 that was first introduced in Chapter 5 identifies Catherine Phelps as
Adam’s widow and that this was Catherine’s second marriage, provides data about Adam’s
death on July 8th, 1805 and states that there were only five children:

Notary Léon Lalanne:


Unnumbered
12th Jany 1807
Agreement of
Adam Schoolcraft
and
Isaac Afselstine

Marginal notes in the following transcription are indicated as: [MN: Marginal note]. This
transcription attempts to follow the original spelling and punctuation although it has not been
independently verified.

On the twelfth day of January in the year of our Lord one thousand eight
hundred and seven. Before the subscribing Notary Public residing in Shefford
in the County of Richelieu in the District of Montreal in the Province of Lower
Canada. Personally came and appeared Catherine Phelps of the Township of
Stanbridge in the County of Bedford in the Said District, widow of Adam
Schoolcraft late of Stanbridge aforesaid, Yeoman, deceased [MN: on the
eighth day of July], who in the presence of the Said Notary and of the
Witnefses herein after named, declared and affirmed as follows that is to say
that the Said Adam Schoolcraft her husband, died on the eighth day of July in
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and five. That about one
year previous to his decease he, the Said Adam Schoolcraft by verbal
agreement verbally covenanted and agreed with Isaac Afselstine of Said
Stanbridge, Yeoman, to sell and convey unto him the Said Isaac Afselstine and
to his Heirs & Afsigns forever. All that piece & Parcel of that Tract or Parcel
of Land situate lying & being in the aforesaid Township of Stanbridge [MN1:
that is to say all that part of that Lot] known & distinguished by Lot number

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twelve in the Seventh Range of Lots in the Said Township, which lies on the
west side of Pike River which runs acrofs Said Lot [MN2: & for the Sum of
and at the rate of two Spanish dollars per each acre of its contents which]
contents of which Said piece of Land were not afsertained that and promised
and to convey the same unto and upon the first demand of the Said Isaac
Afselstine his Heirs or Afsigns. That the Said Isaac Afselstine in that same
year to wit the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred & five pay unto
the Said late Adam Schoolcraft the Said sum of one hundred and seven
Spanish dollars by one mare, one yoke of steers, one cow and one heifer: and
further in as much as the Said piece & part of Said Lot was so agreed to be
Sold as if in its full State and there was then about five acres of the Said piece
cleared and fitted for cultivation, he the Said Isaac Afselstine covenanted and
agreed to clear under fit for cultivation the same number of acres on that
other part of the Lot which the Said Adam Schoolcraft kept to himself that the
Said Isaac Afselstine in [MN3: part] fulfilment of this last that article of their
agreement, did clear and fit for cultivation on the Said [MN4: remaining] part
of the Said Lot four acres and is to clear yet one acre more. And that it was
finally covenanted & agreed that if the Said Piece of Land So bargained for
and sold should contain more than fifty sufserficial acres he the Said Isaac
Afselstine Should pay for every acre of Surplus at the Sume rate
aforementioned to wit two dollars per acre. That, the Said Adam Schoolcraft
died did not in his lifetime execute a legal conveyance of the said piece of
Land to the Said Isaac Afselstine tho were willing so to do if he had been
thereunto requested by the Said Afselstine She the Said Catherine Phelps
having frequently heard her Said late husband say that he was perfectly
satisfied with the price and payment which he had as beforementioned
received of the Said Afselstine for the Said premises.
That when he & the Said Adam Schoolcraft died he left
That the Estate whereof the Said Adam Schoolcraft was pofsefsed at the day of
his decease, being (besides the remaining part of the aforesaid Lot of Land)
inconsiderable & its small revenues [MN5: which were hardly adequate to
her support & maintainance and that of the children he left which were were
in number five by her marriage with him and two by her former marriage]
have not and cannot yet enable her to make the disbursments necefsary and
incident to the taking of the Steps directed by the Laws for the difsolution of
the Community which existed between her and her Said late husband and for
her being authorized by the Court of the District aforesaid to execute a Deed
of Conveyance of the Said piece of land so as aforesaid bargained & sold to
the Said Afselstine. And that desirous to sume the same to him the Said
Afseltine his heirs and afsigns as much as She equitably and justly can under
her present circumstances She the Said Catherine Phelps hath for that
purpose caused the nearest relations to her Said the Said Adam Schoolcraft
and her nearest neighbors to afsemble and declare what they know of the
verbal bargain so as aforesaid made by & between the Said Adam Schoolcraft
and Isaac Afselstine and advise with them on the Promises whom she
requested to bring forward before the Said subscribing Notary and who

92
forthwith appeared and were James Schoolcraft, John Schoolcraft and
William Schoolcraft brothers to the, Simon Stone brother in law [MN6: all of
the Said Township of Stanbridge] John Stalker, John Boomhower, Uriah
Deline and William Norton neighbors to the Said late Adam Schoolcraft in his
life time; which Said relations and Neighbors after being Sworn before the
Said Notary did unamimously declare that the deceased did in his lifetime tell
them that he had sold the aforedescribed piece & part of his Lot of Land to the
Said Isaac Afselstine and had received his pay for it and the Said John
Stalker, Uriah Deline, John Boomhower and Simon Stone further declared
that the deceased did tell them that he had received one hundred dollars of the
Said Isaac Afselstine for the sale of the Said piece of Land. And the Said John
Stalker, Uriah Deline and Simon Stone further declare that the deceased did
Show them the Said Mare, Steers, Cow and Heifer and told them he conceived
that it was better than one hundred dollars on Interest which they declared
also was and is yet their opinion. And on the Said James Schoolcraft, John
Schoolcraft, William Schoolcraft, Simon Stone, John Stalker, John
Boomhower, Uriah Deline and William Norton being asked their advice
touching the necefsity of Suming the Said piece of Land unto the Said Isaac
Afselstine and the most proper way and method of so doing under the [MN7:
Said Catherine Phelps] present circumstances did unanimously declare that
they were of opinion that the Said Catherine Phelps whose situation as well
an input to her family as to the estate left her by the Said deceased. they Said
they were perfectly knowing so could not without [MN8: greatly] injuring
herself & Family make the necefsary applications to the Court of King’s
Bench of this District for to be authorized to convey the Said piece of Land but
that it were most just & equitable to Sume the same to the Said Afselstine as
much as could be by Notarial Act. Therefore the Said Catherine Phelps for
herself and also for and on the behalf of all her Children was well those ifsaid
of her Marriage with the Said late Adam Schoolcraft as those ifsaid of her
former marriage [MN9: by all and each of whom She hereby promises to
cause these presents to be certified & confirmed as fast as they Shall attain
the age of twenty one years] did and hereby doth grant, ude, Sell, alien convey
and confirm from henceforth forever and promise to warrant and guaranaty
from and against all haubles and handerances whatsoever Unto the Said
Isaac Afselstine and to his Heirs & Afsigns, he the Said Isaac Afselstine
present and accepting and declaring the bargain between and the Said Adam
Schoolcraft to have been made as has been herein before declared & united
by the Said Catherine Phelps. All that Piece and Part of the Said Lot number
twelve in the Seventh Range of Lots in the Said Township of Stanbridge, that
is to Say. All that part at the west end thereof which lies on the west side of
Pike River the contents of which the Said Isaac Afselstine doth hereby promise
to cause to be afertained at his own proper cost whenever thereunto rasonably
required by the Said Catherine Phelps. To Have and To Hold the Said Piece
& part of Lot of Land with all the improvements nuted and made thereon and
~~~ the appurtenances thereunto belonging unto the Said Isaac Afselstine his
Heirs & Afsigns to the only ~~~ & behaof of the Said Isaac Afselstine his

93
Heirs & Afsigns forever by virtue of these present. Subject neverthelefs to the
terms & conditions, Provisions, limitations restitutions & reservations in the
Letters Patent of the Said Township of Stanbridge Set forth and contained.

[Further description of the transaction without additional genealogical content.]

Thus done and pafsed at St. Armand in the house of Philip Ruiter Esquire, the
day & year aforesaid in the presence of the said Witnefses who with the Said
John Stalker & Simon Stone have hereunto Set & Subscribed their Names the
Said Catherine Phelps, Isaac Afselstine John Schoolcraft, James Schoolcraft,
William Schoolcraft, John Boomhower, Uriah Deline and William Norton
declaring that they could not write have made their usual marks these
presents bring first duly made according to Law.

Census records of his children and widow in 1825 and 1831 suggest that this was an
Anglican family and the birth dates of two of the five children seem to be after 1800. This
probably means that the other two were born only just before, or just after, 1800 and that
Adam probably married when he was about forty. Four of the children are proven by land
sales in which they sell or transfer their inheritance. Jonathan sells his inheritance3 on
February 12th, 1820; Susannah sells her inheritance4 on June 19th, 1823; Catherine transfers
Jonathan’s part to William5 on December 12th, 1827 and subsequently transfers the rent6
associated with it on March 9th, 1839; and Huldah sells her inheritance7 on December 4th,
1841. (“Susannah” is found as “Rosannah” in later documents.)

The fifth child is Christopher. Christopher is shown as a land owner in concession 7 in the
1831 census. This land would have been inherited from his father. The correlation of his
proximity to William and to William’s mother, the land ownership and a common religion,
Anglican, is strong evidence that this Christopher is a son of Adam. Bonnie Timperley, with
whom I have communicated, reports the existence of a family bible, too fragile to copy, that
is in the possession of her 3rd cousin. Entries in that bible, claimed to be by Emily Louise
Schoolcraft or taken from notes made by Emily Louise, state that Christopher was born in
1799 or 1800 in the town of Wales, Maine, and that his parents were Adam and Catherine.
Clearly the town is in error but the parents are consistent with the foregoing. The date that the
entry was made is uncertain so we cannot know whether it reflects first hand knowledge
obtained from Christopher or genealogical research after his death. The bible entries are
believed to have originally been started around 1843 by Ann Wilson, Emily’s mother-in-law,
who made entries up to about 1870. After that date the bible was given to Emily who
continued to make entries.

The 1827 notarial document confirms that the family lived on lot 12 in range 7, which was
Adam’s original allocation in the Stanbridge Land Grant. It is located in the south west of
Mystic with the Pike River flowing through it. An 1830s map [Appendix D, Figure 12]
shows various lots in Stanbridge that are relevant to Schoolcraft research. Lot 12 in range 7 is
marked only with the name “Schoolcraft” at a point where the Pike River makes a pair of
horseshoe turns. One of those horseshoe turns has been cut off by the river today but it is still
visible on a Satellite image. The Notarial record transcribed above implies that Adam lived
on the east bank of the river until his death in 1805. Joseph Bouchette’s map [Appendix D,

94
Figure 13] may then be used to locate that same lot relative to the major roads that existed
around 1830. On a modern map [Appendix D, Figure 14], it is just East of where Chemin de
la Rivière crosses the river and make a sharp turn. I shall show later that John is located to
Adam’s west, towards Stanbridge Station, that James and Martin are in St. Ignace de
Stanbridge, and that Peter and William are in different townships. Catherine is listed in the
1831 census in concession 5, maybe where houses belonging to Schoolcraft and Phelps are
shown on the 1864 Walling’s map of Stanbridge. She is living with a teenage male who is, in
all probability, a grandchild from her first marriage. Catherine handles Adam’s estate through
a series of notarial transactions in the early 1820s in which land is transferred to and from
various children. The sale of Adam’s land in 1807 includes the phrase “She hereby promises
to cause these presents to be certified & confirmed as fast as they Shall attain the age of twenty
one years”. Jonathan sells his inheritance 12th Feb 1820, Susannah sells her inheritance 19th
June 1823, Catherine transfers Jonathan’s part to William 12th December 1827. From this I
deduce Jonathan is born about 1799, Susannah about 1801, and William about 1805.
Christopher’s birth in 1802 is established through a census so that Huldah is most likely born
between 1803-1804. A land purchase by Simon Stone, witnessed by Jonathan P.
Schoolcraft8, is further indication that Jonathan is age twenty-one by 1820.

Adam Schoolcraft‘s Children

The last definitive reference to Jonathan is in 1820. There is a hint that he may be one of the
single males living with his brother William in 1825.

Susannah and John Decker have two sons and a daughter between 1820 and 1825. In these
birth records, from Stanbridge Anglican church, Susannah is recorded as Rosannah. John
Decker is enumerated in St. Armand in 1825 and Swanton by 1830, although Susannah’s age
is mis-recorded in 1830. By 1852 John is enumerated as a widower in Stanbridge. It is
possible that Susannah actually died before 1830 and John is living with an older woman
who is caring for the young children.

William is enumerated in 1825 and 1831. There are probably two daughters and a son from
his union with Mary McIntosh, but I can find no trace of him after 1831.

Huldah and Benjamin Noyes, who are identified from an 1841 land sale, are not
unambiguously recorded after that. They are enumerated in 1825 and 1831 with the
implication of three daughters and a son by 1831.

Christopher Schoolcraft

One of Adam’s children has a complex family. Christopher had seven children by his first
wife; after her death he married her sister and had three more and after her death married a
third time. One of his sons, Lorenzo Schoolcraft and his wife Barbara witness Christopher’s
third marriage to “Roana Hutchins Widow” in 18619. Until recently I had not realized who
Roana was as she next appeared a long way from Dunham. She is in fact Roana Downer, the
widow of Benjamin Hutchins by whom she had a son called William. This fact is best proven
through correlation of her son William’s last three marriages and his baptism in Frelighsburg
Methodist church10, 11, 12, 13. Her marriage to Christopher did not last and she is found in
Allegan County, Michigan in 1870 with her children. Christopher’s first cousin, Elijah, also

95
went to Allegan County which obscured the analysis of this line as I had incorrectly assumed
that “Roana Schoolcraft” was somehow part of Elijah’s family. Armed with the realization
that this was not so and with the benefit of hindsight one can put together a time line of
various events that illustrate what took place.
2-Feb-1852
Christopher Schoolcraft is living in Dunham with his second wife and family14. Neither
Roana, her husband Benjamin Hutchins, nor their son William were enumerated in
Missisquoi County, QC. This probably means they came to Quebec from Vermont
between 1852 and 1861.
14-Jan-1861
[This is the official enumeration date.] Christopher is enumerated in Dunham in his son’s
home15. He is described as “widower” and has three of his children enumerated below
him. Legibility of this record is poor but “Roana Hutchen” is also enumerated in this
household as a widow but without her son William, who would only be age six! William
appears to be in the home of Levi and Louisa Hutchins on the preceding page16. Levi and
Louisa are just about old enough to be grandparents but I have not researched the
Hutchins family for proof.
09-Feb-1861
Christopher marries “Roana Hutchins Widow” and both declare that they are from
Dunham9.
13-Feb-1865
William Hutchins, age 10, is baptized in Frelighsburg Methodist church10. Because this
church covered more than Frelighsburg, the location of the baptism may well have been
Dunham. Furthermore, William’s place of birth is not stated. This is the first of several
records that can be used to determine Roana’s maiden name and her first husband.
06-Jun-1870
Roana is enumerated in Allegan County, Michigan17 with daughter, Ida Schoolcraft, who
was born about 1865 in Quebec. This record implies the marriage had failed by 1870.
When they married, Roana was only 30 years old whereas Christopher was 60. This may
have been a factor. This census record might be the clue to Roana’s presence in Allegan
County. She is enumerated in the home of Isaiah Stockwell and a Moses Stockwell was
enumerated very close to her in 1861. Possibly there was some connection between
Roana and Stockwells.
1871
I have not located Christopher in Dunham in 1871 but as I do not have all the pages
available I may have missed him. If he truly is missing from the 1871 enumeration it may
mean he had gone to Michigan with Roana around the time of the 1870 and 1871 census
and was not enumerated anywhere as he was in transit.
10-Apr-1872
Roana marries Jarvis Sperry18. The marriage is recorded in the Allegan County copy of
the marriage records and is transcribed in the IGI. The State copy is also available. Both
copies are mangled transcriptions. In the State version, Roana’s maiden name is recorded
as “Lawner” and her place of birth is “Stonebridge”.

96
1880
An enumeration in Trowbridge, Allegan County, includes “Downe Spery” and “Roasia
Spery”19. The household following them is “Wm. Withiers”, “Ella Withiers”, “Hiram
Withiers” and “Ida Schoocraft” who is stated to be William’s daughter. I have not
viewed the original to clarify this but I strongly suspect that this is not two dwellings but
one dwelling with two families and that “Wm. Withiers” is probably William Hutchins.
25-Dec-1880
Ida Schoolcraft marries Marcellus Green in Allegan County, Michigan20. Her place of
birth is stated as Stanbridge but her father is not stated.
1881
Christopher Schoolcraft is enumerated as a widower in Dunham, QC21.
22-Feb-1888
Christopher Schoolcraft dies in Dunham, QC22.
1881 - 1901
Vital records show that Marcellus and Ida Schoolcraft Greene had at least five children.
1896 - 1915
Vital records show that William Hutchins married three more times.

There is one issue of contention within this family - the name of Lorenzo Schoolcraft’s wife.
Strangely, Lorenzo’s children seem confused over their mother’s name. There does not
appear to be a record of Lorenzo and Barbara’s marriage to provide conclusive proof of her
name. There are a number of references to her in her children’s marriage records and even a
single baptismal record for three children:

• 1894 baptism of Clara, Alpha and Florence - parents Lorenzo


Schoolcraft and Barbara Wilson23.
• 1896 marriage of Clara - parents Lorenzo Schoolcraft and Barba
Kimmel24.
• 1896 marriage of Espy - parents Lorenzo Schoolcraft and Kimbal
Barnes25.
• 1897 marriage of John F. - parents Lorenzo and Margaret26.
• 1899 marriage of Florence - parents Lorenzo Schoolcraft and
Barbara Allen27.
• 1902 marriage of Edward - parents Lorenzo Schoolcraft and
Barbara Barnes28.
There are no significant gaps in the births of children that might imply multiple marriages.
From 1861 through 1891 Lorenzo is enumerated with a wife called Barbara or Barbary who
was born about 1840. This leaves little doubt that Lorenzo’s wife was called Barbara.
Kimmel and Kimbal are phonetically similar and I do not think there is any significance to
those two forms. Espy’s marriage record is from the State of Vermont and is itself a
transcription of information from the Town of Alburg. I have not inspected the original town
record and it may be that “Kimbal Barnes” is some kind of name inversion in the original
record. Clara’s marriage in 1896 is probably the most reliable record as it is Catholic. In
order to be married in the Catholic church you had to show legitimacy. The Church took
great pains to ensure that the parents of both persons were correctly stipulated. Thus I
personally consider that particular marriage to be more reliable than any of the others,

97
including the baptismal record which was actually an adult baptism after the mother’s death.
Barbara Kimmel is then readily identified from a Stanbridge Anglican baptism and in a
location consistent with her marriage to Lorenzo. Barbara is old enough to have had a
marriage prior to Lorenzo.

While Christopher and most of his children remained in the Eastern Townships, the first
three sons went west. The migration was fairly gradual. Christopher Columbus Schoolcraft is
enumerated in Malone, New York in 1850, Wisconsin in 1855, Minnesota in 1860, Iowa in
1870 and Colorado in 1880, where he died. He enlisted in the 142nd Infantry New York
regiment for the Civil War but deserted in 1863 in Alexandria, Virginia. William Schoolcraft
is enumerated in Malone, New York in 1850, Wisconsin in 1855 but has returned to Malone,
New York by 1860. Silas Schoolcraft remains in Quebec through 1871 but is enumerated in
Michigan in 1880 and 1900.

Catherine Phelps

Jonathan Phelps Schoolcraft is Adam’s first child. I do not believe that Adam would have
baptized his first child with the surname of his wife’s first husband so I conclude that
Catherine’s maiden name is Phelps. As the name Jonathan is not common in the Schoolcraft
line, Jonathan Phelps may have been Catherine’s father. A Jonathan Phelps is recorded in a
Location List, Settlers at Sorel, 1785, Muster Roll No. 1.

One remaining aspect must be covered - the children by Catherine Phelp’s first marriage. It
has recently been determined that a Michigan Death record for Mary Deline, December 5th,
1871 in Marathon, Lapeer Co. records her parents as Adam and Catherine Schoolcraft. Mary
was the wife of George Deline. There is considerable uncertainty regarding her age between
the census records and her death record. The 1850 and 1860 census records are moderately
consistent placing her birth about 1795. The death record suggests her birthday was October
24th. I believe that Mary is Catherine’s daughter and Adam’s step-daughter. Because Mary
has taken the Schoolcraft name, and in order to include her, I have provided the descendant
chart for Catherine Phelps’ first marriage. Unfortunately, as George Deline’s family has only
become relevant so recently, I have not yet obtained the relevant sources to verify many of
the facts.

Mary’s use of the Schoolcraft name indicates that Adam and Catherine had raised the two
children from Catherine’s first marriage using the Schoolcraft name. We do not know if this
was a formal adoption but given the period, and the legal cost, I doubt that it was. None the
less, a child born in the late 1790s and using the Schoolcraft name may be Adam’s step child.
I conjecture that that child is Philip Schoolcraft.

In 1828 Philip Schoolcraft married Eveline Decker29. Philip initially lives in St. Armand after
his marriage. In prior work I have conjectured that Philip was the son of Peter Schoolcraft
and his wife Mary Stolicker. This was based largely on his presence in St. Armand.
However, Philip is in Philipsburg (range 1) whereas Peter and his sons are in Eccles Hill
(range 10). As Philip’s father in law was a farmer in St. Armand West and his descendants
are found in the western part of town, Eveline Decker is just as likely to be the reason for him
to be found there.

98
Philip went to Malone during the 1830s and lived there till his death. In 1850 Christopher
Columbus Schoolcraft, a grandson of Adam Schoolcraft, also goes to Malone where he
marries. Although Christopher has gone to Wisconsin by 1855 and moves on from there
through Minnesota to Colorado, he continues to maintain ties to Malone - probably because
of his wife. Christopher’s infant son, Willie, is buried in the Webster St. cemetery in 1867
suggesting he returned to Malone from time to time. Christopher’s death notice was
published in the Malone Palladium on January 14th, 1897. With no other apparent reason to
chose Malone, I suspect a relationship between Philip and Christopher may have provided
some security or incentive.

Table 12: The Early Census Records

1825 1831 1840 Interpetation


Provincial Provincial Federal
Married male 1800-1807 William Schoolcraft (1805- )
Married female 1780-1811 Mary McIntosh
Single female Bef. 1781 Catherine Phelps, mother
Single male 1785-1800 Philip (1798-1861)
Single Male 1800-1807 Christopher (1802-1888)
Child 1819-1825 Unidentified child of
William and Mary

Married Male 1771-1801 1790-1800 Philip Schoolcraft (1798-


1861)
Married female 1786-1817 1800-1810 Eveline Decker (1805-1866)
Single female Bef. 1787 Christine Vandousen,
mother in law (1771-1858)
Single male 1801-1810
Single male 1813-1817
Single female 1817-1831 1825-1830 Mary Ann (1830- )
Child 1817-1825
Child 1825-1831 Mary Ann (1830- )
Male 1835-1840 Ephraim(1839-1885)

Another coincidence is that Philip married Eveline Decker. Eveline is the younger sister of
John Decker who married Rosannah Schoolcraft sometime before 1820. If Philip and
Rosannah were related this would have provided ample opportunity for him to have met and
married Eveline Decker in 1828.

99
Philip was born about 1799. While this is very close to the date that Adam and Catherine
married, it is based on census and death record information. Taken literally, the combination
of the 1850 and 1860 census suggests he was born between October 5th, 1798 and June 23rd,
1799. His natural father could have died as early as February 1798 which would certainly not
interfere with Catherine’s remarriage. I conjecture that Philip Schoolcraft was Adam’s step
son.

Philip only remains in Philipsburg for a short while and may actually be living in his
widowed mother in law’s home. The 1831 enumeration implies she, and probably some of
her children, are living with him (Table 12). In 1825 I suspect he is still with his mother who
is living with her son William. William has recently married and appears to have a young
daughter. Sisters Mary, Rosannah and Huldah are married. Brother Christopher married
before August 20th, 1825 so it’s unclear if he is enumerated or not. It is not known if
Jonathan died or not. Because he is the eldest yet he sells his inheritance to his mother, I have
a suspicion he may have been near death in 1820 and actually sold his inheritance as a way to
circumvent problems for his mother. This suggests the interpretation shown in Table 12.

Philip, his wife Evaline and his son Ephraim are all buried in the Webster Street cemetery in
Malone, New York30,31, 32. The Webster St. cemetery listing claims that Philip died on June
23rd, 1860, but this cannot be true. He is enumerated on that exact same day by Frank Berry
who took the Malone census. Further, Philip’s death notice appears six months later!33

Frontier Palladium, Malone.


January 17th, 1861
Died: In this village, Thursday evening, the 10th inst., of consumption, Mr.
Philip Schoolcraft, aged 62 years.

Incidentally, this implies he was born before January 10th, 1799 which, with census data
places his birth in the last quarter of 1798 and is very consistent with his being Adam’s step
son.

1 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Adam on May [1756] born Apr 9 [1756],
parents Christian Schulkraf & Elisabet Margareth, sponsors Adam Becker and Elisabeth Schulkraf.
2
Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne: 12th Jany 1807, Agreement of Adam Schoolcraft & Isaac
Afselstine.
3 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne: 12th Feby 1820, Sale by Jonathan P. Schoolcraft to Catherine

Phelps.
4
Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne: 19th June 1823, Transfer of rights of sucession by Susanah
Schoolcraft the wife of John Decker to William Schoolcraft.
5 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Joseph-Édouard Faribault: No. 275 12th December 1827, Donation by Catherine

Schoolcraft to William Schoolcraft.


6 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Notary L. Dugas: No. 799, 9th March 1839: Transfer of the arrears of a certain

life rent by Catherine Phelps to Tilly Blakely.


7 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Deed of Sale: 4th December 1841, by Benjamin C. Noyes & Consort to Ozen

Green Skeels.
8
Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne: 12th Feby 1820, Philip Ruiter atty of F. Derivieres to Simon
Stone.

100
9 Quebec, Dunham: Methodist Church Records, On this the ninth day of February Two thousand eight hundred and

sixty [Two] Christopher Schoolcraft, Widower, and Roana Hutchins Widow, both of Dunham; after the publication of
banns; were joined together in the Holy estate of Matrimony in the presence of the following witnesses, by me Joshua
Gear Minister. Christopher Schoolcraft. Roana Hutchin Witnesses Lorenzo Schoolcraft, Barbara Schoolcraft.
10 Quebec, Frelighsburg: Methodist Church Records, Frelighsburg Meth., BCHS Index Reel 124.10: Hutchins, William,

B. Feb. 27, 1855, Bapt. Feb. 13, 1865, s/o Benjamin & Rosa Hutchins.
11 Michigan: Marriage Record, Michigan Marriages 1868-1925 LDS US/CAN 2342504, v 2 p 374 rn 3563: 30 Jun

1896, Kalamazoo, Michigan, Groom William Hutchinson, age 41, born Vermont, father Benjamin Hutchinson, mother
Leona Downey, Bride Elizabeth Vande Fifer, age 40, born Holland Europe, father John Crane, mother Elizabeth
Tommel.
12 Michigan: Marriage Record, Michigan Marriages 1868-1925 LDS US/CAN 2342512, item 2 p 432 rn 4811: 24 Jun

1899, Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo, Michigan, Groom William B. Hutchins, age 38, born Vermont, father Benjamin
Hutchins, mother Rouena Downer, Bride Mabel Mayo, age 24, born South Haven, father Hamilton Mayo, mother
Harriet Moulton.
13
Michigan: Marriage Record, Michigan Marriages 1868-1925 LDS US/CAN 2342710, v 3 p 99 rn 15326: 12 Jul
1915, Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo, Michigan, Groom William Hutchins, age 60, born Canada, father Benj. Hutchins,
mother Rowena Downey, Bride Minnie Stratton Myers, age 46, born Michigan, father Wm. Stratton, mother Libbie
Johnson.
14 Quebec: Census, 2-Feb-1852: pp. 152.13, Dist. 3, Dunham, Missisquoi Co., 1.5 story frame, 1 fam., Agric. 162.42

Lot 10-26: Christopher Schoolcraft age 51 male born in Canada occ./rel. Carpenter, Joiner, W. Methodist, married.
Atlanta age 29 female born in U.S.A. occ./rel. W. Methodist, married. Lorenzo age 15 male born in Canada occ./rel. W.
Methodist. Albert age 13 male born in Canada occ./rel. W. Methodist. Alvira age 5 female born in Canada occ./rel. W.
Methodist. Armineia age 3 female born in Canada occ./rel. W. Methodist. Infant age 1 female born in Canada occ./rel.
W. Methodist.
15 Quebec: Census, 1861: Dist. 3, pp. 9.33, Dunham, Missisquoi Co., 1 story, 1 family log house, Lorenso Schoolcraft

age 25 M/M born in L.C. occ./rel. farmer, Adventist, Barbary Schoolcraft age 21 F/M born in L.C. occ./rel. Adventist,
Christofer Schoolcraft age 55 M/S born in L.C. occ./rel. farmer, Adventist, widower, Albert Schoolcraft age 22 M/S
born in L.C. occ./rel. laborer, Adventist, Amida Schoolcraft age 13 F/S born in L.C. occ./rel. spinster, Adventist, Emily
Schoolcraft age 10 F/S born in L.C. occ./rel. Adventist, ~~~ay Hutchen age 31 F/S born in L.C. occ./rel. Adventist,
widow.
16 Quebec: Census, 1861: Dist. 3, pp. 8.43, Dunham, Missisquoi Co., 1 story, 1 family log house, Levi Hutchen age 56

M/M born in U.S.A. occ./rel. W. Meth., Louisa Hutchen age 55 F/M born in L. Canada occ./rel. W. Meth., Nelson
Hutchen age 16 M/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. W. Meth., William Hutchen age 6 M/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. W.
Meth.
17 Federal Population Schedule, 6-Jun-1870, pp. 15.24, dw. 119, Trowbridge, Allegan Co., MI, fam. 122, Isiah

Stockwell age 70 sex m farmer born in VT, Laura age 71 sex f keeping house born in VT, Roena Schoolcraft age 39
sex f domestic servant born in VT, Ada H. age 5 sex f born in Canada E.
18 Michigan: Marriage Record, Michigan Marriages 1868-1925 LDS US/CAN 2342453, v 1 p 11 rn 1245: 10 Apr

1872, Trowbridge, Allegan, Michigan, Groom Jarvis Spurry, age 59, born Yorkslate [York State], white, Bride Roana
Lawner, age 40, born Stonebridge [Stanbridge], white. Groom: Farmer.
19 Federal Population Schedule, 1880: FHL Film 1254569 NA Film T9-0569 pp. 383D [Badly mangled transcription of

Jarvis Sperry and Roana Downer with Ida Schoolcraft.], Trowbridge, Allegan Co., MI : Downe SPERY Self male
married white age 75 born in NY occupation Blacksmith father born in CT mother born in CT: Roasia SPERY Wife
female married white age 50 born in VT occupation Keeping House father born in VT mother born in VT : Wm.
WITHIERS Self male married white age 25 born in CAN occupation Farm Laborer father born in CAN mother born in
VT: Ella WITHIERS Other female married white age 20 born in NY occupation House Keeper father born in NY
mother born in NY: Hiram WITHIERS Son male single white age 4 born in MI father born in CAN mother born in
NY: Ida SCHOOCRAFT Dau female single white age 15 born in CAN occupation At Home father born in CAN
mother born in VT.
20 Michigan: Marriage Record, Michigan Marriages 1868-1925 LDS US/CAN 2342466, v 1 p 25 rn 1296: 25 Dec

1880, Otsego, Allegan, Michigan, Groom Marallus M. Green, age 26, born Monroe Co., New York, Bride Ida M.
Schoolcraft, age 15, born Stanbridge, Canada.
21 Quebec: Census, 1881: FHL Film 1375840 || NA Film Number C-13204 || District 65 || Sub-district H || Division 4 ||

pp. 16 || hse. 82 || Census Place: Dunham, Missisquoi Co., QC || Charles Schoolcraft Married German Male age 39 born
in QC, Carpenter, Congregationalist || Lucy Schoolcraft Married English Female age 40 born in USA,
Congregationalist || George Schoolcraft English Male age 15 born in USA, Congregationalist || Diana Gorham Irish
Female age 35 born in QC, Methodist || Alice Drewe English Female age 20 born in England, Music Teacher, Church
of England || Christopher Schoolcraft Widowed German Male age 80 born in USA, Adventist.

101
22 Quebec, Cowansville: Methodist Church Records, Burials: Christopher Schoolcraft carpenter of East Dunham county
of Missisquoi province of Quebec died the twenty second day of February in the year of our Lord Two thousand eight
hundred and eighty eight and was buried by me on the twenty fourth day of the same month and year in the presence of
the subscribing witnesses of whome the first is the youngest son of the said Christopher Schoolcraft. Isaac Whealty
Minister, Witnesses Charles A. Schoolcraft and L. A. Schoolcraft.
23 Quebec, Clarenceville: Methodist Church Records, Clara May, Alpha Mary and Florence Ethel, daughters of

Lorenzo Schoolcraft and Barbara Wilson his wife were baptised by me on the eleventh of March Two thousand eight
hundred and ninety four in the presence of the subscribing witnesses. Clara May was born on the nineteenth day of
May eighteen hundred and seventy two, Alpha Mary was born on the thirteenth day of June eigthteen hundred and
seventy six and Florence Ethel on the fourth of March eighteen eighty Two. W. Rilance Methodist Minister. G. N.
Clark, H. F. Green.
24
Quebec: Catholic Marriages in the Blue Druins, St. Jacq. Clarenceville recorded marriage of Jos. PELLETIER to
Clara SCHOOLCRAFT on 27 Juil. 1896. Jos. PELLETIER's parents Charles PELLETIER & Adeline THIBAULT.
Clara SCHOOLCRAFT's parents Lorenzo SCHOOLCRAFT & Barba KIMMEL.
25
Vermont: Marriage Record, Alburg VT reported marriage between Espy Schoolcraft (Male) and Malinda Pelky on 5-
Aug-1896. 1st marriage of Espy Schoolcraft (Male) age 22 born in Bedford QC residing in Clarenceville QC.
Occupation Farmer, parents Lorenzo Schoolcraft = Kimbal Barnes.
26
Vermont: Marriage Record, Richford VT reported marriage between John F. Schoolcraft and Ida May Perry on 9-
Nov-1897. 2nd marriage of John F. Schoolcraft age 30 born in Dunham QC residing in Richford VT. Occupation
Laborer, parents Lorenzo=Margaret.
27 Vermont: Marriage Record, Alburg VT reported marriage between Etta Schoolcraft and George McCullough on 1-

Apr-1899. 1st marriage of Etta Schoolcraft age 18 born in Clarenceville QC residing in Clarenceville QC. Parents
Lorenzo Schoolcraft=Barbara Allen.
28 Vermont: Marriage Record, Swanton VT reported marriage between Edward Schoolcraft and Rosa Rosely on 15-

Sep-1902. 1st marriage of Edward Schoolcraft age 28 born in Clarenceville QC residing in Clarenceville QC.
Occupation farmer, parents Lorenzo Schoolcraft = Barbara Barnes.
29 Quebec, Philipsburg: Anglican Church Records, On this seventeenth of March Two thousand eight hundred and

twenty eight Philip Bachelor and cabinet maker and Eveline Decker spinster both of the age of majority and of the
Seignory were married after Banns being first published in presence of her brother and sister here subscribing. Richard
Whitwell minister. Philip Schoolcraft, Eveline X Decker, Barnabas X Decker, Catharine X. Decker.
30 New York, Malone: Cemetery Listings, “Electronic,” Webster Street cemetery: Philip SCHOOLCRAFT Died 23

January 1860 Age 62 yrs.


31 New York, Malone: Cemetery Listings, “Electronic,” Webster St. Cemetery: Eveline wife of Philip

SCHOOLCRAFT died Aug. 8, 1866 AE 61 Yrs. 5 Ms.


32 New York, Malone: Cemetery Listings, “Electronic,” Webster Street cemetery: Schoolcraft, Ephraim died Sept. 1,

1885; Ae. 46 yrs.


33 New York: Newspapers, Frontier Palladium, Malone, Thursday January 17th, 1861: Died: In this village, Thursday

evening, the 10th inst., of consumption, Mr. Philip Schoolcraft, aged 62 years.

102
Chapter 10: William Schoolcraft, a
Farm by the Lake
I choose to examine William next as he and his children are almost fully determined by a
cession document and a notarial document and because all are living in Clarenceville. This
location, with Missisquoi Bay and the Pike River hindering frequent travel to the east, limits
the likelihood of the early residents of Clarenceville coming from the villages of Stanbridge
and St. Armand. As neighbors frequently married neighbors, this also simplifies the marriage
options for this family.

I have discussed in Chapter 2 that I believe the first reference to William was made by Henry
Rowe Schoolcraft. If correct, the implication is that William was in Vermont until about
1790. After that he joined his brothers in Christie’s Manor, now St. George de Clarenceville,
where it is likely, from the ages of his early children, that he married Catherine Miller. South
Beech Cemetery records provide William’s age, and that of his wife Catherine Miller.
William and Catherine are Methodists. Catherine’s age makes it unlikely that any of their
children were born before 1795. From a Notarial document1 we know that William was
living in Stanbridge in 1807 and that he is the son of Christian Schoolcraft.

At this time I have not been able to prove Catherine Miller’s parents, although I do
conjecture that they were Ralph Miller and Mary Hotchkins. While Peter Miller, whose
claim2 shows he knew Christian Schoolcraft and thus probably also knew William, had a
daughter called Catherine of the appropriate age, she can be eliminated as she is proven to
have married Samuel Embury with whom she had a large family. The best clue to
Catherine’s parents comes from the “Histoire de la Paroisse de Saint-Jacques de
Foucault”3, by Abbé Isidore Desnoyers, 1886. Abbé Isidore Desnoyers prepared histories for
many of the early Parishes around Missisquoi Bay. He was a Roman Catholic priest,
apparently with lots of spare time. He had access to the archives of the Roman Catholic
diocese and started to write parish histories. These have never been published and are
conserved in manuscript form at the archives of the Séminaire de Saint-Hyacinthe. I am
indebted to M. Jef Asnong both for bringing these documents to my attention and for
providing the partial translations.

Page 2, 1797:
The year 1797, Sieur Christie from his side made landgrants as follows: 2nd
Range, 15th July to Abner Hilman 4 x 28 arp. 3rd Range, 15th July to Jacob
Comer 4 x 28, - £47 5 tournois. - 4th Range 14th July to Mathias Taylor 4 x
28 - £47 5. - to Hix Salls 4 x 28 arp. - to Isaac Salls father 4 x 28, - 15th July
to Daniel Taylor 4 x 28 annual rent £47 5. 8th Range near the Bay : 14th July
to Simon Stone 4 x 30 arp. £42 - 15th July to Jonas Carter 4 x 28 - rent £39 8
- to John Allen 4 x 26, - £37 2 - to Ralph Miller 4 x 26 to the same 4 x 25 arp.
- to Peter McKenny the Lots Nos. 14 and 15, 8 x 23 arp. rent £64 18 tournois.
All in the second division of Noyan. All these landgrants as well as those of

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1785-88 and others of that period were made in favor of American Loyalists
of different origin, English, Scottish, Irish, German, protestants.
This shows that a Ralph Miller acquired land on July 14th, 1797 from Gabriel Christie.
Ralph’s presence in Noyan can be confirmed much earlier.

Montreal Archives
Ref. P167,522,D3
Film #3835
1790 field book
Lot 13, 4 x 24.5 = 98 arpents The westerly end of this lot is swampy and poor
but the easterly end is tollerable good land fronting on Missisquoi Bay is
occupied by Rolph Miller.

Ralph is an uncommon name yet is one that William Schoolcraft and Catherine Miller choose
for one of their sons. Inspection of the Oath of Allegiance at Missisquoi Bay shows that a
small party of nine persons, all from Christie’s Manor, took the Oath on April 9th, 1795. That
group comprised Ralph Miller, William, Peter and Martin Schoolcraft, Simon Stone,
Solomon Dunham, John and Amasa Westover and Peter McKinnie. The foregoing clearly
shows that Ralph Miller knew the Schoolcraft’s and shows that he and William Schoolcraft
were living in the same place at the time that William married. It is worth looking into Ralph
Miller’s family. Ralph Miller was married to Mary Hotchins4 who was born about 1748 and
died on June 15th, 1832 in Frelighsburg. This implies Ralph was probably of similar age and
they would have been an appropriate age to be Catherine’s parents. In Dunham, another
Ralph Miller and his wife, Sarah VanAntwerp5, baptize four children in the Dunham
Anglican church between 1819 and 1831: Mary Ann, Alexander, Susannah and Eliza. The
1852 Dunham census6 shows this second Ralph was born about 1787 in Canada. He died in
Dunham on August 17th, 1871. Clearly he is too young to be the one in Foucault in 1797 but
he is likely to be the son of Ralph Miller and Mary Hotchins. A widowed Susan VanAntwerp
born about 1767 is part of his household in 1852 suggesting she was his mother-in-law. Also
in Dunham a Ralph Miller is witness to the baptism of five children of Robert and Ellen
Getty between 1811 and 1820 in the Dunham Anglican church. It is not clear which Ralph
Miller was the witness but given the dates of the baptisms it seems likely that Eleanor7, who
was born about 1784, and the younger Ralph in Dunham would be siblings. The name
Eleanor is also echoed in William Schoolcraft’s family suggesting that Catherine Miller may
have named her daughter for her younger sister. One of Eleanor’s sons is called Ralph Getty
and one is called William Miller Getty, both names that are also echoed in Catherine Miller’s
family. I conjecture that Catherine is Ralph Miller Sr.’s daughter.

The Oath of Allegiance at Missisquoi Bay shows that William Schoolcraft and some of his
immediate relatives were residing in Christie’s Manor in the late 1790s. However, William
may have left there and settled in Stanbridge near his brother Adam as he is identified as a
resident of Stanbridge on January 12th, 1807 in the Notarial document commissioned by
Catherine Phelps that is discussed to in Chapter 5 and Chapter 9, page 98. I use the word may
as it is possible that notary Leon Lalanne was imprecise when he added in a margin note that
William and the others were “all of the said Township of Stanbridge”. William may not have
been an abutter of Adam. On March 13th, 1805 he is granted authorization8 to lease

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Stanbridge lot 12, range 10. This is just north of Pike River village on the west side of the
river in what is also known as Malmaison. William is recorded in Caldwell’s Manor on
February 3rd, 1808 when he baptized a daughter called Mary9.

William is still in the Seignorie de Foucault on August 30th, 182210 when he signs a
Seigneurial agreement on behalf of his son John. He is enumerated in St. George in the 1825
Provincial census11, in the Foucault town census of 183012 and in Foucault in the 1831
Provincial census13. He does not remove between St. George and the Seignorie de Foucault,
as these two places are synonymous. William was located on lot 11 in ranges 10 and 11
where he is identified in Cornelius Irish’s Seigneurial Agreement14:

Notary Leon Lalanne


31st August 1822
Cornelius Irish
... description of which lands and tenements are as follows, that is to say:
Lot number twelve in the tenth Range and Lot No. twelve in the eleventh
Range or consefsion of Lots in the said Seigniory the latter Lot lying East of
the former and together containing One hundred and ten acres of land in
superficies by the same more of lefs, bounded respectively on the South by lots
No. Eleven in each the Sd. Ranges occupied by William Schoolcraft, and
North on the other side by Lots No. thirteen in each of the same Ranges
occupied by Peter West and John Schoolcraft.

This location is in Clarenceville East and right on the shore of the lake where a ferry landing
was located [Appendix D, Figure 16].

William and Catherine’s Children

William’s age and that of his wife Catherine Miller are obtained from South Beech Cemetery
records. Catherine was somewhat younger than William and, based on the births of the
children that I shall discuss shortly, was probably married at about age 18. Only one
baptismal record has been found - Mary9 who was born on February 29th, 1806. We must use
other methods to determine the extent of their family. On August 30th, 182210, William
renewed a Seigniorial agreement on behalf of his son, John who was too ill to attend. He
states that John was of major age and thus born on or before August 30th, 1801. In point of
fact, John had acquired this land from Jonathan Irish on October 18th, 1821 so we may
deduce John Schoolcraft was born before October 18th, 1800 in order to be of major age and
able to execute such a transaction. Because of other children that I shall discuss, I estimate
John was actually born in 1798 or 1799. An 1845 cession document15 implies eight children
survived until close to William and Catherine’s death.

... Were present, Isaac Schoolcraft farmer and resident of the parish of St.
George in the Seignorie of Noyan, George Schoolcraft and Miss Minerva
Schoolcraft both resident in the Seignorie of Foucault all three presumptive
heirs of the late William Schoolcraft and the late Catherine Millar his spouse
their father and mother deceased ab intestat for each one eighth in the said
inheritances...

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That translated statement identifies that Isaac, George and Minerva are three of William and
Catherine’s children. It also states that William and Catherine died “ab intestate” - i.e.
without leaving a Will. Later, on the same page, Henry Irish and a William Schoolcraft
Junior are mentioned. In the margin to the left is written “leur frère et beaufrère”, i.e. their
brother and brother-in-law. This proves William Schoolcraft Jr. was also a son and that
Henry Irish was the son-in-law. At this point in the document a stricken sentence identifies
that Eleanor Schoolcraft is the spouse of Henry Irish. The stricken word “soeur” in the
margin note confirms that she is the sister of Isaac and the others. Eleanor is the wife of
Henry Irish who, with William Schoolcraft, is a recipient of the shares of the inheritance
from the other three. The reason that the reference to Eleanor was stricken is that she died
just a little over a year before her parents. Henry Irish is an inheritor because of two children
left by Eleanor. We have thus added five more children, Isaac, George, Minerva, William
and Eleanor for a total of seven. Cemetery and census records show they were born as
follows. Isaac about 1800, George December 25th, 1812, Anna Minerva about 1819, William
Jr. about 1816 and Eleanor about September 2nd, 1810.

A protest16 issued by notary Faribault against Thomas and Isaac proves them to be brothers.
Census records show Thomas was born about 1797 and was thus the oldest of the children.
With a total of eight children and a cession document dividing the estate into eight parts the
unwary might think we are done. However, only six of these eight are known to be alive or to
be part of the inheritance. Mary, the only child baptized, was probably baptized during illness
from which she was not expected to recover. This practice seems to have existed and shows
some correlation with fact in those cases where the family has an incomplete baptismal
record for all the children. John was also too sick to execute his Seigniorial agreement. As
there is no mention of either Mary or John after these records, I believe both died and were
not part of the cession agreement. This reduces the tally to six who can be proven to be
surviving children.

The clue to another child comes from a death record. Sarah Schoolcraft died on April 6th,
1889 in Clarenceville17. The 1852 census18 shows that Sarah was born about 1800 and is
probably another child of William Schoolcraft and Catherine Miller. She would also have
been one of the eight children implied by the division of William and Catherine’s estate.
Baptismal and census records may be used to show that John Terry and Sarah Schoolcraft
had a family of at least seven children between 1827 and 1845.

There is another Schoolcraft that should be examined. Ralph Schoolcraft appears in the
Rouville Militia in 1837 and 1838. Douglas Macfie, a descendent of Captain Alexander
Macfie who headed that Militia, possesses the original documents, copies of which he
provided to the Canadian Federal Archives in 1982. The January 1st, 1838 Annual Return of
the Company of the 5th Battalion of the Rouville Militia. The third and fourth militia men
listed on the first page [Appendix D, Figure 17] are Geo. Schoolcraft 26 years old and Ralph
Schoolcraft 27 years old. On the second page is Isaac Schoolcraft 32 years old. As Ralph is
born about 1811 he is undoubtedly the son of William and Catherine. Ralph is mentioned
again on March 10th, 1852 in a notarial record19. He is subsequently enumerated in Saranac,
New York20 in 1860 so he would be the eighth child implied by the cession document,
confirming that Mary and John did not survive.

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William and Catherine’s census records do not correlate easily with their known children.
Early census records are not that accurate but some insight can be gained by comparing at
them. (For ease of comparison I have converted the stated ages into birth year ranges.)

In 1825 the household comprises eight individuals but four individuals are supposedly over
the age of fourteen and five are under the age of fourteen; i.e. the numbers are not consistent.
Only one of the columns (children six and under) has a plural count, all other columns being
blank or having a count of one. The most likely place to conceive an error is in a plural
count. I believe that the children six and under should be three and not four as stated,
although this still leaves some age inconsistencies. As the 1830 Foucault census confirms a
total of eight persons and also that there are five males and three females such an assumption
seems justified. The 1831 census shows that one person is no longer in the family and that it
is an older male that has left. Table 13 shows how I believe these three sets of census records
should be interpreted - I believe the 1825 record should have stated three children six and
under, not four. Consideration of the combination of a specific enumeration date and the fact
that an age can represent a 12 month period means that possible birth year brackets will
appear to overlap. It is further complicated in Canada as females under a certain age should
be enumerated twice, once as children within an age group and once as females in an age
group.

Table 13: Early Clarenceville Census Records


1825 1830 1831 Suggested
Provincial Foucault Provincial

Married male 1766-1785 male 1772-1801 William Schoolcraft

Married female 1781-1811 female Bef. 1786 Catherine Miller

Single female 1781-1811 female 1787-1817 Eleanor born 1810

Single male 1786-1800 male Gone

Single male 1812-1819 male 1811-1813 George born 1812

Single male 1820-1825 male 1814-1817

Single male 1820-1825 male 1814-1817

Single female 1820-1825 female 1818-1831 Minerva born 1819

Ages stated in these early records are generally not reliable but sometimes provide an
indication. Hence the fact that the 1825 and 1831 records do not precisely correlate is not
surprising. Because of the known errors in 1825 I’m inclined to favor the 1831 ages. William
and Catherine may be easily recognized as the only two married individuals. Thomas and
Isaac are both married and accounted for in different records. They are not part of these
records. Sarah who married John Terry is born about 1800 and while I do not know when she
married (her first proven child is born in 1827) she is too old to be in these records. Similarly

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Mary born in 1806 would be too old, although I suspect she died young and that that is the
reason she was the only child baptized. George and Eleanor, as children who do not marry till
after 1831, would be expected to be living at home and be included in the census. It is
apparent that a single male born before 1800, (who leaves the record set between 1830 and
1831), two males and a female remain to be found. The older male might be John (born
before 1800), the female and two younger males might be Ralph born about 1811, William,
born about 1816/19 and Minerva, born about 1820. (Anna Minerva married21 Cornelius Adle
and is enumerated in the 185222 that provides her age.) As stated above, this correlation is not
as good as it should be.

Where the Children Went

Thomas, the eldest son, married Eunice Jewett. The proof of this is a little tenuous. The later
census records show that Thomas married someone called Eunice who was born about 1802.
On March 2nd, 1829 a protest is issued by notary Faribault against Thomas and Isaac that
proves them to be brothers.

Notary Faribault: No. 454, 2nd March 1829 Protest at the request of Jubel
Wheeler vs Isaac and Thomas Schoolcraft:
“... To the domicile of Isaac Schoolcraft & Thomas Schoolcraft of Noyan,
farmers where being & speaking as follows to Caroline Jewet his cousin, at
the domicile of said Thomas Schoolcraft she gave for answer & said I know
nothing about that but Mr. Schoolcraft is not at home at the domicile of said
Isaac Schoolcraft and to himself personally ....”

From the context, the text that has been struck through seems to be so marked because it was
irrelevant rather than because it was untrue. However, that passage does show that Isaac was
not at home and that he was, by implication in a different house than Thomas. Caroline
Jewett was in Thomas’ house and is stated to be Thomas’ cousin. However, Thomas has no
cousin called Caroline in the Schoolcraft line and there is no indication of the Jewett family
marrying into the Quebec Schoolcrafts, except as now explained. Therefore, Caroline must
be Eunice’s cousin. The 1825, 1830 and 1831 census enumerates Humphrey Jewett close to
William Schoolcraft. The Berkshire, Vermont town records show that Humphrey Jewett had
a daughter called Caroline Amelia Jewett born on March 29th, 1814. She and her family
would have been known to Thomas Schoolcraft. The History and Genealogy of the Jewetts
of America shows that Humphrey was the son of Elam Jewett and Eunice Richardson. They
also had a son called Jeremiah, whose birth on December 7th, 1773 was recorded in
Coventry, Connecticut. Jeremiah had a daughter called Eunice whose birth on March 5th,
1802 is recorded in the Berkshire, Vermont town records. This is the Eunice that married
Thomas. Her cousin, Caroline Amelia Jewett, is in Thomas’ home when notary Faribault
visits on March 2nd, 1829. The 1825 enumeration shows two young children, one male and
one female, which suggests a marriage in the early 1820s. Some have claimed these two
children were the product of an earlier marriage by Eunice but I have not been able to obtain
even rudimentary evidence to substantiate such a claim. The Noyan town enumeration shows
four children, two female and two male. Of the eight children that I can identify, only two are
born before 1830 suggesting a son and a daughter remain to be found. Thomas probably left
Clarenceville about 1833 when he sold his land in Clarenceville23 to his brother, Isaac. He is

108
not enumerated again till 1850, after he has settled in Parrishville in St. Lawrence County,
New York. The family remained in this part of New York for about thirty years. Many of
those bearing the Schoolcraft name in St. Lawrence County can be traced back to one of
Thomas’ children. Between 1860 and 1870 he, with several of his children, removed to Alma
in Jackson County, Wisconsin. The motivating force for this move may have come from one
or more of his adult children, as Thomas was in his sixties by this time.

Four of William’s children, Isaac, Sarah, Eleanor and Anna Minerva had families that
remained, for the most part, in the Clarenceville region.

Sarah married John Terry by whom seven children have been identified. Sarah and John
remain in Clarenceville till her death on April 6th, 188917. Their descendants are found in
Clarenceville and in Stanstead, where some remarried into the Schoolcraft line. Sarah Terry
married her first cousin, Henry Schoolcraft. Herbert Beerwort married his first cousin once
removed, Ida Schoolcraft. Ida and Henry Schoolcraft were brother and sister, the children of
George Schoolcraft and Abigail Irish. Sarah Schoolcraft’s daughter, Harriet Eliza Terry,
married Frederick Beerwort and was the mother of Herbert Beerwort.

Isaac Schoolcraft married Diadama Miller and is continuously enumerated in Clarenceville


till his death on May 21st, 188024. He is buried in the Southridge cemetery near his parents.
Notarial and other records suggest he lived on the land at Nutt’s Corners that he acquired
from his brother, Thomas, on February 26th, 1833. Ten children have been identified. Most
remained in Clarenceville, or Alburg and Swanton in north west Vermont. The first born
child marries Ebenezer Irish and removes, just before her death, to Stanstead, Quebec.
Diadama’s parents have not been determined. There is a claim that she is actually Diadama
Niles, the widow of John Miller, but this can be disproved. Diadama Niles is born in Alburg,
Vermont, on January 27th, 179725. There is an age discrepancy that is not based on vanity.
Diadama Niles is enumerated in her own home in Alburg Springs in 186026, stating her
correct age. She is living next door to her brother, which is in conflict with the enumeration
of Isaac and Diadama Schoolcraft in Clarenceville in 186127 where Diadama states her age
that is nine years younger. John Miller’s marriage is the root of the confusion. Depending on
the claim, it is stated that he married Diadama Niles between 1815 and 1820. The reality is
that John Miller married Diadama Sutherland in 1839 and the minister’s name was Niles28. I
am aware of a claim that Diadama Sutherland was in fact Diadama Niles, the widow of
Emanuel Sunderland. There is no record of Emanuel’s marriage or death in the Alburg town
records but it is not really relevant. It is apparent that even if John did marry Diadama Niles,
it was in 1839 and long after Diadama Miller had married Isaac Schoolcraft. Diadama Niles
and Diadama Miller are two different individuals. Isaac’s children remained in the area;
Clarenceville, Stanbridge, Alburg and Stanstead with one exception. I am aware of a claim
that Isaac’s daughter, Eleanor married John Robert Miller and went to Greene Co., Missouri.

Eleanor Schoolcraft married Henry Irish by who she had three children before her early death
on September 5th, 1842. Care must be exercised when reviewing the Clarenceville Church
and cemetery records as there are two persons called Emily Irish. One is Eleanor’s daughter
who is not the one that married John Cupples. The Emily Irish that married John Cupples
was a half first cousin to Eleanor’s daughter.

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Anna Minerva, who married Cornelius Everett Adle, is the last of the four children who
remained in Clarenceville. Four children have been identified. The Clarenceville Methodist
church burial record shows that Anna Minerva died on November 12th, 186029.

Little is known of Ralph Schoolcraft and his descendants. He is enumerated20 in 1860 with a
much younger wife and two children. The children’s ages suggest he may not have married
till the mid 1850s. If he were living in another household he would not be explicitly
enumerated in 1842. If he removed from Quebec to New York in between the 1850 New
York census and the 1852 Quebec census he would not be enumerated in either. He is
presumed to have died before 1870 as his wife is enumerated as a pauper in 1870 in the
County Poorhouse30 with a son called Joseph. Three weeks later Julia appears to have been
rescued and is enumerated in31 Saranac with George Terry who is probably related to Ralph’s
brother-in-law John Terry. Julia’s age is rather inconsistent between her enumeration in 1860
and the ones in 1870. I believe the more reliable source to be in 185032 when she is
enumerated with her parents. I note that she is enumerated as “idiotic” when in the poor
house. If she was mentally impaired this might be the reason she was there.

George Schoolcraft married Abigail Beals Irish and remained in Clarenceville till 1861, after
which he removed to Stanstead County, Quebec. Ten children are known. Most married and
remained in Stanstead, Quebec or Derby, Vermont. Two of these children, Henry and
Heman, are the source of some confusion as the names are so similar. Part of the confusion
stems from the wording of the Ruiter’s Corner cemetery listing33. That suggests that Sarah
Terry is Heman Schoolcraft’s wife, which is not so. Henry Schoolcraft is the one that
engages in a first cousin marriage to Sarah Terry. That marriage is recorded in Derby,
Vermont34 and reported in the Stanstead Journal. After Sarah’s death, Henry next marries
Lucinda Peters35. Heman Schoolcraft marries Mary Barry36. To understand how this
confusion in the cemetery listing came about it is necessary to inspect the graves. There is a
joint marker for George Schoolcraft and Abigail Irish with Heman and Sarah on the left and
right sides. The left and right markers read Heman L. Schoolcraft b. Feb.12, 1844, d. Feb. 11,
1905 and Sarah M. Terry wife of H. W. Schoolcraft d. Sept. 28, 1872 aged 27 yrs, 2 mos, 3
days. The spousal relationship is between Sarah and Henry W., who is not buried in that
location. The preparer of the cemetery listing has incorrectly assumed that the “H. W.” on
Sarah’s marker refers to the “Heman L.” buried on the other side of the plot. The 1852 and
1861 enumerations of George’s family include a child called Jedediah. In 1869 a Jared
Schoolcraft marries Loelah Moulton37. Subsequent enumerations and records refer to Jared
and not to Jedediah. The implied date of birth of both is the same. I believe it is probable that
Jedediah and Jared are the same person. The descendants of George Schoolcraft are often
found in Orleans County in northern Vermont.

William Schoolcraft marries Mary Hogle38 in Alburg, Vermont on 9-Jun-1844. This probably
does not signify that they removed to Alburg, as it is the adjacent town to Clarenceville.
More likely, it was merely a convenient place to be married by a Justice of the Peace so that a
civil record of the marriage would exist. There is ambiguity in William’s age. The 1850
census39 implies he was born in 1819, the 1861 census40 implies 1816, the 1870 census41
implies 1811 and his death record42 implies 1816. After his marriage, William is enumerated
in Champlain, New York, in 1850. This relocation appears to be short lived as he is back in
Clarenceville by 1861. By 1870 he is on the opposite side of Missisquoi Bay in Highgate,

110
Vermont. He dies in 1880 in Swanton. This is not a substantial relocation as all towns are
close to Clarenceville. What is significant is that he and Mary have fourteen children who are
the ancestors of many of those in the Swanton and Highgate area that carry the Schoolcraft
name.

Remaining Ambiguities

The 1845 cession document showed that William Schoolcraft was a son of William and
Catherine. The William Schoolcraft from Clarenceville, discussed above, married Mary
Hogle on 9-Jun-1844 in Alburg, VT. I concur with the widely held opinion that this is the son
of William and Catherine referred to in the cession document.

The Muster Roll for the Rouville Militia, July 4th and 5th, 183843 lists two persons called
William Schoolcraft: William, Ralph and George on lines 14, 15 and 16 of page 1 and then
Isaac and William on lines 7 and 13 of page 2 A Muster Roll is definite proof that these are
two distinct persons - money was involved. The Rouville Militia Muster Roll January 1st to
March 28th, 1838 confirms there are two persons called William as it also lists “Wm.
Schoolcraft”44 twice. This was not a full time regular army. There was still some friction
with the U.S.A. and occasionally barn burning. This was a part time Militia of local farmers
protecting each other. It did not recruit persons from as far away as Stanbridge so both these
persons called William are from the Rouville area. Each person would be at least age sixteen,
i.e. born bef. 1822. William born about 1816-19, the husband of Mary Hogle, would be one
of the two Militiamen. Thomas and Isaac have children, called William, but both are far too
young. All of George’s children are too young. William Sr. (born about 1767) is 72 years old
and seems unlikely to be the other. None the less, I believe he is the only option and probably
did occasionally muster along with four of his sons. He may be the one listed as a
“volunteer”. If nothing else, this would provide him the opportunity to help protect his
property. A part time militia, such as this, may well have been as much a social activity like
the VFW as it was a military one.

One reason that this even came up is a somewhat misleading cemetery listing. The most
readily available listing for Southridge (Hawley) cemetery was prepared as a list of names
taken from standing stones in 1957 or 1958 by Mrs. George (Beryl Hauver) Tremblay. This
list included an entry “William A. Schoolcraft”45, no dates. William Sr., born about 1767, is
included elsewhere in the listing. Further, other known William Schoolcraft’s from this
region could be accounted for elsewhere. This looked like the extra William from the
Rouville Militia. Mrs. Tremlay’s listing also included a “Hannah E. Schoolcraft died 1859”
who was listed adjacent to this William and could be his wife. My first thought was that this
was William Miller Schoolcraft and his wife Hannah Eliza Irish but Hannah’s death date is
very incorrect and both he and she are buried in the Stone (St. Ignace de Stanbridge)
cemetery. I believe the answer comes from a much earlier listing by McClellan in 1941. The
Schoolcraft entries from that listing show an infant daughter46 of William and Hannah E.
Schoolcraft [Appendix D, Figure 18]. She dies in 1859 and is the daughter of William Miller
Schoolcraft and Hannah Eliza Irish. She is not included in Mrs. Tremblay’s list. Perhaps the
stone was standing but damaged so that only the parent’s names showed or perhaps it was an
inadvertent transcription error but I believe that the William Schoolcraft and Hannah E.
Schoolcraft shown in Mrs. Tremblay’s list do not exist in the Southridge cemetery. An infant

111
daughter should be included in their place. Unfortunately the present state of the cemetery
and the large number of broken markers makes it impossible to verify this hypothesis.

William Miller Schoolcraft and Hannah Eliza Irish. Photographs kindly provided by Marnie
Murray.

1
Quebec: Notary Leon Lalanne: Unnumbered document, 12th Jany 1807, Agreement of Adam Schoolcraft & Isaac
Afselstine... appeared and were James Schoolcraft, John Schoolcraft and William Schoolcraft brothers to the, Simon
Stone brother in law [MN6: all of the Said Township of Stanbridge]...
2
Loyalists in the American Revolution, United Empire Loyalists Part I, Volume XII - Montreal, 1787-1788, pp. 407.
The Report of the Bureau of Archives 1904. A Loyalist claim made by Peter MILLER shows he had land in
“Quasencooke” (Annaquassacook Patent about five miles east of Cambridge NY) and “Camden”
3
Abbé Isidore Desnoyers, 1886, Histoire de la Paroisse de Saint-Jacques de Foucault, pp. 2: In 1797, Seigneur Gabriel
Christie made several grants. 8e Rg pros la Baie: 14 Juill à Simon Stone 4x30 arp 42#. ... à Ralph Miller 4x26 ~ àu
mémes 4x25 arp ...
4 Quebec, Frelighsburg: Anglican Church Records, BCHS Index Reel 124.04: Hotchkins, Mary, D. June 15, 1832, Bu.

June 17, 1852, ae. 84 yrs. Widow of the Ralph Miller. Wit: Robert Aitken.
5 Quebec, Bedford: Protestant Marriages in the District of Bedford, 1804-1879, (Compiled by R. Neil Broadhurst), pp.

352: Miller, Ralph, M. 30 Dec 1816, , in Dunham residing Dunham, Anglican spouse Sarah Van Antwerp.
6
Quebec: Census, 2-Feb-1852: pp. 136.03, Dist. 3, Dunham, Missisquoi Co., 1 story block, 1 fam., Agric. 160.39 Lot
9-9 & 10-9: Ralph Miller age 65 male born in Canada occ./rel. Anglican, farmer, married. Sarah age 58 female born in
U.S.A. occ./rel. Anglican, married. Alexd. age 32 male born in Canada occ./rel. Anglican, farmer. Susannah age 28
female born in Canada occ./rel. Anglican. Eliza age 21 female born in Canada occ./rel. Anglican. Susan VanAntwerp
age 85 female born in U.S.A. occ./rel. Anglican, widow.

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7 Quebec, Frelighsburg: Anglican Church Records, Frelighsburg Ang., BCHS Index Reel 124.04: Miller, Eleanor, D.
Oct. 10, 1824, Bu. Oct. 12, 1824, ae. 40 yrs. w/o Robert Getty of Dunham, QC. Wit: Moses Knap.
8 Lib. Arch. Can. RG1 L3L Vol. 60, pp. 30196-30217. Mar 13, 1805, pp. 30216. Authorization to lease Crown and

Clergy land. James Schoolcraft, range 9, lot 15; William Schoolcraft range 10, lot 13; Simon Stone range 7, lot 13;
Elijah Spears range 9, lot 19.
9 Quebec: Missisquoi Historical Society, Eastern Townships Research Centre, Dunham United Church fonds,

UC033/008/001a [Stewards Book for the Dunham Methodist Circuit] and file cards at Missisquoi Museum: Caldwell’s
Manor: Mary daughter of Wm & Catherine Schoolcraft Born Feby. 29th 1806 Bapt Feby. 3, 1808 by G. Pearce.
10 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne: 30th August 1822, Robt. Christie for Hon. J. Caldwell to

William Schoolcraft.
11 Quebec: Census, 1825: pp. 815.21, St. George, Bedford Co. Head of household William Schoolcraft, 8 total in

household, 4 under 6, 1 6 but under 14. Males: 1 25 but not 40 Sing.: 1 40 but not 60 Marr. Females: 1 < 14: 1 14 but
not 45 Sing.: 1 14 but not 45 Marr.
12 Quebec: Census, Seignories of Foucault, Noyan and Sabrevios Census, December 4th, 1830: Entry No. 56, Foucault,

Head of Household Wm. Schoolcraft, No. of Male 5, No. of Female 3, Total 8.


13
Quebec: Census, 1831: pp. 1612.194, Segnorie de Foucault, Rouville Co. Concession Head of household William
Schoolcraft, owner, Cultivateur. 7 Total in household. Males: 2 14 but not 18 Sing., 1 18 but not 21 Sing., 1 30 but not
60 Marr., Females: 1 Under 14, 1 14 but not 45 Sing., 1 45 and up Marr., 7 Methodist.
14 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne: 31st August 1822, Cornelius Irish's Seigneurial Agreement.
15 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Notary Édouard-René Demers: No. 1377, Le 11 Janvier 1845, Cefsion par

Isaac, George et Minerva Schoolcraft à Henry Irish et William Schoolcraft: William and Catherine's estate is divided
into eight shares. Isaac, George, Minerva, William and Eleanor are identified as children.
16 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Notary Faribualt: No. 454, 2nd March 1829 Protest at the request of Jubel

Wheeler vs Isaac and Thomas Schoolcraft: The said Isaac Schoolcraft said “the land is not mine and I have nothing to
do with it because I gave it up to my brother Thomas Schoolcraft”.
17 Quebec, Clarenceville: Methodist Church Records, Sarah Schoolcraft, widow of the late John Terry of the Parish of

St. George de Clarenceville aged eighty seven years died on the sixth day of April Two thousand eight hundred and
eighty nine, and was buried on the eighth day of the same month and year in the presence of subscribing witnesses by
me John W. Clipsham Minister. Fred Beerwort, Daniel Derrick.
18 Quebec: Census, 25-Mar-1852: pp. 25.11, Dist. 10, St. George de Clarenceville, Rouville Co., 1 story block, 1 fam.,

John Terry age 50 male born in Canada occ./rel. laborer, Methodist, married. Sarah age 52 female born in Canada
occ./rel. Methodist, married. Adam age 12 male born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist. Sarah age 7 female born in Canada
occ./rel. Methodist. Eliza age 19 female born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist.
19 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Édouard-René Demers repertoire.
20 Federal Population Schedule, 1-Oct-1860, pp. 155.31, dw. 1025, Saranac, Clinton Co., NY, fam. 976, Ralphas

Schoocraft age 50 sex m day laborer born in Canada, Julia age 36 sex f born in VT, Hannah age 3 sex f born in NY,
John age 2 mos. sex m born in NY, Hannah Otus age 74 sex f house work born in NY.
21 Vermont: Marriage Record, Alburg Town records, FHL 0027773 Marriage Book, pp. 101: State of Vermont, Grand

Isle County: 2 Mar 1848 Cornelius E. S. Adle of Canada East and Anna Minerva Schoolcraft of same place by John W.
Sowles, J.P.
22 Quebec: Census, 26-Jan-1852: pp. 15.36, Dist.1, Phillipsburg, Missisquoi Co., 1 story frame, 1 fam., Cornelius E. S.

Adle age 42 male born in U.S.A. occ./rel. blacksmith, Weslyan, married. Anna M. age 32 female born in Canada
occ./rel. Weslyan, married. Rose Rave age 10 female born in Canada occ./rel. Catholic. George W. Adle age 2 male
born in Canada occ./rel. Weslyan.
23 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne: Unumbered 26th February 1833 Thomas Schoolcraft to Isaac

Schoolcraft.
24
Quebec, Clarenceville: Methodist Church Records, Isaac Schoolcraft of the Parish of St. George de Clarenceville in
the Province of Quebec, Canada, died on the twenty first day of May in the year of our Lord Two thousand eight
hundred and eighty and was buried on the twenty third day of the same month and of the same year. By me John Hunt
Minister. Witness Asahel Hawley.
25 Vermont: Birth Record, Alburg Town Book Two, pp. 15: Diadamia Niles January 27th 1797, Elizabeth Niles

February 10th 1799 - Ichabod Niles.


26 Federal Population Schedule, 2-Jun-1860, dw. 26, Alburgh Springs, Grand Isle Co., VT, fam. 27, Diadama Niles age

63 sex f born in VT.

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27 Quebec: Census, 1861: Dist. 2, pp. 9.13, St. George de Clarenceville, Missisquoi Co., 1.5 story, 1 family block
house, Isaac Schoolcraft age 61 M/M born in L. Canada occ./rel. farmer, no denom., Dorne Schoolcraft age 55 F/M
born in U.S.A. occ./rel. matron, no denom., Herick Schoolcraft age 34 M/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. laborer, no
denom., Helena Schoolcraft age 27 F/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. spinster, no denom., Eliza Schoolcraft age 21 F/S
born in L. Canada occ./rel. spinster, no denom., David Schoolcraft age 17 M/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. laborer, no
denom., Maranda Schoolcraft age 12 F/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. no denom., Ruggles Schoolcraft age 3 M/S born in
L. Canada occ./rel. no denom.
28 Vermont, Alburg: Town Records, Book 10, pp. 176: Miller, John, M: 10-Feb-1839, Dadamia Sunderland. Alanson

Niles Minister.
29
Quebec, Clarenceville: Methodist Church Records, BCHS Index Reel 124.9: Schoolcraft, Minerva A. died 12-Nov-
1860 and was buried 14-Nov-1860 wife of Cornelius Adle. Wit. M. C. Flanders.
30
Federal Population Schedule, 20-Jul-1870, pp. 66.37, dw. 513, Beekmantown, Clinton Co., NY, fam. 503, County
Paupers, Julia Schoolcraft age 39 sex f Idiotic born in Ireland, Joseph Schoolcraft age 5 sex m born in NY.
31 Federal Population Schedule, 9-Aug-1870, pp. 29.37, dw. 217, Saranac, Clinton Co., NY, fam. 217, George Terry

age 27 sex m farmer born in VT, Clarina age 47 sex f keeps house born in VT, Oliver age 57 sex m born in VT, Ellin
age 24 sex f born in NY, James Kimball age 2 sex m born in NY, Julia Schoolcraft age 43 sex f pauper born in VT,
Hannah age 13 sex f domestic born in NY.
32
Federal Population Schedule, 7-Sep-1850, pp. 248.19, dw. 9, Harriets Town, Franklin Co., NY, fam. 9, Stephen Otis
age 63 sex m farmer born in NH, Hannah age 64 sex f born in NH, Julia Ann age 23 sex f born in VT.
33 Ruiter's Corner, Stanstead Co. / Northern Vermont Cemetery Index from Stanstead Historical Society, Colby-Curtis

Museum, Stanstead, Quebec: Schoolcraft, Heman L; Ruiter's, born Feb 12, 1844; died Feb 11, 1905. Husband or Wife
Section: Sarah M Terry- died Sep 28, 1872. Notes Section: Age of wife 27/02/03.
34 Vermont: Marriage Record, Derby VT reported marriage of Henry Schoolcraft to Sarah Terry on 8-Sep-1868. First

marriage of Henry Schoolcraft residing in Stanstead PQ, occupation Farmer, age 26, born Clarenceville PQ, parents
George Schoolcraft & Abigail Kist. First marriage of Sarah Terry residing in Clarenceville PQ, age 23, born
Clarenceville PQ, parents John Terry & Sarah Schoolcraft.
35 Vermont: Marriage Record, Derby VT reported marriage between Henry W. Schoolcraft and Lucinda Beters on 16-

Apr-1878. 2nd marriage of Henry W. Schoolcraft age 35 born in Clarenceville QC residing in Stanstead QC.
Occupation Farmer, parents Geo. Schoolcraft & Abigail Irish.
36 Vermont: Marriage Record, Holland VT reported marriage between Heman L. Schoolcraft and Mary Barry on 6-Sep-

1887. 1st marriage of Heman L. Schoolcraft age 43 born in Caswell Manor PQ residing in Stanstead PQ. Occupation
Carpenter, parents George Schoolcraft & A. Irish.
37 Quebec: Newspapers, “Electronic,” Stanstead Journal: Married: At the residence of the bride's father on

Dec.22,1869, by Rev. E.B. Ryckham, Jared Schoolcraft to Loellah P., eldest daughter of Mr. Edwin Moulton, both of
Stanstead.
38 Vermont: Marriage Record, FHL US/CAN 0027773 and 0027769 Alburg Town records: State of Vermont, Grand

Isle County: Be it remembered that at Alburgh in said county on this 6th day of Sept AD 1844 William Schoolcraft and
Mary Hoyle both of Caldwell's Manor Province of Canada were duly joined in marriage by me B Gordon Justice
Peace.
39 Federal Population Schedule, 16-Nov-1850, dw. 3337, Champlain, Clinton Co., NY, fam. 3579, Wm. Schoolcraft

age 31 sex M farmer born in Canada, Mary age 28 sex F born in Canada, Sarah age 6 sex F born in Canada, Wm. age 4
sex M born in Canada, Catherine age 3 sex F born in Canada, Caroline age 2 sex F born in Canada, Walter age 1/12 sex
M born in Canada, Adaline Hogle age 16 sex F born in Canada.
40 Quebec: Census, 1861: Dist. 2, pp. 3.11, St. George de Clarenceville, Missisquoi Co., 1 story, 1 family log house,

Wm. Schoolcraft age 46 M/M born in L. Canada occ./rel. laborer, W. Methodist, Mary Schoolcraft age 39 F/M born in
L. Canada occ./rel. W. Methodist, Sarah Schoolcraft age 17 F/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. spinster, W. Methodist,
William Schoolcraft age 15 M/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. laborer, W. Methodist, Eleanor Schoolcraft age 14 F/S
born in L. Canada occ./rel. W. Methodist, Caroline Schoolcraft age 13 M/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. W. Methodist,
Walter Schoolcraft age 11 M/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. W. Methodist, George Schoolcraft age 10 M/S born in
U.S.A. occ./rel. W. Methodist, Ann Schoolcraft age 9 F/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. W. Methodist, Jacob Schoolcraft
age 7 M/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. W. Methodist, Herbert Schoolcraft age 5 M/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. W.
Methodist, Horatio Schoolcraft age 3 M/S born in L. Canada occ./rel. W. Methodist, Emina Schoolcraft age 1 F/S born
in L. Canada occ./rel. W. Methodist.
41 Federal Population Schedule, 6-Jul-1870, pp. 42.16, dw. 315, Highgate, Franklin Co., VT, fam. 320, William

Schoolcraft age 59 sex M farm laborer born in Canada, Mary age 48 sex F born in Canada, Ann age 16 sex F born in
Canada, Herbert age 14 sex M born in Canada, Horatio age 12 sex M born in Canada, Emma age 10 sex F born in
Canada, Augusta age 7 sex F born in Canada, Lucy age 6 sex F born in Canada, Louise age 4 sex F born in Canada.

114
42 Vermont: Cemetery Records, Donaldson cemetery: Will~~~ ~~~t | died | March 10, 1880 | ae. 64 yrs. | Buried next to
Mary, top of stone broken.
43 Quebec: Military Records, Books, official records, etc., Rouville Militia Muster Roll 4th and 5th July 1838.
44 Quebec: Military Records, Books, official records, etc., Rouville Militia Muster Roll January 1st to March 28th,

1838.
45 Quebec: Cemetery Records, Southridge cemetery, Aird: SCHOOLCRAFT, William A.
46 Quebec: Cemetery Records, Southridge cemetery, McLellan 1941: Infant || Dau. of || William M. & || Hannah E. ||

Schoolcraft || Died || Nov. 12, 1859 || AE. 2 mo. 22 d's.

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Chapter 11: James Schoolcraft of
St. Ignace de Stanbridge
We have previously examined Adam Schoolcraft’s family and shown it to be complete.
William Schoolcraft’s family has been analyzed and shown to be both complete regarding
children who survived beyond 1844 and to be isolated from Stanbridge. James is the next son
whose family can be determined with good confidence. James’ grandson, George
Schoolcraft, who was born in 1825 stated1 that his own father was “one of a family of four
sons and two daughters”. Thus we have known limits on James Schoolcraft’s family,
although with all statements like this one must consider that the grandson may not have been
aware of any children that died before maturity. In this chapter I shall show that James
Schoolcraft was one of the two brothers who lived in St. Ignace de Stanbridge. James
Schoolcraft Jr.2 and Elijah Schoolcraft3 are two proven children. Another son, Joel
Schoolcraft, can be determined with such confidence that I consider him to be proven. He
names a daughter, Clarissa Horton Schoolcraft4, 5, for his mother, whom I suspect may have
recently deceased. I shall also discuss other possible children.

In Chapter 5, I showed how James was one of the sons that fought for the Loyalist cause with
his father. James married Clarissa Horton6 on March 26th, 1798 in Sandgate, Vermont. The
Sandgate Congregational church was located in the center of Sandgate. Camden Valley Rd.
in New York continues across the State line and becomes West Sandgate Rd. which runs
directly into Sandgate center. It is only eight miles from the Church to the location where
Adam Schoolcraft had a lease in 1790. The census record shows that after the war James
remained in Cambridge (Anaquassacook) till 17907. I shall discuss that record later and the
daughter that is implied.

In Chapter 5 I also discussed James’ presence in the various Land Grant Applications leading
up to 1800. The Philip Ruiter Ledgers, Book 1799, Accounts March 5th through June 23rd
1800 in the name of James Schoolcraft include that he was “of South river”. This location
was most likely in modern day Noyan on the southernmost bend of South River. Historically
two adjacent settlements in that location were known as Mandigo’s Landing and Mitchel’s
Landing. They seem likely to be the location referred to by Philip Ruiter. This location is also
known as Christie’s Manor. Although no other Schoolcraft’s are found in the Philip Ruiter
Ledgers, all of the brothers state their location as Christie’s Manor when they take the Oath
of Allegiance in 1795. When he took the Oath of Allegiance in 1795 and again in 1800 both
indicated he was going to Hatley. However, I have not been able to locate him in subsequent
Hatley records. On August 24th 1801 he applies, with his brother Martin, for Crown land in
Stanbridge. They are seeking the adjacent lots fourteen and fifteen in range nine. That
location is just north of Pike River village on the east side of the river in what is also known
as De Rivieres. On March 13th, 1805, James is granted authorization8 to lease that lot. An
earlier petition9 on September 10th, 1804 includes the phrase actual settlers suggesting James
was already resident there, possibly since 1801. This conclusion is born out in a petition10
dated July 20th, 1807, seeking more favourable lease terms and that discusses back rent. Back
rent would only be due if they were already resident on the land. The Leon Lalanne11

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document from 1807 that was first presented in Chapter 5 states that James is living in
Stanbridge at that time. However, by July 17th, 1813 he is in New Haven12, Addison Co.,
Vermont where he is warned out of town. The widowed Keziah Patterson, with whom he is
living, is his sister in law. By December 20th, 1814 he is being warned out of Georgia13,
Vermont and by May 6th, 1816 he is being warned out of St. Albans14, Vermont. As is
typical, no reason is given for these warnings. The usual cause is poverty and an expectation
that they may become a financial burden on the town. Possibly his Loyalist Canadian
connections may have been the cause. In any event, by 1820 he has returned to Georgia15,
Vermont and has three family members as well as his wife. By 1825 James has returned to
Quebec16 and in 1831 we find he is living in Range 3, Stanbridge17. At this point the map is
useful. Jas. Schoolcraft is shown faintly in Range 3, Lot 20 [Appendix D, Figure 12]. This is
East and a little North of the center of St. Ignace de Stanbridge. A modern map [Appendix D,
Figure 14] allows us to determine that this is near Chemin Louise. An examination of James’
neighbors in the 1825 census is very consistent with his being in this same location at that
time also. I have not located any record of James after this time and it is not known where he
died. Elijah’s death record3 in Michigan implies that they went to Pine Grove but I consider
this unreliable. The record was made many years after James would have died and
supplemental information like this is often in error. Further, Elijah was still in New York
State through 1850. I believe that Clarissa probably died during the late 1830s or early 1840s
accounting for Joel’s naming of his daughter4. In point of fact, James’ grandson, George,
states “His grandfather Schoolcraft migrated from Massachusetts to Stanbridge, Canada,
and having purchased land was there engaged in farming during the remainder of his life”1.
While that statement is incorrect with respect to Massachusetts, it does suggest that James
remained in Stanbridge till his death.

James’ location over time is a significant factor in being able to determine his family.
Examination of the early census records for any family shows that a large majority of the
children remain in the family home till they marry and then often settle nearby. It is not
always the case but can be a strong circumstantial indicator. For the case in point, James’
children born between about 1795 and 1807 would be born in Quebec, initially in Christie’s
or Caldwell’s Manor but later in Stanbridge. Between about 1813 and 1820 they would be
born in Vermont and after 1825 they would be born in St. Ignace de Stanbridge. We can take
this one step farther. Any children of James who married between 1813 and 1820 would have
done so in Vermont and would not be recorded in Quebec. Only individuals who married in
Quebec after 1820 can be considered potential children of James. We are now in a position to
examine James Schoolcraft’s family in more detail.

James Schoolcraft Jr.

James Schoolcraft Jr. is easy to prove. His death record2 is explicit. That record provides his
parents, birth and death, although I favor a census record for his true age. The same may be
determined for his wife, Abigail Holbrook, who dies shortly after18. I have not located any
record of their marriage which, from census information19 seems to have been just before
1825. They are enumerated adjacent to James Schoolcraft Sr. They have two children, Alfred
and Azro who are born six years apart. Azro is killed in the Civil War at Spotsylvania Court
House20. Various records imply or state that Alfred was born in Stanbridge about January
28th, 1824. The 1825 census implies there was also a young daughter, in addition to Alfred,

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in James Jr.’s household. James Jr. removes back to Georgia, Vermont, by 1830 where Azro
is born. After living in Fairfax, James and Abigail finally settle in Hyde Park, Vermont,
where they remain till their deaths.

Elijah Schoolcraft and Van Buren County, Michigan

There was also a son called Elijah but we must go to Van Buren County, Michigan to prove
that using his death record3. Elijah was born in 1793, a few years after James Jr. His marriage
to Sarah Dimond21. is recorded in Franklin, Vermont in January 1825. George Dimond,
Sarah’s father, lived on lots 23 and 24 in range 2. That is only a short distance north of James
Schoolcraft. Elijah is listed in the 1825 Stanbridge census but his precise location is not clear.
From correlation with his neighbors (Timothy Jones and David Safford) it would seem likely
he is in one of the higher numbered lots north east of St. Ignace de Stanbridge, somewhere
along 2nd Range Rd. North and almost into Farnham. Elijah does not appear again until 1840
when he is in Essex County, New York. The birth locations of his children imply he removed
to New York between 1836 and 1838. By 1860 he has reached Van Buren County, Michigan
but there is evidence in his children’s records that the family probably spent a short time in
Ohio between 1850 and 1860. Two of his sons, William and George, have biographies in “A
History of Van Buren County Michigan”1. The biography for George is particularly helpful
to determining James Schoolcraft Sr.’s family as it states: “One of a family of four sons and
two daughters, Elijah Schoolcraft was born in Massachusetts, and as a youth went with is
parents to Canada.” While the Massachusetts birth is very unlikely, knowing the number of
children in James’ family, and their gender, is very helpful. One must realize that George is a
grandson and his memory in 1912 of aunts and uncles that he would not have seen since their
deaths many years before, may not be complete. Particularly, he probably would not have
knowledge of any who might have died before about 1825. Elijah and his children account
for many of the families in Van Buren and Allegan Counties that carry the Schoolcraft name.

While most of Elijah’s children can be determined relatively easily, it is worth discussing
Freeman at this time as some records pertaining to him are very misleading. Freeman is
identified as Elijah’s son in the History of Van Buren County22, which is confirmed by the
1850 census23, which shows he was born in 1833. A Ticonderoga newspaper report refers to
a Freeman Schoolcraft but is misleading because of other associated records:

Ticonderoga Sentinel, Friday, August 22, 1884, Personal and General:


Saturday afternoon about 5 o’clock as the canal boat Martha L. Schoolcraft
of Champlain, N.Y., reached Fort Edward, the captain’s wife, Mrs. Freeman
Schoolcraft, attempted to light a fire with kerosene. The can exploded, and in
an instant Mrs. Schoolcraft and the whole interior of the cabin were in flames.
The unfortunate woman’s cries brought her husband, who soon succeeded
with the aid of wet carpets in smothering the flames but was severely burned
himself. Dr. Vandenburg was summoned, and did all in his power to alleviate
the woman’s sufferings, which were intense, as there was not a square inch of
her person but was burned. At 7 o’clock she died and with the consent of
Coroner Vandenburg her remains were placed in a casket and sent with the

119
afflicted husband to Champlain. The deceased was about forty years of age,
and left three small children. - Troy Times.

Unfortunately, tragic accidents like this afflicted our ancestors all too often during everyday
life. The 1880 census24, enumerates this Freeman Schoolcraft born about 1845 in New York,
his wife, Louise, born about 1852 and four children, one of whom must have died between
1880 and 1884. Freeman’s wife is identified as Louise Aunchman from a cemetery record in
St. Mary’s Prospect Hill Cemetery25, although that cemetery record is incorrect in her date of
death which it states as 1888. (I have examined the newspaper report which is unambiguous
in its publication date. I have not examined the cemetery marker to determine if the listing is
incorrect or the stone cutting is incorrect.) Louise is born in 1847 which does nothing to raise
suspicion regarding Freeman’s claimed birth in 1845. Freeman remarries in 188926, but his
age is not stated. The name Freeman is only found infrequently in the Schoolcraft lines, the
most likely related instances are among Elijah’s descendants. It is only by 1900 that Freeman
is found with his second wife, Agnes, and living in Van Buren Co. Here his age is far closer
to the truth. I conclude that he obscured his age in 1880 because he was considerably older
than his first wife. One more item concerning Freeman should be mentioned. In 1870 an
Albert Schoolcraft, age 11, is enumerated in the household of Peter Aunchman27. Aunchman
is not a common name and I conjecture that Peter is Louise’s father because a Schoolcraft is
living in his household. The question is, who is Albert? There is no conclusive evidence to
relate him to Freeman. Another researcher has stated: “Albert is Elijah Schoolcraft’s adopted
son - my aunt, age 80, is very clear on the matter involving Albert. She matter of factly states
that grampa (Albert) was an orphan and was adopted by a Canadian man and his indian
squaw wife and that they never met anyone from his family. She stated it was common
knowledge that he was adopted.” I do not accept the part concerning Elijah as Elijah is in
Michigan by 1860, probably sooner. Albert was either unborn or only one year old and I
cannot image he would have remained in New York. I thus conjecture that Albert is in reality
the adopted son of Freeman who is visiting with his grandfather in 1870.

Joel Schoolcraft and a Naming Coincidence

The key to considering Joel as a son of James Schoolcraft is his naming a daughter “Clarissa
Horton Schoolcraft”4. I consider that alone to be proof that Clarissa is a grand daughter of
Clarissa Horton. (Her date of birth precludes her being a daughter of James and Clarissa.)
She is best shown to be Joel Schoolcraft’s daughter by census enumeration28 and cemetery
listing29. Together these provide name and age correlation between Clara Horton Schoolcraft
buried in Eastman and the Clara Schoolcraft who is Joel’s daughter. The foregoing evidence
is so strong that I consider Joel to be proven to be James’ son.

Joel is a complicated individual to follow. One of the earliest references is the marriage of a
daughter30. She specifies a father but no mother. The marriage to Lee Selby has been misread.
Lee and Hannah (Schoolcraft) Libby are buried in South Stukely31, 32 cemetery. Hannah was
born on or about August 28th, 1825 implying Joel was married before then. The first marriage
that I have a record of is to Mary Clement33, which takes place in Georgia, Vermont. As this
is the same town as his brother, James Jr., is living I am even more confident that Joel is
James Sr.’s son. There is a third marriage in 1855 to Sarah Notemire34, by whom Joel has a
substantial family. The last child is born when Joel is seventy three years old35. My initial

120
reaction to this was that I had confused two persons called Joel Schoolcraft. However, both
the 1861 and 1871 census enumerations confirm Joel’s age. The Waterloo Advertiser is
germane to showing that Joel was married to both Sarah Notemire and to Mary Clement:

April 12. 1895: Deaths, “Emma Schoolcraft at Eastman, on March 23, 1895
of heart failure. Lived with her half sister and husband, Mr and Mrs Rufus
Tibbits. An investigation was made into her death due to the suddenness. Age
18.”
June 14 1895 Waterloo Advertiser (Under Eastman News): “Emma
Schoolcraft, her inquest showed she died of natural causes.”

Jane Schoolcraft is enumerated with her father and step mother in the 1861 census and it is
she that married Rufus Tibbets36. While I have not yet resolved the initial marriage that gave
rise to Hannah Schoolcraft, Hannah’s marriage location, Joel’s age and the absence of
alternatives leaves little room for doubt that Joel was married three times.

As is illustrated by the foregoing, Joel and his descendants can be found in Shefford County,
Quebec. Unfortunately the loss of some census enumerations for this area in 1851 and 1861
hinders research.

Moses Schoolcraft and Another Michigan Connection

The 1831 census37 includes Moses Schoolcraft who is living close to George Dimond in
Range 1. If we check on the Stanbridge Map [Appendix D, Figure 12] there is an “M.
Schoolcraft” shown in lot number 26, range 1. This is almost in Farnham Centre and close to
both George Dimond and the presumed location of Elijah Schoolcraft. In fact, the 1825
census38 enumerates Moses in Farnham. Moses consistently states his place of birth is
Canada and, as he is born in 1805, this is consistent with the time when James Sr. was in
Stanbridge. Moses married Hannah Ring in 1824. The marriage was performed by John Parr,
Justice of the Peace, and was recorded in Highgate, Vermont. While Highgate is fairly distant
from northern Stanbridge, a civil registration in Vermont was not uncommon for marriages
that had been performed in Quebec as the Province did not have a civil registration. As
Hannah’s family was in Phillipsburg at one time, Highgate may be considered a likely
location to make a civil registration.

Moses’ first wife is buried in Farnham Center cemetery39 with two others who are of an
appropriate age to be her sisters. [I will state now that the inscription recorded in the footnote
is what is written on the marker. There is an incorrect cemetery listing that records this
person as a Hannah Schoolcraft who died on the same day in 1815 and is often claimed to be
the wife of Martin Schoolcraft. That cemetery listing is incorrect.] By 1842 Moses has
apparently removed across the town line to Dunham, although it is not possible to tell
precisely where he located in that town. At this point it is worth noting that the village of
Farnham Centre is located on the southern edge of Farnham just about where the towns of
Dunham and Stanbridge join. It is possible that Moses was moving no more than a few
hundred yards between the enumerations of 1825, 1831 and 1842, or possibly not moving at
all if census re-districting was occurring. Following his first wife’s death he marries a widow
from Dunham40. While Joel Spears, a witness at that marriage, might seem a genealogical

121
indicator Joel is a very common name in the Spears family. Further, there are marriages to
the Spears family from both the Schoolcraft and Ring families. Thus I do not attribute
genealogical significance to Joel’s presence. After his second marriage Moses removed to
Norfolk, New York where he is enumerated in 1850, 1860 and 1870. In fact, the nearby
village of Stockholm may have been his true location as that is referred to by his son41. This
location is about twenty miles from Thomas Schoolcraft, one of William Schoolcraft’s sons.
However, William cannot be Moses father as we fully accounted for William’s family in
Chapter 10. Because many other families also seem to be removing from the Eastern
Townships into New York State around this time I believe Moses’ choice in going to Norfolk
was coincidental. Moses remains in Norfolk till 1870. In 1880 his widow and her two sons all
appear in Cheshire, Allegan County, Michigan. As this is only ten miles from Elijah
Schoolcraft in Pine Grove, Van Buren County, I believe this is very significant and
strengthens the case for Moses being the fourth son of James Schoolcraft. Possibly Moses
had gone to Michigan around the time that Elijah died in 1873 and his family remained in
Michigan after his own death.

I believe that Moses is probably James Schoolcraft’s son and is the last of the four sons
referred to by James’ grandson.

Two Daughters, or Something More Complex

The Georgia, Vermont town records contain an intriguing entry42:

Georgia Town Records, Book 2, pp. 5:


To either constable of Georgia in said County, Greeting. By the authority of
the State of Vermont you are hereby requested to summon Annis Schoolcraft
and her family now residing in Georgia to depart said town. Hereof fail not
but of this precept and your doings here ~~~ make according to law. Georgia
January 4th, 1817.
Georgia 20th January 1817 theis served this precept by leaving a true and
attested copy at her usual place of abode, with this my ~~~ thereon in ~~~.

This is very similar to the warning given to James Schoolcraft Sr. on December 20th, 1814.
As there are no other Schoolcraft’s in Georgia around this time it is very likely there is a
relationship between James Sr. and Annis. I have searched elsewhere in the Georgia records,
and quite a few other likely places, but have found no other mention of Annis Schoolcraft.
The warning tells us she had a family and as these warnings usually went to the male head of
a family it is likely she was a widow. That alone suggests she would be born before about
1802. “Annis”, a form of “Agnes”, is not a common name. Significantly, Clarissa Horton has
a sister called Annis43.

Washington Co. Clerk of Wills


Copy of the Last Will & Testament of Elijah Haughton deceased, recorded
July 19th 1817.
Secondly I give and bequeath to my Daughter Annis the wife of Abijah Hubbel
and to my Daughter Clarrifsa the wife of James Schoolcraft, each the sum of
sixty dollars, to be paid to them respectively in neat stock two years after my

122
decease by my executor herein after named which said Legacy I do hereby
charge upon all my real and personal Estate herein after given and devised to
my son Jehial Haughton -

[Be careful when reading this Will. “Annis” is actually hyphenated across two lines about
two thirds of the way down and is easily misread.] This gives me confidence to say that
Annis Schoolcraft is probably the daughter of James Schoolcraft and Clarissa Horton.

There is more we can deduce about Annis Schoolcraft. I have already stated that her name is
not common. None the less, there is another Annis close by whose maiden name is not
explicit. She is the wife of Samuel Sisco. Coincidentally, Samuel Sisco, his wife Annis and
three children (Benjamin, Esther and Samantha) are warned out of Huntsburg44, now
Franklin, on March 30th, 1807. Vermont birth records show Samantha45 was born on
December 5th, 1805 implying that Benjamin and Esther were probably born earlier. A
subsequent birth of Diantha Sisco46 is recorded on February 21st, 1808 in Franklin. No
mention is made of Samuel Sisco or his wife after this. Samuel Sisco’s father is William
Sisco. In William’s Pension Application, he states47:

“On this eleventh day of July 1820.... William Scifsco of Franklin aged 70
years... My family consists of my wife age is 68 years two daughters one
fifteen the other twelve....”.

One of these children was born about 1805 and one about 1808. William’s wife would have
been aged 53 for the first and 56 for the second. Not impossible but unlikely in those days.
Also puzzling is that William’s previously youngest known child was Harriet born in 1796 so
we have a nine year hiatus in the births. I do not believe these two children are William’s. I
think it likely that they are the two grand daughters, Samantha and Diantha, who are living
with him. This would suggest that their parents are dead. I conjecture that Samuel probably
died around 1816 and that Samuel’s wife, Annis, is actually Annis Schoolcraft who died
between 1817 and 1820. The existence of the other children, Benjamin and Esther,
mentioned in Samuel’s warning out would imply that Annis was born before 1790. James
Schoolcraft and Clarissa Horton married on March 26th, 1789 and were enumerated in 1790
with a second female in the household. I believe that female is Annis Schoolcraft who was
therefore born about 1789.

Louisa Schoolcraft is located in the Dunham Methodist church records48 through the death of
her son. Louisa is enumerated with her husband, John Truax, in Stanbridge in 185249 and
186150 and then in Hopkins, Allegan Co., Michigan51 by 1870. The census enumerations
show she was born about 1816 and consistently show she was born in Vermont or the U.S.A.
Her death record implies a birthday of November 30th, suggesting she was probably born
November 30th, 1815. The 1852 agricultural census shows that the enumeration is in
Stanbridge Lot 2-2349. This is very close to Farnham Centre, to Moses and Elijah Schoolcraft
and to where James Schoolcraft was last recorded. I do not have a location for John Truax
before 1852, but his parents lived in Farnham and their children were baptized in the
Dunham Anglican church which is very compatible with his being close to Farnham Centre.
Adding to this, the 1870 enumeration in Hopkins, Allegan County, MI is only 20 miles from

123
Cheshire where Mary Tryon is found and only 24 miles from Pine Grove where Elijah
Schoolcraft is found. A relationship to James Schoolcraft seems evident.

In Louisa’s case, James Sr.’s census enumerations can be particularly informative. In 1820
James is back in Georgia and the enumeration includes a female child under age 10, in 1825
she is aged 6 but not 14 and in 1831 is aged 14 but not 45. Taken in combination, this child
was born between 1812 and 1817 and thus is very consistent with Louisa. Moses, born about
1805, is the youngest of James and Clarissa’s own children, previously discussed. A ten year
birth hiatus to Louisa is troubling. That 1820 census enumeration also includes a female aged
16 but not 26. I showed above that two of Annis Schoolcraft’s daughters were living with
their paternal grandparents in 1820. The age 16 to 26 female is fully consistent with Annis’
eldest daughter, Esther Sisco. I conjecture that Louisa Schoolcraft is in reality, Louisa Sisco,
the daughter of Samuel Sisco and Annis Schoolcraft and that both Samuel and Annis had
died, leaving their children split between the two sets of grandparents. Annis’ son, Benjamin,
would be over 16, likely to be working, and enumerated within another household. Possibly
also significant in this hypothesis is that in 1861 Louisa enumerates as Baptist. The Sisco’s
were Baptist, with strong circumstantial evidence that they were Sabbatarian. It is known that
this sect was often confused as Jews which in turn could lead to persecution i.e. being warned
out of town. Some town records contain declarations by the Sisco’s that they “are Baptist”,
adding credence to the persecution angle. James Schoolcraft’s family is not Baptist. Perhaps
Louisa acquired this interest because it was the religion of her blood parents.

It would be nice to locate some substantiating evidence but so far that has proved impossible.
Louisa’s death record52 does contain a statement regarding her parents but it is either terribly
mangled or incorrect. “Father ~~~ Luke residing Vermont, Mother ~~~ Sebright” implies
that either the first names were unknown to the informant or that this county record was
copied from some other record in which the first names were illegible. The death record for
her son48 leaves no room for error in stating that “Schoolcraft” should appear as one of her
parent’s names.

John Truax had a son, Abraham Alexander Truax53, born in Stanbridge on August 6th, 1844
but the mother was called Catherine. I am informed, but have not verified, that John Truax
and Catherine Truax, his second cousin, were married in the Dunham Anglican Church
December 30th,1830. Catherine died on September 3rd, 184654 just prior to John’s marriage
to Louisa Schoolcraft. The 1852 census enumeration records eight children, six of whom
must be Catherine’s and two must be Louisa’s. Another daughter, Juliette Rebecca, by
Catherine may be inferred from a later baptismal record.

The foregoing is only a hypothesis. I am confident enough to state that Annis Schoolcraft is
probably James and Clarissa’s daughter. I conjecture that she married Samuel Sisco. I
conjecture that Louisa “Schoolcraft” is actually Samuel Sisco and Annis Schoolcraft’s
daughter who took the name Schoolcraft because she was raised by her maternal
grandparents. It was probably Annis and Louisa that George Schoolcraft referred to when he
stated that James had two daughters.

1Biographies of Van Buren Co., Michigan Residents in 1912. From A History of Van Buren County Michigan By
Captain O. W. Rowland Volume II. Published by The Lewis Publishing Company Chicago and New York 1912

124
2 Vermont: Death Record, Hyde Park VT reported death of James Schoolcraft on 3-Jun-1858 of Numb Palsy at age 62
yrs. 9 mos. 26 days, occupation Farmer. Parents James Schoolcraft & Clarissa. Wife Abigail. Buried in Holbrook
cemetery.
3 Michigan: Death Record, Michigan Deaths 1867-1897 LDS US/CAN 2363453, p 146 rn 1419 date 26-May-1874:

Elijah Schoolcraft, 10 Feb 1873, Pine Grove, Van Buren, Michigan, age 79 years 11 months 29 days, Lung Chills, born
Canada, Male, White, Married, Farmer, Father Jas Schoolcraft residing Pine Grove, Mother Clarissa Schoolcraft
residing Pine Grove.
4 Quebec, Bedford: Protestant Marriages in the District of Bedford, 1804-1879, (Compiled by R. Neil Broadhurst), pp.

461 Clarissa Horton SCHOOLCRAFT, a spinster of Twp of South Stukely to Sewell Stone PARKER on 23 Jun 1863
in Shefford Methodist church.
5 David J. Ellis, Joel names his daughter by Mary Clement for his mother, who, I conjecture, probably died before 1842

due to her abscence from that year's census.


6
Vermont, Sandgate: Congregational Church, (Edited by Royden Woodward Vosburgh), pp. 24, March 26 1789 James
Schoolcraft & Clary Horton.
7
Federal Population Schedule, 1790: Cambridge, Albany Co., NY, pp. 315.43, James Schoolcraft. Male: 1 >16,
female: 2.
8
Lib. Arch. Can. RG1 L3L Vol. 60, pp. 30196-30217. Mar 13, 1805, pp. 30216. Authorization to lease Crown and
Clergy land. James Schoolcraft, range 9, lot 15; William Schoolcraft range 10, lot 13; Simon Stone range 7, lot 10;
Elijah Spears range 9, lot 19.
9 Lib. Arch. Can. RG4 A1 (S-Series) Vol. 84, pp. 26219-26222. Sep 10, 1804 petition to lease Crown and Clergy land,

pp. 26220. James Schoolcraft, range 9, lot 15 west half.


10 Lib. Arch. Can. RG1 L3L, Vol. 65, pp. 32486-32489. Jul 20, 1807 petition seeking more favourable lease terms sign

by Peter Schoolcraft, James Schoolcraft and Simon Stone uses the words “back rents”.
11 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne: 12th Jany 1807, Agreement of Adam Schoolcraft & Isaac

Afselstine.
12 Alden M. Rollins, Vermont: Warnings out, (Vol. 1 Northern Vermont, Vol. 2 Southern Vermont), New Haven [p.

291] 17 July 1813: Schoolcraft[?], James, his wife and children, Patterson, Keziah (widow) with her children; warrant
left at the “residence of the within named James Schoolcraft and Kaziah Patterson.”
13 Vermont, Georgia: Town Records, PP. 170. State of Vermont, Franklin County, To either Constable of Georgia in

said County Greeting you are hereby requested to summons James Schoolcraft now residing in Georgia to depart said
town. Herewith fail not but of this precept and your doings herunder this make according to law Griven under our
hands at Georgia this 20th day of December 1814. Stephen Dunton, Seymour Eggleston Selectmen of Georgia. DJE:
Notice was left on table in his dwelling house on 24th Dec., 1814.
14 Alden M. Rollins, Vermont: Warnings out, (Vol. 1 Northern Vermont, Vol. 2 Southern Vermont), St. Albans [p. 209]

6 May 1816: Schoolcraft, James and family.


15 Federal Population Schedule, 1820, pp. 183.05, Georgia, Franklin Co., VT, James Schoolcraft. Male: 1 10-16, 1 >45,

female: 1 <10, 1 16-26, 1 >45, agriculture: 1.


16 Quebec: Census, 1825: pp. 808.13, Township of Stanbridge, Bedford Co. Head of household James Schoolcraft, 5

total in household, 1 6 but under 14. Males: 2 18 but not 25 Sing.: 1 60 and up Marr. Females: 1 < 14: 1 45 and up
Marr.
17 Quebec: Census, 1831: pp. 1251.41, Twp. Of Stanbridge settled 1795, Missisquoi Co. Concession 3 Head of

household James Schoolcraft, owner, farmer. 5 Total in household. Males: 2 21 but not 30 Sing., 1 60 and up Marr.,
Females: 1 14 but not 45 Sing., 1 45 and up Marr., 5 Methodist.
18 Vermont: Death Record, Hyde Park VT reported death of Abigail Schoolcraft on 1-Nov-1858 of Lung fever at age

61 yrs. 6 mos. 20 days, born in Townsend VT. Husband James Schoolcraft. Buried in Holbrook cemetery.
19
Quebec: Census, 1825: pp. 808.14, Township of Stanbridge, Bedford Co. Head of household James Schoolcraft Jr., 4
total in household, 2 under 6. Males: 1 25 but not 40 Marr. Females: 1 < 14: 1 14 but not 45 Marr.
20 Civil War listings, Azro Schoolcraft. Enlisted as a Private on 13 August 1861. Enlisted in Company D, 5th Infantry

Regiment Vermont on 16 September 1861. Reenlisted in Company D, 5th Infantry Regiment Vermont on 15 December
1863. Killed Company D, 5th Infantry Regiment Vermont on 12 May 1864 in Spotsylvania Court House, VA.
21 Vermont: Marriage Record, Franklin VT reported marriage of Elijah Schoolcraft to Sarah Dimon on Jan-1825.
22 Captain O. W. Rowland Volume II, Michigan: History of Van Buren County, (The Lewis Publishing Company

Chicago and New York 1912), George W. Schoolcraft.- Elijah Schoolcraft lived to nearly ninety years old, and his wife
attained venerable years. They reared nine children, as follows: George W., the special subject of this sketch; James;
Freeman; Maria; William; Juliet; Sarah; Melissa; and Guy.

125
23 Federal Population Schedule, 15-Jul-1850, dw. 129, Moriah, Essex Co., NY, fam. 133, Elijah Schoolcraft age 52 sex

m farmer born in Canada, Sarah age 45 sex f born in NY, George age 23 sex m born in Canada, James age 21 sex m
born in Canada, Hannah age 19 sex f born in Canada, Freeman age 17 sex m born in Canada, William age 15 sex m
born in Canada, Juliet age 14 sex f born in Canada, Sarah age 12 sex f born in NY, Guy age 11 sex m born in NY,
Melissa age 3 sex f born in NY.
24 Federal Population Schedule, 1880: FHL Film 1254819 National Archives Film T9-0819 pp. 199A: Champlain,

Clinton Co., NY : Freeman SCHOOLCRAFT Self male married white age 35 born in NY occupation Tailor father born
in NY mother born in NY: Louise SCHOOLCRAFT Wife female married white age 28 born in NY occupation Keeps
House father born in NY mother born in NY: Martha SCHOOLCRAFT Dau female single white age 13 born in NY
occupation At School father born in NY mother born in NY: Oscar SCHOOLCRAFT Son male single white age 12
born in NY occupation At School father born in NY mother born in NY: Howard SCHOOLCRAFT Son male single
white age 10 born in NY occupation At School father born in NY mother born in NY: Norman SCHOOLCRAFT Son
male single white age 7 born in NY father born in NY mother born in NY.
25 New York: Cemetery Records, St. Mary's Prospect Hill Cemetery, Champlain NY: Louise Aunchman born 1847

died 18-Aug-1888 wife of Freeman Schoolcraft. In Section C2 (rear left quadrant from Prospect Street).
26
Quebec: Archives Judiciares de Montreal, M155/201: SCHOOLCRAFT Freeman Lorenzo & 1889 West End 6v
McKetchin Agnes Philomen. Film # M336.38 West End Methodist church - [Montreal]: Freeman Lorenzo Schoolcraft
- boatman - of Montreal, & Agnes Philomene McKetchin, widow of Louis Cadette (??) of New York City were marr
Apr 10, 1889 by license. Minister: S Bond. Wits: Mrs S Bond & Lydia Boxill or Boyill.
27 Federal Population Schedule, 25-Jul-1870, pp. 127.05, dw. 991, Champlain, Clinton Co., NY, fam. 1027, Peter

Aunchman age 55 sex m farmer born in Canada, Mary age 56 sex f keeps house born in Canada, Henry age 25 sex m
works on farm born in NY, Adaline age 18 sex f born in NY, Elisabeth age 14 sex f born in NY, Octavia age 16 sex f
born in NY, Peter age 10 sex m at home born in NY, Albert Schoolcraft age 11 sex m at home born in NY.
28 Quebec: Census, 1861: Dist. 1, pp. 365.32, Stukely, Shefford Co., Jonel Scoulcraf age 58 M/M born in BC occ./rel.

farmer, protestant, Anna Nutmeyer age 31 F/M born in BC occ./rel. protestant, Lorenzo Scoulcraf age 4 M/S born in
BC occ./rel. protestant, Henry Scoulcraf age 3 M/S born in BC occ./rel. protestant, William Scoulcraf age M/S born in
BC occ./rel. protestant, Jane Scoulcraf age 9 F/S born in BC occ./rel. protestant, Clarifsa Scoulcraf age 15 F/S born in
BC occ./rel. protestant. The Agricultural record lists Josselle Scoulcraf in lot 20 range 2 with 50 acres, 7 of which are
cultivated.,
29 Quebec: Cemetery Headstones, Silver Valley Cemetery, Eastman, QC: Headstone reads: Sewell Stone Parker | Mar

18, 1817 - Jan 7 1901 | His wife | Clara Horton Schoolcraft | Dec 25, 1844 - Jan 13 1905 | Their daughter | Cynthia A. |
Mar 16 1878 - Dec 31, 1884.
30 Protestant Marriages in the District of Bedford, 1804-1879, (Compiled by R. Neil Broadhurst), Marriage of Hannah

Schoolcraft, of Bolton to Lee SELBY on 13 Jun 1843 in Knowlton Anglican church. Parents Joel Schoolcraft residing
in Stanbridge.
31 Québec: Cemetery Records, South Stukely cemetery: Range 6, lot 6, No. 4. Lee Libby Husband of Hannah

Schoolcraft Born Feb 28, 1821 Died April 25, 1879. "At Rest".
32 Québec: Cemetery Records, South Stukely cemetery: Range 6, lot 6, No. 5. Hannah Schoolcraft Wife of Lee Libby

Died March 18, 1849 Aged 23 ys. 6 mo. 18 ds. "A woman of the cross."
33 Georgia VT Town Records, Book 2, pp. 242: Be it remembered that at Georgia in the County and State afsd. that on

the 29th day of February AD 1837 Joel Schoolcraft & Mary Clement both of Georgia in the State and County afsd were
duly married by me John W. Wittens Justice of the Peace.
34 Quebec, Shefford: Methodist Circuit Records, On this nineteenth day of November in the year of our Lord Two

thousand eight hundred and fifty five Joel Schoolcraft, farmer of the township of Stukely a widower, and Sarah Ann
Notemire of the same township spinster, were united in the bands of matrimony after due publication of the banns in
the presence of subscribing witnesses by me Geffard Dorey Minister. Joel Schoolcraft, Sarah Ann [X] Notemire,
Nathan Parker, Peter Schoolcraft.
35 Protestant Births in the District of St. Francis, Vol. 2, 1815 - 1879, Baptism of Sarah Emma Schoolcraft on 3-Feb-

1878 in Magog, born on 23-Sep-1876, daughter of Joel and Sarah A. Schoolcraft of South Stukely.
36 Protestant Marriages in the District of St. Francis, Vol. 2, 1815 - 1879, Marriage of Jane Schoolcraft, of Magog to

Tibbets, Rufus Edmond on 02-09-1878 in Fitch Bay.


37 Quebec: Census, 1831: pp. 1251.07, Twp. Of Stanbridge settled 1795, Missisquoi Co. Concession 1 Head of

household Moses Schoolcraft, renter, farmer. 4 Total in household, 1 under 5, 1 6 but under 14. Males: 1 21 but not 30
Marr., Females: 1 Under 14, 1 14 but not 45 Marr., 4 Methodist.
38
Quebec: Census, 1825: pp. 857.24, Farnham, Bedford Co. Head of household Moses Schollcraft, 3 total in
household, 1 under 6. Males: 1 25 but not 40 Marr. Females: 1 14 but not 45 Marr.

126
39 Farnham Centre cemetery headstone: In Memory of Hannah L. Ring wife of Moses Schoolcraft who died Feb.15th,

1845 in the 38th year of her age. “Calm on the bosom of thy God / Dear Spirit rest thee now / Even whilewith us thy
footsteps trod / His seal was on thy brow.”
40 Quebec, St. Armand: Methodist Circuit Records, Folio twenty two. On this twenty second day of December in the

year of our Lord Two thousand eight hundred and thirty five Moses Schoolcraft of the Township of Dunham in the
county of Mifsisco and Province of Canada widower and Mary Tryon of the Township of Stanbridge in the said county
& province spinster were after due publication of banns united in the holy bonds of matrimony in the presence of the
subscribing witnefses by me John B. Kelly Clerk. Witnesses Moses Schoolcraft, Mary Tryon, Edward Blakely, Joel
Spears.
41
Quebec, Granby: Anglican Church Records, Married on the fifth day of February Two thousand eight hundred and
fifty two by me George Slack Minister of the Church of England after due publication of banns Benjamin P.
Schoolcraft youngest son of Moses Schoolcraft of Stockholm, N. York U.S. and of Hannah Rosetta his late wife
maiden name Ring and Susannah Welch eldest daughter of Joshua D. Welch and Rebecca his wife maiden name
Chandler. In presence of Emily Warren, D. L. Chandler.
42
Vermont, Georgia: Town Records, Book 2, pp. 5. State of Vermont, Franklin County, To either Constable of Georgia
in said County Greeting By the authority of the State of Vermont you are hereby requested to summon Annis
Schoolcraft and her family now residing in Georgia to depart said town. Hereof fail not but of this precept and your
doings herunder ~~~ make according to law Georgia January 2th 1817. Stephen Dunton, SSolomon Blifs, Young Clair.
Selectmen of Georgia. DJE: Notice was left at her usual place of abode on 20th Jan., 1817.
43 Wills and Probate, FHL US/CAN 513862: Elijah Haughton's will written 14-Mar-1816 names: son Elijah Haughton

Jr., daughter Annis the wife of Abijah Hubbel, daughter Clarrifsa the wife of James Schoolcraft, son Jehial Haughton,
daughter Orra wife of Christopher Switzer, daughter Keziah the widow of Levi Patterson, daughter Molly wife of
Caleb Loomis, grandson David Griswold, grand daughter Sally the wife of Anson Hollister. Probated 10-Apr-1821.
44 Vermont, Franklin: Town Records, Franklin Town Proceedings, Vol. 1, 1802-1832, pp. 35: State of Vermont,

Franklin County. To Clark Rogers Constable for the Town of Huntsburgh Greeting. By the authority of the State if
Vermont you are hereby directed to warn out of this Town the following Persons to wit - William Sisco Abigale
Benjamin Chandlor Mariah Abigail the 2nd & Parrit Sisco Melinda Powers Amanda Powers Samuel Sisco Annis
Benjamin Esther Semantha Sisco. Hereof fail not and make due return to us within twelve days Dated at Huntsburgh
this 30th day of March in year of our Lord 1807. Signed Samuel Hubbard, Hezekiah Wead, Asa Gallup - Selectmen.
45 Vermont: Birth Record, Franklin VT reported birth of Samantha Sisco on 5-dec-1805.
46 Vermont: Birth Record, Franklin VT reported birth of Dianthey Sisco on 21-Feb-1808. Parents Samuel Sisco.
47 Revolutionary War Pension Claim, Vermont No. 352. William Sisco of Troy.
48 Dunham: Methodist Church Records: Arthur Henry Truax died Oct. 3, 1852, bur. Oct 5, 1852 ae. 2 yrs. 7 mos. s/o

John & Louisa Schoolcraft Truax.


49 Quebec: Census, 12-Feb-1852: pp. 13.47, Dist. 1, Stanbridge, Missisquoi Co., 1.5 story frame, 1 fam., Agric. 81.22

Lot 2-23: John Truax age 44 male born in Canada occ./rel. Farmer, Episcopalian, Married. Loisa age 36 female born in
U.S.A. occ./rel. Episcopalian, married. William age 21 male born in Canada occ./rel. Episcopalian. Emmaly age 19
female born in Canada occ./rel. Episcopalian. John age 17 male born in Canada occ./rel. Episcopalian. Jane age 15
female born in Canada occ./rel. Episcopalian. George age 12 male born in Canada occ./rel. Episcopalian. Abraham age
8 male born in Canada occ./rel. Episcopalian. Howard age 4 male born in Canada occ./rel. Episcopalian. Arthur age 2
male born in Canada occ./rel. Episcopalian.
50 Quebec: Census, 1861: Dist. 1, pp. 3.35, Stanbridge, Missisquoi Co., John Truax age 52 M/M born in L. C. occ./rel.

farmer, Loisa age 45 F/M born in U.S.A. occ./rel. baptist, George age 19 M/S born in L.C. occ./rel. laborer, Abraham
age 16 M/S born in L.C. occ./rel. laborer, Howard age 12 M/S born in L.C. occ./rel. laborer.
51 Federal Population Schedule, 3-Aug-1870, pp. 2.22, dw. 13, Hopkins, Allegan Co., MI, fam. 13, John Truax age 64

sex m farmer born in Canada E., Louisa age 52 sex f keeps house born in VT, family 14, Allison Varney age 24 sex m
farmer born in OH, Amelia age 20 sex f keeps house born in MI, Emma A. age 10 mos. born in July sex f born in MI.
52 Michigan: Death Record, Allegan Co. Deaths 1901-1914 LDS US/CAN 1017873, pp. 8 rn 351: Louisa Truax, 22-

Oct-1901, Dorr, Allegan, MI, age 85 yrs. 10 mos. 22 days, Old age, born Vermont, Female, White, Widow, Housewife,
Father ~~~ Luke residing Vermont, Mother ~~~ Sebright Recorded Nov. 4 [1901].
53 Stanbridge: Anglican Church Records, Stanbridge Ang.: Truax, Abraham Alexander, B. Aug. 6, 1844, Bapt. Oct. 28,

1844, s/o John & Catherine Truax. Wit: Robert & Jane Hunter.
54 Anglican Church Records, Stanbridge Ang., BCHS Index Reel 124.06: Truax, Catherine, D. Sept. 3, 1846, Bu. Sept.

5, 1846, Wit: John Truax & Robert Hunt.

127
Chapter 12: Peter Schoolcraft,
Life on the Border
I choose to look at Peter next because he is located in St. Armand, close to the Vermont line,
at the time his children marry. Thus there is physical separation between his family and those
of his brothers in Stanbridge and Clarenceville. I shall show in Chapter 14 that Martin, with
whom Peter’s children are most likely to be confused, was located in the village of St. Ignace
de Stanbridge. This is twelve and one half miles distant and entails a river crossing that in
early times would have further limited travel frequency, particularly for minor children. Thus
the choice and location of marriage partners can be used to aid in determining the ancestry,
although care must be exercised when drawing conclusions.

Peter is the only one of Christian’s sons for whom we only have circumstantial evidence of
his lineage. Peter first appears in the 1795 Granby Papers where he is listed 7th out of eight
in the group of all the Schoolcraft’s. He subsequently signs the 1795 Oath of Allegiance at
the same time as William and Martin, indicating he is a resident of Christie’s Manor. This
circumstantial evidence was presented in Chapter 5 and is strong enough to conclude that he
is probably Christian’s son. Peter died1 on 11-Apr-1842 in Franklin, Vermont at the age of
74. His wife was Mary Stolicker2 who died on 2-Oct-18333 in St. Armand, Quebec at the age
of 53 years and 7 months. The marriage has not been recorded but the first child is born
about 1799. Mary is the child of John Stalker (Stolicker), and was born April 8th, 1780 in
Hillsdale, NY4. I am indebted to Shon Stoliker Halacka for most of the information about the
Stolicker family and in particular for the record of Mary’s birth. Shon went to considerable
trouble to obtain this image (now also available through the Church of Latter Day Saints).
Mary’s age at death can be used to correlate and thus show that the names Stalker and
Stolicker are synonymous. On the 28th November 1796, John Stalker individually petitioned
Robert Prescott5, Lieutenant Governor of the Province, to be included in the list for
Stanbridge. In that petition he declares:

… was therefore induced by the above circumstances to improve a small


clearing made by the Indians on Pike River in the Township of Stanbridge and
has since increased that clearing…
… who has a wife and eight children…

This assertion is confirmed by the Oath of Allegiance which John takes on August 16th, 1796
stating that he came from Stanbridge. John Stalker is identified again in 1807 as an abutter,
of Adam Schoolcraft in the document described in Chapter 9. The significance of these
events is that they show John Stalker was probably located in the south end of Mystic on the
banks of the Pike River. This would allow that his family probably came in contact with
Peter Schoolcraft in the late 1790s. Peter applies for Crown and Clergy land in Sutton in
1801. Peter is not included in the 1807 document, suggesting he was not close enough to
attend and thus probably not a resident of Stanbridge in 1807. In 1804 a vote taken in St.
Armand lists all proprietors in St. Armand6. Peter’s omission from that list suggests he was
probably not in St. Armand in 1804. His son John’s death record7 indicates that John was

129
born in Sutton in 1805. Peter signs a petition8 dated July 20th, 1807, seeking more favorable
lease terms and that discusses back rent. Back rent would only be due if they were already
resident on the land. While the petition does not explicitly name Sutton, the only applications
to lease Crown and Clergy land by Peter refer to Sutton lot 9, range 5. On December 28th,
1820 Ammie Squiers sells some land to Peter who states that he is living in Sutton9. On
January 27th, 1825 Peter purchases some land in Eccles Hill10. from William Chadborn, both
are identified as yeomen from St. Armand. Therefore I would conjecture, that for Peter
Schoolcraft and Mary Stolicker to have met and married, Peter probably lived briefly in
Stanbridge with his brothers in the late 1790s but then removed to Sutton shortly after 1801
where he lived till between 1821 and 1824 when he finally removed to St. Armand.

Peter’s location in St. Armand is determined from land deeds and census data. The
concessions and lots in St. Armand are not organized in the same manner as Stanbridge. The
1861 census contains maps that show the concessions run north to south but are numbered
from one in St. Armand West on Missisquoi Bay (Philipsburg) to fifteen in St. Armand East
(Frelighsburg). Lot numbers are shown as being numbered contiguously from the south east
to the north west across all concessions so that lot numbers one through eleven are in
concession fifteen, lots twelve through twenty two are in concession fourteen, and so on. On
January 25th, 1825 Peter purchases land in lots thirty-four and thirty five10. These are the
southernmost lots in concession twelve and are located just to the east of Eccles Hill. Joseph
Bouchette shows this as “Village” [Appendix D, Figure 13] at the point where the road to
Franklin crosses the road that is just on the Canadian side of the border. The 1831 census
shows Peter owning land in concession ten. The names Toof and Vincent are frequently
found as witnesses to Schoolcraft documents in St. Armand. Both these families hold land in
the southern ends of concessions ten and eleven, i.e. in Eccles Hill. This is where I believe
Peter lived. The 1831 census shows him to be Anglican.

Peter Schoolcraft‘s Children

In the following I shall attribute ten children to Peter and Mary. Four can be proven from
vital records and notarial documents. Three are determined from circumstantial evidence that
is substantial enough to claim that they are proven. Three more are difficult to place with any
other parents and as they show an affinity to Peter and Mary’s location, I conjecture that they
are their children.

Hannah11 born in 1802, John12 born in 1805 and Seena13 born in 1809 can be positively
identified as Peter’s children from vital records. A Notarial record14. identifies that Samuel
Coat Schoolcraft is also Peter’s son.

Notary Leon Lalanne


2017
16 November 1833
Deed of Sale Peter Schoolcraft to Samuel Schoolcraft
Deposited 4th Jany 1834
Before the subscribing Witnefses in the Seigniory of St. Armand in the County
of Mifsiskou in the District of Montreal in the Province of Lower Canada,
personally appeared Peter Schoolcraft of the Seigniory of St. Armand

130
aforesaid, yeoman, who, in the presence of the said subscribing Witnefses
voluntarily declared & acknowledged that for & in consideration of the sum
of twenty five pounds current money of the Province aforesaid, unto him in
hand well & truly paid before the execution of these presents by Samuel Coat
Schoolcraft, his son, of the same place, yeoman, ...

Hannah marries Joseph Vincent on March 14th, 1824. Six children have been identified and
all remain in the vicinity of St. Armand and Franklin, Vermont. Hannah lived to be 91 years
of age. John does not appear to have married but, like Hannah, remains in the vicinity of St.
Armand and Franklin, Vermont. Seena married George Cameron, who was eighteen years
older than she, on April 22nd, 1850. In 1861 Seena is enumerated with the son by this
marriage in the home of her sister Hannah, but without her husband or her nine year old
daughter. I have not located George Cameron subsequent to his marriage so he may have
died shortly after the marriage. Seena is enumerated again in Farnham in 1881 and 1901 with
her married daughter, Janet. Janet had first married John Getty15 in 1868. I can find no issue
from this marriage and the 1881 census shows that she has remarried to Samuel Johnson. The
census shows five children in the household. Three can be proven to be by Samuel’s first
wife, Nancy Getty. The remaining two might be either Samuel and Nancy Johnson’s children
or John and Janet Getty’s children.

Samuel, Christopher and James Schoolcraft, Three Brothers in Illinois

Samuel, Christopher and James can be tracked across country to Winnebago County, Illinois
through the census records listed in Table 14. Christopher and James Schoolcraft are proven
to be brothers in the 1880 Illinois census. We saw above that Samuel is a proven son of Peter.

Table 14: Census Locations of Samuel, Christopher and James


Samuel Christopher James
Born 1800 Born 1807 Born 1817
1831 pp. 1225.39, St. pp. 1229.21, St.
Armand Armand
1840 pp. 308.08, Fletcher pp. 221.31, Fairfax
VT VT
1850 dw. 3, Georgia VT dw. 160, Franklin VT Dw. 279, Franklin
VT
1860 dw. 2573, Howard IL dw. 179, Highgate
VT
1870 dw. 33, Franklin VT
1880 pp. 36C, Durand IL pp. 36C, Durand IL

James is a witness at Peter’s funeral1 with Joseph Vincent who is proven to be Peter’s son-in-
law. Particularly telling is that Christopher’s daughter, Sarah, is also enumerated with his
presumed brother-in-law Joseph Vincent in 185016, shortly after her mother’s death. In 1870
Christopher, who was widowed in 1850, is living with his nephew Ethan Vincent17 and
Ethan’s daughter. This persistent association of the brothers Christopher and James with

131
proven members of Peter’s family is sufficiently strong circumstantial evidence that I
consider them to be proven sons of Peter Schoolcraft and Mary Stolicker.

Having discussed these three sons, there are some uncertainties in their own families that
should be reviewed. The 1850 census18 and a Nebraska death record19 can be used to prove
that Samuel married Hannah Bradley. An initial definition of Samuel’s family is determined
from the 1850 census enumeration. Families for two of his children can be similarly
determined. However, the eldest child is enumerated as a male called “Jone”. This individual
is really a mis-enumerated female called Martha Jane who married Silas Jacob Winch but it
is necessary to examine various Minnesota and Illinois records to prove it. The rather
complicated life of Martha’s brother, Andrew Jackson Schoolcraft, is also hidden in these
mid-western records.

The best place to start is with a Civil War pension application20 by Silas Winch. This proves
that he married Martha Jane Schoolcraft on November 22nd, 1862 and that they had six
surviving children in 1898.

Department of the Interior,


BUREAU OF PENSIONS,
Washington D.C. January 15, 1898.
Certificate No. 907553
Name, Silas J. Wench
Sir:
In forwarding to the pension agent the executed voucher for
your next quarterly payment please favor me by returning this circular to him
with replies to the questions enumerated below.
Very respectfully,
First. Are you married? If so, please state your wife’s full name and her
maiden name. Schoolcraft
Answer. Yes. Martha Jane Wench,
Second. When, where, and by whom were you married?
Answer. 22nd Nov. 1862, Saratoga Minn, Thos. Dixon J.P.
Third. What record of marriage exists?
Answer. Marriage Certificate on record
Fourth. Were you previously married? If so, please state the name of your
former wife and the date and place of her death or divorce.
Answer. Yes. Mary F. Slade Prairie Hill Iowa
Fifth. Have you any children living? If so, please state their names and dates
of their birth.
Answer. Yes. Clara Bell, Hattie E., Bertha E., Cora May, Alden S. and Rhoda
A. P. Wench. 4th March 1859, 4th July - 64 July 9th - 66 Twins Feb 8 - 68 and
Rhoda Jan 19 1876
Date of reply, July 3d, 1898.

132
Evidence to substantiate that Martha Jane and “Jone Schoolcraft” really are the same person
comes from two 1870 census enumerations from Prescott, Minnesota. These are extremely
faded and hard to decipher unless you have prior knowledge of the family structure to refer
to.

July 30th, 1870 Prescott, Faribault Co., Minnesota


pp. 12.18, dw. 83 fam. 92 S. Jacob Winch 36 m carpenter VT
Mary J. 35 f keeps house VT
Hattie 7 f MN
H. E. 3 f MN
A. S. 2 m twins MN
C. M. 2 f MN
fam. 93 C. Schoolcraft 23 f teacher Canada
A. C. 2 f NY
A. E. 1 m MN
pp. 13.56, dw. 88 fam. 98 T. Braithwaite 26 m farmer NY
Orpha 23 f keeps house VT
George 4 m MN
Frank 2 m MN
S. Schoolcraft 68 m farmer Canada
Hannah 58 f keeps house Canada
Thos. McCrady 23 m hire hand NY
P. K. Braithwaith 17 m laborer NY
J. A. Snyder 16 m laborer NY

The first family in this document correlates with that described by Silas Winch. The
following discussion shows that family 93, living in the same house as Martha Jane,
correlates with her brother’s (Andrew Jackson Schoolcraft) first wife and his two children.
On the next page, family 98 correlates with Martha Jane’s sister, Ophelia, whose marriage to
Thomas Braithwait21 is recorded in Winona County, Minnesota. Enumerated as part of that
family are Martha Jane’s parents, Samuel and Hannah Schoolcraft. The only major pieces of
this puzzle that are missing are some marriage records. Martha Jane’s cannot be located but
the pension application is sufficient evidence. Andrew Jackson Schoolcraft married three
times. First he married Cordelia Winslow22 in Fillmore Co., Minnesota on May 19th, 1866.
They had two children that have been separately identified through detailed local research by
LaVerda Butler and correlate with the 1870 census. By the time of the 1870 census Andrew
and Cordelia have apparently separated. This is evidenced by the 1875 State census for
Fountain, Fillmore Co., Minnesota23 where Cordelia is enumerated under her maiden name.
By this time Andrew has married Elizabeth Skakel24, 25 in Stephenson Co., Illinois on July
18th, 1874. He had two children by her but appears to have separated by 1880 when she is
enumerated without him. Cordelia meanwhile, has married and then separated from someone
with the surname Eddick as she is enumerated under that name in 1880 but with her two
children by Andrew. Then on April 6th, 1884 he remarries his first wife26, Cordelia, in
Fillmore Co., Minnesota.

Christopher has a larger family but one that is not fully understood. The first problem is that
his wife, Mary Snider, is buried in the Vincent cemetery at Eccles Hill with a death date of
133
January 25th, 1849. However, she is also apparently enumerated on October 10th, 1850 in
Franklin. I have carefully inspected the cemetery in Eccles Hill and do confirm that the
marker reads exactly as cited. I have concluded that the Mary enumerated in 1850 must be
someone else but I do not know who. Possibly her surname was not Schoolcraft so that she
might be a relative of the recently deceased Mary Snider. The small age discrepancy between
the cemetery record and the census supports this. Most of Christopher’s children can be
determined from census and other records with little difficulty. There is a minor concern
whether Elmer and Emery are one and the same. I think that they are the same person.
Christopher’s children remove a little West of St. Armand and settle in Brome County,
Quebec and Orleans County, Vermont.

Isaac Schoolcraft, The Impossible Grandfather

Isaac Schoolcraft is born about 182527. He first marries Elizabeth Smith who dies in 1864
and is buried in the Vincent cemetery at Eccles Hill. Isaac can be traced from St. Armand
East in 1861, where he is living beside Joseph and Hannah Vincent, to Dunham in 1871, and
then to Brome in 1881 and 1891. Brome is next to Potton, the location that many of
Christopher Schoolcraft’s descendant’s settle. The most telling fact is that Isaac is
enumerated twice in 1891, once with his own family on April 7th28 and again on April 28th29
in the household of Leonard Schoolcraft, who is Christopher’s son. The 1891 census
stipulates family relationships relative to the preceding family head. Leonard, his wife and
children are enumerated first with relationships to Leonard being stated. Then follows
Prescott who is identified as Leonard’s son. Then Prescott’s wife, identified as “wife”, and
finally Isaac who is identified as “g father”. Age alone precludes Isaac from being Prescott’s
grandfather. However, this is a clear indication of a close family relationship. If Isaac were
Peter’s child he would be a brother to Christopher and thus the true relationship should be
recorded as “grand father’s brother”. I believe this is what was probably described to the
enumerator who curtailed it to simplify enumeration. Given that none of Peter’s sons are
married in time to be Isaac’s father, I consider this sufficient evidence to prove that Isaac is
Peter’s son.

The 1891 census includes additional information of genealogical significance. In the second
enumeration on April 28th. Isaac is enumerated as a widower. It appears that Bridget Bream
has died between April 7th and April 28th and that Isaac is, at least temporarily, living with
his nephew in Potton.

The Case For Matilda, and Nancy Schoolcraft

If we are to understand the families around Missisquoi Bay, then we need to examine all
affinities and divide the individuals accordingly. These two individuals both show an affinity
for St. Armand or Franklin County, Vermont, or else show involvement with relatives and
descendants of Peter’s family. At this point I should remind you that Peter was living in
Eccles Hill close to the border. Franklin center is only two and a half miles south of Peter via
Richards Rd. That road was only closed as a border crossing in the twentieth century and
would have previously provided easy access between Eccles Hill and Franklin. The births of
the seven proven children are 1800, 1802, 1805, 1807, 1809, 1817 and 1825. Two noticeable
hiatuses in the birth sequence suggest the presence of other children.

134
Matilda Schoolcraft married James Prouty30 in Franklin on September 4th, 1831. All this
allows us to determine is that Matilda was probably born before 1815 and probably lived in
Franklin or St. Armand. I conjecture that she is another of Peter’s children.

From her age at death, Nancy Schoolcraft is born about 182331. When she dies in 1853 in
Franklin, Vermont she is buried in Cook’s Corner in St. Armand. The witnesses at her
funeral are N. Vincent and J. Toof, both from families that closely interact with Peter’s
family, as is evidenced in other church records. Indeed, Hannah Schoolcraft married Joseph
Vincent, the brother of Nelson Vincent who is the witness at Nancy’s funeral. This is not
really strong evidence but given that none of Peter’s sons are married in time to be her father.
I conjecture that Nancy is also Peter’s daughter.

Thomas Schoolcraft

Peter or one of his sons probably has a son called Thomas but this is far from proven.
Thomas W. Schoolcraft is married to Dolly Atwood in Georgia, Vermont on September 4th,
185332. The record states that Thomas is residing in Franklin. No age is given. Thomas is
from Franklin and Dolly from Georgia. Even though it is only 3 years previous, neither can
be found in the 1850 census for that part of Vermont. Nor can they be found in the 1852
census for Missisquoi County. The marriage may not have lasted as in 1861 a T. W.
Schoolcraft is enumerated in St. Armand West in the household of Lydia Brill33 when his age
is recorded as 28, born in Quebec. He does not appear to be enumerated in the 1870/71
census. In 1881 a Thomas Schoolcraft, age 60 born in the U.S.A., is enumerated in Potton.
Thomas dies on January 14th, 189234 but no age is recorded. Clearly Thomas’ true age is an
issue and a big problem in deciding his parents. I almost always favor the earliest census
record as the one least likely to be in error when children are enumerated, but Thomas is not
a child in any enumeration. The 1881 census has Thomas born about 1821 in the U.S.A. and
the 1861 has him born about 1834 in Quebec. His own declaration in 1881, rather than that of
his apparent landlord, may be the more reliable. In 1881 he is enumerated in Division 2 in
Potton. In that enumeration dwellings 237, 238 and 239 are respectively Elmer, Leonard, and
Thomas. Elmer and Leonard are both children of Christopher. Orin is another child of
Christopher. Dwellings 47 and 74 in the 1881 enumeration are respectively George and
Linus, two of the Orin’s children. This speaks highly to Thomas being related. None of the
early census enumerations are definitive in showing where Thomas should be placed. Table
15 shows that he does not fit with either Christopher or Samuel. I had considered that
Thomas W. might have been Whitman, the son of Samuel, except that Whitman is readily
shown to have gone to Minnesota by 1870, where he marries and later dies. For the present I
consider Thomas to be another son of Peter, probably born about 1821. To accommodate
this, one must make some assumptions. First that Isaac was born just after the 1825 census so
that Thomas would have been the youngest male child enumerated in 1825. Second that
James, who would be 14 by 1831, is not enumerated in the family at that time.

Table 15: The Early Census Records


1825 1831 1840 Interpretation
Provincial Provincial Federal

135
Married male 1765-1780 Bef. 1772 Peter Schoolcraft (1768-
1842)
Married female Bef. 1781 Bef. 1787 Mary Stolicker (1780-
1833)
Single male 1785-1800 Married Samuel (1800-)
Single male 1800-1807 John (1805-1876)
Single male 1800-1807 Married Christopher (1807-)
Single female 1780-1811 Seena (1809-)
Single female 1811-1825 Married Matilda (-)
Single female 1811-1825 1817-1831 Nancy (1823-1853)
Child 1807-1811 Seena
Child 1811-1819 Married Matilda
Child 1811-1819 James (1817-)
Child 1819-1825 1817-1825 Thomas (1821-)
Child 1819-1825 1817-1825 Nancy
Child 1817-1825 Isaac (1825-)
Married male 1771-1801 1790-1800 Samuel (1800-)
Married female 1786-1817 1800-1810 Hannah (1812-)
Male 1830-1835 Whitman (1835-)
Female 1830-1835 Jane (1832-)
Female 1835-1840 Ellen (1837-)
Married male 1801-1810 1800-1810 Christopher (1807-)
Married female 1786-1817 1800-1810 Mary Snyder (1807-1849)
Child 1825-1831 1825-1830 Leonard (1831-1904)
Male 1835-1840 Orin (1832-1896)
Male 1835-1840 Elmore (1835-1915)
Female 1835-1840 Mary (1836- )
Female 1835-1840 Sarah (1839-1867)

Having determined seven, possibly ten, of Peter’s children it is appropriate to examine the
early census records for correlation. Early census records can be tricky. Individuals are
enumerated by age bracket. Consideration of the combination of a specific enumeration date
and the fact that an age can represent a 12 month period means that possible birth year
brackets will appear to overlap. It is further complicated in Canada as females under a certain
age should be enumerated twice, once as children within an age group and once as females
in an age group. Hannah is the only child who has married before 1825 and she may be
discounted in the following. Samuel, and Christopher are married by 1831 and are
enumerated independently. Matilda marries in 1831 and I do not believe she is enumerated
with Peter in 1831. As is often the case, the 1825 census contains an error. The household
claims nine individuals in total. The enumeration has thirteen entries, including three single
females that should also have been enumerated as children. I.e. at least ten individuals are
shown in the columns and only nine in the total. One possible interpretation is that shown in
Table 15. Duplicate enumerations of the daughters as children are indicated thus.

Christopher’s enumeration is fully consistent with the 1850 census that is used to prove his
family. Samuel’s enumeration is consistent with the 1850 census that is used to prove his

136
family except that Andrew Jackson Schoolcraft, born about 1839, is missing. Possibly
Andrew was actually born in 1840, just after the enumeration.

In my earlier work, I presented a case that Philip Schoolcraft was a child of Peter. The
circumstantial evidence supporting this was weak. I presently believe that Philip is a step son
of Adam Schoolcraft [Chapter 9].

1
Quebec, Frelighsburg: Anglican Church Records, Peter Schoolcraft, of Franklin the State of Vermont died on the
eleventh day of April one thousand eight hundred and fourty two, in the seventy fourth year of his age, and was buried
on the twelfth day of the same, in this parish in presence of the subscribing witnesses by me. Signed James Reid Pastor,
Witnessed Joseph Vincent and James Schoolcraft.
2 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Notary Leon Lalanne: Deed of Sale 10th January 1833 Peter Schoolcraft to

Patrick Small “...personally appeared Peter Schoolcraft of the Seignory of St. Armand aforesaid and Mary Stolicker his
wife...”
3 Quebec, St. Armand: Methodist Circuit Records, Folio fourteenth, Burials: Polly wife of Peter Schoolcraft of the

Seignory of St. Armand Farmer departed this life October the Second aged fifty three years and seven months and was
buried the fourth day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty three in the presence of
the subscribing witnesses by me Matthew Lang Minister. Witnessed Joseph Vincent, Henry Toof.
4 New York, Hillsdale: Reformed Dutch Church, Reformed Dutch Church, Hillsdale, Columbia Co., New York:

Christening of Maria Stalker on Jun 25, 1780, born Apr 8, 1780, father Johannes Stalker, mother Rosena Egelston.
5 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records: November 1796 Petition of John Stalker for land in Stanbridge.
6 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Notary Leon Lalanne: January 1804 Roads in St. Armand
7 Vermont: Death Record, Death of John Schoolcraft on 20-Aug-1876 in Franklin VT, age 71 yrs., 6 mos. of

Consumption. M. Born in Sutton QC, parents Peter Schoolcraft & Mary St. Occupation Farmer.
8 Lib. Arch. Can. RG1 L3L, Vol. 65, pp. 32486-32489. Jul 20, 1807 petition seeking more favourable lease terms sign

by Peter Schoolcraft, James Schoolcraft and Simon Stone uses the words “back rents”.
9 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Notary Leon Lalanne: 28th December 1820 Deed of Sale by Ammie Squires to

Peter Schoolcraft. “Peter Schoolcraft, of Sutton aforesaid, yeoman,”


10 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Notary Leon Lalanne: No. 466, 27th January 1825, Deed of Sale by William

Chadborn to Peter Schoolcraft. Peter purchases 100 acres in lots 34 and 35 and the range is unspecified. From the
description it is located right on the U.S.A. border at 45 degrees latitude.
11 Vermont: Death Record, Franklin VT reported death of Hannah (Schoolcraft) Vincent on 12-May-1894 of old age at

age 91 yrs. 6 mos. 3 days, born in Canada. Parents Peter Schoolcraft and Stolicer. widow.
12 Quebec, St. Armand: Methodist Circuit Records, John son of Peter Schoolcraft yeoman of the seignory of St.

Armand and of Polly his wife was born on the twentieth day of February in the year of our Lord one thousand eight
hundred and five and was baptised on the ninth day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand and thirty two by
me Ingham Sutcliffe Minister, Witnesses Langdon Simpson, Isaac Smith.
13 Quebec, St. Armand: Methodist Circuit Records, Seena daughter of Peter Schoolcraft yeoman of the Seignory of

Saint Armand and Polly his wife was born on the eighth day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred
and nine and was baptized on the ninth day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty
two. Witnessed by Langdon Simpson and Isaac Smith.
14 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Notary Leon Lalanne: No. 2017 16th November 1833 Peter Schoolcraft to

Samuel Schoolcraft.
15
Quebec, Farnham: Anglican Church Records, Farnham Anglican Church, LDS Film 1430756: Marriages: John Getty
of the Township of West Farnham County of Missisquoi District of Bedford Bachelor of major age son of George
Getty of the Township of Dunham in the aforesaid County and District and of his wife Polly Truax and Janet Cameron
Spinster of minor age daughter of George Cameron of the Township of West Farnham aforesaid and of his wife Sena
Schoolcraft were married after publication of Banns the thirty first day of December eighteen hundred and sixty eight
by me.
16
Federal Population Schedule, 14-Oct-1850, pp. 358, dw. 267, Franklin, Franklin Co., VT, fam. 271, Joseph Vincent
age 57 sex M farmer born in NY, Hannah age 47 sex F born in Canada, Leandia age 22 sex M farmer born in Canada,
Allen age 19 sex M farmer born in Canada, Charlotte age 15 sex F born in Canada, Sarah Schoolcraft age 12 sex F born
in VT, Benjamin Stoliker age 15 sex M born in Canada.

137
17 Federal Population Schedule, 14-Jul-1870, pp. 5.18, dw. 33, Franklin, Franklin Co., VT, fam. 34, Ethan Vincent age
49 sex M farmer born in Canada, Abigail age 18 sex F born in VT, Hawley Litteman age 12 sex M at home born in VT,
Cynthia Beckham age 45 sex F born in Canada, Kit Schoolcraft age 60 sex M farm labororer born in VT, Mary Vincent
age 49 sex F keeps house born in VT.
18 Federal Population Schedule, 20-Aug-1850, dw. 3, Georgia, Franklin Co., VT, fam. 3, Samuel Schoolcraft age 50

sex m stone mason born in Canada, Hannah age 38 sex f born in VT, Jone age 18 sex m born in VT, Whitman age 16
sex m born in VT, Ellen age 13 sex f born in VT, Jackson age 11 sex m born in VT, Maria age 8 sex f born in VT,
Ophelia age 4 sex f born in VT, Other lodgers.
19 Nebraska: Vital Records, Napier, Boyd Co. #959: Maria O. Cowan wht., fem., wid. b. Feb 29, 1845 VT ae. 67 yrs.

10 mos. 30 days, housewife d. Jan 29, 1912 of Choleti~hirsis contributory peritonitis.. Parents Samuel Schoolcraft b.
VT & Hannah Bradley b. VT. Informant J. B. Bailey (undertaker) of Napier filed Jan 30, 1912. Bur. Oceola, Nebr. Feb
1912.
20
Military Records: Civil War listings, Pension application, Cert. No. 907553, 15 Jan 1898: Silas J. Wench, married to
Martha Jane Schoolcraft on 22 Nov 1862, Saratoga, MN, certificate on record. Prev. marriage to Mary F. Slade in
Prairie Hill, IA. Children Clara Bell, Hattie E., Bertha E., Cora May, Alden S. and Rhoda A. P. Wench. 4 Mar 1859, 4
Jul 64, 9 Jul 66 twins, 8 Feb 68 and Rhoda 19 Jan 1876. Signed 3 Jul 1898.
21
Minnesota: Vital records, FHL US/CAN 1377817 Minnesota Marriages 1849-1950: Thomas B. Braithwait to
Ophelia Schoolcraft on 17 Jul 1864 Winona, Minnesota.
22 Minnesota: Vital records, FHL US/CAN 1316804 Minnesota Marriages 1849-1950: A. J. Schoolcraft to Adelia

Winslow on 19 May 1866 Filmore, Minnesota.


23 State Census, State Census 1875, Fountain, Fillmore Co., MN, family 121. Cordelia E. Winslow, female age 28 born

in Canada, father born VT, mother born Canada, Alfrereta C., female age 7 born in MN.
24 Illinois: Vital Records, Illinois Statewide Marriage Index, 1763 - 1900: Schoolcraft, Andrew J and Tucker, Bessie

(Mrs). Married Stephenson Co. 18-Jul-1874. License 9.


25 David J. Ellis, The 1880 census shows Betsy's maiden name as her brother is living with her.
26 Minnesota: Vital records, FHL US/CAN 1316805 Minnesota Marriages 1849-1950: A. J. Schoolcraft to C. E.

Winslow on 6 Apr 1884 Filmore, Minnesota.


27 Quebec: Census, 1861: Dist. 1, pp. 11.19, St. Armand East, Missisquoi Co., 1.5 story, 1 family frame house, Isaac H.

Schoolcraft age 36 M/M born in L.C. occ./rel. farmer, W. Methodist, Elisabeth Schoolcraft age 30 F/M born in U.C.
occ./rel. W. Methodist, Mary Smith age 13 F/S born in U.C. occ./rel. spinster, W. Methodist.
28 Quebec: Census, 7-Apr-1891, pp. 4.02, Hse. 20, Dist. 143-C Div. 1, Brome, Brome Co., Isaac Schoolcraft, male, age

64, married, head, born in QC, father QC, mother QC, Meth., labourer, Bridget, female, age 56, married, wife, born in
Ireland, father Ireland, mother Ireland, Meth., Minerva, female, age 22, divorced, dau, born in QC, father QC, mother
Ireland, C. Eng., Susan, female, age 21, dau, born in QC, father QC, mother Ireland, C. Eng., John, male, age 18, son,
born in QC, father QC, mother Ireland, C. Eng., George, male, age 16, son, born in QC, father QC, mother Ireland, C.
Eng., James, male, age 14, son, born in QC, father QC, mother Ireland, C. Eng., Grace, female, age 10, dau, born in
QC, father QC, mother Ireland, C. Eng., Olive, female, age 2, dau, born in QC, father QC, mother Ireland, C. Eng.
29 Quebec: Census, 28-Apr-1891, pp. 29.24, Hse. 155, Dist. 143-E Div. 2, Potton, Brome Co., Leonard Schoolcraft,

male, age 58, married, head, born in USA, father QC, mother QC, farmer, Maria, female, age 49, married, wife, born in
USA, father USA, mother USA, Minnie, female, age 16, daughter, born in QC, father USA, mother USA, farmer,
Arvilla, female, age 10, daughter, born in QC, father USA, mother USA, Orville O., male, age 6, son, born in QC,
father USA, mother USA, Prescott, male, age 25, son, born in QC, father USA, mother USA, Etta, female, age 16,
wife, born in USA, father USA, mother USA, Isaac, male, age 64, widow, g fath, born in USA, father USA, mother
USA.
30 Vermont: Marriage Record, Franklin VT reported marriage of Matilda Schoolcraft to James Prouty on 4-Sep-1831.
31
Quebec, Frelighsburg: Anglican Church Records, Nancy R. Schoolcraft, single woman of Franklin Vermont died on
the second day of March one Thousand eight hundred and fifty three aged thirty years and was buried on the fourth day
of the same at Cooks Corner in the presence of her friends by me James Reid Minister. Witness N. Vincent, J. W. Toof.
32 Vermont, Georgia: Town Records, Georgia VT Marriage Records, Book 1, pp. 21: Be it remembered that at Georgia

County and State aforesaid on this 4th day of Sept AD 1853 Thomas W. Schoolcraft of Franklin & Dolly L. Atwood of
Georgia were duly joined in marriage by me E. M. Kellogg, Minister of the Gospel.
33 Quebec: Census, 1861: Dist. 2, pp. 1.32, St. Armand West, Missisquoi Co., 1 story, 2 family frame house, Lydia Brill

age 75 F/S born in U. States occ./rel. farmer, W. Methodist, John Brill age 23 M/M born in L.C. occ./rel. laborer, W.
Methodist, Hellen Brill age 23 F/M born in U. States occ./rel. F. Baptist, T. W. Schoolcraft age 28 M/S born in L.C.
occ./rel. laborer, E. methodist.

138
34Quebec, Mansonville: Methodist Church Records, Thomas Schoolcraft of the Township of Potton in the County of
Brome, died on the fourteenth day of january in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety two and
was buried by me on the sixteenth day of the month in the said year in the presence of the subscribing witnesses:
Elmore [X] Schoolcraft. P. H. Allin [Minister].

139
Chapter 13: John Schoolcraft, A
Family Under Stress
John Schoolcraft’s known family is small, but challenging, as only one child is proven. There
are tantalizing hints at family relationships but in the end most of what follows in this chapter
is conjecture. I shall show that John is located to the West and South of Adam. The Pike
River also separates him from his brothers. That is some help in disambiguating his family
from those of his brothers but only five miles is involved. A key factor is that Adam’s family
and James’ family are both fully determined so they cannot be the parents of any of the
individuals discussed in this chapter.

I discussed in Chapter 5 that John was born on 12th August 1766 in Anaquassacook. He was
too young to be involved in the Revolutionary War. John is the recipient of a land grant in
Durham, Drummond County in 18021. The grant is for lot 17 in range 8. This is a
considerable distance from Stanbridge and I’m uncertain if John ever lived there. He holds
that land until 1814, and then sells it2 to Anthony Stockham. However, he is recorded as
living in Stanbridge in 1807 when Catherine Phelps sells land to Isaac Asseltine in 18073. I
have not been able to determine how significant John’s presence was in Durham. From 1825
to 1842 John is listed in the Stanbridge census. From 18314 we learn that he is renting land in
Range 8. At this point we can see that it is lot 11 in range 8 that he shares with another
person [Appendix D, Figure 12]. This lot touches the South West corner of lot 12 in range 7
that was granted to Adam Schoolcraft. (On a modern map, Appendix D, Figure 14, this is
located near the junction of Rang Brais and Chemin de la Rivière west of Bedford.) A very
near neighbor is significant, Solomon Dunham, whom I shall discuss shortly.

The census implies that John Schoolcraft did not have a large family living with him. 1825
shows only one possible child and 1831 shows none. John declares as a Methodist in 1831
and in 1842. Only one of John’s children can be positively identified, Lydia, who is married
in a Methodist church. Lydia marries Henry Notemire in 18305 and identifies her mother
only as Barbary. This was a second marriage for Henry Notemire who has lived near John
Schoolcraft in range 8 at least since 1825. Henry’s first marriage was to Elizabeth
Schoolcraft who is Lydia’s first cousin. I shall discuss Elizabeth in Chapter 14.

Although I did not originally determine John’s family in the sequence that I shall describe, it
is easier to follow if approached with the known end point stated. I believe that most of
John’s family, except for two children and some grandchildren, had died before April 7th,
1842. Furthermore, several members of this family died during the early summer of 1842.
This is consistent with the 1842 enumeration that shows John in a household without a
married female, with two married males, and with only adults present, two of which seem to
be visitors. That looks like a gathering after the recent death of a family member.

Who is Solomon Dunham?

Solomon Dunham is shown on lot 10 in range 7 [Appendix D, Figure 12]. This was land he
obtained as one of the original associates in the Stanbridge grant. If we return to the 1795

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Oath of Allegiance we find that Solomon is listed with William, Peter and Martin Schoolcraft
and Simon Stone. He is also listed next to Simon Stone on the 1795 Granby land petition. He
would certainly have known the Schoolcraft’s. These coincidences could easily be dismissed
were it not for Solomon’s Will. This Will was not prepared by a notary and thus was
probated in Montreal.

Holographic Will: No. 381


The 31st August 1842
Probate of the last Will and Testament of Solomon Dunham
In the name of God Amen. I Solomon Dunham of the Township of Stanbridge,
County of Missiskuoi - District of Montreal and Province of Canada, Farmer,
being weak in the body but of sound mind, memory and understanding do
make and publish the following as my last Will and Testament, uterly revoking
all former Wills by me made, do declare this to be my last Will and Testament.
Firstly - With much humility I resign my Soul to God who gave it and my body
to its Mother Earth to be interred in such decent and Christian like manner as
my Executors hereinafter named shall be pleased to direct. and so touching
my Estate with which it has pleased Almighty God to bless me with. I do give
and bequeath in manner and form following to wit.
Secondly - I do give and bequeath unto Christopher Schoolcraft of the
Township of Stanbridge aforesaid, the free use and occupancy of Twenty five
acres of Land, the same that he now lives upon and occupies, it being the
North Westerly part of my farm in Stanbridge aforesaid, during his natural
life, and which Twenty five acres of land aforesaid I do order and direct shall
at the decease of the said Christopher, be given to, held by and by these
presents forever bequeathed unto Mary Schoolcraft the daughter of said
Christopher and unto her heirs and assigns forever -
Thirdly - I do also give and bequeath unto Melinda Schoolcraft the present
wife of James Watson of Stanbridge aforesaid the free use and occupancy
during her natural life of one acre of Land lying and being on the North side
of and adjoining to Pyke River, being a part of my farm, on which is erected
and standing a framed Building formerly used and occupied by said James
Watson as a Wheelwright shop together with a water privilege on said Pike
River adjoining to said one acre of Land for the use of said Wheelright shop
and for other purposes and also a passage or Road way leading from said
shop to the Main Road going to Bedford Village, sufficient for a two horse
team, to be made, fenced and kept in repair by herself and her Heirs and the
whole of the aforesaid one Acre of Land, the Buildings, water privileges and
appartenance are herein before granted to Melinda Schoolcraft during her
natural life, I do order and direct shall at her decease, be equally divided
between her lawful begotten Children by James Watson, to them and their
heirs forever -
Fourthly - I do also give and bequeath unto Mary Schoolcraft the present wife
of William Gray of the Township of Stanbridge aforesaid, the free use and
occupancy of Twenty five acres of Land being a certain part or portion of my

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farm in Stanbridge, the same on which she now lives with her family to be
divided and set off to her according to my directions, or according to the
directions of my Executor, on condition that the said Mary and her husband
William do abandon and deliver over to my said Executor all of the Pine Logs
taken off my said farm by said Young man lying in the Mill Yard occupied by
Daniel Meigs --- which if not abandonned and given up this fourth bequest is
null and void otherwise good and valid provided that she the said Mary either
her husband William, shall cut or cause to be cut and taken from off my farm
without his excuses of any Kind of Tree or timber without first obtaining
permission from my hereinafter named Executor so to do, and which said
Twenty five acres herein mentioned and granted to Mary Schoolcraft the wife
of William Gray I do order and direct shall at her decease be equally divided
between her present Heirs by William Gray to them and their Heirs and
assigns forever -
Fifthly - I do also give and bequeath unto my dear wife Eve all the rest and
residue of my Estate both real and personal after all my just debts - funeral
charges, and the expense of enregistering this my last Will and Testament are
paid. together will all other expenses in the settlement of my Estate to the only
proper use and disposal of my said wife Eve and her assigns forever, and also
during her life, at her free disposal to give and bequeath the same to
whomever she may please to them and their Heirs for ever.
Lastly - I do hereby appoint my dear wife Eve[,] Clark Rogue Vaughan,
Esquire, together with Samuel M. Conant, all of Stanbirdge aforesaid,
Executors to this my last Will and Testament.
Solomon “X” Dunham
Signed, sealed and declared by the said Testator to be his last Will and
Testament this Seventh day of April in the year of Our Lord, One thousand
Eight hundred and fourty two in the presence of the undersigned witnesses -
Signed John Watson
John C. Bockus
Saml. M. Conant
Signed C. R. Vaughan Witness this will
at the request of the Testator
the 15th day of April 1842

No family relationship is expressed between Solomon Dunham and the Schoolcraft’s yet
Solomon is making quite sizeable bequests to Christopher, his daughter Mary, and to
Melinda and Mary Schoolcraft, despite the fact that Mary’s husband has apparently been
stealing logs from him. Aside from his wife, Eve, the Schoolcraft family is the only
beneficiary. I feel this Will definitely implies a family relationship.

Before proceeding to analyze this situation it is necessary to establish some dates for those
mentioned in the Will. Christopher Schoolcraft is born about 17936 and marries Hannah
Gibson7, who died shortly before this will was prepared. Mary Ann Schoolcraft,
Christopher’s daughter, is born in August 18278. She is unmarried at the time of this Will.

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The census shows Melinda Schoolcraft is born about 18229. The Mary Schoolcraft, wife of
William Gray, is born before 1805 because her first child is born in 182010. Death records
show that Solomon Dunham was born about 175611 and that his wife, Eve, was born about
176412.

Mary Schoolcraft, born before 1805, cannot be Christopher’s daughter but her inclusion in
the Will demands a close relationship. Probably it is a sibling relationship. Christopher
Schoolcraft is enumerated in 1825 with a wife and two young children13, one son and one
daughter. John Schoolcraft is enumerated in 1825 with a wife and a single adult male. This is
consistent with Melinda Schoolcraft being Christopher’s daughter. Solomon Dunham, John
Schoolcraft, Henry Notemire and William Gray are all enumerated close together, in ranges 7
and 8, in 1831. In 1842 Solomon Dunham, John Schoolcraft, Christopher Schoolcraft and
William Gray are still together, although Henry Notemire is no longer enumerated. John
Schoolcraft’s wife, Barbary, does not appear to be included in the 1842 enumeration. A
plausible interpretation is that Christopher and Mary Schoolcraft are both children of John
Schoolcraft. Such an interpretation would be consistent with Solomon’s Will if he were
Christopher and Mary Schoolcraft’s maternal grandfather. Thus John Schoolcraft’s wife
would be Barbary Dunham.

One thing is suggested by the foregoing analysis. The mention of only two grandchildren in
Solomon Dunham’s Will implies that no individual surviving after 1842 should be
considered to be John Schoolcraft’s child. However, the same cannot be applied to the great
grandchildren. Mary Schoolcraft and William Gray had five children, none of whom are
mentioned in the Will. One can imagine many reasons for this but I suspect that the very
recent death of their mother is the reason that only Christopher’s children were included.

It is appropriate to test other facts against this hypothesis. John’s wife, Barbary, is the only
one of the wives of the Schoolcraft brothers whose maiden name is not already known. Mary
includes the Dunham name when she baptizes her second child14, Edward Dunham Gray.
Neither Lydia Schoolcraft nor Henry Notemire can be located after 1831 suggesting one or
both may have died. If that were the case it would explain why they are not beneficiaries of
the Will. Barbary does not appear to be included in John’s 1842 enumeration indicating that
she also had died and so would not be a beneficiary. Christopher and Hannah are buried in
the older part of Mystic cemetery. They are side by side in range 2, lots 1 and 2. Next to them
are three unmarked lots. Then in lot 6 is Solomon Schoolcraft who died in 1818 at age 19.
Then follow another seven unmarked lots before we reach a much later date burial of
Amanda Schoolcraft. Solomon is an uncommon name in the Schoolcraft family and I
conjecture that Solomon may be another child of John and Barbary who was named for a
maternal grandfather. Christopher, the first child, was probably named for his paternal
grandfather. All these facts are consistent with the hypothesis that Christopher and Mary
were the only surviving grandchildren when Solomon Dunham prepared his Will.

Simon Schoolcraft

Before closing John Schoolcraft’s family there is one more situation that must be taken into
account. There are two individuals called Simon Schoolcraft that are enumerated in 1831
with a wife and family. One of these is positively identified as the son of Martin Schoolcraft
and will be discussed in Chapter 14. The other is enumerated in 1831 renting land very close
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to two of Adam Schoolcraft’s sons15. He cannot be Adam’s son as Adam’s family is fully
determined. Further, Adam’s sons are shown as land owners, not renters. However, he is also
only a few entries from John Schoolcraft whose land is just across the river from Adam’s
sons. I conjecture that this Simon has to be John’s son as no other possibilities exist. This is
not inconsistent with the foregoing discussion as Simon is missing from the 1842
enumeration and may have died as did so many others in this family.

A Final Look at John Schoolcraft‘s Family

Consider this family’s situation in 1842. The census record implies that Barbary died
between 1831 and 1842, probably very recently. Hannah Gibson died in October 1841.
Solomon Dunham died at the end of May 1842. Christopher Schoolcraft died a few days after
Solomon in early June 1842. Although John’s death has not been determined, he did not
survive to 1852. Neither Simon Schoolcraft mentioned just previously nor Lydia Schoolcraft
and her husband are found in the 1842 census suggesting they had died before Solomon
made his Will. There seems to be a lot of death in this family in and about 1841 and 1842. I
suspect that some illness was afflicting the families in that part of Stanbridge, which was
located along the southern river bank, just west of present day Bedford. With so many deaths
this was clearly a family under considerable stress. It is possible that that same reason
explains the disappearance of two of Adam Schoolcraft’s children, William and Huldah,
around the same time as they were living on the opposite bank of the same river.

The foregoing discussion has suggested five children. Christopher is born about 1793;
Solomon is born about 1799; Simon is born between 1802 and 1810; Mary is born before
1805 and probably after 1801 which is her husband’s date of birth; and Lydia is born before
1810. Only a few descendants of Christopher and Mary are known. Mary dies on January 1st,
184716 and William Gray later marries her first cousin17, once removed. Mary’s descendants
remain in the vicinity of Bedford. Christopher’s daughter, Melinda, removes to Isle La
Motte, Grand Isle Co., Vermont. In 1849 she sells the land that she inherited from Solomon
Dunham to Cyrene Schoolcraft18. I believe this to be a conventional sale that does not imply
any special relationship between Cyrene and Melinda, who are 2nd cousins. Christopher’s
second daughter, Mary Ann, has a relationship with Levi Traver in May 1856 that results in
an illegitimate child19.

There is still too much unknown to feel confident about John Schoolcraft’s family. The
material presented here should be considered only as a starting point for future work.

Before leaving this section I have one last observation. Range 2 in the Mystic cemetery is in
the older part of the cemetery against the fence. Perhaps those ten unmarked lots amongst the
Schoolcraft’s are not really empty but represent some of the early ancestors whose graves
have not been found. In early times, many were buried with wooden markers that would have
decayed. It is possible that the three ‘empty’ lots between Christopher and Solomon may
include the burial site of John and his wife. When working with the Mystic cemetery listing,
be alert that there are two versions at the Missisquoi Historical Society. The first was
prepared from tombstones and information from the directors and is so marked, although
there are typographical errors. The second is an alphabetized transcription that unfortunately
contains quite a few errors. It has also been supplemented with family information that is not
present in the cemetery records and comes from unstated sources. The first listing is the more
145
accurate. While the alphabetized version is easier to use, information in it should be verified
in the first version or, if possible, with the actual tombstones.

1 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Land grant list 30th August 1802.
2 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Notary Leon Lalanne: Unumbered, 10th June 1814, Sale by John Schoolcraft to
Anthony Stockham.
3 Quebec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne: 12th Jany 1807, Agreement of Adam Schoolcraft & Isaac

Afselstine.
4
Quebec: Census, 1831: pp. 1257.21, Twp. Of Stanbridge settled 1795, Missisquoi Co. Concession 8 Head of
household John Schoolcraft, renter, farmer. 2 Total in household. Males: 1 60 and up Marr., Females: 1 45 and up
Marr., 2 Methodist.
5
Quebec, St. Armand: Methodist Circuit Records, Marriages: On the twenty ninth day of December in the year of our
Lord One thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty one Henry Notemire Farmer of the Township of Stanbridge Widower
and Lydia Schoolcraft Spinster both of the same Township both parties being of age and with the consent of the parents
of the aforesaid Lydia Schoolcraft after due publication of banns were united in holy matrimony in the presence of John
Schoolcraft and Barbary Schoolcraft the Father and Mother of Lydia Schoolcraft aforesaid. Henry Notemire, Lydia
Notemire, John Schoolcraft, Barbary Schoolcraft. None of these persons being able to sign their names they were
written by me.
6 Quebec, Stanbridge: Anglican Church Records, Christopher Schoolcraft of Bedford, Farmer aged Forty Nine years

died on Friday the Third of June and was buried on Sunday the 5th of June One Thousand Eight Hundred and Forty
Two. By me, James Jones. Witness Shelden Berman, John Bockus.
7 Quebec, Stanbridge: Cemetery Headstone, Mystic: Marker, family group of two: SCHOOLCRAFT, Christopher d. 3

June 1842 ae. 48 yrs.: SCHOOLCRAFT, Hannah d. 20 Oct 1841 ae. 38 yrs. wife of Christopher Schoolcraft.
8 Quebec, Bedford: Anglican Church Records, Bedford, Burial: Mary Ann Schoolcraft daughter of Christopher

Schoolcraft, farmer, Bedford, and Hannah Gibson his wife, was born at Bedford on the -- day of August eighteen
hundred and twenty seven, died on the thirtieth day of March Eighteen hundred and seventy five, and was buried on the
first day of April by me. Witness Lyman Barnes and,illegible.
9 Federal Population Schedule, 9-Sep-1850, dw. 624, Isle La Motte, Grand Isle Co., VT, fam. 625, James Watson age

34 sex m laborer born in England, Malinda age 28 sex f born in Canada, Julia age 12 sex f born in Canada, William age
10 sex m born in Canada, Mary J. age 2 sex f born in Canada.
10 Quebec, Stanbridge: Anglican Church Records, BCHS Index Reel 124.06: Julia Lucina Gray born Feb 17, 1820,

bapt. Jul 16, 1842 d/o William and Mary Gray of Bedford.
11 Quebec, Stanbridge: Anglican Church Records, Solomon Dunham of Bedford, farmer aged 86 years. He died on

Tuesday the thirty first of May and was buried on Thursday the second of June one thousand eight hundred and fourty
two.
12 Quebec, Stanbridge: Anglican Church Records, BCHS Index Reel 124.6: Dunham, Eve, D. Dec. 11, 1848, Bu. Dec.

13, 1848, ae. 84Yrs. Wit: N.S. Brown.


13 Quebec: Census, 1825: pp. 812.19, Township of Stanbridge, Bedford Co. Head of household Christopher

Schoolcraft, 4 total in household, 2 under 6. Males: 1 25 but not 40 Marr. Females: 1 < 14: 1 14 but not 45 Marr.
14
Quebec, Stanbridge: Anglican Church Records, BCHS Index Reel 124.06: Edward Dunham Gray born Oct. 8, 1822,
bapt. Jul 16, 1842 s/o William and Mary Gray of Bedford.
15 Quebec: Census, 1831: pp. 1257.07, Twp. Of Stanbridge settled 1795, Missisquoi Co. Concession 7 Head of

household Simon Schoolcraft, renter, farmer. 3 Total in household, 1 5 and under. Males: 1 21 but not 30 Marr.,
Females: 1 Under 14, 1 14 but not 45 Marr., 3 Anglican.
16 Quebec, Stanbridge: Anglican Church Records, Stanbridge Ang., BCHS Index Reel 124.06: Gray, Mary, D. Jan. 1,

1847, Bu. Jan. 4, 1847, Wit: E. Jones.


17 Protestant Marriages in the District of Bedford, 1804-1879, (Compiled by R. Neil Broadhurst), Page 507 records the

marriage of Zanetta 0. STONE, age 23, of Stanbridge to William Asa GRAY on 26 Oct 1848 in Stanbridge BA church.
18
Quebec, Bedford: Land Registry Records, Bedford Registry of Deeds, Register B, Vol 4, pp. 371, #1705: 17 July
1849. Malinda w/o James Watson of Isle La Mott in Grand Isle VT for $130 to Cyrene Schoolcraft of Stanbridge part
of Lot 10, Range 7. Same as conveyed to Malinda in Will of Solomon Dunham.
19 Quebec, Philipsburg: Anglican Church Records, BCHS Index Reel 124.5: Traver, William Freeman D. Sept. 25,

1859 Bu. Sept. 27, 1859 ae. 2Y. 7M. Illegitimate child of Levi & Mary Ann Schoolcraft Traver of Dunham Phil. Ang.

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Chapter 14: Martin Schoolcraft of
St. Ignace de Stanbridge
In this chapter I shall show that Martin Schoolcraft was the second of the two brothers who
lived in St. Ignace de Stanbridge. I shall show that Martin married Hannah Scofield. I shall
present proof that Hannah Schoolcraft and Simon Schoolcraft are his children. I shall show
from circumstantial evidence that Scofield Schoolcraft and Peter Schoolcraft are both
probably his children. The evidence for Scofield Schoolcraft is sufficiently strong that I
consider his relationship to be proven. I shall discuss that two daughters and a son that have
Anglican marriages are probably also his children. I shall also discuss others where the case
is somewhat weaker.

Martin Schoolcraft is the last of the brothers in the Eastern Townships with a proven family.
Martin is baptized on the 6th February 1764 in Schenectady1. In Chapter 5, page 65 I
discussed Martin’s presence in the various Land Grant Applications leading up to 1800.
When he took the Oath of Allegiance in 1795 he did not indicate any destination. On August
24th, 1801 he applied, with his brother James, for Crown land in Stanbridge. They were
seeking the adjacent lots fourteen and fifteen in Range nine. That would be in Pike River
village. There is no evidence to suggest this application was granted. The Leon Lalanne
document from 18072 that was first presented in Chapter 5 does not include Martin. This may
indicate he was a later arrival in Stanbridge or it may have no significance whatsoever. The
earliest positive proof of Martin’s presence in Stanbridge is on page 808.25 of the 1825
census3. He is enumerated adjacent to Scofield Schoolcraft, Peter Schoolcraft and Peter
Stone. James Schoolcraft is also enumerated nearby, and is living just North of St. Ignace de
Stanbridge. In Histoire de la Paroisse de Saint-Ignace de Stanbridge by Abbé Isidore
Desnoyers it is explained that what we know today as St. Ignace de Stanbridge was originally
known as Stone Settlement. This was with good reason. Simon Stone and his sons all lived in
that village. Abbé Isidore Desnoyers identifies that Simon Stone lived on lot 19, range 44 (the
site of the present church) and that Peter Stone was nearby. Other members of the Stone
family were a little South where the Stone cemetery is located. This is where Martin is living
in 1825. The more significant item in the 1825 census is that Martin is shown as unmarried
implying his wife had died. In 1831 on page 1251.395 Scofield Schoolcraft is listed with a
family of his own and a single elderly adult male that correlates with Martin. Martin married
Hannah Scofield6 so that the unusual name Scofield, together with their proximity in the
1825 census seems conclusive evidence that Scofield would be Martin’s son. Scofield is also
shown to be living in Range 4, still close to Peter Stone and James Schoolcraft, reinforcing
that Martin was a resident of St. Ignace de Stanbridge. I have not been able to determine
Martin’s precise location as he is not shown on the early maps but I believe it likely he was
living very close to Peter Stone in the center, or just to the South, of St. Ignace de Stanbridge.
All members of the family are identified as Anglican in 1831. I believe this choice of faith
may have come into the family from Hannah Scofield. Peter is the only other one of
Christian Schoolcraft’s children to declare as Anglican and he is a resident of Sutton and
later St. Armand so his children are unlikely to be found in St. Ignace de Stanbridge.

147
Before dealing with Martin’s children it is appropriate to address a point about Hannah
Scofield. It has been claimed that Hannah was buried in Farnham Center cemetery in 1815 at
age 38. This claim is incorrect. The Farnham Center cemetery record that is often referred to
was mis-transcribed and should read 1845, not 1815. The full record identifies that this is
Hannah L. Ring, the wife of Moses Schoolcraft. This record was first referred to in Chapter
11, page 121.

There are only a few possibilities for confusion remaining. Very few of the descendants of
any of the brothers have families earlier than about 1820. Thus individuals born before about
1820 are going to be children of one of these brothers. Only Martin, Adam, James and John
lived in Stanbridge. James and Adam’s families are fully determined. Solomon Dunham’s
Will, which was discussed in Chapter 13, page 141, implies that John’s family does not to
contain anyone who was alive after 1842, except those individuals mentioned in the Will.
Thus any Schoolcraft in Stanbridge, born before about 1820, and not previously discussed
should be considered a strong candidate for being Martin’s child. Other indicators are if they
are from St. Ignace de Stanbridge or belong to the Anglican faith, although religion is not a
strong indicator as descendants may change faith when they marry and for other reasons.

Three Children That Can Be Proven

Simon Schoolcraft is the only child that has a baptismal record. He is baptized into the
Methodist church6 as an adult in 1844 and at that time explicitly identifies his father and
mother as well as his birth date on March 18th, 1800. This record also proves that Martin
Schoolcraft married Hannah Scofield.

Before we move on from Simon we must consider the Montreal Tutorship Record No. 5017
as this provides proof that Simon and Hannah are brother and sister. This record is two
documents. The first document is a declaration that details why the action is being taken:

14th Augt. 1854


Minors Simon Schoolcraft Tutorship
On the tenth day of July in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred
and fifty four, in the afternoon -
Before me, the undersigned Public Notary, duly commissioned for Lower
Canada, residing in the District of Montreal came and appeared Elizabeth
Kinman, widow and relict of the late Simon Schoolcraft in his life time of the
Township of Stanbridge yeoman, who departed this life the Twenty fifth day of
November Eighteen hundred and fifty two leaving issue of his marriage with
the said Elizabeth Kinman six minor children and whereas it becomes
necessary that a Tutor or Tutrix and sub Tutor should be appointed to the six
minors as well to their persons as to their property and for other legal
purposes she requires the counsel and advice of the relations and friends of
the said minors -
Therefore act at the late house and residence of the said late Simon
Schoolcraft, on the day month and year aforesaid and signed by me the said
notary the said Elizabeth declaring she could not write

148
Signed J. M. McGregor

Then follows the document in which the tutor is appointed:

On the tenth day of July, in the afternoon in the year of Our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and fifty four -
Before me the undersigned Public Notary for Lower Canada - residing in the
District of Montreal Came and appeared, Elizabeth Kinman, widow and relict
of the late Simon Schoolcraft in his life time of the Township of Stanbridge
yeoman deceased, who hath caused to be assembled before me the said notary
for the purposes mentioned in the above declaration made before me on the
tenth day of July Instant to the intent that a tutor or tutrix and sub tutor be
appointed to Emily, Edward, Polly, Jewich, Phillip and Ibei Schoolcraft of the
respective ages of nineteen, sixteen, fourteen, twelve, ten and seven, minor
children issue of her marriage with the said Simon Schoolcraft to wit - Elijah
Spiers of the Seignory of Noyan yeoman cousin of the said minors - Joel
Spears of the Seignory of Noyan yeoman cousin of the said minors Gilbert
McDougal of the Seignory of Noyan yeoman, William Bailley of the Seignory
of Noyan yeoman Elihu Spears of the Seignory of Noyan Henry Spears of the
Seignory of Noyan yeoman, Joseph Patreau of the Seignory of Noyan,
yeoman, all [Margin Note 1: friends] and relations of said minors, who after
having been duly sworn upon the Holy Evangelist taken communication of the
declaration above mentioned and maturely deliberated together were
unaminous of opinion that the said Elizabeth Kinman be tutrix and the said
Joel Spears of the Seignory of Noyan yeoman, as sub tutor, who being present
have voluntarily accepted the said office and promised under oath to fulfill the
duties thereof, wherefore act at the late residence of the said late Simon
Schoolcraft in the said township of Stanbridge on the day and year first before
enterred and have signed with me the said notary - except the said Elihu
Spears, Joseph Patreau and Elizabeth Kinman who declared they could not
write have made their mark. Three words erased null one marginal note good.
Signed J. Spears
Elijah Spears
William Bailey
Gilbert McDougal
Henry Spears
Elihu “X” Spears
Joseph “X” Patreau
Elizabeth “X” Kinman
J. M. McGregor

There is considerable genealogical information in these documents that I shall return to later.
For the present I wish to focus on Elizabeth Kinman. Her name is also recorded as Elizabeth
Cummings. Simon and Elizabeth are found in the 1852 census living in St. Alexandre8,
Rouville County. Simon is erroneously recorded as Samuel in this French language census
but Elizabeth’s presence resolves the mistake. This document shows that the Simon who

149
married Elizabeth was born about 1800 and thus is the one that is Martin’s son. Because this
census was taken only a few months before Simon’s death I believe it likely that Simon had
been ill for a while and that the children were already at least partly in the care of the tutors
referred to above. The tutorship document identifies that Joel and Elijah Spears were cousins
to Simon’s children.

The Vermont record shows that Hannah Schoolcraft married Moses Spears9 in 1807. The
Pike River cemetery listing10 shows she was born about 1789 and provides the names of
several of her children. This marriage is the clue that there is a relationship between Hannah
and Simon Schoolcraft. From the tutorial document we see that Elijah Spears is a cousin to
Simon’s children. Elijah is Moses Spears’, and thus Hannah Schoolcraft’s, son11. He was
born about 1812. Joel Spears was born on December 5th, 181012 and was also Hannah’s
child13. Therefore Hannah Schoolcraft must Martin Schoolcraft’s daughter.

Although I do not have a document trail to conclusively prove that Scofield Schoolcraft is
Martin’s son I consider him to be proven. The 1825 census record shows him adjacent to
Martin. The 1831 census record shows includes an elderly single male that is almost certain
to be Martin. The name Scofield is sufficiently unique that the match to his mother’s maiden
name is extremely significant.

Before we leave this part of the analysis I wish to work backwards from the 1852 census
record for Simon and Elizabeth. In 1842 only a single record exists for Simon14 that shows
him with a substantial family that accommodates the children described in the tutorship
record. Examination of the 1831 census shows two persons called Simon Schoolcraft. One is
living in the north end of Mystic village15 in range 7, next to Solomon Walbridge whose
location is lot 15 in range 6. The other is farther south16 and renting land in range 7 near
Christopher Schoolcraft. Christopher inherited his land on lot 12 in range 7 from his father,
Adam, and is discussed in Chapter 9, page 95. Only the one who is living in the north end of
Mystic village15 in range 7, next to Solomon Walbridge accommodates someone born in
1800. The younger one was John Schoolcraft’s son, who I believe had died by 1842. The
1831 record for the elder Simon includes two children aged 5 and under. As females under
age 14 are explicitly counted, these two children must be male, one of whom will be Simon
Jr. In 1825 a Simon Schoolcraft is enumerated with a single, presently unidentified, male
child17 who appears to still be with Simon in 1831. This 1825 enumeration is adjacent to
Simon Stone in St. Ignace de Stanbridge, close to Martin. Elizabeth Kinman is only fifteen
by 1825. I believe her marriage to Simon either occurred about 1825, or she grew a little
younger by 1852. To recap, Martin’s son Simon is enumerated in 1825 on page 808.08, 1831
on page 1253.23, in 1842 on page 2576.11 and in 1852 on page 85.12 in St. Alexandre.
Three Early Anglican Marriages

I believe the parents religion to be significant discriminator with female children as the
bride’s family generally chose the marriage location. While exceptions do exist, these usually
involve marriages between Protestants and Catholics where Catholicism tends to dominate.
Two early Anglican marriages are recorded in the Philipsburg Anglican church. Orra
Schoolcraft marries Jacob Boomhower18 on February 1st, 1813. (Orra is the reason that I got
involved with Schoolcraft genealogy in the first place.) This suggests Martin might be her
father but more evidence is required. Jacob Boomhower is the son of a father by that same
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name that was an original settler in Stanbridge on lot 14 in range 6. While his father
purchased land in Pike River in 1815, his family was living in Mystic before that. This is
sufficiently close to Martin to foster a relationship between the children. The marriage
between Orra and Jacob would probably have taken place in St. Ignace de Stanbridge. In
previous chapters I showed that the families of the other brothers were fully determined.
Therefore Martin really is the only remaining choice as Orra’s father. Although this is based
on location and religion I consider this relationship to be probable.

The second marriage is on February 4th, 1816 between Elizabeth Schoolcraft and Henry
Notemire19. It is in all respects very similar to Orra’s. The same arguments apply. I believe
that Elizabeth Schoolcraft is also probably Martin Schoolcraft’s daughter. At this point I will
mention that Elizabeth appears to be missing from the 1825 census record and that Henry
Notemire marries Elizabeth’s cousin, Lydia, in a Methodist ceremony on December 29th,
1831. This was discussed in Chapter 13.

The third person I shall discuss here is William Schoolcraft. While William’s marriage is
Anglican20 it is clearly less significant than that of the two daughters, as his spouse would
normally have made this choice. William declares as Anglican in the 1831 census21.
However, that record also shows an elderly single female who is Catholic. I believe it
possible that Rosella Lalande’s mother may be living with them and that Rosella’s family
was Catholic. I have not been able to locate a Catholic marriage corresponding to William
and Rosella and do not believe there was a marriage in that faith. Strong inter-
denominational feelings still existed between the Anglicans and Catholics in this period.
William, as an Anglican, may have refused to marry in the Catholic faith. I believe that in
this instance William made the choice of religion. William is a common name. This one was
born about 179122. The 1851 census records him with Rosella, confirming his age23.
William’s marriage record shows he is a shoemaker in Montreal so evidence of his childhood
location is masked. However, I recommend caution regarding the statement that he was in
Montreal when he married. In these times circuit ministers were common. “This parish” may
have been quite extended, possibly even to include parts of Stanbridge. In any event, the
1831 census shows that William has returned from Montreal and is living in Range 7 and is
close to John Boomhower’s widow and her sons that live in northern half of lot 19 in range 7.
I believe this is evidence enough to conjecture that he came from Stanbridge and thus that he
is Martin’s son.

Lorenzo Schoolcraft

Lorenzo Schoolcraft married Hannah Boomhower. Orra Schoolcraft married Jacob


Boomhower. Some researchers claim Hannah Boomhower is the child of Jacob Boomhower
and Orra Schoolcraft. If this were true then Orra and Lorenzo clearly would not be children
of the same parent. I believe the claim is incorrect and think that Hannah Boomhower is the
child of Jeremiah Boomhower and Mahala Stolicker. Jeremiah Boomhower is Jacob
Boomhower’s brother.

The reference cited in connection with this claim is a letter from Clark Boomhower, the
proven son24 of Jacob and Orra, written to his own son. In that letter, which is dated October
26th, 1880, he states “Aunt Hannah died yesterday at five minutes past three with the typhoid
pneumonia. She is buried tomorrow at 1 o’clock, funeral at the Stone schoolhouse, buried at
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Mystic.”25 From the date, there is clearly no doubt that the letter refers to this Hannah
Boomhower26. I believe the answer lies in the use of the term “Aunt”. Clark is one of only
two of Jacob and Orra’s nine children who returned to Quebec. The others remained in
Vermont near their parents. From 1861 to 1881 Clark lived in Dunham, close to Lorenzo and
Hannah. It is likely that he and his family would have a close relationship to a first cousin
who lived nearby. As is often the case in such family relationships, such a person would be
referred to as “your aunt” rather than as “your first cousin once removed”. To substantiate
my belief that Hannah is Jeremiah’s child I refer firstly to the early census records for Jacob
Boomhower. When the proven children in Jacob’s family are mapped against these records,
no individual is left unaccounted for and there is no room to include Hannah. The records are
an unusually good fit for such a large family. Jacob’s brother, Jeremiah, is the only male
sibling with an early family. He married Mahala Stolicker on February 16th, 1818. Although
Jeremiah’s family by Mahala is not fully understood, both the 1825 and the 1831 census
enumerations accommodate a female child of similar age to Hannah Boomhower. With
Hannah born just 8 months and 24 days after Jeremiah’s marriage I believe I am correct in
my interpretation that she is the first child of Jeremiah Boomhower and Mahala Stolicker.
This probably also accounts for the Hannah’s choice of two unusual names for her children.
Mahala for the name of Hannah’s first-born child commemorating her own mother who died
eight years earlier and Sabrina for her second child commemorating her younger sister.
Lastly, the William Harold Boomhour, a United Church minister and great grandson of Jacob
Boomhower and Orra Schoolcraft, extensively researched his Boomhower ancestors and yet
made no mention of what would have been his great aunt Hannah.

I believe that Lorenzo Schoolcraft is Martin’s son, a step brother to Orra Schoolcraft and that
his wife Hannah Boomhower is Orra Schoolcraft’s niece by marriage. Lorenzo has a son
called James who married Louisa Bigford. When Louisa dies, the witnesses at her funeral are
Edward Schoolcraft and Alonzo Boomhower27. Edward Schoolcraft is proven to be the son
of Simon Schoolcraft and thus a grandson of Martin and first cousin to the widower. Alonzo
Boomhower who was the second witness at Louisa Bigford’s funeral is generally claimed to
be a child of Jeremiah. He would be an uncle of the widower. Both are logical choices of
witness from within the family. If Lorenzo were not the son of Martin then Edward would
only be a second cousin and Alonzo would be unrelated. Neither would be likely to be
witnesses at the funeral.

The foregoing gives me confidence to say that Lorenzo Dow Schoolcraft is probably
Martin’s son.

The Stukely Connection

The 1825 census enumeration is a close indicator of a family relation between Peter
Schoolcraft and Martin Schoolcraft. Martin, Scofield and then Peter Schoolcraft are
enumerated sequentially in 1825. This is in St. Ignace de Stanbridge as the enumeration is
immediately after Adam Stone, John Lampman and Peter Stone who will be discussed in
Chapter 15. Being this close together I consider that Peter Schoolcraft is probably Martin’s
child. Unfortunately, not much can be determined about Peter. The 1825 enumeration implies
a wife and young daughter but after that he is missing from the census record till 1871. He is
enumerated with two children in South Stukely in 1871. His wife is separately enumerated in

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Stukely in 1861. Clearly Peter’s family is not well documented. A more detailed search of
the Shefford County records may help but this is hampered as the 1851 census was lost.

When you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, however unlikely, must be the
truth

I feel that the statement by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle is at work in what follows, although I do
not consider the following to be that unlikely as the evidence that is available does not
conflict with Martin being their father.

The first to consider is Daniel Schoolcraft. Daniel is not explicitly enumerated until 1852 in
Stanbridge when he is 48 years old. Before that he was probably included in some other
household and not identified by name. By age 48 he has been independent of his parents so
long that any location significance in the census enumeration is lost. He marries Mary
Mariah Dimond in Cowansville in 1857 and is living in Dunham in 1861. I conjecture he is
Martin’s son.

Earlier I explained why I felt that Peter, who removed to Stukely, was probably Martin’s son.
A second Stukely resident of interest is Anthony Schoolcraft. Anthony is first enumerated in
Stanbridge in 1842, although the birth of his first child shows he was married before 1827 to
Sarah Smith. At least two of his children are born in Stukely and one is enumerated there in
1871. Like Peter, research of Anthony is hampered because some of the Shefford County
enumerations were lost. The 1842 census does not provide a helpful limit on his date of birth,
saying only that he was aged between 30 and 60. The implication from his family is that
Anthony married Sarah about 1826 or 1827 when she was about 17 years old. It is unlikely
that Anthony would be more than five years older with such a young bride. Therefore I
would conjecture that Anthony was born about 1805 to 1808 in a birth gap that will become
apparent when Martin’s entire family considered. Certainly the widest plausible gap for his
birth places him between 1799 and 1812.

Two of the Boomhower brothers marry two Schoolcraft’s, although only one marriage
record28 has been located. In Sarah Schoolcraft’s case there is no marriage record but her
death record leaves no doubt that she married Adam Boomhower. Martin Schoolcraft lived in
St. Ignace de Stanbridge. The widow and children of John Boomhower lived nearby. John
Boomhower’s original grant was lot 16 in range 6 (the north end of Mystic village) but after
he died his widow disposed of that land and in 1815 purchased29 the northern half of lot 19 in
range 7. This lot is only a mile from St. Ignace de Stanbridge. The 1825 census enumeration
is particularly informative. On page 809, line 2 is Jacob Boomhower with Orra Schoolcraft.
On line 3 is Adam Boomhower, Jacob’s first cousin, who marries Sarah Schoolcraft. On line
16 is Adam Boomhower’s grandmother. On line 17 is Adam’s brother, Walter Boomhower,
who has just married Deborah Schoolcraft. Next to Walter on line 18 is his brother Jacob
Boomhower. There is ample family connection through Orra and her husband for any
daughter’s of Martin to form a relationship with Walter and Adam Boomhower.

At least three of the Boomhower brothers, David, Peter and Walter, removed to Addington
and Lennox Counties in Ontario. Martin’s son, Scofield, also went to this part of Ontario
about the same time. This move seems to have taken pace in the 1830s and 1840s. An 1851
murder trial of one of Peter Boomhower’s sons prompted some members of the family to

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change the family name to Howard, although that change did not affect the descendants of
Sarah or Deborah Schoolcraft.

Martin Schoolcraft‘s wife, Hannah Scofield

In order to understand Hannah Scofield it is necessary to start with the birth of Martin’s
children:

• Hannah about 178910


• William C. about 179123
• Orra about 179230
• Elizabeth before 179519
• Peter about 179531
• Simon March 18th, 18006
• Scofield about 180232
• Lorenzo Dow August 5th, 180333
• Daniel about 180434
• Anthony between 1805 and 180835
• Deborah about 180936
• Sarah about 181137
We have no record that shows where Hannah was born. William’s census record shows
Quebec. Orra’s census records show New York and Vermont. Even if they were born in New
York or Vermont, I believe these children were so young when they were brought to Quebec
that they would not clearly remember. Martin’s location would be the best guide but that is
also uncertain. In Chapter 5 I showed that Christian and his children came to Quebec around
1790, were in the Missisquoi Bay area till the late 1790s when they removed to the individual
towns in which they settled. With Hannah being born about 1789 it is likely that Martin met
and married her mother in Anaquassacook or, if he preceded his brothers James and Adam,
possibly he married her mother in Christie’s Manor. That is a problem. I have searched
exhaustively for signs of the Scofield surname in Cambridge and Jackson, New York, as well
as in Missisquoi Bay during the late 1780s and early 1790s. It is not found. It does not appear
in any church or census records for that part of New York nor is it found in the Oaths at
Missisquoi Bay nor the Military records for the regiments where the Schoolcraft’s served.

However, there is quite a lot known about a Scofield family in St. Armand except that they
did not arrive there till much later. It comes from The History of Canaan New Hampshire by
William Allen Wallace, Edited by James Burns Wallace, The Rumford Press, Concord, NH,
1910. Wallace writes extensively of John Scofield (1715 - July 5th, 1784) and his wife Sarah
Crocker (died September 4th, 1796) who came to Canaan from Lebanon in December 1766.
John remained loyal to the Crown but did not fight in the Revolutionary war. He had four
daughters and two sons. The sons, John (born June 11th, 1756) and Eleazer (born 1754),
were Revolutionaries but decided to leave Canaan around 1800 and settled in St. Armand.
John’s family of nine children is well documented and many can be identified in the
Frelighsburg records. John did not have a daughter called Hannah. Eleazer’s family is less
well documented by Wallace who identifies three sons explicitly but only refers to two
daughters that he does not name. I presently suspect that one of Eleazer’s daughters was
Hannah Scofield, the wife of Martin Schoolcraft. However, such a marriage would not have

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been possible before about 1800, after Eleazer came to Quebec. I believe that the birth hiatus
seen in Martin’s children between 1795 and 1800 implies this was Martin’s second marriage.
I have been unable to locate anything that would confirm or disprove my suspicions
regarding Martin’s first wife. If I am correct then this also has a bearing on Martin’s location.
After the 1790s we have no visibility of Martin till 1825. I believe that indicates that he was
not in Stanbridge. I suspect that following his first wife’s death he may have removed to
Sutton with his brother Peter around 1800 and that both may have been near the town line
with St. Armand East. It would be in that location that he would have opportunity to meet
and marry Hannah Scofield. Sometime between 1807 and 1812, Martin probably decided to
remove to Stanbridge, initially near his widowed sister-in-law Catherine Phelps. In this
location Orra would have ample opportunity to meet and marry Jacob Boomhower. Shortly
after that, St. Ignace de Stanbridge which was initially settled in 1810, would be the new
growth area for settlement. Martin may have been attracted to that new settlement by the
presence of his sister Anne and her family and the probable availability of land.

Clearly this premise regarding Martin’s wife or wives is pure speculation and the reader is
strongly advised not to place too much reliance on it. It has only been included here to show
my present thinking on this family and in the hope that it may provide some ideas for further
research.

Martin’s Children

Martin had an extensive family as did several of his children. Some stayed in the Stanbridge
area while others removed to distant places.
Hannah
Hannah Schoolcraft is the oldest of his known children. She had twelve children by Moses
Spears, including the Revd. David Spears, a Methodist minister in the area. Her family is
centered around Pike River and Noyan although some are found in other parts of Missisquoi
County and in Franklin County, Vermont. The family has been well document in The
Descendants of George Spear 1642-1988, (The Trade Press, W. Springfield, MA 1988) by
Verne Raymond Spear. Many of the facts claimed are easily located in vital records. There is
one aspect that I am concerned about. One of Moses and Hannah’s sons is Joel Spears, born
on December 5th, 1810. Joel is a very common name in the Spears family and easily
confused. A substantial family of ten children is attributed to Joel, the son of Moses and
Hannah, by a wife called Minerva Lucretia Spears whose ancestry is not documented by
Verne Raymond Spear. Joel grew up in Pike River where his mother died a few years before
his marriage. Joel, Minerva and the start of their family are enumerated a few years after his
marriage, as a land owner in St. Ignace de Stanbridge38, and sequentially after Elihu Spears
who is landowner of an abutting lot. Further, another land owner that abuts Joel is Elihu’s
son, Jeremiah Spears. My concern is why Joel is not located in Pike River where he was
raised but is found so close to Moses’ step brother and his family. Further more, the
enumeration shows Joel was born about 1815, not 1810. Moses has a nephew called Joel who
was born about 1812 and would seem to be a better fit with the enumeration. The crucial
factor in resolving this uncertainty is proving which Joel Spears married Minerva Lucretia
Spears. This may come from examination of the witnesses at the births of their children or it
may come from Notarial records and a more complete understanding of the people that Joel

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interacted with, but as I have not yet located direct evidence of either of these I am unable to
comment further at this time.
William
William Schoolcraft’s family is not well documented. His marriage to Rosella Lalande is
recorded in the registers of Christ Church Anglican Cathedral in Montreal20. One child,
Anne39, can be proven. Anne marries Benjamin Hauver and I am aware of six children born
to this couple in Stanbridge. Rosella Schoolcraft is very probably William Schoolcraft’s
daughter. She was born about a year after William’s marriage and carries the same name as
her mother. William is buried in the Vaughan cemetery40. The only other Schoolcraft buried
in the Vaughan cemetery is R. Schoolcraft, wife of Peter Hauver41 Her age at death evaluates
to a birth on December 20th, 1815. Peter Hauver, Benjamin Hauver’s brother died in 184742
and is also buried there. At this point the 1852 census becomes significant. Page 129, line 42,
enumerates Silas Steven with wife Rosella and two children with the surname Hauver43.
Following Peter’s death, his wife Rosella married Silas Steven. A third Schoolcraft marriage
into the Hauver family44 exists. Philip Hauver married Clarinda Schoolcraft and was a
brother to Benjamin and Peter. Clarinda Schoolcraft was born about February 1827, seven
children are known. While I have no proof of Clarinda’s parents I conjecture that she is a
third sister to have married a Hauver. She is a witness at the baptism of Anne Schoolcraft’s
first child45 making a sibling relationship plausible. From the 1852 census we can place
Sophronia Schoolcraft, the wife of John Bockus. Her marriage to John Bockus is identified
by the death of her son46. The 1852 census shows Sophronia and her husband living beside
her father and her sister while her niece by Rosella Schoolcraft is present in her household. I
conjecture that William Schoolcraft had three more children: Cyrene, Elizabeth and Amelia.
Cyrene and Elizabeth are enumerated as sequential families in 1852, page 123. (Elizabeth is
the wife of James Goddard.) While both Elizabeth and Cyrene declare Episcopalean,
Cyrene’s wife and children are Catholic. I previously mentioned my suspicion that Rosella
Lalande came from a Catholic family. This would have brought William’s children into close
contact with other Catholic families, increasing the chance of inter-denominational
marriages. Amelia Schoolcraft is buried in Pigeon Hill47 with her husband and with Anne
Schoolcraft and her husband. William’s descendants seem to have remained in the
Stanbridge area. There is, however, one more item of interest concerning William. I located
the following reference in the Wentworth, New Hampshire Town Records:

Wentworth, Grafton Co., Vol. 2, pp. 369-371: The Selectmen of Wentworth for
the year ending March 7th, 1836 discharge themselves by the following Sums
of money which they have paid out for the benefit of said town Viz. .... Paid
Timothy Skeels for Services to Stanbrige L.C. to obtain an affidavit from Wm.
C. Schoolcraft 6.85.

I am moderately convinced that this is the William Schoolcraft under discussion herein but
have not been able to identify what this affidavit was about. Wentworth is a long way from
Stanbridge and it seems unusual that such a transaction would occur. An interesting story
may lie waiting to be discovered.

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Orra
Orra Schoolcraft married Jacob Boomhower18 and lived in Stanbridge till some time between
1831 and 1840. Then they removed to northern Vermont living in Georgia, St. Albans and,
lastly, Swanton. Orra had nine children who mostly remained in that part of Vermont. Clark
Boomhower, previously mentioned, had returned to Dunham by 185548. By 1870 Orra and
Jacob have separated. Orra is living with her son Abraham in St. Albans, she dies in Swanton
six years later. Jacob is living in Eden, Lamoille County, with his son Lester. By 1881 Jacob
has returned to Quebec where he is living with Clark Boomhower49 until his death in 1888 at
the age of about 9450. It is unclear if the marriage itself was troubled or whether this was just
a case of two very elderly persons being cared for by various children who found it necessary
to share the burden by separating them. There is a history of Alzheimer’s/dementia in my
wife’s family that can be proven back to within two generations of Orra. It may go farther
and such a disease in either parent would place a heavy burden on the care giver.
Elizabeth
Elizabeth Schoolcraft marries Henry Notemire in 181619 The 1825 census is ambiguous51
showing a tally that does not match the individuals and showing only unmarried adults. I
believe that Elizabeth died about 1825. In 1831 Henry, now a widower, marries Elizabeth’s
first cousin52. I have not located any children from either union although a person called
Henry Notemire, who might be a son, is buried in Dunham.
Peter
I believe that Peter Schoolcraft is the last child by Martin’s first marriage. He enumerates in
187131 in South Stukely with two children called Gilbert and Chester. His wife, Jane, died in
1870 in South Stukely53. She is enumerated on her own in 1861 in South Stukely in the
household of Thomas Stuart. I am suspicious that she may be the elder sister, or possibly
mother by a prior marriage, of Abraham Bice, the head of the household in which Peter is
enumerated in 1871, as this enumeration is only a few months after her death. The daughter
from another Bice family, Sarah Sophia Bice, married Alpheus Edgar Schoolcraft who is
Peter’s nephew. I have not been able to locate Peter or the two sons in 1852, 1861 or 1881.
Simon
After the foregoing children there appears to be a birth hiatus till March 18th, 1800 when
Simon is born to Hannah Scofield6. Simon and his wife Elizabeth Kinman have eight
children. Those with families remain in Quebec and northern Vermont. Their eldest child is
Simon who has eight children, the last seven being born in Belvidere, Vermont. Simon Jr.’s
first marriage fails and he marries his second wife in 1899, some eight years before his
death54. Simon Sr.’s second son is Robert Munson Schoolcraft55. Robert has two wives and
seven children. He lives in Farnham with his first wife, marries his second wife there but by
1862 he has removed to Stanbridge. Edward56, the third son, also marries twice and has seven
children. Edwards’s second marriage in Montgomery, Vermont is unambiguous. However,
his first is a little troubling. It is identically recorded in the Baptist church both in Potton and
in Frelighsburg dated July 6th, 185957. In all probability it took place in Stanbridge.
Edward’s age is consistent with that provided in the tutorship document so his parents are
reasonable well proven. The problem is that the 1861 census, just two years later, includes
two children who predate the marriage. I wonder if Edward had actually had a prior marriage

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or whether these children were Hannah Deline’s from a prior marriage. Hannah is a little
older than Edward and may have been married before. By 1871 Edwards’s census
enumeration58 is even more interesting. Two children, Ida and Emma have been added.
Employed as a domestic is a Mary Schoolcraft and her son Corey B. I believe this is an
enumerator’s error and that Corey B. is Cora Belle who was born in Eden Vermont in 186959.
Mary Barry, whose husband Philip Schoolcraft died early in 187160, is now employed as a
domestic by her brother-in-law. After Philip’s death in 1871, Mary Barry marries second
John Vorce and third Heman Schoolcraft. Simon’s fifth child, Polly, has a late life marriage
in Troy, Vermont61. I have not found an earlier marriage for her. Simon’s son, Philip
William, marries before 186959 and settles in Eden, Vermont.
Scofield
Scofield Schoolcraft marries Catherine32. After 1831, he does not show in the census record
till 1861 when he is found in Kennebec, Ontario. He is reported to have died in August 1877
at age 72. This record is apparently in the Ontario Death Records although I have not yet
obtained a copy to examine. I believe he had seven children. The youngest, Charlotte, is
enumerated in his household in 186132. Mary Ann states her parents in her marriage record62.
In 1852 Edward is enumerated close to his sister Charlotte who, still being a minor, cannot be
far from her parents or a relative. Hannah and Daniel are enumerated very close to Scofield
in 1861. Charity Louisa and Jane are also enumerated near Scofield and as he seems to be the
only male Schoolcraft to have come to this region he is conjectured to be their father.
Lorenzo
Lorenzo Dow Schoolcraft married Hannah Boomhower26, the daughter of Jeremiah
Boomhower. They lived in Stanbridge and had seven children. All are either explicitly
identified from church records or are enumerated in their parents household. Ethan Allen
Schoolcraft’s marriage record shows explicitly that he was born in North Stanbridge, which
is probably indicative that Lorenzo lived in St. Ignace de Stanbridge. Lorenzo is not
identified in Schedule B in 1852 but those enumerated before and after him are. They are in
range 4, lots 20 and 21 so it is reasonable to conclude that Lorenzo was just north of the
church in St. Ignace de Stanbridge.
Daniel
Daniel Schoolcraft marries Mary Dimond in 185763 and they have a daughter, Alice, who
appears to have an illegitimate child with her in 1881. Daniel is aged 53 when he marries and
there may be an earlier marriage that I am unaware of. I suspect Mary Dimond may be the
daughter of George Dimond and Hannah Phillips who also lived in North Stanbridge. Two
witnesses at the marriage are identified by the name Phillips and their daughter, Sarah,
married Daniel’s first cousin, Elijah. However, I have not located any evidence to prove this
suspicion.
Anthony
Anthony Schoolcraft was discussed earlier. He and Sarah Smith64 had six children in the
1842 enumeration65. The family then went eastwards into Stukely and Magog. Anthony is
not found in the census record after 1842 and other evidence suggests he was probably living
in Stukely whose census enumerations for 1852 and 1861 were lost. By 1871 Sarah is living

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with her eldest son Alpheus66. While this enumeration does not explicitly identify Alpheus as
her son and the enumeration has used some off-beat spellings, the assumed relationship is
strengthened by Matilda’s presence as a witness at Alpheus’ marriage67. Matilda is explicitly
proven to be Anthony’s child by the 1891 census68 enumeration that identifies Sarah as
“mother”. (Matilda’s marriage to Robert Buzzel69 is documented in 1855.) Caroline and
Melvina are proven to be Anthony’s children by their marriage records64, 70. I consider
Alpheus, Matilda, Caroline and Melvina to be proven. Martha is probably Anthony’s
daughter. Alpheus and his wife are witnesses at her first marriage71. to David Ritcha. I am
aware of a claim that Martha’s second marriage was to Abner Rider. If confirmed, census
information places Martha’s birth about 1830.

Elizabeth, is conjectured to be Anthony’s children as she is enumerated in Magog in 1860,


the adjoining town to Orford and very close to South Stukely where other children are found.
There are also three more that I conjecture are also Anthony’s children. This is weak as only
Melissa actually exhibits a tie to the general region (when she marries72. in Derby, Vermont).
There are several census enumerations in Massachusetts in 186073, 187074, 75, 76 and 188077
that show three individuals that are probably siblings. All three give their birth place as
Quebec and their age is such that they should be living with their parents in 1852. I have not
located these individuals in the 1852 census enumeration. A plausible explanation for this
would be that their parents are living in one of the towns whose 1852 enumeration was lost.
Anthony Schoolcraft is an immediate suspect, although he is not the only possibility. His
enumeration in 1842 exhibits a least one problem - the family supposedly numbers seven yet
six children, and two adults are enumerated. The foregoing analysis suggests that seven
children should be present. My interpretation is shown in Table 16. After matching each of
the proven and probable children against the ages and genders shown in 1842, four are left.
Those four, shown in italics, correlate with Elizabeth and the three who are found in
Massachusetts in 1860, 1870 and 1880. I conjecture that these three children are Anthony’s.
Further work is needed on this and hopefully a baptismal or death record that specifies the
parents can be located for one of these three individuals.

Table 16: March 2nd, 1842, pp. 2569.30, Stanbridge


Gender Birth Range Suggested Correlation
Married Male 1783-1812 Anthony Schoolcraft, probably born 1805-1808.
Married Female 1798-1828 Sarah Smith born about 1809, immigrated about 1827.
Male 1829-1837 Alpheus Edgar born about 1827.
Female 1829-1837 Martha Diana born about 1830.
omitted Matilda Jane born August 1833.
Male 1829-1837 David born July 1835.
Female 1837-1842 Elizabeth born about 1837.
Male 1837-1842 Herman born July 1839.
Female 1837-1842 Melissa born about 1842.

Deborah
Deborah Schoolcraft married Walter Boomhower, the first cousin of Orra Schoolcraft’s
husband. The marriage is recorded in Highgate, Vermont, in 182528 but as both were

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residents of Stanbridge at the time, it is likely that the marriage took place in Stanbridge and,
like so many others, was recorded in Vermont as Quebec did not have a civil registration
procedure for marriages at that time. They had nine children. After 1831, Walter is not
enumerated again until 1861 when he is in Kennebec, Ontario, fairly close to Scofield
Schoolcraft. It seems likely that both Scofield Schoolcraft and Walter Boomhower were
traveling together and in 1851 were probably in one of the many towns whose census records
are lost. Two of Walter’s brothers, Peter and David Boomhower, also went to the same part
of Ontario at this time.
Sarah
Sarah Schoolcraft is the youngest child of Martin. She married Adam Boomhower78, brother
to Walter Boomhower, but they remained in Stanbridge where they raised a family of eleven
children with a large number of grandchildren. Although I have not located incontrovertible
proof of Adam’s location within the town, what evidence I do have suggests he moved into
the South East section of town in the vicinity of lot 4, range 4. Sarah may not be Adam’s first
wife. The first proven child is Hannah, born in 183779. However, Adam is enumerated with a
wife and what may be a young son in 1825. Sarah is only 14 years old in 1825 whereas
Adam is aged 33. When Adam Boomhower’s son, James, is born in 1828 Adam is 36 years
old while Sarah Schoolcraft is only 17. One, possibly two, more sons are born before 1831
yet Adam is not enumerated in 1831 suggesting he was living in another household. Then
there is birth hiatus between 1831 and 1837. It seems plausible that a prior marriage existed
and that his first wife may have died about 1831. Possibly, the family name Skakel (Scagel)
or Bigford was involved in that earlier marriage as the first two of Adam’s children, James
and Albert, are enumerated with William Scagel and his wife Persis Bigford in 185280. The
third Boomhower in that record, Isaac, might be their first cousin or another of Adam’s sons.

1
New York, Schenectady: First Reformed Church, Baptism of Martinus on Feb 6 [1764], parents Christiaan
Schoolcraft & Elizabeth Margarit Bekker, sponsors Henderick Hauqe & Eva Bekker.
2 Québec: Notarial and Land Records, Leon Lalanne: 12th Jany 1807, Agreement of Adam Schoolcraft & Isaac

Afselstine.
3 Québec: Census, 1825: Page 808.25, Township of Stanbridge, Bedford Co. Head of household Martin Schoolcraft, 2

total in household, 1 14 but under 18. Males: 1 60 and up Sing. Females: 1 14 but not 45 Sing.
4 Histoire de la Paroisse de Saint-Damien de Bedford, by Abbé Isidore Desnoyers, 1887, pp. 101, 102. Simon se fixa

sur le lot No 19 précisément sur la terre où est bâtie l'église actuelle de St-Ignace.
5 Québec: Census, 1831: pp. 1251.39, Twp. Of Stanbridge settled 1795, Missisquoi Co. Concession 4 Head of

household Scofield Schoolcraft, owner, farmer. 8 Total in household, 3 under 5, 2 6 but under 14. Males: 1 30 but not
60 Marr., 1 60 and up Sing.Females: 4 Under 14, 1 14 but not 45 Marr., 8 Anglican.
6 Québec, St. Armand: Methodist Circuit Records, Simon the son of Martin Schoolcraft of Stanbridge, husbandman,

and of Hannah his wife whose maiden name was Scholefield was born on the eighteenth day of March in the year of
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and was baptised on the tenth day of December in the year of our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and fourty four in the presence of the subscribing witnesses by me W. M. Harvard Minister.
Joel Spears, Moses Russell.
7 Montréal Tutorship Records: No. 501 this 14th Augt. 1854 Minors Simon Schoolcraft Tutorship ... Elizabeth Kinman,

widow and relict of the late Simon Schoolcraft in his life time of the Stanbridge yeoman, who departed this life the
Twenty fifth day of November Eighteen hundred and fifty two ... a tutor or tutrix and sub tutor be appointed to Emily,
Edward, Polly, Jewich, Phillip and Ibei Schoolcraft of the respective ages of nineteen, sixteen, fourteen, twelve, ten and
seven, minor children issue of her marriage with the said Simon Schoolcraft
8
Québec: Census, 25-Mar-1852: pp. 85.12, Dist. 8, St. Alexandre, Rouville Co., Agric. 109.03 Lot not stated: Samuel
Schoolcraft age 52 male born in Allemagne occ./rel. cultivateur, Methodist. Elizabeth Commons age 42 female born in
Allemagne occ./rel. Methodist.

160
9 Vermont: Marriage Record, Highgate VT reported marriage of Hannah Schoolcraft to Moses Spears on 2-Mar-1807.
Hannah Schoolcraft residing in Stanbridge Lower Canada.
10 Québec: Cemetery Records, Vieux Cimetière de Pike River, Pike River, R.VI-N.82: Sacred to the memory of

Hannah || Wife of Moses Spears || Who died June 27, 1839 - Aged 50 years.
11 Pamela Wood Waugh and Shirley Dean Wood, Québec, Missisquoi: Missisquoi Co., Volume 1, (Extracted and

complied from microfilm located at Les Archives Nationales de Québec), Marriage of Elijah SPEAR, age 21 a yeoman
of Stanbridge to Alzina COREY, spins ae 20 of Stanbridge with consent of her parents on 24-Jan-1833 in St. Armand
Methodist church. Witnessed by Moses SPEAR his father, Caleb COREY her father.
12 Verne Raymond Spear, Genealogy: The Descendants of George Spear 1642-1988, (The Trade Press, W. Springfield,

MA 1988).
13 Québec: Notarial Records, Pierre Gamelin, February 16th, 1844, Hannah Schoolcraft Inventory: Mentions Moses

Spear Sr., his first wife Hannah Schoolcraft, present wife Priscilla Tryon. Mentions minor son Noah Spear aged 20 yrs.,
2 mos. Mentions other sons Joel, Elijah, Ibri, and Martin being of major age. Mentions daughter Lydia Spear wife of
Samuel Roberts of Granby. Mentions daughter Hannah Spear wife of James Kent of Granby. Mentions Mrs. Filura
Hallan McDougal of Noyan, widow of his son the late Moses Spear Jr. Mentions Amanda Spear, age 3 yrs. 2 mos.,
daughter of Moses Jr. and Filura. Moses Spear Sr. living on formerly Stanbridge lot 13, conc. 10, now lot 1 East conc.
Noyan.
14
Québec: Census, 2-Mar-1842: pp. 2576.11, Stanbridge, Missisquoi Co. Head of household Simon Schoolcraft, renter,
farmer. 9 total in household, 9 native of Canada. Children: 1 male under 5, 1 female under 5, 2 male 6 but under 14, 2
female 6 but under 14, 3 aged 5 thru 16, Males: 2 14 but not 18 Sing., 1 30 but not 60 Marr., Females: 1 14 but not 45
Marr.
15 Québec: Census, 1831: pp. 1253.23, Twp. Of Stanbridge settled 1795, Missisquoi Co. Concession 7 Head of

household Simon Schoolcraft, renter, farmer. 4 Total in household, 2 under 5. Males: 1 30 but not 60 Marr., Females: 1
14 but not 45 Marr., 4 Methodist.
16 Québec: Census, 1831: pp. 1257.07, Twp. Of Stanbridge settled 1795, Missisquoi Co. Concession 7 Head of

household Simon Schoolcraft, renter, farmer. 3 Total in household, 1 5 and under. Males: 1 21 but not 30 Marr.,
Females: 1 Under 14, 1 14 but not 45 Marr., 3 Anglican.
17 Québec: Census, 1825: pp. 808.08, Township of Stanbridge, Bedford Co. Head of household Simon Schoolcraft, 3

total in household, 1 under 6. Males: 1 25 but not 40 Marr. Females: 1 14 but not 45 Marr.
18 Québec, Philipsburg: Anglican Church Records, Folio fourth: On the first day of February one thd. Eight hund. And

thirteen Jacob Boomhower, Bachelor, farmer and minor and Aura Schoolcraft spinster of major age, Both of Stanbridge
were Married by Banns in the presence of his brother and the subscribing witnesses. C. Stuart Minr. Jacob Boomhower,
Aura Schoolcraft her mark, Jeremiah Boomhower his mark, George Mitchell.
19 Québec, Philipsburg: Anglican Church Records, Folio second: On this fourth day of February One Thousand eight

hundred and sixteen, Henry Notemire, Batchelor Farmer and Elizabeth Schoolcraft, Spinster, both of major age and of
Stanbridge were married after publication of Banns in presence of the subscribing witnesses by James Reid Minr.
Henry Notemire his mark, Elizabeth Schoolcraft her mark, John Bockus, George Mitchell.
20 Québec, Montreal: Anglican Church Records, Registers of Christ Church Cathedral in Montreal, register for the year

1814 on the front of folio 22, Québec National Archives microfilm #128.1: On the Eighteenth day of October One
thousand, eight hundred and fourteen William Schoolcraft Shoe Maker, Single man, and Rofsella Laundrah, single
woman, Both of this parish, were married by Banns in the presence of William Kane and John Baptist Bouderi. By me
(signed) Jt. Mountain Minister. (signed with an x) Will'm Schoolcraft's mark x. (signed with an x) Rofsella Laundrah
mark x. (signed) Will'm Kane. (signed with an x) Jn. Baptist Bouderi's mark x.
21 Québec: Census, 1831: pp. 1255.09, Twp. Of Stanbridge settled 1795, Missisquoi Co. Concession 7 Head of

household William Schoolcraft, renter, farmer. 10 Total in household, 2 5 and under, 3 6 but under 14. Males: 1 30 but
not 60 Marr., Females: 5 Under 14, 1 14 but not 45 Marr., 2 14 but not 45 Sing., 1 45 and up Sing., 9 Anglican, 1
Catholic.
22 Québec, Stanbridge: Anglican Church Records, William Schoolcraft aged 64 years died on the 28th and was buried

on the 30th of May Eighteen Hundred Fifty Five. by me, James Jones, Minister. witness Robert Reid.
23 Québec: Census, 12-Feb-1852: pp. 133.25, Dist. 2, Stanbridge, Missisquoi Co., 1 story log, 2 fam. Female age 80

yrs. Died in 1851, William C. Schoolcraft age 61 male born in Canada occ./rel. Shoemaker, Methodist, Married.
Rosella age 59 female born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist, Married. William Douglass age 22 male born in Scotland
occ./rel. Labourer, Presbyterian, married. Amilia age 18 female born in Canada occ./rel. Presbyterian, married.
24 Hyde Park VT reported death of Clark Boomhower on 16-Jun-1901 of Chronic bronchitis at age 79 yrs. 1 mos. 12

days, occupation Farmer, born in Stanbridge PQ. Parents Jacob Boomhower & Orrah. Widowed.
25 David J. Ellis: I have not been able to obtain a copy of this letter.

161
26 Québec: Cemetery Records, Mystic cemetery, Row 6, Lot 11: Hannah Boomhower wife of Lorenzo D. Schoolcraft
died Oct 23, 1880 ae. 61 yrs. 11 mo's. & 16 days. Lot 12: Lorenzo D. Schoolcraft died May 14, 1878 aged 74 yrs.
Blessed are the dead that live in the Lord. Lot 13: Milo Schoolcraft died Oct. 17, 1877 aged 23 yrs. 11 mos. & 11 ds.
Lot 14: Louisa Bigford wife of James Schoolcraft died Sept. 10, 1873 ae. 19 yrs. & 17 ds.
27 Québec, Missisquoi: Missisquoi Evangelical Second Advent Circuit Records, North Stanbridge Sept 12th 1873.

Attended the Funeral and Burial of Louisa Bigford wife of James M. Schoolcraft who died at the residence of her father
in law Lorin Schoolcraft in North Stanbridge aged eighteen years and twelve days and buried in the Public Burying
ground at Mystic. Witnessed Edward Schoolcraft and Alonzo Boomhower.
28 Vermont: Marriage Record, Highgate VT reported marriage of Miss Deborah Schoolcraft to Mr. Wallerhum

Boomhower on 28-Apr-1825. Miss Deborah Schoolcraft residing in Stanbridge L. C., Mr. Wallerhum Boomhower
residing in Stanbridge L. C. [Maiden name mis-recorded on the bride's record.].
29
Notary Leon Lalanne: 10th June 1815 Sale by Philip Ruiter Atty of ~~~ ~~~ to Magdelena Boomhower.
30
David J. Ellis: From her marriage record, Orra is born before 1-Feb-1792. From her death record she is born about
1792. Census records generally show her a little younger.
31
Québec: Census, 1871: Dist. 127 pp. 14.09, Stafford, South Stukely, Shefford Co., dw. 53, fam. 53: Abraham Boice
age 55 M born in QC origin German religion Methodist. Susann age 55 F born in U.S.A. origin English religion
Methodist. John age 15 M born in QC origin German religion Methodist. Peter Scoulcraf age 76 M born in QC origin
German religion Methodist. Gilbert age 27 M born in QC origin German religion Methodist. Chester age 28 M born in
QC origin German religion Methodist.
32 Ontario: Census, Linda Corupe Vol. 1 Indexes, 1861: Kennebec Twp., Frontenac Co., pp. 5.32, Conc. 6 N. Qtr. 8,

Log, 50 acres, Schovel Schoolcraft, age 59, married, male, born in Bedford, L.C., Farmer, E. Meth., Catherine, age 62,
married, female, born in York State, U.S., E. Meth, Charlotte, age 20, single, female, born in Sheffield, E. Meth.
33 Québec, Bedford: Methodist Church Records, Buried by me in presence of the subscribing witnesses Lorenzo Dow

Schoolcraft of North Stanbridge Co. of Missisquoi Que. Was born on the Fifth day of August One thousand Eight
hundred and Three. Buried on the Sixteenth day of May One thousand Eight hundred and Seventy Eight Aged Seventy
five years. Witnesses Hannah Schoolcraft and Leonard Stone. John ?cufell Meth. Minister.
34 Québec: Census, 12-Feb-1852: pp. 163.46, Dist. 2, Stanbridge, Missisquoi Co., 2 story frame, 1 fam., Agric. 181.42

Lot 10-10: Ebenezer Taylor age 75 male born in U.S.A. occ./rel. Farmer, Methodist, Married. Lucinda age 67 female
born in U.S.A. occ./rel. Methodist, Married. Eliza Ayer age 17 female born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist. Joseph Davis
age 16 male born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist. Daniel Schoolcraft age 48 male born in Canada occ./rel. Laborer,
Methodist.
35 David J. Ellis: The implication of this family is that Anthony married Sarah about 1826 or 1827 when she was about

17 years old. It is unlikely that Anthony would be more than five years older with such a young bride. Therefore I
would Conjecture that Anthony was one of Hannah Scofield's children and was born about 1805 to 1808.
36 Ontario: Census, Linda Corupe Vol. 1 Indexes, 1861: Kennebec Twp., Frontenac Co., pp. 8.44, Conc. 4 Lot 8, Log,

100 acres, Walter Bumhower, age 54, married, male, born in Lower Canada, E. Meth., Debby, age 52, married, female,
born in Lower Canada, E. Meth., James, age 18, single, male, born in Sheffield, E. Meth., Mary A., age 16, single,
female, born in Sheffield, E. Meth., Peter, age 14, single, male, born in Sheffield, E. Meth.
37 Québec: Census, 12-Feb-1852: pp. 49.40, Dist. 1, Stanbridge, Missisquoi Co., 1 story frame, 2 fam., Female 2 yrs old

died in 1851, Adam Baumhower age 60 male born in U.S.A. occ./rel. Labourer, None, Married. Sarah age 41 female
born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist, Married. James age 23 male born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist. Albert age 22 male
born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist. Hannah age 14 female born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist. Nelson age 12 male born
in Canada occ./rel. Methodist. Horatio age 11 male born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist. Ryli age 9 male born in Canada
occ./rel. Methodist. Walter age 7 male born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist. Albro age 5 male born in Canada occ./rel.
Methodist. Lavinna age 2 female born in Canada occ./rel. Methodist.
38
Québec: Census, 12-Feb-1852: pp. 69.04, Dist. 1, Stanbridge, Missisquoi Co., 1 story block, 1 fam., Agric. 83.43 Lot
5-19: Joel Spears age 38 male born in Canada B. occ./rel. Adventist, farmer, married. Minerva age 28 female born in
U.S.A. occ./rel. Adventist, married. Edson age 7 male born in Canada B. occ./rel. Adventist. Jude age 4 male born in
Canada B. occ./rel. Adventist. Eleanor age 2 female born in Canada B. occ./rel. Adventist. Elizabeth age 20 female
born in Canada B. occ./rel. Adventist. James Printice age 19 male born in U.S.A. occ./rel. Adventist, laborer.
39 Québec, Philipsburg: Anglican Church Records, On this fourth day of January one thousand eight hundred and

twenty four Anne Daughter of William Schoolcraft of Stanbridge, Farmer, and Rozella Lalande, his wife, born on the
tenth day of July, One thousand eight hundred and twenty three, was baptized, The Sponsors are Charles and Elizabeth
Neer and Mary Schoolcraft here subscribing by (signed) James Reid, Min'r. (all signed with x) William Schoolcraft,
Rozella Schoolcraft, Charles Neer, Elizabeth Neer, Mary Schoolcraft.
40 Québec: Cemetery Records, Vaughan cemetery: SCHOOLCRAFT, William G. d. May 28, 1855 ae. 64.
41
Québec: Cemetery Records, Vaughan cemetery: SCHOOLCRAFT, R. d. May 16, 1888 ae. 72y, 4m, 26d w/o Peter
Hauver.

162
42 Québec, Stanbridge: Anglican Church Records, Peter Hauver, aged thirty eight, died on the Twenty ninth of
September, and was buried on the First of October, Eighteen hundred and Forty Seven. By me (signed) James Jones
Minister Witness (signed) Robert Hauver.
43 Québec: Census, 12-Feb-1852: pp. 129.42, Dist. 2, Stanbridge, Missisquoi Co., Living with Philip Hawver, Silas

Steven age 50 male born in United States occ./rel. laborer, no church, married. Rosella age 39 female born in Canada
occ./rel. no church, married. Amanda Hawver age 15 female born in Canada occ./rel. no church. Anna age 11 female
born in Canada occ./rel. no church.
44 Québec, Barnston: Methodist Church, Clarinda Schoocraft wife of the late Philip Hauver of Coaticook in the County

of Stanstead and Province of Québec, died on the nineteenth day of September A.D. one thousand eight hundred and
eighty nine and was buried by me on the twentieth day of the same month and year aforesaid in presence of the
subscribing witnesses aged fifty seven years and seven months. (signed) Wm Smith. Witnesses (signed) Lemuel R.
Lathe, O.M. Moulton.
45
Québec, Stanbridge: Anglican Church Records, BCHS Index Reel 124.6: Hauver, William Hamilton, B. Sept. 17,
1840, Bapt. June 26, 1853, s/o Benjamin & Ann Hauver. Wit: Clarinda Hauver & Hamilton Douglas.
46
Québec, Bedford: Anglican Church Records, Bedford, Burial: On the twenty eighth day of February, Eighteen
hundred and seventy two the body of John, son of John Edwin Bockus of North Stanbridge yeoman and of Sophrania
Schoolcraft his wife having died on the twenty sixth and was interred by me.
47
Québec: Cemetery Records, Pigeon Hill cemetery: SCHOOLCRAFT, Emilia d. 9 Jan. 1895 ae. 58; wife of Hamilton
Douglas d. 20 Mar. 1885.
48 Québec, Missisquoi: Missisquoi Evangelical Second Advent Circuit Records, Baptism. Clark Boomhower of the

Township of Dunham District of Montreal and County of Missisquoi, was baptised on the second Day of December on
thousand Eight Hundred and fifty five By P. West Minister. Witnesses Charles Evrett and Martha D. Evrett.
49 Québec: Census, 1881: FHL Film 1375840 || NA Film Number C-13204 || District 65 || Sub-district H || Division 2 ||

pp. 11 || hse. 51 || Census Place: Dunham, Missisquoi Co., QC || Clark BOOMHOUR Married German Male age 58
born in QC, Carpenter || Betsey G. BOOMHOUR Married English Female age 48 born in USA, Weslyan Methodist ||
Jacob BOOMHOUR Widowed German Male age 87 born in USA, Painter, E. Methodist.
50 Québec, Frelighsburg: Methodist Church Records, Jacob Boomhower farmer of the township of Stanbridge in the

County of Missisquoi and Province of Québec died on the twenty third and was buried on the twenty fifth day of May
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty eight. Witnessed Robert Beerwort and J. B. Sargent.
51 Québec: Census, 1825: pp. 813.11, Township of Stanbridge, Bedford Co. Head of household Henry Notemire, 5 total

in household, 2 under 6, 1 6 but under 14. Males: 1 25 but not 40 Sing. Females: 2 < 14: 1 14 but not 45 Sing.
52 Québec, St. Armand: Methodist Circuit Records, Marriages: On the twenty ninth day of December in the year of our

Lord One thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty one Henry Notemire Farmer of the Township of Stanbridge Widower
and Lydia Schoolcraft Spinster both of the same Township both parties being of age and with the consent of the parents
of the aforesaid Lydia Schoolcraft after due publication of banns were united in holy matrimony in the presence of John
Schoolcraft and Barbary Schoolcraft the Father and Mother of Lydia Schoolcraft aforesaid. Henry Notemire, Lydia
Notemire, John Schoolcraft, Barbary Schoolcraft. None of these persons being able to sign their names they were
written by me.
53 Québec, Shefford: Methodist Circuit Records, Died on the fifteenth day of June one thousand eight hundred and

seventy, Jane wife of Peter Schoolcraft of South Stukely in the eighty third year of her age, and was buried on the
sixteenth day of the same month and year in the presence of the subscribing witnesses by me LeArmstrong, Minister
Witnesses A. Sargeant and Cynthia H Sargeant.
54 Vermont: Death Record, Death of Simon Schoolcraft on 23-Aug-1907 in Milton VT, age 76 yrs., 4 mos., 17 days of.

M. Born in Canada.
55 Québec, Farnham: Anglican Church Records, Farnham Anglican Church, LDS Film 1430755/56: Marriages:

Monson Schoolcraft son of Simon Schoolcraft and Elizabeth his wife was married after publication of banns to Mary
Ann daughter of George and Mary Hoskin on Monday the fifteenth day of March eighteen hundred and fifty two, the
woman of minor age.
56 Vermont: Marriage Record, Montgomery VT reported marriage between Edward Schoolcraft and Elizabeth Hakie

Billings on 26-Aug-1878. 2nd marriage of Edward Schoolcraft age 38 born in Stanbridge QC residing in Franklin VT.
Parents Simon Schoolcraft & Betsy Cummings.
57 Québec, Potton: Baptist Church Records, Register of the marriage between Edward Schoolcraft farmer of Stanbridge

aged twenty years and Miss Hannah Deline of Stanbridge aged twenty three years this sixth day of July one thousand
eight hundred and fifty nine. Witness John Frazer and Harriett Schoolcraft.

163
58 Québec: Census, 1871: Dist. 4, pp. 44.01, Stanbridge, Missisquoi Co., dw. 159, fam. 169: Edward Schoolcraft age 30

M/M born in QC origin German occupation machinist religion W. Methodist. Hannah age 45 M/F born in QC origin
Irish religion W. Methodist. Hattie age 17 S/F born in QC origin German religion W. Methodist. Charles age 13 S/M
born in QC origin German religion W. Methodist. Henry age 12 S/M born in QC origin German religion W. Methodist.
Ida age 9 S/F born in QC origin German religion W. Methodist. Emma age 8 S/F born in QC origin German religion
W. Methodist. Mary age 21 S/F born in QC origin German occupation servant religion W. Methodist. Corey B. age 2
S/M born in QC origin German religion W. Methodist.
59 Vermont: Birth Record, Eden VT reported birth of Cora Bell Schoolcraft on 9-Feb-1869, sex F. Parents Philip

Schoolcraft & Mary Barry, father's occupation Farmer. Father born in Stanbridge QC, mother born in St. Albans VT.
60
Vermont: Death Record, Death of Phillip W. Schoolcraft on 15-Mar-1871 in Eden VT, age 26 yrs. Typhoid fever. M.
Born in Bedford QC. Occupation Farmer.
61
Vermont: Marriage Record, Troy VT reported marriage between Polly Schoolcraft and N. W. Dunham on 17-Feb-
1904. 1st marriage of Polly Schoolcraft age 55 born in Bakersfield VT residing in Burlington VT. Parents Lumon
Schoolcraft & Elizabeth.
62
Linda Corupe, Ontario: Forty Years of Kennebec Twp. Vol 2., Kennebec Marr. Reg., #3: Sept. 26, 1860 Peterson,
Philip age 20 residing Kennebec born Portland, parents Peterson, Jacob & Peterson, Phoebe to Schoolcraft, Mary Ann
age 30 residing Kennebec born Canada East, parents Schoolcraft, Schoval & Schoolcraft, Catherine.
63
Québec, Cowansville: Congregational Church Records, Cowansville: Daniel Schoolcraft farmer in the township of
Stanbridge, bachelor, and Maria Maria Diamond in the township of Dunham, spinster, were married on this sixth day of
June one thousand eight hundred and fifty seven after the publication of banns by me. Witnessed Daniel “X”
Schoolcraft, Mary M. Dimond, David Phillips, Mary Phillips.
64 Vermont: Marriage Record, Derby VT reported marriage between Caroline Schoolcraft and Aaron Wittier on 13-Jan-

1872. 1st marriage of Caroline Schoolcraft age 24 born in Stukely QC residing in Magog QC. Parents Anthony
Schoolcraft & Sarah Smith.
65 Québec: Census, 2-Mar-1842: pp. 2569.30, Stanbridge, Missisquoi Co. Head of household Anthony Schoolcraft,

renter, laborer. 7 total in household, 1 native of U.S.A., 15 years in province for non native. Children: 1 male under 5, 2
female under 5, 2 male 6 but under 14, 1 female 6 but under 14, 3 aged 5 thru 16, Males: 1 30 but not 60 Marr.,
Females: 1 14 but not 45 Marr., 1 deaf female, 2 British Wesleyan Methodist.
66 Québec: Census, 1871: Dist. 127 pp. 7.19, Stafford, South Stukely, Shefford Co., dw. 29, fam. 29: Elpeus Scoulcraf

age 43 M born in U.S.A. origin German occupation Journalier religion W. Methodist. Sala age 36 F born in U.S.A.
origin German religion W. Methodist. Eladjer Scoulcraf age 18 M born in QC origin German religion W. Methodist.
Albert age 14 M born in QC origin German religion W. Methodist. Sala age 62 F born in U.S.A. origin German
religion W. Methodist.
67 Québec, Stukely: Methodist Church, Marriage: Alpheus Edgar Schoolcraft Bachelor Farmer of Brome and Jane

Davis of the same place were Married after the due publication of Banns on the Eighteenth day of August One
Thousand Eight Hundred and fifty one by me Francis Hunt. Signed Alpheus Edgar Schoolcraft & Jane Davis.
Witnesses Matilda Schoolcraft & G. G. Davis.
68 Québec: Census, 14-Apr-1891, pp. 13.11, Hse. 63, Dist. 188-G Div. 2 (mislabeled Sub Dist. on image), Orford,

Sherbrooke Co., Robert Buzzell, male, age 55, married, head, born in QC, father QC, mother QC, Universalist, farmer,
merchant, Matilda, female, age 57, married, wife, born in QC, father QC, mother QC, Advent., George, male, age 14,
son, born in QC, father QC, mother QC, Universalist, Virna, female, age 10, dau, born in QC, father QC, mother QC,
Universalist, Sarley Schoolcraft, female, age 83, widow, mother, born in USA, father USA, mother USA, Meth., John
Humphries, male, age 23, married, son, born in QC, father QC, mother QC, Meth., day labourer on farm, Carrie,
female, age 24, married, wife, born in QC, father QC, mother QC, Meth.
69 Québec, Bedford: Protestant Marriages in the District of Bedford, 1804-1879, (Compiled by R. Neil Broadhurst),

Marriage of Matilda Jane SCHOOLCRAFT, a spinster of Twp of Stukely to Robert Andrew BUZZEL on 13 Aug 1855
in Shefford Methodist church.
70 Vermont: Marriage Record, Derby VT reported marriage between Melvina A. Schoolcraft and Richard J. Copp on

28-Oct-1871. 1st marriage of Melvina A. Schollcraft age 22 born in Stukely QC residing in Oxford QC. Parents
Anthony Schoolcraft & Sarah Smith.
71 Québec, Stukely: Methodist Church, Marriage: David Ritcha Bachelor Shoemaker of the Township of Magog and

Martha Diana Schoolcraft of the Township of Stukely were married after the due publication of Banns on the
Nineteenth day of April One Thousand Eight Hundred and fifty two by Francis Hunt. Signed David Ritcha & Martha
Schoolcraft. Witnesses Alpheus E. Schoolcraft & Jane Schoolcraft.
72
Vermont: Marriage Record, Derby VT reported marriage of Melissa Schoolcraft to George Knowlton on 7-Dec-
1864. Melissa Schoolcraft residing in Magog C. E., age 23.

164
73 Federal Population Schedule, 21-Jun-1860, pp. 138.29, dw. 707, Ward #2, Lawrence, Essex Co., MA, fam. 989,
David Schoolcraft age 24 sex m operative born in VT, Georgianna age 18 sex f housekeeper born in ME, Georgianna
age 1 mos. sex f born in MA, Milossi age 18 sex f domestic born in Canada East, Herman age 20 sex m carpenter born
in Canada East, fam. 990, William Lord age 55 sex m teamster born in NH, Benjamin age 25 sex m operative born in
NH, Susan age 22 sex f house keeper born in MA, Frederic age 2 mos. sex m born in MA, Elizabeth age 19 sex f house
keeper born in MA
74 Federal Population Schedule, 14-Jun-1870, pp. 6.26, dw. 50, Hudson, Hillsborough Co., NH, fam. 56, David

Schoolcraft age 34 sex m carpenter born in Canada, Georgiana age 26 sex f keeping house born in Canada, Albertine
age 10 sex f born in MA, Cora S. age 8 sex f born in Canada, Minnie age 11 mos. sex f born in NH.
75
Federal Population Schedule, 6-Jun-1870, pp. 22.08, dw. 122, Watertown, Middlesex Co., MA, fam. 179, Andrew
Moras age 33 sex m carpenter born in NH, Elisabeth age 25 sex f born in VT, John F. age 4 sex m born in Canada East,
Benjamin Grenslit age 40 sex m teamster born in VT, Heman F. Schoolcraft age 21 sex m carpenter born in Canada
East.
76 Federal Population Schedule, 25-Jun-1870, pp. 213.39, dw. 1230, Ward 12, S. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA, fam. 1670,

Theodore W. Lord age 33 sex m tin man born in ME, Clarinda age 34 sex f born in ME, Herbert age 6 sex m born in
MA, fam. 1671, Herman Schoolcraft age 31 sex m carpenter born in Canada, Ellen age 21 sex f born in NH, Walter age
7 mos. sex m born in MA.
77
Federal Population Schedule, 1880: FHL Film 1254760 National Archives Film T9-0760 pp. 276C: Albany, Carroll
Co., NH : Hermon SCHOOLCRAFT Self male married white age 41 born in CAN occupation House Carpenter father
born in NY mother born in NY: Ellen R. SCHOOLCRAFT Wife female married white age 32 born in NH occupation
Keeping House father born in NH mother born in NH: Walter B. SCHOOLCRAFT Son male single white age 10 born
in MA occupation At Home father born in CAN mother born in NH.
78 Québec, Stanbridge: Second Adventist Church Records, Bedford Second Adventist Church, LDS Film 2027149:

Burials: Stanbridge Nov 27th 1895. Officiated this day at the burial of Sarah Schoolcraft, widow of the late Adam
Boomhower, who died Nov 25th 1895 aged ninety one years and was buried in the public burying place of Stanbridge
Ridge P. Que. Witnessed N. Guy Hurlbut. Walter Boomhower. N. C Hurlbut Minister.
79 Québec, Frelighsburg: Methodist Church Records, Hannah L daughter of Adam Boomhower and of Sally

Schoolcraft his wife and wife of John Gage Sr. of Stanbridge County of Missisquoi Province of Québec was born on
the thirteth day of August in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty seven and was baptized on the
twenty first day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety three in presence of the
subscribing witnesses. Witnessed H. C. Heath and N. Bachelder.
80 Québec: Census, 12-Feb-1852: pp. 39.02, Dist. 1, Stanbridge, Missisquoi Co., 1 story frame, 1 fam., Agric. 79.23 Lot

5-11: William Scagel age 56 male born in U.S.A. occ./rel. Farmer, Universalist, Married. Persa age 53 female born in
U.S.A. occ./rel. Universalist, Married. Philina age 14 female born in Canada occ./rel. Universalist, Unmarried. Jacob
age 8 male born in Canada occ./rel. Universalist, Unmarried. James Baumhower age 23 male born in Canada occ./rel.
Laborer, Universalist, Unmarried. Albert Baumhower age 22 male born in Canada occ./rel. Laborer, Universalist,
Unmarried. Isaac Baumhower age 21 male born in Canada occ./rel. Laborer, Universalist, Unmarried.

165
Chapter 15: Anna Schoolcraft and
Simon Stone
Lamora Magdaleno has been the source of much of what I know about this family. She drew
on prior work by Herb Stone and significantly supplemented that with her own work. Audrey
Growt has provided the research on one branch of this family. I am indebted to both for their
assistance.

This family is deeply involved with the present day village of St. Ignace de Stanbridge. Three
names have been associated with this location. While the actual boundaries associated with
each name may not be the same over time, the different names are often found associated
with the same geographic location. When it was originally settled it was known as the Stone
Settlement because this family was one of the earliest to settle there. Later it became
identified as North Stanbridge. Since the establishment of the Catholic parish it has been
known as St. Ignace de Stanbridge. However, all three names have also been used at the
same time. Abbé Isidore Desnoyers refers the formation of the Catholic Parish of St. Ignace,
noting also it’s names of Stone Settlement and North Stanbridge, in the “Histoire de la
Paroisse de Saint-Damien de Bedford”1. This document is in French. Because English and
French use different grammatical constructs a strict English transcription is not possible. I
have translated and paraphrased the key points below.

Page 59:
In October 1873 were erected the regular Missions of Notre-Dame de
Lourdes / Saint-Armand-West / with Curé Legault exclusively in charge, and
the Mission of Stone Settlement / North Stanbridge / entrusted to M. Ed.
Blanchard, which for this purpose only, was nominated assistant (vicaire) in
Saint-Damien....
[The Catholic Parish of Saint-Damien was founded on July 10th, 1864]
Page 60:
On September 14th, 1874, M. Elphège Gravel .... becomes the new Curé of
Saint-Damien and will as well minister the Missions of Saint-Armand and
Saint-Ignace / Stone / starting on October 4th.
On October 23rd, 1874, M. Jos. Marcoux is nominated assistant in Saint-
Damien and especially in charge of Stone Settlement. In September 1875, he
is succeeded in these same responsabilities by M. Jos. Beaudry who stays until
1876.
On April 1876, the Mission of Stone Settlement is erected canonically under
the new name of Saint-Ignace. On October 6th, 1876 takes place the arrival of
M. Jean-Baptiste Chartier from Coaticook, as first residing Curé.

Abbé Isidore Desnoyers writes in more detail of the Catholic Parish of St. Ignace in the
“Histoire de la Paroisse de Saint-Ignace de Stanbridge”2. I shall discuss some of the content
of this reference later.

167
Anna Schoolcraft’s existence is determined from her son’s death record3, which explicitly
states his parents were Simon Stone and Anna Schoolcraft. From the St. Ignace de Stanbridge
cemetery we learn that Anna’s son, Peter Stone was born on April 20th, 17914, so we can
imply that Anna was probably born before 1775 and would thus be Christian Schoolcraft and
Elizabeth Becker’s child. Formal confirmation of this conclusion comes from the land
transaction discussed in detail in Chapter 9. That document clearly identifies that Simon
Stone is Adam Schoolcraft’s brother-in-law. The records of the United Empire Loyalists
show that a Simon Stone was commissioned on November 22nd, 1781 in Capt. Jones’ Co. of
the Loyal Rangers. Simon Stone is listed as a Private, age 17, 5 ft. 5 in. with 1 yr. 5 mos. of
service coming from America. The date of the report is uncertain. However, the Loyal
Rangers was a Provincial Regiment that existed only between 1781 and 1783, which would
imply Simon was born around 1765. There were other regiments that included the terms
“Loyal” and “Rangers” so there is sufficient ambiguity that this date cannot be regarded as
proven.

Simon Stone was granted land in Foucault in 17975. The land was located in the eighth range
near the Bay. This is close to the land that his brother-in-law, William Schoolcraft, occupied
in 1820. In Chapter 5, page 65 I showed that Simon Stone was granted lot 28 in range 4 in
Sutton in 1801. As I stated in Chapter 5, I am unconvinced that the Simon Stone who is
granted land in Sutton is the same one as married Anna Schoolcraft. On March 13th, 1805
Simon is granted authorization6 to lease Stanbridge lot 13, range 7. The government tried to
avoid making multiple grants to the same person. This grant abuts Simon’s brother-in-law,
Adam Schoolcraft, and it seem very likely that this is where Simon lived before he removed
to land in St. Ignance de Stanbridge a few years later.

Abbé Isidore Desnoyers states2 that Simon and his son Peter, with a man named Kempt, were
the earliest settlers in St. Ignace de Stanbridge. They arrived around 1810 and Simon settled
on lot 19 in range 4.

4e Rang – Dans cette concession la colonisation se serait ouverte vers l’année


1810. Un vieillard du nom de Kempt, Peter Stone et Simon Stone s’y
établirent les premiers. Simon se fixa sur le lot No 19 précisément sur la terre
où est bâtie l’église actuelle de St-Ignace. L’un de ses descendants, Leonard
Stone, vendit cette terre, 6 Sept. 1873, au Sieur Jos. Smith, catholiq. Simon
Stone fut aussi le premier, dit-on, inhumé ds le lieu qui sert encore
aujourd’hui de cimetière pour la populat. protest. de la localité à quelque 15
arpents sud de l’église cathol. Il laissa plusieurs garçons, entre autres, Adam
et Peter; celui-ci bâtit la maison en pierre occupée auj. par J. Smith. En
mémoire de cette famille Stone et autres Stone, la place fut appelée longtemps
Stone Settlements. Aujourd’hui c’est Stanbridge Nord, petit village à quatre
milles nord de Bedford; on y remarque des marchands et plusieurs corps de
métier; une école protest. tenue en 1880 par Mlle Grace Phelps; dans laquelle
se fait le meeting religieux; un Bureau de poste, ouvert en 1864, pour
l’avantage de 45 familles, établies ds la localité et les environs, parmi
lesquelles familles, il y avait en 1880, vingt- une canadiennes, dont 5
Daudelin, 3 Chartier, -- 3 Russell, 3 Sawyer, 2 Stone. On mentionne encore

168
comme des pionniers habit. du 4e Rang Hermanus Truax et Christopher
Travers et ds.

I am indebted to M. Jef Asnong for providing the transcription and the following translation
of that early French passage:

4th Range – Colonisation in this concession would have begun towards the
year 1810. An older man named Kempt, Peter Stone and Simon Stone were
the first to establish themselves. Simon settled on Lot No 19, precisely on the
land where the present day church of Saint-Ignace is built. One of his
descendants, Leonard Stone, sold this farm on September 6th, 1873, to Mr.
Jos. Smith, a Catholic. Simon Stone was also the first, so it is said, who was
buried at the site which is still used today as a burying ground for the
Protestant population of this locality, situated 15 arpents to the south of the
Catholic church. He had several boys among which were, Adam and Peter;
this last one build the stone house inhabited today by J. Smith. In
remembrance of this family Stone and other Stone’s, the place was called the
Stone Settlements for a long period of time. Today it is known as Stanbridge
North, a small village situated four miles to the North of Bedford; one
encounters merchants and several craftsmen; a Protestant school kept in 1880
by Miss Grace Phelps; in which are held the religious meetings; a Post Office,
opened in 1864, to benefit the 45 families, living in the village or its
surroundings, among which families, there were in 1880, twenty one
Canadian families among them 5 Daudelin, 3 Chartier, -- 3 Russell, 3 Sawyer,
2 Stone. Also mentioned as pioneers of the 4th Range are Hermanus Truax and
Christopher Travers and others.

In 1820 Simon purchased the westerly half of lot seventeen in the fourth concession from
Francois Des Rivieres in 18207. He appears to have been overcharged by one shilling if you
follow the arithmetic in the agreement as the stated cost was £45 17s., there was £25 19s.
paid previously and a remainder of £19 19s. at the date of the agreement. i.e. Simon actually
handed over a total of £45 18s.! That half lot (100 acres) would measure about 1/2 mile east
to west and about 3/8 of a mile north to south. It is located about ½ mile south the center of
St. Ignace de Stanbridge and contains the intersection of South Church Road and Galipeau
Road. On 12-Feb-1820 Simon Stone sold 45 acres of lot 17-4 to George Stone for 5s. What
he sold was a strip 45 rods and 12 links from north to south that ran along the southern edge
of the land he had just bought from Francois Des Rivieres. i.e. it was 750 feet frontage on
South Church Road, south of the intersection with Galipeau Road. In Deed 3086 that I shall
discuss in more detail later, various siblings quit their claims in lot 17-4 to their brother
William Stone. In Deed 3088, William sells to his brother, George, for £100 “all the surplus
of fourty five acres” in lot 17-4. I find this deed somewhat ambiguous. It refers to George as
the owner by virtue of the sale by his father in 1820. Therefore, why would William be
selling George something he already owned? Two possibilities seem obvious. The phrase
that I have quoted may mean that William is selling the rest of half lot 4-17 so that George
then owns the whole half lot. Alternatively, it may be that the whole of George’s 45 acres
never got to him originally. From the first sale by his father it is apparent that this was more

169
of a gift than a sale as George got about £20 worth of land for 5 shillings. I favor the first
interpretation but have not fully transcribed and really studied this deed.

Who is Simon Stone?

Stone is a fairly common name. Many members of the Stone family trace their ancestry back
to a family in Essex, England. J. Gardner Bartlett documented the family of Deacon Simon
Stone8 showing an extensive line of persons called Simon Stone, several of whom were
significant citizens likely to be commemorated in naming subsequent generations. At least
two persons called Simon are mentioned in the early Quebec records.

One Simon Stone is associated with Ascot, Quebec through his son Isaac Stone9. Isaac was
born on December 12th, 1781 in Templeton MA, and can be shown to be the son of Simon
Stone who was born on November 1st, 1746 in Groton MA. Although this Simon Stone also
has a son called Simon, that son is born February 1st, 1773 in Templeton MA and is claimed
to have married Rhoda in 1795. He could not be the one in St. Ignace de Stanbridge. His age
is not appropriate to that of the person in the Loyal Rangers.

The birth of another Simon Stone on November 18th, 1762 in New Ipswich is readily
verified in the New Hampshire records10. This is tantalizingly close to the birth of the Simon
we seek. Simon’s parents were Elias Stone and Sarah Sawyer. Bartlett8 has documented
Elias’ family. Elias was in New Ipswich NH 1761-1765, Lunenberg MA 1765-1771,
Deerfield MA 1771-1784, and finally Colrain MA 1784-1801 where he died. A tantalizing,
but unverifiable, piece of information is a member submission to the IGI stating that a Simon
Stone married in Salem NY about 1789 and that he was born in New Ipswich, NH. However,
if Simon had made it to Salem, NY it would have been as a young, single, man and not with
his parents. Following the Revolutionary War, Loyalists were being driven out of Salem and
Cambridge NY. Thus it is hard to see how or why a Loyalist would have gone to such a
region in the mid or late 1780s after his discharge from the Loyal Rangers. Further, Elias was
not a Loyalist so his son is not likely to have been one either. In August of 1789 a Captain
Simon Stone and Lieutenant Israel Stone, cousins from Salem NY, purchase a Phelps and
Gorham tract at Big Spring (later Pittsford) containing 13,296 acres, for $4,786.56. They
make a $30 down payment. They then go back to Salem for the winter. Captain Simon Stone
died in 1832 in Pittsford NY11 at age 68. I believe that this supporter of the Revolution is in
fact Elias’ son.

Because of the foregoing, I am unaware of the pedigree of Anna Schoolcraft’s spouse. Abbé
Isidore Desnoyers writes2: “Simon Stone fut aussi le premier, dit-on, inhumé ds le lieu qui
sert encore aujourd’hui de cimetière pour la populat. protest. de la localité à quelque 15
arpents sud de l’église cathol.” Simon may be the totally illegible marker in lot 2-4 that is
just inside the gate of the Stone cemetery.

Simon Stone and Anna Schoolcraft‘s Children

Most of Anna Schoolcraft’s children are determined from Simon Stone’s Will12 and from
some land transactions in which the inheritors released their claim13. As these documents are
so significant to Stone family research they are transcribed here. Simon’s Will was filed with

170
the Bedford Land Records office in 1839, after the release documents. The census record
actually implies that Simon died between 1825 and 1831.

Bedford Land Record, No. 3086. A Deed signed to William Stone, Whitby
20th day April 1838 from Elizabeth Lampman, Rhoda Groat, Charles Stone,
Amanda Groat, Filed 22nd June 1839 at 10 to 1 oclock P.M., A. Kemp Dep.
Reg.:
Know all men by these presents that I Elizabeth Stone the wife of John
Lampman and I Rhoda Stone the wife of Ebenezer Groat and I Lucy Stone the
wife of Harmonas Truax and I Charles Stone and I Anna Maria Stone the wife
of John Groat all of the Township of Whitby in the County of York in the ~~~
District and in the Province of Upper Canada yeoman doth hereby
acknowledge the receipt of one pound ~~~ by to me in hand paid by William
Stone the consideration of which I the said Elizabeth Stone, Rhoda Stone,
Lucy Stone, Charles Stone, Anne Maria Stone doth hereby and by these
presents Give grant ~~~ and for ever quit claim unto the said William Stone
his heirs and afsigns for ever all rights and title to us or ours heirs how were
claimed or pofsefsed and by these presents doth confirm the same of Lot
number seventeen in the fourth consefsion of the Township of Stanbridge in
the County of Mifsifsquoi and in Montreal District and in the Province of
Lower Canada In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seal
in presence of Witnefs Fuller Groat, George Groat.
Whitby 20th April in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and
thirty eight. Elizabeth X Lampman, Rhoda Groat, Charles Stone, Anna M.
Groat.
Bedford Land Record, No. 3087. Transfer of Rights of Succefsion by
Thomas Stone to Wm Stone, Filed 22nd June 1839 ½ past 1 oclock P.M., A.
Kemp Dep. Reg.:
Know all men by these presents that I Thomas Stone of the Township of
Camden in the Counties of Lennox and Addington in the midland District and
in the Province of Upper Canada yeoman doth hereby acknowledge the
receipt of one pound Currency to me in hand paid by William Stone the
consideration of which I the said Thomas Stone doth hereby and by these
presents give grant sell quit claim unto the said William Stone his heirs and
afsignes for ever all my right and title to me or my Heirs however claimed or
pofsefsed and by these presents doth donfirm the same of Lot number fourteen
in the fourth concefsion of the Township of Stanbridge in the County of
Mifsifsquoi in the Montreal District and Province of Lower Canada In
testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal. In presence of
Witnefses Christian Douey, Jacob D
Camden January 12th in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and
thirty eight. Thomas Stone.
Bedford Land Record, No. 3088. Deed of Sale By William Stone to George
Stone Filed 22nd June 1839 at 2 oclock P.M., A. Kemp Dep. Reg.:

171
Before the subscribing Notary Public residing in the District of Montreal in
the Province of Lower Canada Personally appeared William Stone of the
Township of Stanbridge yeoman who in my presence voluntarily declared and
acknowledged that for and in consideration of the sum of One hundred pounds
current money of the Province aforesaid unto him in hand well and truly paid
before the execution of these presents by George Stone of the same place,
yeoman, the receipt and payment whereof he the said William Stone did and
hereby doth acknowledge and thereof and every part & parcel thereof acquit
exonerate and discharge him the said George Stone his heirs and afsigns
forever, He the said William Stone hath bargained granted and sold and by
these presents doth bargain grant sell alien ~~~~ convey and confirm from
henceforth for ever without any guarantee other than his own deeds &
promises unto the said George Stone present hereto and accepting all the rest
residue & remainder of the equal westerly half of all that tract and parcel of
land situate lying and being in the aforesaid Township of Stanbridge known
and distinguished by lot number seventeen in the tenth range of Lots in the
said Township the said remainder sonsisting of all the surplus of fortyfive
acres, the contents of the contents of[sic] the said moiety estate the late Simon
Stone and consort their parents have sold & conveyed to him the said George
Stone by Deed dated 12 February A.D. 1820 executed before the said Notary
as reference being thereunto had will more fully appear as the said residence
remainder of the said moiety now is be its contents what it may with all the
buildings and other improvements created & made thereon and generally all
and every the estate and estate rights titles interests property claims and
demands whatsoever of him the said William Stone of into or out of the said
piece and parcel of land and premises and of in and to every part & parcel
thereof and as he now is seized thereof by virtue of the last will and testament
of the aforesaid Simon Stone and by purchase of the rights and claims of
Elizabeth Stone the wife of John Lampman, Rhoda Stone the wife of Ebenezer
Groat, Lucy Stone the wife of Harmonax Truax, Charles Stone, Anna Maria
Stone the wife of John Groat Thomas Stone, Margaret Stone the wife of
Freeman Johnson, Peter Stone, Adam Stone and Charlotte Stone the wife of
Calvin Spears To Have and to Hold the said residue and remainder of the
west half of the said Lot of land and premises and every part & parcel thereof
with its appurtenances unto the said George Stone his heirs and afsigns for
ever by virtue of these presents: subject neverthelefs to the payment of such
sum or sums as is or are now due or owing to the heirs or other legal
representives of Francis Des Riviers late of the City of Montreal ~~~
deceased of the sum of nineteen pounds nineteen shillings current money
aforesaid which the said late Simon Stone had undertaken and bound himself
to pay the said Francis Des Riviers by a certain deed of the said westerly
moiety by the said Francis Des Riviers to him dated 12th day Feby A.D. 1820
executed before the said Notary and all the interest that may have accrued
also subject to the terms & conditions provisoes limitations restrictions and
reservations in the letters Patent of the said Township of Stanbridge set forth
& constrained and for the due execution of these presents the parties thereto

172
have made election of domicile each at their respective place of abode where
notwithstanding & promising & obliging & renouncing & Thus done and
pafsed at St. Armand in the office of the said Notary in the afternoon of the
22nd day June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred & thirty
nine; and the said parties and in the said Notary witnefses have to these
presents (~~~ duly read) set and subscribed our respective names in faith &
testimony of the Provisions
A Kemp (signed) William Stone his
~~rick The said George not knowing how to write George X Stone
makes his mark a cross mark
L. Lalanne N.P. True copy of the original in my office L. Lalanne N.P.
Bedford Land Record, No. 3159. Last Will and Testament of Simon Stone
filed 29th Oct 1839 at 11 oclock A. M., A. Kemp D. R.:
In the name of God Amen. I Simon Stone of Stanbridge being week in body but
of sound and perfect mind and memory; blessed be Almighty God for the same
so make and publish this for my last will and Teastament in the manner and
form following, to wit, first I give and bequeath unto my beloved wife her third
of my real and personal estate as long as she lives. Second I do also give and
bequeath to my eldest son Peter one pound currency; third I do also give and
bequeath unto my second son Adam one pound currency. Fourth I do also
give and bequeath unto my third son George one pound currency and that
part of that Lot of Land that he now lives on to have as his own by his paying
for the same. Fourth I do also give and bequeath unto my fourth son Thomas
one pound currency; Fifth I do also give and bequeath unto my fifth son
William two thirds of my real and personal estate of what there is remains
after paying the debts and schooling his Brother until he is fifteen and his two
youngest Sisters he is to give two years schooling and support them till they
become of age. Sixth I do also give and bequeath unto my youngest son
Charles the other third of my real and personal estate furthermore Charles is
to pay one half of the above sums so ~~~ to the above names and I hereby
give and bequeath to the said William and Charles all my real and personal
estate of and in all those ~~~ with the appurtenances situate and equally to be
divided between them as above mentioned and lastly I appoint Adam Stone to
be the sole administrator of this my last will and testament and hereby
revoking all former wills by me made. In witnefs whereof I hereunder set my
hand and seal this day of <blank> in the year of our Lord one thousand eight
hundred and twenty five signed sealed published and declared by the above
named Simon Stone to be his last will and testament in the presence of us who
have hereunto subscribed our names as witnefses in the presence of the
testator.
Signed Simon X Stone, Francis ~~~, Andrew Boyington

The combination of those four documents defines Simon Stone’s family. In particular I draw
your attention to Deeds 3086 and 3088 as they provide information about the husbands of
several daughters.

173
The eldest child, Peter Stone, married Sarah Fisk in 181214, about the time that Peter settled
in St. Ignace de Stanbridge. They had nine children. They are consistently enumerated in
Stanbridge, probably St. Ignace as they and most of their children are buried in the Stone
cemetery.

The second child, Adam Stone, married Martha Brewer in 181615. They also had nine
children and, like Peter, remained in Stanbridge and are buried in the Stone cemetery. Two of
the children went to Ohio, although most remained near Stanbridge. One, Zanetta Orselia
Stone, married William Asa Gray16 after his first wife, Mary Schoolcraft, died. Mary and
Zanetta were first cousins once removed.

The third child was George Stone who married Hannah Welch in 181717. They also had nine
children. George and his family occupy an enclosed family plot within the Stone cemetery.

Elizabeth Stone married John Lampman in 181718. I have not found any record of them after
the marriage except for the quit claim that shows they had removed to Ontario.

Margaret Stone married Freeborn Johnson in 182919. They were enumerated in St. Armand in
1852 but no children were apparent.

Hannah Stone married Calvin Spears in 182320. They were enumerated in Stanbridge in
183121 with a young family that I have not fully identified. Two of the children are probably
Edward and Nelson Spears who are living beside Calvin in 185022, 23, 24.

Rhoda Stone married Ebenezer Groat by whom she had eight children. In 1838 she and
Ebenezer were in Whitby, Ontario. They died in Minnesota. Audrey Growt has provided the
information on this family.

Lucy Stone married Harmon Truax in 182825. They also went to Whitby, Ontario. I have not
identified any children for this family although a young male child is enumerated in 183126.

Thomas Stone married Hannah Deline in 182627. They are enumerated in Sheffield, Ontario,
in 1852 with six children.

William Stone married Huldah Harding in 182728. William is enumerated in 1831 with a
young child and some others in the same household. It’s not clear if the young child is his. I
have not identified any children of William’s.

Charlotte Stone is named as Calvin Spear’s wife in deed 3088. But wait - Calvin married
Hannah Stone in 1823! The 1850 census confirms the name Charlotte and shows her age
such that she was born in 1810. It’s extremely unlikely she married at age 13 and started a
family. In fact the earlier marriage record states that both were “of major age” and thus born
before 1802. We may deduce that Calvin married two sisters. Hannah is shown to be Simon’s
daughter as her brother and his wife are witnesses at the marriage. Deed 3088 shows that
Charlotte is also Simon’s daughter. The 1850 census shows that Charlotte has a relatively
young family and thus probably married Calvin only a year or two before the land settlement
in 1839.

174
Charles Stone is enumerated in Chase, Michigan in 188029 with a wife called Jane. I have not
identified any children of this union.

Anna Maria Stone marries John Groat in Ontario in 183630. The relationship between John
Groat and Ebenezer Groat has not been determined. Six children are enumerated in 185231.

1 Histoire de la Paroisse de Saint-Damien de Bedford by Abbé Isidore Desnoyers. Étude manuscrite Diocèse de Saint-
Hyacinthe, 1886.
2 Histoire de la Paroisse de Saint-Ignace de Stanbridge by Abbé Isidore Desnoyers. Étude manuscrite Diocèse de Saint-

Hyacinthe, 1887.
3
Québec, Dunham: Methodist Church Records, Folio 16th: George Stone of the Township of Stanbridge, farmer, son
of late Simon Stone and his wife Anna Schoolcraft died on the Twenty Fourth day of November in the year of our Lord
One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty Five and was buried on this Twenty Seventh day of the same month and year
in the presence of the subscribing witnesses by me R. A. Flanders, Minister. Witnesses Francis Welch and Lorenzo D.
Seagal.
4
Québec: Cemetery Records, Stone Cemetery, St. Ignace de Stanbridge, Marker 5-3. Sarah R. Fisk wife of Peter Stone
b. April 20, 1792 d. Sept 27, 1878. Marker 5-4. Peter Stone d. March 27, 1866 ae. 75 yrs.
5 Histoire de la Paroisse de Saint-Jacques de Foucault by Abbé Isidore Desnoyers. Étude manuscrite Diocèse de Saint-

Hyacinthe, 1886. pp. 2 “In 1797, 14th of July, the Seigneur Gabriel Christie made a grant of 4 x 30 arpents to Simon
Stone in the 8th Range near Missisquoi Bay.”
6 Lib. Arch. Can. RG1 L3L Vol. 60, pp. 30196-30217. Mar 13, 1805, pp. 30216. Authorization to lease Crown and

Clergy land. James Schoolcraft, range 9, lot 15; William Schoolcraft range 10, lot 13; Simon Stone range 7, lot 10;
Elijah Spears range 9, lot 19.
7 Notary Leon Lalanne: 12th Feby 1820, Philip Ruiter Atty of F. Des Rivieres to Simon Stone. Notary Leon Lalanne:

12th Feby 1820 Deed of Sale by Simon Stone & Consort to George Stone.
8 Simon Stone Genealogy, Ancestry and Descendants of Deacon Simon Stone of Watertown, Mass. By J. Gardner

Bartlett, Published for The Stone Family Association, 1926.


9 Notary Leon Lalanne: 21st Sept. 1803, Sale by Gilbert Hyatt to Simon Stone: Identifies that the land sold is in Ascot.

Isaac Stone represents Simon Stone of Templeton and is identified as Simon's son.
10 New Hampshire Births: Simon Stone born 18 Nov 1762 New Ipswich Twp, Hillsboro, New Hampshire. Parents Elias

Stone and Sarah.


11 Pioneer Cemetery, Village of Pittsford, Monroe Co., NY: Stone, Simon 1764-1832
12 Québec, Bedford: Land Registry Records, Bedford Land Record, No. 3159. Last Will and Testament of Simon Stone

filed 29th Oct 1839.


13 Québec, Bedford: Land Registry Records, Bedford Land Record, No. 3086, 3087 & 3088.
14 Vermont: Marriage Record, Peter STONE of Stanbridge, Canada & Sally FISK - married 3 Jul 1812 at Highgate, VT

by Peter Sax.
15 Pamela Wood Waugh and Shirley Dean Wood, Québec, Missisquoi: Missisquoi Co., Volume 1, (Extracted and

complied from microfilm located at Les Archives Nationales de Québec), Philipsburg Anglican: On March 11, 1816
Adam Stone of Seigneury of St. Armand of major age and Martha Brewer of Stanbridge of minor age were married in
presence of his sister and brother. James Reid, Minister. Witnesses Margaret Stone, George Stone.
16 Québec, Bedford: Protestant Marriages in the District of Bedford, 1804-1879, (Compiled by R. Neil Broadhurst),

Page 507 records the marriage of Zanetta 0. STONE, age 23, of Stanbridge to William Asa GRAY on 26 Oct 1848 in
Stanbridge BA church.
17 Pamela Wood Waugh and Shirley Dean Wood, Québec, Missisquoi: Missisquoi Co., Volume 1, (Extracted and

complied from microfilm located at Les Archives Nationales de Québec), Frelighsburg Anglican: On March 10, 1817
George Stone and Hannah Welch both of Stanbridge major age were married by banns by James Reid, Minister.
Witnesses Adam Stone, John Welch.
18
Pamela Wood Waugh and Shirley Dean Wood, Québec, Missisquoi: Missisquoi Co., Volume 1, (Extracted and
complied from microfilm located at Les Archives Nationales de Québec), Frelighsburg Anglican: On February 24,
1817 John Lampman Bachelor & farmer and Elizabeth Stone spinster of minor age both of Stanbridge were married by
banns. James Reid, Minister. Witnesses Jacob Bockus, Elizah Schoolcraft.
19 Pamela Wood Waugh and Shirley Dean Wood, Québec, Missisquoi: Missisquoi Co., Volume 1, (Extracted and

complied from microfilm located at Les Archives Nationales de Québec), Philipsburg Anglican: On March 10, 1829
Freeborn Johnson of the Seignorie of St. Armand and Margaret Stone of Stanbridge were married by James Reid
Minister. Witnesses Levi Johnson and William Stone.

175
20 Québec, Frelighsburg: Anglican Church Records, Frelighsburg Anglican: On this twenty seventh day of January one
thousand eight hundred and twenty three Calvin Spear Batchelor and farmer, and Hannah Stone, spinster, both of major
age and of Stanbridge were married after publication of Banns in the presence of the subscribing witnesses. James Reid
Minister. Witnesses Adam Stone, Martha Stone.
21 Québec: Census, 1831: pp. 1253.34, Twp. Of Stanbridge settled 1795, Missisquoi Co. Concession 7 Head of

household Calvin Speers, renter, labourer. 6 Total in household, 3 5 and under, 2 6 but under 14. Males: 1 21 but not 30
Marr., Females: 1 Under 14, 1 14 but not 45 Marr., 6 Methodists.
22 Federal Population Schedule, 19-Aug-1850, pp. 211.25, dw. 405, Berlin, St. Claire Co., MI, fam. 405, Calvin Spear

age 50 sex m farmer born in Canada, Charlotte age 40 sex f born in Canada, Elijah age 10 sex m born in Canada, John
age 8 sex m born in Canada, Nancy age 6 sex f born in Canada, Gideon age 3 sex m born in Canada, Hannah age 2
mos. sex f born in MI.
23
Federal Population Schedule, 19-Aug-1850, pp. 211.32, dw. 406, Berlin, St. Claire Co., MI, fam. 406, Edward Spear
age 26 sex m farmer born in Canada, Charlotte age 25 sex f born in Canada, Elizabeth age 6 sex f born in Canada,
Calvin age 1 sex m born in Canada.
24
Federal Population Schedule, 19-Aug-1850, pp. 211.36, dw. 407, Berlin, St. Claire Co., MI, fam. 407, Nelson Spear
age 24 sex m farmer born in Canada, Sarah age 20 sex f born in Canada, Andrew J. age 1 sex m born in MI.
25
Pamela Wood Waugh and Shirley Dean Wood, Québec, Missisquoi: Missisquoi Co., Volume 1, (Extracted and
complied from microfilm located at Les Archives Nationales de Québec), Philipsburg Anglican: On February 25, 1828,
Harmon Truax and Lucy Stone, both of majority age, both of Township of Stanbridge were married by Richard
Whitwell, Minister. Witnesses William Stone and Margaret Stone.
26 Québec: Census, 1831: pp. 1253.06, Twp. Of Stanbridge settled 1795, Missisquoi Co. Concession 4 Head of

household Harmonius Truax, owner, farmer. 3 Total in household, 1 5 and under. Males: 1 21 but not 30 Marr.,
Females: 1 14 but not 45 Marr., 3 Methodists.
27 Vermont: Marriage Record, Highgate, page, #133: Thomas Stone md Hannah DELINE, 12 Apr 1826, both of

Stanbridge.
28 Vermont: Marriage Record, William STONE of Highgate & Huldah HARDING - married 11 Sep 1827 at Highgate,

VT.
29 Federal Population Schedule, 1880: FHL Film 1254589 National Archives Film T9-0589 pp. 89C: Chase, Lake Co.,

MI : Charles STONE Self male married white age 66 born in Canada occupation Farmer father born in VT mother born
in MA: Jane STONE Wife female married white age 69 born in Canada occupation Keeps House father born in Eng
mother born in VT.
30 Ontario: Marriage Record, Feb 4. 1836 Anna M. Stone and John Groat, both of Whitby. Witnesses Charles Stone and

Nancy Calkins. Performed by Israel Marsh, Baptist Minister, Whitby.


31 Ontario: Census, 1852: pp. 43.46, Dist. 1, Whitby, Durham Co., 1 story frame, 1 fam., Agric. 149.01 Lot 5-17: John

Groat age 41 m born in L.C. occ./rel. farmer, Baptist, married. Annah age 35 f born in L.C. occ./rel. Baptist, married.
Ambrose age 15 m born in U.C. occ./rel. labourer, Baptist. Alfred age 13 m born in U.C. occ./rel. labourer, Baptist.
Harriett M. age 9 f born in U.C. occ./rel. Baptist. Charles age 4 m born in U.C. occ./rel. Baptist. Marlotte age 2 f born
in U.C. occ./rel. Baptist. Mary age 1 f born in U.C. occ./rel. Baptist.

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Chapter 16: Unresolved Issues in
Missisquoi County
One of the biggest problems encountered when researching this region is the sporadic
occurrence of the early records. This is most pronounced before about 1840 and as a result,
many individuals are not detected till late in life when they appear in a census or death
record. This is particularly problematic with females as most that survive are using their
married names by the time they are detectable and thus the maiden name may remain
undiscovered for many years. Despite this, some individuals still remain who show
connections with the Missisquoi County families but who I have not yet placed in a family.
The foregoing chapters have suggested placement of most who were the grandchildren of
Christian Schoolcraft and Elizabeth Margaret Becker. The evidence for some of those is
flimsy and circumstantial and much work remains to prove some of the conjectures that I
have made. Still more remain that are probably great grandchildren. I have selected those that
I feel it should be possible to place yet, because of the absence of adequate clues, I have not
succeeded in developing any thread to work from. Hopefully someone may read this and
recognize one or more these people and have a copy of the document that helps identify
them. I would alert you that names and ages get mis-stated for many reasons and when only a
single record exists, this can be very misleading.

The Kentucky Connection

I stated in Chapter 2 that I would not be discussing Austien’s descendants who settled
primarily South of the Mason Dixon line. However, in recent years I started to review some
of the information on Schoolcraft’s from the South. That uncovered a Quebec connection that
I was previously unaware of. Starting in 1860 we find a Robert Schoolcraft1 and a William
Henry Schoolcraft2 who are wagon makers from Canada. Clearly they are of interest to the
present research. Robert is born about 1830 in Bedford, QC3 and William is born about 1835.
They are almost certainly brothers. (Robert also recorded his marriage in Johnson Co.,
Illinois4 three weeks earlier. Johnson County is very close to Paducah, Kentucky.) In 1870 a
third, Edward Schoolcraft, is found living with William5 and who is 11 years his junior.
Clearly Edward cannot be a child and I conjecture he is also a brother to the other two. Both
Robert and William have documented families and between 1870 and 1900 both remove to
Montgomery, Alabama6, 7. Robert is claimed to have married two more times after his
marriage to Mary Grief3 and I am grateful to Robert Evans for the following information:

Taken from the Evans Family lore, the story has come down that Robert F.
Schoolcraft and my Great Great Grandfather, Frank Culley Evans, were
compatriots during the Civil War in which one said to the other, “…if I die
first you take care of my wife and family and if you die first I will do the same
for you.” Neither man died during the Civil War, but Robert did eventually
marry Frank’s wife Laura in either November or December, 1873. Where I
don’t know but I can tell you how I know.

177
I just recently discovered that Frank Evans served the confederacy during the
Civil War as a Captain under General Forrest’s Brigade. Nathan Bedford
Forrest lived in Memphis about one block from Frank’s residence. So, it
appears Frank and Robert were Confederate sympathizers?
Frank Evans and Robert Schoolcraft both had a residence in Paducah,
Kentucky in 1873; Frank had another residence in Memphis, Tennessee.
Frank was a broker in the tobacco business, Robert a wagon
manufacturer. Frank did quite well in tobacco. He died during the yellow
fever epidemic in Memphis in October 1873. He left his wife Laura and her
five children a Life Policy totaling $99,200 cash. That would be worth about
one million today!
The Probate Records in Memphis list Laura Evans as “Mrs. Laura Evans” on
November 5, 1873 and as “Mrs. Laura Schoolcraft” December 1873. So,
Frank died in October, Laura re-married about 1-2 months later. Robert
Schoolcraft to the rescue. Being married made it easier for Laura to collect
the money that the Court was issuing to her piecemeal, i.e., Laura had to
produce receipts for care for the children to get compensated.
June 30, 1875, Laura had all the money and a Probate Court Citation for her
to appear in Court was addressed by the Sheriff that “…she was not to be
found in my County per reliable informant. She now resides in the State of
Allabama.” [sic]
February, 1875 expense receipts for each child include railroad fare from
Louisville to Montgomery. Laura’s children are:
Edward Malcolm Evans
Elizabeth Evans
Anna Laura Evans
Charles Carventry Evans
Henry Clay Evans (my Great Grandfather)

In 1900, George Schoolcraft, born in 1863 in Kentucky8, is enumerated in St. Louis with two
daughters who were both born in Alabama. The coincidence of locations and the fact that one
daughter is called “Roberta” causes me to suspect that George is part of this group, even
though he is not apparent in the 1870 or 1880 census. In 1900 the widow Greada Grief
enumerates in Paducah9 with her son, John Schoolcraft, born in Oct 1882. William and
Robert were both in Paducah and Robert married Mary Grief. It would seem probable that
Greada was at one time a Schoolcraft wife, although analysis of the 1900 census shows that
she is a widow of two marriages, the second to a husband whose surname was “Grief” and
that it is not her maiden name. Lastly in Paducah in 190010 are two grandchildren, Mary and
Cyril Schoolcraft born in 1886 and 1888 in Alabama. Age and locations suggest these two
might be William Schoolcraft’s children but even if not, they are at least probably part of this
same family group.

This is quite a substantial group of individuals and further research should be able to connect
them as group. That will still leave the problem of the original ancestor. One clue we have is
that the eldest, Robert, was born in Bedford, Quebec about 1830. The age implies Robert’s
father was probably born before 1814 and Robert would thus be Christian’s great grandchild.

178
The location eliminates, Peter and William as Robert’s grandparents. John’s family is known
to be restricted in a way that prevents his being the grandfather. I personally feel that Adam’s
family is less likely to accommodate this group than is Martin’s or James’. We have several
possibilities. For example, Scofield, son of Martin, has a family with age gaps in the 1830s
and his brother also named a child “Robert”. Joel, son of James, was married three times and
his family is extremely sketchy.

A New Hampshire Marriage

The vital records for Concord, New Hampshire record the marriage of Charles Schoolcraft11
who was born about 1845. He declares that he was born in Canada and that his father was
called Robert. Before we jump to the conclusion that this Robert may be the one in Kentucky
that was previously discussed, consider that Charles’s age implies his father was born before
about 1827. I cannot locate anyone called Robert Schoolcraft among the Schoolcraft’s living
in the Eastern Townships who is born before 1827. It is tempting to conjecture about the
Robert Schoolcraft found in Paducah, Kentucky. The 1860 and 1870 census records imply he
was born in 1832 and his marriage record that he was born in 1830. As his bride is so young
he might be understating his age. Very few Schoolcraft’s removed into New Hampshire.
David and Hermon who I conjecture are descendants of Anthony are the only other two that I
have located.

I believe Charles has ties to northern New York12 and think he is enumerated there in 187013.
In later enumerations he indicates his birthplace as NY14, 15, 16. I am more inclined to believe
the birth location in the marriage record than the census. Franklin Co., New York was where
descendants of both Adam and of William were found in the period 1840 through 1870 so
that is the family lines where I would expect to locate Charles. However, neither of them has
a son called Robert. Adam’s stepson, Philip, has a family with suitable age gaps but his
census record for 1850 and 160 is apparent and does not include a Charles. William’s son,
Ralph, is another possibility as his family record is sketchy.

Some Isolated Records With Connections to Quebec or New England

A Michigan Marriage with Ties to Vermont


When George Ainsworth marries in Michigan in 190517 he declares his mother was Maria
Schoolcraft who was born in Vermont. To be George’s mother she would have been born
before 1830 and is thus of interest here. I do not have any connection between the
Schoolcraft and Ainsworth lines. George’s location in 1905 is within moderate proximity of
the Van Buren and Allegan counties in Michigan.
John Schoolcraft
John is enumerated in the home of Oliver Jones in Bridport, Vermont in 185018. He is a
twenty two year old farm laborer. I have no suggestions for John as no other Schoolcraft’s
are found in Addison County at this time.
Edward Schoolcraft
Edward is enumerated in the home of Chester Blinn in Shelburn, Vermont in 186019. He is a
sixteen year old farmer. There might be a clue in the adjacent family of Calvin Spears, a

179
name that is common in Stanbridge but I cannot locate any connection. I have no suggestions
for Edward as no other Schoolcraft’s are found in nearby.

1 Federal Population Schedule, 15-Jun-1860, pp. 46.05, dw. 367, Paducah, McCracken Co., KY, fam. 349, Robt.
Schoolcraft age 28 sex m waggonmaker born in Canada, Mary age 21 sex f born in KY, Robert J. age 5 sex m born in
KY, Mary M. age 2 mos. sex f born in KY, Henry Smith age 22 sex m painter born in PA, Charles Snider age 21 sex m
waggonmaker born in Germany, Henry Robinson age 15 sex m born in KY, Mariah Smith age 16 sex f domestic born
in KY.
2
Federal Population Schedule, 27-Sep-1860, pp. 329.01, dw. 2334, Mayfield, Graves Co., KY, fam. 2333, W. H.
Schoolcraft age 24 sex m wagon maker born in Canada, Mary M. age 22 sex f born in KY, Martha M. age 1 sex f born
in KY, Perry C. Bragg age 13 sex m born in KY.
3
Kentucky: Vital Records, “Electronic,” LDS US/CAN #216833: McCracken Co., Marriages: 15 Dec 1853 Robert
Schoolcraft age 23 residence Paducah born Bedford, Canada to Mary D. Gruf age 15 residence Paducah born
McCracken Co.
4
Illinois: Vital Records, Illinois Statewide Marriage Index, 1763 - 1900: Schoolcraft, Robert and Grief, Mary B .
Married Johnson Co. 20-Nov-1853. License Vol./Page 00B/0350.
5
Federal Population Schedule, 21-Jun-1870, pp. 44.39, dw. 259, Paducah, McCracken Co., KY, fam. 277, Henry
Schoolcraft age 33 sex m works in wagon factory born in Canada, Mary M. age 30 sex f born in KY, Edward age 22
sex m works in wagon shop born in Canada.
6 Federal Population Schedule, 1880: FHL Film 1254026 NA Film T9-0026 pp. 117D, Undated 3rd Ward,

Montgomery, Montgomery Co., AL : Robert Schoolcraft Self male married white age 54 born in Canada: Francis
Schoolcraft Wife female married white age 38 born in KY: Frank Schoolcraft Son male widow white age 26 born in
KY: Mary Schoolcraft dau female single white age 18 born in KY: Eddy Schoolcraft Son male single white age 21
born in KY: Chancy Schoolcraft Son male single white age 13 born in KY: Henry Schoolcraft Son male single white
age 11 born in KY: Charley Phillips Other male married white age 44 born in GA: Mary Phillips Other female married
white age 40 born in GA: Doyle Phillips Other male single white age 12 born in AL: James Phillips Other male single
white age 10 born in AL: Ann Phillips Other female widow white age 67 born in AL.
7 Federal Population Schedule, 1-Jun-1900, pp. 311A.47, dw. 13, fam. 15, ED #105, 101 Hunt St., Montgomery City,

Montgomery Co., AL : William Schoolcraft head male married age 65 born in Oct 1834, Eng-Can. occupation
carpenter, marr. 40 yrs. father born in AL mother born in AL: Mary wife female married age 63 born in Dec 1836, KY
occupation marr. 40 yrs., 1 ch. 1 liv. father born in AL mother born in AL: Lillie dau female single age 8 born in Jun
1892, AL father born in Eng-Can. mother born in KY.
8 Federal Population Schedule, Jun-1900, pp. 292B.81, dw. 84, fam. 93, ED #233, 1814 Block 896, Ward #15, St.

Louis, City of St. Louis, MO : Philip C. Frostman household & lodgers : George M. Schoolcraft lodger male married
age 36 born in Nov 1863, KY occupation marr. 19 yrs., 5 ch., 4 liv. father born in ME mother born in KY: Roberta
lodger female single age 16 born in Dec 1883, AL father born in KY mother born in KY: Edna lodger female single
age 9 born in Jan 1891, AL father born in KY mother born in KY.
9 Federal Population Schedule, 14-Jun-1900, pp. 69A.26, dw. 369, fam. 376, ED #66, 210 North St., Paducah,

McCraken Co., KY : Greada Grief head female widow age 35 born in Oct 1865, KY occupation 4 ch., 4 liv. father born
in MD mother born in VA: John M. Schoolcraft son male single age 17 born in Oct 1882, KY occupation mate father
born in KY mother born in KY: Frank Grief son male single age 15 born in Apr 1885, KY occupation telegraph
messenger father born in KY mother born in KY: Minnie E. dau female single age 9 born in Apr 1891, KY father born
in KY mother born in KY: Ruby E. dau female single age 6 born in Oct 1894, KY father born in KY mother born in
KY: Sallie Allinsworth aunt female widow age 49 born in Dec 1850, VA father born in VA mother born in VA.
10 Federal Population Schedule, 13-Jun-1900, pp. 173A.34, dw. 540, fam. 567, ED #71, 1102 South 3rd. St., Paducah,

McCraken Co., KY : Hush J. Perkins head male married age 59 born in Jul 1840, KY occupation ship carpenter, marr.
12 yrs. father born in KY mother born in KY: Mollie wife female married age 67 born in Aug 1832, KY occupation
marr. 12 yrs., 2 ch., 1 liv. father born in KY mother born in KY: Cyril Schoolcraft grand-child male single age 11 born
in Sep 1888, AL father born in AL mother born in AL: Mary grand-dau female single age 13 born in Jun 1886, AL
father born in AL mother born in AL.
11 New Hampshire: Marriage Record, Marriage 1 May 1874 in Concord NH by D. W. Adkinson, clergyman | Groom:

Chas. R. SCHOOLCRAFT 1st marriage, age 29 years, born Canada, resident West Concord NH, occupation clerk |
Bride: Marilla S. CARLTON 1st marriage, age 25 years, born West Concord NH, resident West Concord NH |
Husband's father: Robert SCHOOLCRAFT, born Canada | Wife's father: Stephen CARLTON.

180
12 New York: Newspapers, Chateaugay, February 9th, 1994: Messrs. A. M. Bennett and P. Munsil of Chateaugay, and
C. R. Schoolcraft of Concord, N.H., have engaged in the grocery and provision trade at Concord, under the firm name
of A. M. Bennett & Co. The new firm succeeds the firm of Perkins & Berry - an old established concern, and their
place of business is at No. 1 North Main street. The business is being conducted by Mr. Schoolcraft assisted by Charles
Munsil and John Boomhower of this place.
13 Federal Population Schedule, 5-Aug-1870, pp. 37.35, dw. 256, Belmont, Franklin Co., NY, fam. 278, Jason

Walbridge age 40 sex m painter born in VT, Eliza age 45 sex f born in NY, Wesley age 18 sex m born in NY, Walter
age 8 sex m born in NY, Dilbert age 3 sex m born in NY, Charles Schoolcraft age 22 sex m painter laborer born in
Canada.
14
Federal Population Schedule, 1880: FHL Film 1254766 NA Film T9-0766 pp. 124C, Ward 4, Concord, Merrimack
Co., NH : Charles R. SCHOOLCRAFT Self male married white age 35 born in NY occupation Grocer father born in
NY mother born in NY: Marilla S. SCHOOLCRAFT Wife female married white age 31 born in NH occupation
Keeping House father born in NH mother born in MA: Charles C. SCHOOLCRAFT Son male single white age 4 born
in NH occupation At Home father born in NH mother born in NH.
15
Federal Population Schedule, 5-Jun-1900, pp. 161B.93, dw. 138, fam. 148, ED #153, Ward #5, 17 Green St.,
Concord, Merrimack Co., NH : Wilfred Cote household : Charles R. Schoolcraft lodger male divorced age 55 born in
Jun 1845, Can. Eng. occupation grocery dealer, emmig. 1865 father born in Can. Eng. mother born in Can. Eng.
16
Federal Population Schedule, 7-Jun-1900, pp. 132B.77, dw. 287, fam. 354, ED #151, 5 Church St., Concord,
Merrimack Co., NH : Charles R. Schoolcraft head male married born in Apr 1845, NY occupation grocer, marr. 26 yrs.
father born in NY mother born in NY: Merilla wife female married born in Mar 1849, NH occupation marr. 26 yrs. 1
ch. 1 liv. father born in MA mother born in MA: Charles C. son male single born in Jul 1875, NH occupation grocer
father born in NY mother born in NH.
17 Michigan: Marriage Record, Michigan Marriages 1868-1925 LDS US/CAN 2342671, v 3 p 388 rn 2720: 11 Dec

1905, Ludington, Mason, Michigan, Groom George G Ainsworth, age 59, born Vermont, father Lauk Ainsworth,
mother Maria Schoolcraft, Bride Mary Jane Weaver, age 55, born Vermont, father Unknown, mother Unknown.
18 Federal Population Schedule, 26-Jul-1850, pp. 16.08, dw. 101, Bridport, Addison Co., VT, fam. 110, Jones family,

John Schoolcraft age 16 sex m farmer born in Canada, other houshold members.
19 Federal Population Schedule, 7-Jul-1860, pp. 542.01, dw. 1061, Shelburn, Chittenden Co., VT, fam. 1063, Chester

Blinn age 72 sex m, Other residents, Edward Schoolcraft age 22 sex m farm laborer born in VT.

181
Chapter 17: The Virginians
This Chapter focuses predominantly on the descendants of Austien Schoolcraft, the only
known child of James Schoolcraft and his first wife, Magdalena. Austien’s baptismal record
implies he was named for his uncle, Augustine1. It was Austien that went south from
Schoharie into Virginia and it is he and his descendants that are found predominantly
throughout the southern States. Austien was the focus of Ed Schoolcraft's work2, and Ed has
traced his own ancestry back through Austien. There is little to be gained from my being
duplicative of the research that Ed has conducted and published. That work is readily
available through any Family History Center of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Saints on any one of these films:
FHL US/CAN Film 1320607 Item 2
FHL US/CAN Film 1502580 Item 2
FHL US/CAN Film 1502917 Item 1
As I have stated before, my own focus has been on James Schoolcraft's children by his
second wife. In earlier editions of this book I did not even include any information regarding
Austien Schoolcraft. That which I have accumulated concerning Austien has been
coincidental to my other research and is almost totally due to the efforts of others. When
Dennis Rodgers contacted me in 2013, he questioned some of my hypotheses and caused me
to rethink some of my conclusions. My purpose in including this chapter now is to present
some facts and hypotheses about a few of the individuals who appear to have their roots in
this southern family. For completeness, I have included an Outline Descendent Report for
Austien.

Stafford County, Virginia

In Chapter 2 I mentioned that Edward J. Schoolcraft2 showed that Augustine came to


Virginia in 1714, probably as an indentured servant. Ed cites Abstracts of Virginia Land
Patents and Grants for the period of 1695 to. 1732:
RICE WILLIAMS & JOHN DOWNER, 740 acs (N.L.), in a fork of Mattapony
Riv., about 12 mi. above the inhabitants of K.&Q. Co.; beg. at Madison's &
Pigg's cor.; by S. side of the main run; 16 Dec 1714. p. 213. Imp. of 15 pers:
Joseph Grigory, Jos. Arch., Walter Williams, Wm. Mattock, Thos. Essex,
Richd. Care, Reynard Mackdaniel, Wm. Ingram, Sarah Howard, Henry
Loyde, James Risque, Jane Clemments, Jno. Moore, Thomas Curtis,
Augustine Schoolcroft.

In his “Conclusions Concerning the Early Schoolcraft Immigrants” to Part I of his work Ed’s
commentary shows that it’s plausible that Augustine served up to seven years after which he
was freed and became indebted to Rawleigh Travers. Ed’s final conclusion in this matter is
that Augustine left no descendants. It is on this last point that I disagree.
First I wish to examine the locations involved. Williams and Downers’s grant on the
Mattaponi River can be determined on a modern map. They may have held other land but
that may also be Augustine’s location. While most of the names given are no longer

183
apparent, there is only one fork in that river that fits the description. It is at Lat. 37.891654,
Lng. -77.181702; on the south bank of the river and two miles north of Beulah Church
cemetery in the township of Mangohick. The second location of significance is that of
Rawleigh Travers. Rawleigh was a wealthy and influential person with substantial holdings
that included the Crow’s Nest in Stafford County. This is where Accokeek Creek and Aquia
Creek join the Potomac and is part of Overwharton Parish. This is about sixty miles north
from where Augustine was indentured, mostly along the primary route between Richmond
and Fredericksburg. In order to have secured a loan from Rawleigh Travers, Augustine
would have needed to settle nearby in order to discharge his debt. This fits well with Ed’s
initial analysis.
On October 14th, 1753, a James Schoolcraft marries Margaret Mills3 in Overwharton parish
and then on 16th March, 1754 Margaret gives birth4 to a daughter called Mary. This James
Schoolcraft would most likely have been at least eighteen years old, putting his birth date on
or before 1735. Overwharton Parish is where Augustine secured his debt in 1722,
approximately seven years after his indenture. The period between 1722 and 1735 is very
well timed for Augustine to have married and fathered a son. I conjecture that this James
Schoolcraft is the son of Augustine, but I have not located any other plausible descendants of
this line.
There is another possibility that needs to be pointed out. In 1751 a James Schoolcroft is
sentenced to transportation5 to the Americas. While such persons were usually sent to either
Maryland or Virginia no location is specified and his sentence was seven years so he would
not be free to marry in 1753. I do not believe he is a factor in this.
Austien Schoolcraft and the Early Locations in West Virginia

Austien and his children are mentioned in a number of Virginia land grants. In present times,
these locations are in the Northern part of West Virginia, in and around the Monogahela
National Forest near the towns of Elkins and Buckhannon. Examination of these locations
allows one to determine how the families migrated. It is impractical to include a map that
shows all the locations yet also has sufficient detail to examine each. Figure 19 is an
overview map. I shall describe how to find each location and shall include grid references for
those who need to be more precise.

In 1766 Austien and his son Matthias settled on two grants at Crab Apple Bottom6. That is
the early name for the township of Blue Grass that is still within Virginia today. Those grants
were on the South Branch of the Potomac River close to Lat. 38.497769, Lng. -79.547496.
At about the same time his son John settled on a grant on Straight Fork7. This one is a little
ambiguous as it could be anywhere along Straight Fork which rises behind a ridge, four miles
West from Crab Apple Bottom, then flows North East into Laurel Creek in West Virginia
before finally reaching the North Branch of the Potomack River (not the South Branch as
stated in the grant). Thus John may have been as close as only a mile from his father, but
over a very rugged ridge, or possibly as much as four miles north at Laurel Creek.

The next location of significance is near Montrose, West Virginia. This is about seventy five
miles north from the township of Blue Grass. Sometime before 1778, Austien has a grant on
Leading Creek8. The actual date of occupation is not known but it may have been around
1775 as that is when his son Matthias obtains a grant at Slab Camp Bottom, implying that he

184
also left the grants at Crab Apple Bottom. Dennis Rodgers has done considerable work to
isolate this location. While Austien’s grant is not specifically mentioned, several other grants
on Leading Creek refer to Schoolcraft Run. When those grants are plotted they fit together in
such a way that Schoolcraft Run can only be the northern fork of Campfield Run which itself
joins Leading Creek about one half mile south west of Salt Lick Run. This location is at Lat.
39.057084, Lng. -79.821875.

Matthias’ grant at Slab Camp Bottom9 is ambiguous to say the least. A number of locations
have that name. Dennis’ research suggested to him that the correct interpretation of “Land
Fork”, mentioned in the grant, is “Sand Fork” and that the location would be a tributary of
that stream, probably near Frenchton. There is a place called Slab Camp Bottom near
Frenchton but the stream does not run into Sand Fork. None the less, I favor that location
even though the stream drains into French Creek and ultimately into the Buckhannon River.
It is about a hundred miles west from his first location in Blue Grass township. Slab Camp
Bottom is at Lat. 38.901454 Lng. -80.334864. Dennis Rodgers pointed out that John
Schoolcraft ultimately inherited this land10.

I expect that nearly all readers will be aware of the Indian massacre that wiped out John
Schoolcraft’s family. It occurred at Fink’s Run in the town of Lorentz, Lat. 39.006913, Lng. -
80.27122. This is only about fifteen miles from Matthias’ grant at Slab Camp Bottom.
Dennis located the land grants where John lived. They were on the north side of Fink’s Run
near the Reger cemetery. Austien, James and John11, 12 all lived there around 1780, either by
direct land grant or through inheritance.

The next location to examine is in Weston, West Virginia, about ten miles west from
Lorentz. John Schoolcraft had a grant at Stone Coal Run13. Dennis Rodgers has examined
this grant and determined that John's grant at Stone Coal Run is just East of Weston near the
confluence of Stone Coal Run and Smith Run. Dennis informed me that Smith Run was
previously known as Schoolcraft Run.

The last location of interest is known as Schoolcraft Run, a name that seems to crop up in
several places. The one I refer to drains into Middle Fork River in Randolph County at Lat.
38.7539961, Lng. -80.045351. It is midway between Lorentz and Blue Grass being fifty
miles from each. I have seen no reference to any of the early Schoolcrafts having grants in
this location or living there. Austien’s son, James, does not appear in any of the records
around Buckhannon where Austien, John and Matthias are found during the height of the
Indian fighting. Possibly James was living on or near this run. Alternatively, it’s name may
have something to do with three of Austien’s grandchildren who are in Randolph County at
various times between 1793 and 1806.

Austien Schoolcraft's Children

Four children are commonly attributed to Austien Schoolcraft and his wife Catherine
Countryman. Baptismal records exist for three of these, James14, Matthias15 and Catharina
Lisabetha16. One of the children, Catharina Lisabetha Schoolcraft, is not referred to after her
baptism and it is not known whether she survived childhood or not. A fourth, John, is the
subject of extensive analysis by Ed Schoolcraft17 and others. Austien and John are frequently
found together. In 1766 they and their respective wives jointly sign18 a land conveyance. That

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conveyance uses the words “greed betewen John Stretar of the on part and Osten Scholcraft
and his heirs of the other part" (the writer was apparently not well versed in even phonetic
spelling). It is signed by Austien, John and both wives. John, as the eldest son, is the heir
apparent under the law of primogeniture. I think that is the closest we can come to evidential
proof that John is the eldest son. It is reinforced when John is also stated as heir at law to
Austien in 178111.

After a significant exchange with Dennis Rodgers during which he made me aware of
additional information, I concur with him that two more children exist. The first is Simon
Schoolcraft. Dennis wrote:

Regarding Simon, there was a lawsuit in Augusta County, VA, in 1779 by


Ralph Stewart against John Schoolcraft and Matthias Schoolcraft. The suit
was based on a promissory note dated 24 March 1774 and signed by John and
Matthias (by their marks) and witnessed by Simon Schoolcraft (by his mark)
and another person. That means to me that Simon was likely an adult, or
nearly an adult, in 1774. That would put his birth sometime around 1753, and
of course the only known person in this branch of the family who could be his
father is Astien. I believe it was this Simon who was involved in the skirmish
with Indians in the spring of 1779 and taken by the Indians in April, 1781, and
who claimed land in Ontario from the British in 1790. By the way, Simon
made two additional claims for land in the same area, but I could find no
record of his ever obtaining title to any land there.

The other child is Christian, who is recorded in the Virginia State census in 178219, near to
John. Originally I had thought that that record referred to Christian and one other “tithable”
i.e. a male over age 21. As such it led me to think it might be Austien’s nephew visiting from
New York State with his adult son, Adam; his wife and younger children would not be
tithable and thus not counted. Closer examination shows that the record is not “tithables” but
actually a total headcount. That Christian is far more likely to be a young married male with
his wife. The proximity to John implies a relationship and a far more plausible one would be
that he is a brother to John who was born before 1761. I conjecture that Christian is also a
son of Austien.

One more person must be discussed – Michael. His relationship is very much open to
interpretation. Dennis Rodgers, Ed Schoolcraft and others have written about Michael and
shown that, depending on how one interprets the historical records, he might be a son of
Austien, of John or of Matthias. I urge you to read Dennis’ account and explanation that is
contained in the Schoolcraft Ancestral News, Vol. 1, No. 2, April 1988, pp. 21 - 32. It may
be obtained through the Church of Latter Day Saints, FHL US/CAN Fiche 6100936.

Firstly, one needs to consider the sources. There are several documents and they are not
always consistent with each other:

1. Chronicles of Border Warfare by Alexander Scott Withers was first published in 1831
although I am using a copy published in 1912.

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2. History of the Early Settlement and Indian Wars of Western Virginia by Wills de
Hass was published in 1851.
3. Letter Written by Margaret Bush, Appendix C, written in 1868.
4. Letter Written by J. W. Calhoun, Appendix C, written in 1905
5. The Border Settlers of Northwestern Virginia from 1768 to 1795 by Lucullus Virgil
McWhorter was begun in 1896 and published in 1915.
6. Recollections of a Lifetime by Col. D. S. Dewees was published in 1904. It is also a
useful genealogical resource for the early 1800s.

The publication dates, or explicit statements within the documents themselves, clearly
indicate that all of these are hearsay and thus of varying reliability, depending on how close
their informants were to the events described. With respect to some of the events chronicled,
later documents have only used extracts of the earlier work by Withers and may not have
added any original content to that. Some later documents include information omitted by
Withers but beg the question of where and how that information was acquired.

For myself, the crucial events in determining who Michael is are the massacre of John Sr.’s
family and Michael’s capture a year later. On the massacre Withers states:

The men being all assembled at the fort for the purpose of electing a Captain,
some Indians fell upon the family of John Schoolcraft, and killed the women
and eight children, two little boys only were taken prisoners.

A son called Leonard had been captured six months earlier and it can be shown from later
references that the two boys taken prisoner were John Jr. and Jacob. Some of the later reports
shorten this account to refer to “Mrs. Schoolcraft” but, as originally written, it implies two or
more women. It also permits that some older teenage children may have gone to the fort with
the men and thus escaped capture or death. On Michael’s capture Withers states:

In April, Matthias, Simon and Michael Schoolcraft left Buchannon fort, and
went to the head of Stone coal creek for the purpose of catching pigeons. On
their return, they were fired upon by Indians, and Matthias killed the other
two were taken captive. These were the last of the Schoolcraft family, fifteen
of them were killed or taken prisoners in the space of a few years.

There is no mention of the relationship between the three. The reference to “last of the
Schoolcraft family” does not refer to John Schoolcraft’s family singly because Withers has
previously included Austien and his niece as being two of the fifteen. The first hint of a
relationship is when de Hass writes:

In April of this year, three brothers, Mathias, Simon and Michael Schoolcraft,
left Buchanan's Fort, and went to the head of Stone-coal creek, for the
purpose of hunting.

The similarity of that statement to Withers is strong and begs the question if de Haas has
merely assumed they were brothers after reading Withers’ account or whether he had
information that Withers did not. Writing in 1905, J. W. Calhoun refers to them as “three

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more of his [John’s] sons” but by that date she is probably just further extending de Hass’
writing. Finally, in 1915, McWhorter records “In April 1781, the last of the children, three
boys, Matthias, Simon and Michael, visited a pieon roost on Stone Coal Creek …”

I think we can eliminate Michael being a son of Matthias else he would have been an
inheritor of Matthias claim after Matthew died and before John inherited it – see below. I
also think that if Michael had been the sole, non-captive, survivor in John’s family that one
of original informants to Withers’ work would likely have found it worthy of mention.
Ultimately it’s an open issue but I personally suspect he is indeed a third brother, confirming
de Hass’ statement about them being three brothers, and thus is a son of Austien!

Before leaving this discussion, I wish to look at the individual called Matthew, mentioned
above. Here again I must thank Dennis Rodgers for clarifying the facts pertaining to
Matthew. In 1781 Matthew is recorded as heir at law9 to Matthias’ estate. Matthew would
probably be over age 21 or at least a late teenager, i.e. born before about 1762. The law of
primogeniture, applied to real property, stated that the inheritance goes first to the eldest son,
if any. If that son has no issue and no siblings, then to the eldest brother of the original
purchaser. (There are other possibilities but age precludes them.) Note that title passed
“automatically” under this law, requiring no action on the part of any person or Court.
Matthew could thus be a son of Matthias or a son of Austien. I consider the names Matthew
and Matthias to be equivalent and do not think Austien would name two children the same
unless one had deceased in infancy. Therefore I conclude that Matthew is the eldest son of
Matthias. Dennis informed me that in July 1787 this land was surveyed for Robert Pike, the
administrator of Matthias’s estate in 1784, “Assignee of John Schoolcraft who was Heir at
Law to Matthew Schoolcraft Deceased,” by virtue of a Certificate granted “to the said
Matthew Schoolcraft Heir at Law to Mathias Schoolcraft.” From this we may conclude that
Matthew had died sometime between 1781 and 1787, leaving John as the inheritor under the
law of primogeniture. This allows us to conclude that Matthew was the only surviving child,
male or female, of Matthias as the inheritance had passed back up the line to Matthias’ eldest
brother. It is, as previously mentioned, a reason to exclude Michael from being Matthias’
son.

We known that John, Matthias and his son Matthew had an association with the military
activity20 in the region five years before. I think it very reasonable to suppose that they would
have been involved in electing a new Captain. To reach the fort at Buckhannon from their
home at Slab Camp Bottom, Matthias and his son, Matthew, would pass down Fink’s Run
past John’s home. I think it plausible that Matthias’ wife would make this a social call and
stay with John’s wife. If true she would have been killed with the others, rendering Withers’
use of the word “women” accurate. We know Austien’s wife was not present as she is known
to have survived into the 1780’s21. If Michael were John’s son then he would have had to
have accompanied his father to the fort or else be part of the massacre. If he were Austien’s
son then he may or may not have been involved at all. Wither’s and de Hass do not identify
the eight slain children. Only in the later accounts do they become John Schoolcraft’s
children. Details of the children come from a Letter Written by Margaret Bush, Appendix C,
written in 1868. However, it is readily apparent that Margaret has mis-attributed quite a few
relationships in that letter. While I am inclined to accept her list of the the eight children’s
names, I cannot exclude the possibility that, if Matthias wife was one of the women killed,

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then some of those children might have been hers. (I feel a little uneasy that only a single
teenager, Matthew, is associated with her.)

Hence my synopsis of the events surrounding the massacre is that John’s wife and possibly
Matthias’ wife were killed. Eight of John’s children were killed and John Jr. and Jacob were
taken captive, Leonard having been captured six months earlier. During the next year or so
Austien and Matthias are killed and Simon and Michael are captured. Austien’s wife
survived into the 1780s.

The foregoing shows that Austien has children John, James, Matthias, Catherine, Simon,
Christian and possibly Michael. In discovering this we have shown that Matthias has a son
called Matthew. By drawing also on the Letter Written by Margaret Bush, Appendix C, we
can see that John had three surviving children called Leonard, John and Jacob and may have
had eight children killed in the massacre called Lucy, Mary, Martha, Austin, Sarah, Polly,
Charity and Nancy.

About John Schoolcraft's Wife

John Schoolcraft was born about 1741, probably in Schoharie. His marriage is significant to
many of his descendants because he is claimed to have married Maotoaka Nyeswanan, the
daughter of an Indian Chief whose younger daughter married John's neighbor, Jacob Brake
Sr. In the Schoolcraft Ancestral News22, 23, 24, Ed Schoolcraft presents a very convincing
argument that John's Indian wife was the cause of the massacre of most of John's family. A
transcription of that argument is provided in Appendix C. Although Ed's analysis makes
great sense, I have a problem with the conclusion due to some information that has been
located more recently by Sandra Stevens.

Coincidence can be a very powerful tool when dealing with circumstantial evidence.
However, some coincidences can also uncover problems in apparently valid interpretations.
We have one such instance here, and one that I am unable to dismiss. The coincidence
concerns John's claimed wife, Maotoaka Nyeswanan. Sandra Stevens found a family whose
surname was "Neiswanger" in the same area as John Schoolcraft. They were a German
family, not Indian. The extremely strong phonetic similarities between "Nyeswanan" and
"Neiswanger" demand that one look into the possibility that John's wife was actually a
member of that German "Neiswanger" family.

The analysis provided by Ed Schoolcraft is the closest thing that I've found anywhere to
proof that John's wife was Indian. Unfortunately, the only, and crucial, piece of evidence is
the journal created by Jacob Brake Jr. that was supposedly in the possession of Mrs. Janet
Cosgrove of Buckhannon, WV in August of 1988. Although Janet listened to, and agreed
with, Ed's conjecture about John's wife she refused to allow him to see the journal which she
claimed contained the evidence that would prove the assertion that John's wife was Indian. In
light of Ed's description of a very cordial meeting, it is hard to imagine what reason Janet
might have had for not wanting to show him the actual evidence when she willingly showed
him the letters by Margaret Bush and Mrs. J. W. Calhoun. As neither letter even hints that
John's wife was Indian, that journal is in fact the only known evidence supporting this claim.
The crucial statement was "John Schoolcraft's wife was Miotoka Nyeswanan, and that Jacob
Brake Jr's. mother and John Schoolcraft's wife were sisters."

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Sandra uncovered two other stories very similar to that attributed to Jacob Brake Jr. by Janet
Cosgrove as well as some informative genealogical references. One of the stories is from the
Bracke (Break) family historical accounts25.

On 17 May 1867 Laura Jackson Arnold wrote to George W. Jackson, from


Buckhannon, West Virginia. In this letter she discusses a letter she received
from Abram W. Brake. Abram W. Brake was the son of captive Jacob Brake,
Jr. and grandson of Jacob Brake Sr. In his letter to Laura, Abram W. made
several statements we believe to be incorrect. We believe that this letter has
caused much of the confusion about our Brake family. ... in the letter Abram
states, "He (Jacob Brake) married a Miss Nyeswanan for his first wife, and
after she had six children, she was killed by the Indians on the South Branch
where they had always lived." We believe that Abram has confused Elizabeth
(Cooper) Brake with her sister Magdalena (Cooper) Neiswanger. When trying
to recall his grandmother's maiden surname he inadvertently mulled the
married surname of his grandmother's sister. Thus, Miss Nyeswanan became
known as the wife of Jacob Brake Sr.

The second story comes from a Neiswander Newsletter26. (A common rendering of the
family name seems to be Neiswander.)

One of the disappearing parts of American history are the stories of those
early settlers who were captured as young children and who lived much of
their lives with the Indians. While their families eventually recovered some of
these people, they often could not adjust to the "civilized" life, and had
difficulty communicating with their families. Consequently, their histories
were often lost after a few generations. However, we have found the story of
one captive, who some thought was the son of a Magdalena Neuenschwander
(who was supposed to have married Jacob Brake Sr.).
While later information tells us that Jacob Brake Sr. (Brake is the Anglicized
version of the German name Brecht) really married Magdalena's sister,
Elizabeth Cooper (Kieffer), the story of his son's life with the Indians - and
how the name of Brake's wife was incorrectly thought to be Niswanger - is
interesting. Magdalena Cooper married John Neiswanger.
Jacob Brake Sr. settled in what is now West Virginia and built his home and a
mill. During the French and Indian wars, the Shawnee Indians raided the mill
while the men were absent (this occurred 1763-1765) and attacked Elizabeth
Cooper Brake and her children. Somehow Elizabeth hid three of her youngest
children in the woods and then tried to distract the attackers from finding
them. Did she fight or run? We do not know what happened in those last few
terrifying moments when Elizabeth knew her world was ending.
Elizabeth was killed and scalped but the Indians did not find her three
youngest children, whom she had hidden. Another son, Jacob was not killed
but taken captive. According to the story passed down to his descendants,
there were three Indians in the war party who were brothers. Their younger

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brother had recently been killed and so they decided to adopt Joseph Jr.* into
the tribe rather than kill him.
The Indians returned to their village in what is now Northeast Ohio. What
must young Jacob have thought during the march as he walked beside the
Indian who wore Elizabeth's scalp tied to his belt?
Jacob Brake Jr. spent several years as an Indian, and adapted to their life.
However, he found a Bible in the camp and was able to read some of the
words. Apparently, his presence in the Indian camp, as well as that of a few
other captives, was discovered by traders who operated out of Fort Pitt
(Pittsburgh). After a treaty had been negotiated with the Indians, Jacob's
younger brother, John (one of the children hidden during the massacre) went
to the Indian camp and was able to arrange Jacob's release.
Jacob returned to West Virginia, but as with many other captives who lived
their formative years as an Indian, he was never able to adjust to his new life.
It is reported that he was moody and would not talk to anyone about his
experience. However, in 1785 he married Mary Slaughter and they had
several children. Jacob died in 1831 and is buried in the Heavener cemetery
in Buckhannon Co. WV,
This source of the story is a letter from a descendant of one of the Brake
granddaughters who related this history as told by Abraham Brake (son of
Jacob Jr.). Abraham was an old man at the time he narrated this story and
incorrectly identifies his dead grandmother as a Magdalena Neiswanger
rather than the sister Elizabeth Cooper Brake. Frederick County Virginia
records show that in 1759 Magdalena Neiswanger and Elizabeth Brake were
parties to a suit, and so we assume the two sisters were close and that may
have contributed to Abraham, his old age, becoming confused as to families.
For several years the story of Jacob's captivity was part of our Neiswanger
history and only recently has the error been corrected.

Both these accounts attribute the story to Abraham Brake, not to his father Jacob Brake Jr.;
although it is likely that Abraham acquired the information from his father. The second of
these accounts states that Jacob Brake Jr. would not talk to anyone about his experience.
With such a traumatic event in his childhood such a situation seems extremely likely. Today
it would probably be diagnosed as post traumatic stress disorder and depression! This makes
me wonder if the journal that Janet Cosgrove claimed to have was in fact the letter from
Abraham Brake to Laura Jackson Arnold. If so, then all of the normal caveats about
confusion and hearsay apply. (A traumatized Jacob Jr. recounts childhood memories to his
son who, late in his own life, then tries to recall and repeat them.)

Let’s look at these two accounts. Both agree that Jacob Brake Sr. was married to Elizabeth
Cooper and that she had a sister called Magdalena who was married to a Neiswanger. Some
Neiswander genealogies indicate that Maria Magdalena Cooper actually married John
Neiswanger, who was born about 1729 in Pennsylvania, the son of Christian Neiswanger and

*David J. Ellis: I think the author meant “Jacob Jr.”. Other typographical errors that I removed imply this was the work
of either optical character recognition or speech transcription software.

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Maria Magdalena Herr. The reference to a Court record shows that this marriage would have
been before 1759. John Neiswanger was killed by Indians in 178327.

In the summer of this year (1783), John Nieswanger and Joseph Heffler, two
very efficient spies, started on a hunting expedition down the Ohio. They were
dressed in Indian fashion, as was often the custom on such occasions, so as
the better to elude detection. They descended the river in a canoe, and on the
evening of the day they left, put into Little Grave creek. A party of Indians had
watched their movements, and during the night attacked them with fury.
Nieswanger was killed, but his companion succeeded in getting off, with the
loss of two fingers. He escaped to Wheeling, and thence went to Pittsburgh, to
have an operation performed upon his maimed hand. Returning, and when
near the present residence of Hamilton Woods, he was attacked and killed by
the Indians. While in pursuit of Heffler, at Grave creek, the canoe floated off,
and thus the savages lost the chance of scalping the unfortunate Nieswanger.
Some months afterwards the canoe was found lodged at the head of Captina
Island, with the remains of the hunter and his gun still in it.

The span of this marriage includes the time when John Schoolcraft's family is massacred
(1779), precluding any possibility that John Schoolcraft might have married John
Neiswanger's widow. Several genealogists of the Brake and Neiswanger families have
already noted the confusion over Jacob Brake Sr.'s wife. One expression of it is by Buzz
Brake25:

Family legend tells us that Jacob Brake, Sr.'s first wife was a Delaware
Indian princess called Miss Naddie Neiswanger or sometimes, Nyeswanan.
The claim that Jacob had been married to anyone prior to marrying Maria
Elizabetha Kiefer (Cooper) cannot be substantiated. The legend might have
had something to do with Jacob's brother-in-law, John Nieswanger.

Research of the Brake and Neiswanger families is beyond the scope of this work but both
genealogies show that Jacob Brake Sr. married Maria Elizabeth Cooper, that John
Neiswanger married her sister Maria Magdalena Cooper and that Abraham Brake's
statements about an Indian grandmother called Nyeswanan were no more than confusion
over the names of these two women. We cannot know if this confusion originated with
Abraham or with his father, Jacob Brake Jr. That really is immaterial.

It is time to apply Occam's razor! For me, none of the claims that I have seen regarding John
Schoolcraft's wife have included any source information that is additional to that recorded by
Ed Schoolcraft. Whether or not Janet Cosgrove had a document from Jacob Brake Jr. or
whether it was from Abraham, it still confuses the names of Jacob Brake Sr.'s wife, Maria
Elizabeth (Cooper) Brake, and her sister, Maria Magdalena (Cooper) Neiswanger. I believe
that Janet's claim has also confused John Schoolcraft and John Neiswanger. With that
conclusion, I am left believing that John Schoolcraft's wife cannot be determined from any of
the forgoing information except to say that she probably was not called Nyeswanan as that is
shown to be the confused name of John Neiswanger's wife.

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This story is not completeed just yet. Dennis Rodgers directed me to a 1766 land conveyance
in Virginia that was signed by John and his wife! He writes:

Land and court records add many pieces to the picture of the Virginia (WV)
Schoolcrafts, and one of those is a 1766 conveyance of land in Virginia’s
Northern Neck signed by Astien, his wife Catherine, son John, and John’s
wife, Elizabeth. Of course an Indian wife in the white settlements would likely
have adopted an Anglo name, but whatever the circumstance, we do know the
name thanks to that document.

Thus we have verifiable information showing that John’s wife was called Elizabeth and that
they married on or before 1766. The birth of their children suggests the marriage was a few
years before this date. As John and his father did not acquired their land on Straight Fork and
Crab Apple Bottom until 1766, I suspect the marriage was before that move at some place as
yet undetermined.
George Schoolcraft

In the summer of 2013 Dennis Rodgers stated that he thought Ed Schoolcraft might have
taken a step too far when he traced his 2nd great grandfather to the George Schoolcraft28 that
appears in the tax lists for Pulaski County, Kentucky. Ed correlates that person with George
Schoolcraft, the son of James Schoolcraft and a grandson of Austien Schoolcraft, who was
born before 1791 in Virginia. Ed backs up his analysis with an extensive set of verifiable
facts that are the foundation of his conclusion. While the facts are incontrovertible, and most
of his conclusions are valid, I believe his step in concluding that his 2nd great grandfather was
the one in the Pulaski tax lists is indeed a step too far.

My first consideration in this regard is the George Schoolcraft that is enumerated in


Delaware County, Indiana29, in 1820. Dennis has tracked early newspaper articles that
suggest George was living in or near Trader’s Point on the North West side of modern
Indianapolis. George Schoolcraft dies in Marion County, in 1823 leaving a widow and
family, several of whom are enumerated close to Indianapolis in later years. I find it very
reasonable to assume that the George enumerated in Delaware County in 1820 is the same as
the one that dies in 1823. It is appropriate to look at his family. In 1820 his family appears to
include five male children and one female child, all born between 1810 and 1820. (The male
aged between 16 and 26 may be a hired farm hand.) This is exactly consistent with that
George’s family as determined by Ed from Census and County records. Ed provides a factual
analysis of this family in the Schoolcraft Ancestral News30. Rather than explain the details
myself I excerpt Ed’s description below.

A check of the U.S. Census records of Huntington and Marion Counties, Ind.;
the Probate Court records of Marion Co., Ind.; and the Marriage records of
Huntington and Marion Counties, Ind. reveals the following information
concerning George and Nancy Schoolcraft and their children.
Their children were:
William, born ca. 1810, Kentucky.
John, born 9 Jun 1814, Kentucky.

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James, born 12 Sep 1815.
Isaac, born 1 Jan 1817.
George, born 14 Sep 1818.
Sarah, born 5 May 1820, Indiana.
Samuel, born 28 Nov 1821, Indiana.
Marriages:
William md. Matilda Myers, 1 Dec 1836, Marion Co., Ind.
John md. Maria Adams, 24 Apr 1839, Huntington Co., Ind.
James md. Catherine Snow, 16 Jul 1834, Marion Co., Ind.
Isaac md. Barbara Fansaler, 17 Feb 1841, Marion Co., Ind.
George md. Amanda M. Sink, 15 Jun 1847, Marion Co., Ind.
Sarah md. John Snow, 23 Aug 1838. Marion Co., Ind.
Samuel md. Mary Stevens, 4 Mar 1842, Marion Co., Ind.
Nancy Schoolcraft, the widow of George Schoolcraft, married James
Tharp, 23 Apr 1826 in Marion Co., Ind.
Family legend says that George and Nancy Schoolcraft lived, for a time, near
Maysville, Mason Co., Ky. In addition, there is also some evidence which
suggests that George Schoolcraft may have been one of the Schoolcrafts that
lived in the Harrison Co., Va. area during the late 1700's. Note, that on the
preceding page, one Morris Morris and Nancy Schoolcraft were appointed to
administer the estate of George Schoolcraft. In 1782 one Morris Morris is
listed on the Return of people White and Black in Monongalia (now Harrison)
Co., Va. Also appearing on the Return are John and Christian Schoolcraft.
Then, in the year of 1785 one Morris Morris relinquished a claim to 1,000
acres of land in Harrison Co., Va. (See Harrison Co. Land Surveys, Vol 2,
page 197, dated Sep 5, 1785.) Certainly this is not adequate proof that the
Morris Morris of Marion Co., Ind. and the Morris Morris of Harrison Co.,
Va. are one and the same person, nor does it prove that the George
Schoolcraft of Marion Co., Ind. ever lived in Harrison Co., Va.; -- but, it does
suggest the possibility.

At this point it’s useful to summarize the pertinent facts about this George Schoolcraft. He
was born between 1775 and 1794. He was living in Kentucky in 1810 and 1814, although the
County is not stated in Ed’s summary. He is enumerated in Indiana in 1820 and dies in
Indiana in 1823. His absence from the 1810 census probably indicates that he was married
about 1810, but did not establish independent residence till after the census was taken. Now
consider the records for Pulaski and Clay counties, Kentucky. These are easily summarized:
Feb 1812 grant 100 acres at Fishing Creek, Pulaski County,
Kentucky31.
1812 tax list Fishing Creek, Pulaski County, Kentucky32.
22 Aug 1813 to 10 Nov 1813 Private, Kentucky Mounted Volunteer Militia,
Commanded Isaac Shelby33.
1813 to 1816 tax list Clay County, Kentucky34.
25 Jul 1815 power of attorney Clay County, Kentucky33.

This set of records is self consistent and shows a George Schoolcraft that acquired land at
Fishing Creek around 1812, left for military service a year later and then settled for several

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years in Clay County upon his return. He is born before February 1891 and the location and
age suggest he is probably a son of James Schoolcraft Sr., who also has land at Fishing
Creek. Contrast that in February 1812 Ed’s 2nd great grandmother was only fourteen years
old and his 2nd great grandfather was still a single man. Their eldest child, Andrew Jackson
Schoolcraft, was not born till ca. 1817. Unlike Ed, I find this set of tax records to be a much
better fit to the George Schoolcraft who had a young family in 1812 and who died in Indiana
in 1823, than to Ed’s family. However, there is more to consider.

Ed refers to a person called Morris Morris. I believe there is a little more significance to
Morris Morris than Ed attributed. George apparently died intestate and the Court appointed
administrators of the estate. The closest surviving relative, his wife Nancy, seems to have
asked Morris Morris to act as an administrator with her. Morris Morris would have been a
trusted neighbor or friend. A study of the census record shows that one Morris Morris did
indeed migrate from Virginia, via Kentucky to Indiana. However, age precludes the one
enumerated near John and Christian in 1782 from being the same as the one in Indiana in
1850. Through the years, the census suggests that the name Morris Morris has been passed
through to a son and then grandson. To summarize, Morris Morris is recorded as follows:
1782 Monongalia County, Virginia35. Born before 1761.
1800 No record found.
1810 Stoner, Bourbon County, Kentucky36. Born 1765 to 1784. (A second
Morris is enumerated in nearby Nicholas County but the film is missing
from the archive and cannot be examined.)
1820 North Middletown, Bourbon County, Kentucky37. Born 1775 to 1794. (A
second Morris is enumerated in Carlisle, Nicholas County but the film
from the archive is beyond legibility.)
1830 Center, Marion County, Indiana38. Born 1770 to 1780.
1840 Lawrence, Marion County, Indiana39. Born 1780 to 1790.
1850 Center, Marion County, Indiana40. Owner of a substantial mill, born 1778
in Virgina. (A second Morris Morris, that is probably his son, is
enumerated in Center, born 1826 in Kentucky.)

A possible interpretation of these results is that the son of an elder Morris Morris removed
from Virginia to Kentucky with his father; was in Bourbon County in 1810 and 1820 and
later in Marion County. An outstanding task is to check the tax records for Pulaski and Clay
Counties for Morris Morris. None the less, it is worth noting that Stoner Fork in Bourbon
County is only 45 miles from Maysville, Kentucky. This may have something to do with the
reference to Maysville in the family legend that Ed recounts and may indicate a long term
relationship between the Morris and Schoolcraft families. There is a lot of conjecture in the
foregoing but, for myself, this interpretation has a definite air of truth about it. I believe that
it is probably this George who is the son of James Schoolcraft Sr.

If we accept the foregoing then we must re-examine Ed Schoolcraft’s 2nd great grandfather28.
Because I am questioning a few of Ed’s conclusions, there is a need to summarize those that
can be independently proven. Dennis Rodgers believes that much of Ed’s family details were
acquired from Naomi Ruth Schoolcraft and Sophie Eunice Schoolcraft, two daughters of
James Franklin Schoolcraft who was the youngest son of Squire Schoolcraft. Ed claims the
following were the children of George Schoolcraft and Catherine Brown Schoolcraft.

195
Catherine was the daughter of William Brown and Catherine Sweet. She was born about
1797 in Virginia28, although her parent’s marriage was recorded in Washington, Tennessee in
179541. I have chosen to state birth dates and locations according to the values recorded in
the marriage and the 1850 census records. Ed provided more detailed information but that
may not be independently verifiable.
The children were:
Andrew Jackson, born ca. 1817, Kentucky [1850 census].
Meekha, born ca. 1824, Kentucky [1850 census].
Mary Jane, born ca. 1826, Kentucky [1850 census].
Ann, born ca. 1826, Kentucky [1850 census], born aft. 1827 [marriage].
Squire G., born ca. 1833, Pulaski Co., Kentucky [1860 census, marriage].
Marriages:
Jackson md. Mary Jasper, 8 Apr 1850, Pulaski Co., Kentucky.
Meekha md. David Cowan, 13 Apr 1840, Pulaski Co., Kentucky [mother
Catherine].
Mary Jane md. Squire Tarter, 1 Sep 1849, Pulaski Co., Kentucky.
Ann md. Daniel McDaniel, 26 Apr 1849, Pulaski Co., Kentucky [mother
Nancy].
Squire G. md. Margaret Fleming Tarter, 3 Mar 1854, Pulaski Co., Kentucky.

A granddaughter of Meekha attested she knew that Meekha was the child of George and
Catherine Brown Schoolcraft. The two granddaughters of Squire, mentioned above, attested
that Squire was the child of George Schoolcraft. Ed does not disclose how he knows that
Jackson, Mary Jane and Ann are children of George, but the marriage records do not conflict
with that assumption, except possibly that of Ann.

A well publicized problem with George Schoolcraft is his absence from any census or tax
record. Ed concludes that Nancy is the step mother of Ann and that George would thus have
married Nancy after Catherine had died. Catherine was alive in 1840. Thus George should
have been enumerated in 1820, 1830 and 1840 and should have appeared in tax lists
throughout that period. I find it noteworthy that his second wife, Nancy has left the family
home and is living with her step-daughter, Ann, in 1850. Squire, the only remaining
unmarried child in 1850 is, like his father, absent from the record! What is particularly
troubling about this situation is that all the families into which the children married (Tarter,
Jasper, Cowan and McDaniel) are clearly recorded in Somerset, Pulaski County during the
period in question. How did the Schoolcrafts manage to evade both census and extensive tax
records for a period of 20 to 30 years? Many possibilities have been suggested and I’m not
comfortable with any of them. The one that got me thinking me was suggested by Dennis
Rodgers. George was deliberately hiding from tax men and census enumerators!

Firstly, we do know that George and his family were living in Pulaski County after 1833. The
birth of Jackson implies George was born before 1800 and as Catherine Brown was born
about 1797, it is likely that George was also born in the 1790s and married around 1816.
Dennis has conjectured that George may be a son of one of the renegades, Leonard, Michael,
or possibly Simon. If so, I do not think George was deliberately evading the authorities, he
was probably merely living with the Indians like his father before him. The tax man and
census enumerator would have no incentive to try and include Indians. However, Kentucky

196
had no permanent Indian settlements after the one at Indian Old Fields was abandoned in the
1750s. The reason being that the Indians regarded Kentucky as joint use hunting grounds.
None the less, there are plenty of reports of Indians, often drunken males, coming into the
white towns. I can’t believe that only drunken males were in Kentucky. There must have
been Indian families and they must have been living somewhere, even if those encampments
were transient. In fact, being temporary is even more reason for a census enumerator to have
ignored them.

To my mind, the issue of the renegades is clouded by far too much uncertainty. Neither
Withers nor de Hass mention renegade activity except that Withers refers to Leonard
Schoolcraft’s raid at Hacker’s Creek. Only McWhorter, writing in 1915, discusses it (pages
148 and 149). His description, while detailed, still begs the question “how reliable is this
information?”

… Prisoners who returned from the Indian country reported that three of the
brothers had turned Indian and took part in the forays against the settlers.
A local tradition worthy of credence accounts for two brothers, John and
Jacob, so completely lost sight of. They were carried away when the family
was massacred and were held in captivity until nearly grown. They then
escaped under the following circumstances:

The subsequent account makes interesting reading but is omitted as the detail is not germane
to renegade activity. McWhorter cites Withers as the source of the statement about the three
who turned Indian but Withers only describes Leonard’s renegade activity. What we are
missing are the reports by returned prisoners. They might be more explicit regarding Simon
and Michael. Later McWhorter states:

Nothing is known of John after his return from captivity. Leonard, Simon and
Michael always remained with the Indians. …

The forgoing indicates that John Jr. and Jacob were not renegade and escaped when they
were at least in their late teens. The renegades are Leonard, Simon and Michael. By 1790
Simon has gone to Ontario42, near Detroit. I do not think Simon is a factor as far as being
George Schoolcraft’s father. We know that Leonard was active as a renegade as late as 1787
when he led the infamous attack43 at Hacker’s Creek. It is claimed that Leonard married an
Indian squaw - Letter Written by J. W. Calhoun, Appendix C. Clearly Leonard is one option
for George’s father. While I cannot exclude Michael, I am less confident that he is a factor in
this. I have not seen any claim that he married. If, as I conjectured earlier, Michael is in fact
Austien’s son, then he is noticeable older than Leonard and less likely to have started a
family while living amongst the Indians. It’s a personal opinion, but for me the smoking gun
is Leonard Schoolcraft as the father of George Schoolcraft, who would have been born in the
early 1790s. I conjecture that Leonard lived with the Indians till his death. After that time
George, who had been raised among the Indians, continued to live among them. He probably
moved into Pulaski County, Kentucky, and as his children met and married white partners, so
they returned to white society.

197
I’m not completely finished with this thread just yet. Consider the Michael Schoolcraft that is
recorded as follows:
April 12, 1804 - Garrard County, Kentucky, tax lists44, age 16 - 20.
1810 - Washington, Virginia census, age 16 - 2645.
1820 - Washington, Virginia census, age 26 - 4546.
1830 - Lee, Virginia census, age 40 - 5047.
1840 - Lee, Virginia census, age 50 - 6048.
September 1, 1850 - Washington, Virginia census, age 5949.

These records are moderately self consistent. Although the 1850 census indicates that he was
born in 1791 in Kentucky, the 1804 tax list indicates that he must have been born before
1789. I believe his age was trimmed in 1850. The year before (1803) John Sr. is listed in the
company of a young male50 aged 16 to 21. It seems this Michael has almost certainly just left
his home when he appears in 1804. He had just turned 16 when he first appears in the
Garrard County tax lists and was probably born circa 1788. There is no evidence that John
Sr. remarried after his family’s massacre so I conjecture that Michael is a grandson. This
forces consideration back to John’s renegade son or sons. After all, this Michael is only a few
years older than George. I conjecture that Michael and George are brothers.

Ultimately, this issue of the renegade Schoolcrafts is not resolvable with the information that
is presently known. The foregoing is no more than a series of unverified guesses and many
other possibilities can be imagined and should not be excluded.

A Louisiana Connection

Between 1840 and 1880 a small group of Schoolcraft's is enumerated, first in New Orleans
and later in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Henry is the earliest enumeration in 184051 but as it’s a
head of household only all we can tell is that there seems to be a small family. There is no
enumeration of any Schoolcraft in Louisiana in 1850. By 1860 Mrs. Matilda Schoolcraft is
enumerated52 with three children and two lodgers. In 1870 there is no sign of Matilda but a
Mary Schoolcraft is enumerated53 with two children, Matilda and Sylvester. Mary is
enumerated again in 188054. Because other information shows that Matilda's son, Luke, is
married and alive in 1870 and 1880, I conjecture that Mary is the widow of Matilda's other
son, James, who is not found after 1860.

This family of Schoolcraft’s in Louisiana is presently unplaced. Luke Schoolcraft, one of the
sons, was a famed minstrel entertainer55 who travelled considerably. There are a number of
newspaper reports in the Library of Congress56 documenting his performances. At the time of
writing, a particularly good poster of Schoolcraft & Coes is available for sale on the Internet
but as it’s image is copyright I may not include it in this document. Much can be learned
from the documentation of his career. The summaries in Wikipedia are particularly helpful.
These show that his father was the Henry Schoolcraft enumerated in 1840 and that he had a
married sister, Alfreda, who is enumerated with her husband in the 1860 enumeration of
Luke's mother. It is stated that Henry Schoolcraft was also an entertainer and that three
members of his family followed in that profession. Unfortunately, none of the information
that I have found has shed any light on where Henry Schoolcraft came from. Luke is the only
one for whom an 1880 census could be used to determine his parents place of birth.
Unfortunately, he apparently did not know or care as he enumerates their birth places as
198
Louisiana, the same as his own57. The 1860 census for Matilda52 shows different states for
the births of her children. She is from Kentucky, her eldest is from Pennsylvania, the second
from Alabama and Luke from Louisiana. Unless these children were from an earlier
marriage, this implies Henry came from the East; passed through, or originated in,
Pennsylvania; removed to Alabama by 1837 and to Louisiana by 1840. He might be a
descendent of Austien as he is found in the South but Pennsylvania is close enough to New
York State that he may be from one of the New York lines. I am unable to even conjecture in
this matter.

Other Early Schoolcrafts

When it comes to resolving women who appear without a husband one must take account of
the period. It was very uncommon in early times for women to strike out alone as single
persons. Therefore, whenever a woman is found acting alone in a legal capacity it generally
means she is a widow. While it is then tempting to think that a woman acting thus under the
Schoolcraft name is therefore the widow of a Schoolcraft there is another possibility. I have
noticed in the northern States and Canada that some women reverted to their maiden names
quite soon after becoming widows. I do not know if this practice was also followed in the
southern States but I do not exclude it.

Whether male or female and with the exception of a very few special situations, any legal
action required that the person be of major age. This can often be useful when assessing the
age of the person in question. While not foolproof, I generally also consider that women are
at least sixteen years old at marriage and men are eighteen. There are certainly cases when
they are younger but that is not the majority situation and even if sixteen and eighteen are not
correct, the error is only a year or two.
Margaret
In November 1802 a Margaret Schoolcraft applies for land in Pulaski Co., KY; a grant is
made in 180558, 59. Margaret would be of major age and, presumably, a widow else her
husband would be the applicant. She probably is the widow of a Schoolcraft but, as noted
before, she might have merely reverted to her maiden name. On August 21st, 1819 she
marries James Purvis. In that location she is probably associated with James Schoolcraft Sr.
or his children in some way. None of the known sons of James, nor James himself, seem to
be plausible candidates as her first husband. We need a son of James Sr., who died before
1802 or else a daughter called Margaret. None is apparent. James Purvis is enumerated in
1830 with a wife born between 1760 and 1770.
John the Baptist
John the Baptist Schoolcraft is noted by Ed Schoolcraft. The Harrison County Minute Book
for 1809-1810 pp. 187-188, 17 January 1810 shows “Ordered that John the Baptist
Schoolcraft be bound to George Jackson until he arrives to the age of twenty one years to
learn the occupation of a farmer, he being 15 years old the 18th of March, 1809, and that the
overseer of the poor execute indentures accordingly". As Ed notes, all we can tell from this is
that he was probably an orphan or abandoned child. I have seen claims that he was the son of
James Schoolcraft, the son of Austien, but as there is no obvious reason for the abandonment
(the parents are still alive) and as it would cause a name conflict with another son born

199
previously and still alive, so I am inclined to discount this suggestion. The family group
record in the IGI (one of these claims) contains too many other errors to inspire confidence!
The only other Schoolcrafts in Harrison County at this time are two brothers, Jacob and John
Jr., the sons of John Sr.
Mary
The 1860 mortality schedule includes Mary Schoolcraft, who died in August 1860 and was
stated to be born in Ireland. This suggests she was a Schoolcraft wife or widow. Her age is at
present uncertain as I have not managed to locate the original record. She is shown twice in
the Schoolcraft Ancestral News60, 61 but the ages are different. She was either born in 1812 or
1818. There are no other Schoolcraft's reasonably nearby in either 1850 or 1860 to suggest an
association.
Bonham, Texas
In 1860 a family of Schoolcrafts is enumerated in Fannin County, Texas62. The parents are
identified only as "J. Schoolcroft" who was born about 1814 in Indiana and "M. A.
Schoolcroft" who was born in Ohio about 1828. The birth locations of their seven children
show they were in Iowa in 1847, Arkansas by 1849 and reached Texas between 1851 and
1853. Based on the identified marriages of their children, the stay in Texas was limited and
they had moved to Missouri by the late 1860s. Their own birth locations suggest they
probably originated in Indiana or Ohio. This family is substantial enough that it should be
possible to place it yet there does not appear to be a match to the family members either
before or after 1860. There are a few families that are tantalizingly similar in some aspects
but conflict in others. Each seem to be among the grandchildren of James Sr. and that is
ultimately where I believe the answer lies.

1 New York, Schenectady: First Reformed Church, Baptism of Astien ob Augustien on [2 April 1720], parents Jacob
Shultgraft & Madalena Schultgraft, sponsors Phillip Schueler & Grechen Vrooman.
2 Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country and Detailing Some Facts and Opinions on Two

Particular Branch of This Family - With Regards to the Migration of That Branch From New York, to Virginia and
Kentucky. CREATED/PUBLISHED: Edward J. Schoolcraft, 4809 Douglas MacArthur NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico
87110, 1986 (4th Printing 1993, w/revisions)
3 Overwharton Parish Register 1720 – 1760 by Wm. F. Boogher. pp. 166 Scoulcraft, James married Margaret Mills,

October 14, 1753.


4
Overwharton Parish Register 1720 – 1760 by Wm. F. Boogher. pp. 167 Scoulcraft, Mary. Daughter of James and
Margaret born March 11, 1754.
5
Bonded Passengers to America by Peter Wilson Coldham, Vol. VIII Northern Circuit: 1665-1775. pp. 19, Lancashire.
Schoolcraft, James. S Lent 1751. [S – Sentenced to be transported to the American Colonies for a period of seven
years.]
6
Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, pp. 57: On 11 December, 1766,
Mathias Schoolcraft is granted 130 acres of land on the South Branch of the Potomac River below Crabapple Bottom,
Augusta County... his property begins at a "Sugar tree corner, to his father's land".
7
Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, pp. 57: On 11 December, 1766,
John Schoolcraft is granted 53 acres of land located on Straight Fork of the South Branch of the Potomac River.
8 Augusta Historical Bulletin Vol. 13 Fall 1977 No. 2. A court of Commissioners ... on 28th Day of March 1780. ...

John Willson & Alexander Maxwell as tenants in Common are intd to 400 acres of land by right of settlement before
1778 as asses of Ostin Schoolcraft Lying in Au C on the branch of Leading Cr adj the land of Peter Springston & OC.

200
9 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, pp. 60: On 25 June, 1781,
Mathew Schoolcraft, "Heir at law to Mathias Schoolcraft", received approval of a claim to 400 acres of land on the
Slab Camp Bottom on a branch of the Monongalia called Landfork, which had been settled in 1775. [FHL US/CAN
840856 Adjustments to Claims to Unpatented Lands - Monongalia, Yohogania and Ohio Counties, West Virginia -
1773 to 1785 pp. 341.]
10 Dennis Rogers. In July 1787 this land was surveyed for Robert Pike (who by the way was the administrator of

Matthias’s estate in 1784) “Assignee of John Schoolcraft who was Heir at Law to Matthew Schoolcraft Deceased,” by
virtue of a Certificate granted “to the said Matthew Schoolcraft Heir at Law to Mathias Schoolcraft.” Thus Matthew
died between 1781 and 1787. John could have been the eldest son of Matthew, but that’s putting three generations of
adults or near adults between 1745 and 1787. But, and this is where I get shaky on primogeniture, if Matthew had no
male children, the next eldest son of Matthias could have been heir. Or, if Matthias had no other male children, John
born 1741 could have been heir as Matthias’s eldest brother.
11
Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, pp. 60: On 25 June, 1781, John
Schoolcraft, "Heir at law to Austien Schoolcraft", received approval of a claim to 400 acres of land on the main fork of
Fink's Run, which had been settled in 1774. [FHL US/CAN 840856 Adjustments to Claims to Unpatented Lands -
Monongalia, Yohogania and Ohio Counties, West Virginia - 1773 to 1785 pp. 335.]
12
Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, pp. 60: On 25 June, 1781,
James Schoolcraft received approval of a claim to 400 acres of land on the the main branch of Fink's Run adjoining
lands claimed by John Schoolcraft, which had been settled in 1774. [FHL US/CAN 840856 Adjustments to Claims to
Unpatented Lands - Monongalia, Yohogania and Ohio Counties, West Virginia - 1773 to 1785 pp. 341-342.]
13 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, pp. 60: On 21 May, John

Schoolcraft received approval for his claim to 400 acres of land on Stone Cole Run, a branch of the west fork, which
had been settled in 1775. [FHL US/CAN 840856 Adjustments to Claims to Unpatented Lands - Monongalia,
Yohogania and Ohio Counties, West Virginia - 1773 to 1785 pp. 238-239.]
14 New York: Church Records, Schoharie, The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation. James on August 12

1743, parents Asten Schoelkrafft & Catharina Contriman S:H:V: sponsors James Schoelkrafft & Elisabeth S:H: Vrouw.
15 New York: Church Records, Schoharie, St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church. Matthes on Mar. 31 [1745] born

Mar. 12 [1745], parents Asten Schulkraf & Catharina, sponsors Matthes Bauman and his wife.
16 Schoolcraft Ancestral News, Volume 1, Number 4, pp. 52. Pennsylvania Births [FHL Book 974.816/T1 K2h]:

Catharina Lisabetha Schul Kraft parents Asten Schul Kraft, Spon. Catharina Lisabeth Schraff. Born bpt. 18 Jun 1749 in
Host Ref. Ch., Tulpehocken, Berks Co.
17 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, Edward J. Schoolcraft Edward

J. Schoolcraft, pp. 51. Although no baptism records have been found, other evidence exists in Harrison Co., Virginia,
that a son, John, had been born to Austien and Catherine some time prior to the birth of their son, James.
18 Dennis Rodgers. Land and court records add many pieces to the picture of the Virginia (WV) Schoolcrafts, and one

of those is a 1766 conveyance of land in Virginia’s Northern Neck signed by Astien, his wife Catherine, son John, and
John’s wife, Elizabeth. Of course an Indian wife in the white settlements would likely have adopted an Anglo name,
but whatever the circumstance, we do know the name thanks to that document.
19 State Census, Virginia & West Virginia, Monongalia Co. Original County returns from 1782 by John Evans, Clerk,

pp. 2-2.6. Christian Schoolcraft. White 2.


20 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, pp. 58: 10-Oct-1774 John

Schoolcraft, James Schoolcraft, Mathias Schoolcraft and Mathew Schoolcraft are all listed. May not have actually
fought in the Battle of Point Pleasant.
21 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, Exhibit N - Harrison County,

Virginia, Minute Books: Her son is paid for the support of his mother and an Elizabeth Countryman with final payment
on 19-Jun-1787 when Catherine is noted as deceased.
22
Schoolcraft Ancestral News, Volume 2, Number 1, pp. 13 - 19. Ed Schoolcraft's analysis of John Schoolcraft's Indian
wife.
23 Schoolcraft Ancestral News, Volume 2, Number 1, pp. 3 - 8. Ed Schoolcraft's analysis of Margaret Bush's letter.
24 Schoolcraft Ancestral News, Volume 2, Number 1, pp. 9 - 12. Ed Schoolcraft's analysis of Mrs. J. W. Calhoun's

letter.
25 Buzz Brake [http://www.perrybrake.com/]
26 Newsletters authored by Bob Neiswanger and Peg Hetrick, Issue 11, March 1999

[http://www.wapping.com/nisnews/default.asp]
27
History of the Early Settlement and Indian Wars of West Virginia, written 1851 by Wills DeHass

201
28 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, pp. 125 - 132: The George
Schoolcraft who married Catherine Brown is Ed Schoolcraft's ancestor and he devotes extensive analysis to the facts
presented. His proof concerning each of the five children, except possibly Ann, appears valid. The unproven point in
my mind is whether Ed's George is the one in the Pulaski and Clay County tax lists or not.
29 Federal Population Schedule, 1820, pp. 34.03, Delaware Co., IN, George Schoolcraft. Male: 5 <10, 1 16-26, 1 26-45,

female: 1 <10, 1 26-45, agriculture: 2.


30 Schoolcraft Ancestral News, Volume 2, Number 1, pp. 9. Ed Schoolcraft details George's family, the facts that he

uses and includes a commentary suggesting George's origin.


31 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, Exhibit CC: Court Order

Books, Pulaski Co., KY: Book 2 pp. 604 - Feb 1812 Court. Surveyed for George Schoolcraft ass. of Beazley Hart 100
acres of land by virtue of a Certificate No. 892 and granted January term 1806 situate and being in the County of
Pulaski and the waters of Fishing Creek beginning on two white oaks standing on a military line and corner to Israel
Harts survey thence his line North 130 poles to a black oak and dogwood thence N53E120 poles to a stake thence
L10E113 poles to a black oak Dicky Muses corner thence his line L20E22 poles to a black oak thence L61W140 poles
to the beginning.
32
Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, Exhibit BB: Pulaski County
KY Tax Lists FHL US/CAN 008209. 1812 - Schoolcraft, George - White Males over 21: One. One hundred acres -
Fishing Creek.
33 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, Exhibit DD. George

Schoolcraft to Thomas McJilton. Power of Attorney. Know all men by these presents that I George Schoolcraft of the
County of Clay and State of Kentucky, a private soldier in the late campaign of Kentucky Mounted Volunteer Militia,
commanded by his excellency Isaac Shelby, belonging to Capt. Thomas McJilton's Company, attached to the 11th
Regiment commanded by Lieutenant Col Williams, .... Signed 15th july 1815.
34 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, Exhibit DD: Clay County KY

Tax Lists FHL US/CAN 007936. 1813 - George Schoolcraft listed - White males over 21: One. 1814 - George
Schoolcraft listed - White males over 21: One. 1815 - George Schoolcraft listed - White males over 21: One; Isaac
Schoolcraft - White males over 21: One. 1816 - George Schoolcraft listed - White males over 21: One.
35 State Census, Virginia & West Virginia, Monongalia Co. Original County returns from 1782 by John Evans, Clerk,

pp. 3-1.11, Morris Morris. White 2.


36 Federal Population Schedule, 1810, pp. 253.02, Stoner, Bourbon Co., KY, Morris Morris. Male: 1 <10, 1 26-45,

female: 1 16-26, 1 26-45.


37 Federal Population Schedule, 1820, pp. 120.49, North Middletown, Bourbon Co., KY, Morris Morris. Male: 2 <10, 1

10-16, 1 26-45, female: 2 <10, 1 26-45.


38 Federal Population Schedule, 1830, pp. 181.18, Center, Marion Co., IN, Morris Morris. Male: 2 <5, 1 15-20, 1 20-

30, 1 50-60, female: 1 5-10, 2 10-15, 1 20-30, 1 30-40.


39 Federal Population Schedule, 1840, pp. 306.27, Lawrence Ward 4, Marion Co., IN, Morris Morris. Male: 1 10-15, 2

20-30, 1 50-60, female: 1 5-10, 1 10-15, 1 15-20, 1 50-60.


40 Federal Population Schedule, 10-Aug-1850, pp. 268A.10, dw. 1021, Center, Marion Co., IN, fam. 1032, Morris

Morris age 72 sex m milling business born in VA, Rachael age 66 sex f born in VA, Olue Shelton age 18 sex f born in
IN, Caroline Morris age 15 sex f born in IN, Henry Kerny age 16 sex m born in Germany.
41 Tennessee, Marriages, 1796-1950, index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/XD38-B3G),

William Brown and Catherine Sweet, 15 Oct 1795.


42 Ontario: Land Claims, 9 July 1790 Simon files for 200 acres in Canada on the La Forche river near Detroit.
43
Chronicles of Border Warfare, Alexander Scott Withers, pp. 377 - 378. Leonard Schoolcraft led an attack on the
West family at Hacker's Creek on 5-Dec-1787.
44
Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, Exhibit AA. Garrard County,
Kentucky. FHL US/CAN 007988. James Schoolcraft - 12 April 1804; 1 white males over 21. John Schoolcraft - 12
April 1804; 1 white males over 21. Michael Schoolcraft - 12 April 1804; 1 white males 16 but under 21.
45 Federal Population Schedule, 1810, pp. 728.17, Not Stated, Washington Co., VA, Michl. Schoolcraft. Male: 1 16-26,

female: 1 16-26.
46 Federal Population Schedule, 1820, pp. 42.08, Not Stated, Washington Co., VA, Michael Schoolcraft. Male: 2 <10, 1

26-45, female: 1 <10, 1 16-26.


47 Federal Population Schedule, 1830, pp. 323.10, Not Stated, Lee Co., VA, Michel Schoolcraft. Male: 1 <5, 1 5-10, 1

10-15, 1 40-50, female: 1 <5, 1 5-10, 1 30-40.


48
Federal Population Schedule, 1840, pp. 73.28, Not Stated, Lee Co., VA, Michael Schoolcraft. Male: 1 <5, 2 5-10, 1
10-15, 2 20-30, 1 50-60, female: 1 10-15, 1 15-20, 1 40-50.

202
49 Federal Population Schedule, 1-Sep-1850, dw. 262, Kentucky, Owsley Co., KY, fam. 262, Michial Schoolcraft age
59 sex m brick mason born in KY, Palsey age 54 sex f born in VA, Overton age 32 sex m brick mason born in VA,
Polley age 27 sex f born in VA, Madison age 17 sex m laborer born in VA, James age 15 sex m laborer born in VA,
Nathan age 11 sex m born in VA, Elizabeth Hobbs age 8 sex f born in VA.
50 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, Exhibit AA: Garrard County

KY Tax Lists: Exhibit AA. Garrard County, Kentucky. FHL US/CAN 007988. John Schoolcraft - 21 July 1803; 1
white males over 21; 1 white males 16 but under 21. [James Schoolcraft from Dennis, details not known to me].
51 Federal Population Schedule, 1840, pp. 359.05, New Orleans Ward 1, Orleans Co., LA, Henry Schoolcraft. Male: 1

5-10, 1 10-15, 1 20-30, female: 1 <5, 2 20-30.


52
Federal Population Schedule, 3-Jul-1860, pp. 267.40, dw. 1265, Ward #2, New Orleans, Orleans Co., LA, fam. 2365,
Mrs. Matilda Schoolcraft age 47 sex f born in KY, James age 29 sex m painter born in PA, Jane age 23 sex f born in
AL, Luke age 12 sex m born in LA, Wm. B. Chippendale age 28 sex m Treas. Var. ~~~ born in France, Alfreda age 18
sex f born in LA.
53 Federal Population Schedule, 14-Jun-1870, pp. 25.39, dw. 235, Ward #7, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Co., LA,

fam. 238, Mary Schoolcraft age 36 sex f sempship born in LA, Matilda J. age 15 sex f born in LA, Sylvester age 12 sex
m born in LA.
54
Federal Population Schedule, 1880: FHL Film 1254452 NA Film T9-0452 pp. 362A, Baton Rouge, East Baton
Rouge Co., LA : Mary Schoolcroft Self white age 58 born in LA occupation Keep House father born in LA mother
born in TN: M... Schoolcroft Dau white age 24 born in LA occupation School Teacher father born in LA mother born
in LA: Silvester Schoolcroft Son married white age 21 born in LA occupation Labor father born in LA mother born in
LA.
55 New York: Newspapers, History of the New York Stage, pp. 121-122: Luke Schoolcraft died in Cincinnati, March

12, 1893.
56 Minnesota: Newspaper, Found frequently in the St. Paul Daily Globe and the Omaha Daily Bee in the 1880s. Refer

Omaha Daily Bee, April 23, 1889, page 2 to identify the name Luke Schoolcraft. [http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/]
57 Federal Population Schedule, 1880: FHL Film 1254543 NA Film T9-0543 pp. 15A, 8-Jun-1880 208 Hampshire St.,

Cambridge, Middlesex Co., MA : Luke Schoolcraft Self male married white age 32 born in New Orleans occupation
Singer father born in LA mother born in LA: Eliza I. Schoolcraft Wife female white age 35 born in IN occupation
Keeping House father born in IN mother born in IN: Matilda Schoolcraft Mother white age 66 born in KY father born
in KY mother born in KY: Aaron Clarke FatherL married white age 76 born in MA father born in MA mother born in -
--: M. O. Smith SisterL male white age 33 born in IN occupation Nurse father born in IN mother born in IN: Jane
White Other age 26 born in SC father born in SC mother born in SC.
58 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, Exhibit CC: Court Order

Books, Pulaski Co., KY: Book 1 pp. 362 Nov 1802 Peggy Schoolcraft applies for land. Book 2 pp. 217 Aug 1805
Peggy Schoolcraft is granted the land.
59 Edward J. Schoolcraft, Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, pp. 123 - 124. Ed analyses

Peggy Schoolcraft's possible origin.


60 Schoolcraft Ancestral News, Volume 1, Number 2, pp. 7. U.S. Mortality List - 1860. 8th Ward, Louisville, Jefferson

Co., KY: Mary Schoolcraft, ae. 42, b. Ireland, d. Aug-1860, Consumption.


61 Schoolcraft Ancestral News, Volume 2, Number 2, pp. 61. U.S. Mortality List - 1860. Schoolcraft, Mary, Female,

Age 48, died in August 1860 in Jefferson Co., KY. Cause of death: Consumption. Born in: Ireland.
62 Federal Population Schedule, 15-Aug-1860, pp. 174.31, dw. 1146, Beat #2, Bonham, Fannin Co., TX, fam. 1167, J.

Schoolcraft age 46 sex m miller born in IN, M. A. Schoolcraft age 32 sex f born in OH, Mary age 13 sex f born in IA,
Dolly age 11 sex f born in AR, John age 9 sex m born in AR, Mariah age 7 sex f born in TX, Clara age 5 sex f born in
TX, Josephine age 3 sex f born in TX, Marques age 1 sex m born in TX.

203
Appendix A: Sketches of the Life
of Henry R. Schoolcraft
The following transcription of the introduction to Henry Rowe Schoolcraft‘s memoirs was
downloaded from the Library of Congress archives. Some of the inherent OCR errors were
noticed and corrected.

Personal memoirs of a residence of thirty years with the Indian tribes on


the American frontiers: with brief notices of passing events, facts, and
opinions, A. D. 1812 to A. D. 1842
CREATED/PUBLISHED: Philadelphia, Lippincott, Grambo and co., 1851.
Sketches of the Life of Henry R. Schoolcraft
The early period at which Mr. Schoolcraft entered the field of observation in
the United States as a naturalist; the enterprise he has from the outset
manifested in exploring the geography and geology of the Great West; and his
subsequent researches as an ethnologist, in investigating the Indian language
and history, are well known to the public, and may be appropriately referred
to as the grounds of the present design, in furnishing some brief and
connected sketches of his life, family, studies, and literary labors. He is an
example of what early and continued zeal, talent, and diligence, united with
energy of character and consistent moral habits, may accomplish in the cause
of letters and science, by the force of solitary application, without the
advantage of hereditary wealth, the impulse of patronage, or the prestige of
early academic honors. Ardent in the pursuit of whatever engaged his
attention, quick in the observation of natural phenomena, and assiduous in the
accumulation of facts; with an ever present sense of their practical and useful
bearing--few men, in our modern history, have accomplished so much, in the
lines of research he has chosen, to render science popular and letter
honorable. To him we are indebted for our first accounts of the geological
constitution, and the mineral wealth and resources of the great valley beyond
the Alleghanies, and he is the discoverer of the actual source of the
Mississippi River in Itasca Lake. For many years, beginning with 1817, he
stirred up a zeal for natural history from one end of the land to the other, and,
after his settlement in the West, he was a point of approach for
correspondents, as his personal memoirs denote, not only on these topics, but
for all that relates to the Indian tribes, in consequence of which he has been
emphatically pronounced “The Red Man’s Friend.”
Mr. Schoolcraft is a native of New York, and is the descendant in the third
generation, by the paternal line, of an Englishman. James Calcraft had served
with reputation in the armies of the Duke of Marlborough during the reign of
Queen Anne, and was present in that general’s celebrated triumphs on the
continent, in one of which he lost an eye, from the premature explosion of the

205
priming of a cannon. Owing to these military services he enjoyed and
cherished a high reputation for bravery and loyalty.
He was a descendant of a family of that name, who came to England with
William the Conqueror--and settled under grants from the crown in
Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire--three separate branches of the family
having received the honor of knighthood for their military services.
In the reign of George the Second, consequently after 1727, he embarked at
Liverpool in a detachment of veteran troops, intended to act against Canada.
He was present in the operations connected with the building of Forts Anne
and Edwards, on the North River, and Fort William Henry on Lake George.
At the conclusion of these campaigns he settled in Albany county, N. Y., which
has continued to be the residence of the family for more than a century. Being
a man of education, he at first devoted himself to the business of a land
surveyor, in which capacity he was employed by Col. Vroman, to survey the
boundaries of his tract of land in the then frontier settlement of Schoharie. At
the latter place he married the only daughter and child of Christian Camerer,
one of the Palatines,--a body of determined Saxons who had emigrated from
the Upper Rhine in 1712, under the assurance or expectation of a patent from
Queen Anne*. By this marriage he had eight children--namely, James,
Christian, John, Margaret, Elizabeth, Lawrence, William, and Helen.
For many years during his old age, he conducted a large school in this
settlement, being the first English school that was taught in that then frontier
part of the country. This appears to be the only tenable reason that has been
assigned for the change of the family name from Calcraft to Schoolcraft.
When far advanced in life, he went to live with his son William, on the New
York grants on Otter Creek, in the rich agricultural region south of Lake
Champlain--which is now included in Vermont. Here he died at the great age
of one hundred and two, having been universally esteemed for his loyalty to
his king, his personal courage and energy, and the uprightness of his
character.
After the death of his father, when the revolutionary troubles commenced,
William, his youngest son, removed into Lower Canada. The other children all
remained in Albany County, except Christian, who, when the jangling land
disputes and conflicts of titles arose in Schoharie, followed Conrad Wiser,
Esq. (a near relative), to the banks of the Susquehanna. He appears eventually
to have pushed his way to Buchanan River, one of the sources of the
Monongahela, in Lewis County, Virginia, where some of his descendants must
still reside. It appears that they became deeply involved in the Indian wars
which the Shawnees kept up on the frontiers of Virginia. In this struggle they
took an active part, and were visited with the severest retribution by the
marauding Indians. It is stated by Withers that, between 1770 and 1779, not

*
Simms’ Schoharie

206
less than fifteen of this family, men, women, and children, were killed or taken
prisoners, and carried into captivity*.
Of the other children of the original progenitor, James, the eldest son, died a
bachelor. Lawrence was the ancestor of the persons of this name in Schoharie
County. Elizabeth and Helen married, in that county, in the families of Rose
and Haines, and Margaret, the eldest daughter, married Col. Green Brush, of
the British army, at the house of Gen. Bradstreet, Albany. Her daughter, Miss
Francis Brush, married the celebrated Col. Ethan Allen, after his return from
the Tower of London.
John, the third son, settled in Watervleit, in the valley of the Norman’s Kill--
or, as the Indians called it, Towasentha--Albany County. He served in a
winter’s campaign against Oswego, in 1757,and took part also in the
successful siege and storming of Fort Niagara, under Gen Prideaux* and Sir
William Johnson, in the summer of 1759. He married a Miss Anna Barbara
Boss, by whom he had three children, namely, Anne, Lawrence, and John. He
had the local reputation of great intrepidity, strong muscular power, and
unyielding decision of character. He died at the age of 64. Lawrence, his
eldest son, had entered his seventeenth year when the American Revolution
broke out. He embraced the patriotic sentiments of that era with great ardor,
and was in the first revolutionary procession that marched through and
canvassed the settlement with martial music, and the Committee of Safety at
its head, to determine who was Whig or Tory.
The military element had always commanded great respect in the family and
he did not wait to be older, but enrolled himself among the defenders of his
country.
He was present, in 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was read to
the troops drawn up in hollow square at Ticonderoga. He marched under Gen
Schuyler to the relief of Montgomery, at Quebec, and continued to be an
indomitable actor in various positions, civil and military, in the great drama
of the Revolution during its entire continuance.
In 1777, the darkest and most hopeless period of our revolutionary contest, he
led a reinforcement from Albany to Fort Stanwix, up the Mohawk Valley, then
alive with hostile Indians and Tories, and escaped them all, and he was in this
fort, under Col. Ganzevoort, during its long and close siege by Col. St. Leger
and his infuriated Indian allies. The whole embodied militia of the Mohawk
Valley marched to its relief, under the bold and patriotic Gen. Herkimer. They
were met by the Mohawk, Onondagas and Senecas, and British loyalists, lying
in ambush on the banks of the Oriskany, eight miles from the fort. A dreadful
battle ensued. Gen. Herkimer was soon wounded in the thigh, his leg broken,
and his horse shot under him. With the coolness of a Blucher, he then directed
his saddle to be placed on a small knoll, and, drawing ut his tobacco-box, lit

*
Chronicles of the Border Warfare in North-western Virginia. By Alex Withers, Clarksbury, Virginia,
1831. 1 vol. 12mo. Page 319.
*
This officer was shot in the trenches, which devolved the command on Sir William.

207
his pipe and calmly smoked while his brave and unconquerable men fought
around him.
This was one of the most stoutly contested battles of the Revolution. Campbell
says: “This battle made orphans of half the inhabitants of the Mohawk
Valley”*. It was a desperate struggle between neighbors, who were ranged on
opposite sides as Whig and Tory, and it was a triumph, Herkimer remaining
master of the field. During the hottest of the battle, Col. Willett stepped on the
esplanade of the fort, where the troops were paraded, and requested all who
were willing to fight for liberty and join a party for the relief of Herkimer, to
step forward one pace. Schoolcraft was the first to advance. Two hundred and
fifty men followed him. An immediate sally was made. They carried the camp
of Sir John Johnson; took all his baggage,, military-chest, and papers; drove
him though the Mohawk River; and then turned upon the howling Mohawks
and swept and fired their camp. The results of this battle were brilliant. The
plunder was immense. The lines of the besiegers, which had been thinned by
the forces sent to Oriskany, were carried, and the noise of firing and rumors
of a reinforcement, animated the hearts of the indomitable men of that day.
After the victory, Herkimer was carried by his men, in a litter, thirty or forty
miles to his own house, below the present town of Herkimer, where he died,
from an unskillful amputation, having just concluded reading to his family the
38th Psalm.
But the most dangerous enemy the cause freedom was not to be found in the
field, but among neighbors who were lurking at midnight around the scenes of
home. The districts of Albany and Schoharie was infested by Tories, and
young Schoolcraft was ever on the qui vive to ferret out this most insidious
and cruel of the enemy’s power. On one occasion he detected a Tory, who had
returned from Canada with a lieutenant’s commission in his pocket. He
immediately clapped spurs to his horse, and reported him to Gov George
Clinton, the Chairman of the Committee of Safety at Albany. Within three days
the lieutenant was seized, tried, condemned and hanged. Indeed, a volume of
anecdotes might to be written of Lawrence Schoolcraft‘s revolutionary life;
suffice it to say, that he was a devoted, enthusiastic, enterprizing soldier and
patriot, and came out of the contest with an adjutant’s commission and a high
reputation for bravery.
About the close of the Revolutionary war, he married Miss Margaret Anne
Barbara Rowe, a native of Fishkill, Duchess County, New York, by whom he
had thirteen children.
His disciplinary knowledge and tact in the government of men, united to
amenity of manners, led to his extensive glass Hon. Jeremiah Van Rensselaer,
as director of his extensive glass works at Hamilton, near Albany, which he
conducted with high reputation so many years, during which time he bore
several important civil and military trusts in the county. The importance of
this manufacture to the new settlements at that early day, was deeply felt, and

*
Annals of Teyon County.

208
his ability and skill in the management of these extensive works were widely
known and appreciated.
When the war of 1812 appeared inevitable, Gen Ganzevoort, his old
commanding officer at Fort Stanwix, who was now at the head of the U. S.
army, placed him in command of the first regiment of uniformed volunteers,
who were mustered into service for that conflict. His celebrity in the
manufacture of glass, led capitalists in Western New York to offer him large
inducements to remove there, where he first introduced this manufacture
during the settlement of that new and attractive part of the State, in which a
mania for manufactories was then rife. In this new field the sphere of his
activity and skill were greatly enlarged, and he enjoyed the consideration and
respect of his townsmen for many years. He died at Vernon, Oneida County,
in 1840, at the age of eighty-four, having lived long to enjoy the success of
that independence for which he had ardently thirsted and fought. A handsome
monument on the banks of the Skenando bears the inscription “A patriot, a
Christian, and an honest man.” A man who was never governed by
expediency but by right, and in all his expressions of opinion, original and
fearless of consequences. These details of the life and character of Col.
Lawrence Schoolcraft, appeared proper in proceeding to speak of one of his
sons, who has for so considerable a period occupied the public attention as an
actor in other fields, requiring not less energy, decision, enterprise and
perseverance of character.
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft was born in Albany County, on the 28th of March,
1793, during the second presidential term of Washington. His childhood and
youth were spent in the village of Hamilton, a place once renowned for its
prosperous manufactories, but which has long since verified the predictions of
the bard-- “That trade’s proud empire hastes so swift decay, As ocean sweeps
the labored mole away.” Its location is on one of the beautiful and sparkling
affluents of the Towasentha or Norman’s Kill, popularly called the
Hongerkill, which he has in one of his occasional publications called the
Iósco, from an aboriginal term. That pisturesque and lofty arm of the
Catskills, which is called the Helderberg, bounds the landscape on the west
and south, while the Pine Plains occupy the form of a crescent, between the
Mohawk and the Hudson, bearing the cities of Albany and Schenectady
respectively on its opposite edges. Across this crescent-like Plain of Pines, by
a line of sixteen miles, was the ancient Iroquois war and trading path. The
Towasentha lies on the south borders of this plain, and was, on the first
settlement of the country, the seat of an Indiana population. Here, during the
official term of Gen. Hamilton, whose name the village bears, the capitalists
of Albany planted a manufacturing village. The position is one where the
arable forest and farming lands are bounded by the half arabic waste of the
pine plains of the Honicroisa, whose deep gorges are still infested by the wolf
and smaller animals. The whole valley of the Norman’s Kill abounds in lovely
and rural scenes, and quiet retreats and waterfalls, which are suited to
nourish poetic tastes. In these he indulged from his thirteenth year,
periodically writing, and as judgment ripened, destroying volumes of

209
manuscripts, while at the same time he evinced uncommon diligence at his
books and studies. The poetic talent was, indeed, strongly developed. His
power of versification was early and well formed, and the pieces which were
published anonymously at a maturer period, as “Geehale,” and “The
Iroquois,” &c., have long been embodied without a name in our poetic
literature. But this faculty, of which we have been permitted to see the
manuscript of some elaborate and vigorous trains of thought, did not impede
a decided intellectual progress in sterner studies in the sciences and arts. His
mind was early imbued with a thirst of knowledge, and he made such
proficiency as to attract the notice of persons of education and taste. There
was developed, too, in him, an early bias for the philosophy of language. Mr.
Van Kleeck, a townsman, in a recent letter to Dr. R. W. Griswold, says:--
“I revert with great pleasure to the scenes of my residence, in the part of
Albany County which was also the residence of Henry R. Schoolcraft. I went
to reside at the village of Hamilton, in the town of Guilderland, in 1803. Col.
Lawrence Schoolcraft, the father of Henry, had then the direction of the large
manufactories of glass, for which that place was long noted. The standing of
young Henry, I remember, at his school, for scholarship, was then very noted,
and his reputation in the village most prominent. He was spoken of as a lad of
great promise, and a very learned boy at twelve. Mr. Robert Buchanan, a
Scotchman, and a man of learning, took much pride in his advances, and
finally came to his father and told him that he had taught him all he knew. In
Latin, I think he was taught by Cleanthus Felt. He was at this age very
arduous and assiduous in the pursuit of knowledge. He discovered great
mechanical ingenuity. He drew and painted in water colors, and attracted the
notice of the Hon. Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, Lt. Governor of the State, who
became so much interested in his advancement, that he took the initial steps to
have him placed with a master. At an early age he manifested a taste for
mineralogy and natural science, which was then (I speak of about 1808)
almost unknown in the country. He was generally to be found at home, at his
studies, when other boys of his age were attending horse-races, cock-fights,
and other vicious amusements for which the village was famous.
“At this time he organized with persevering effort, a literary society, in which
discussions took place by the intelligent inhabitants on subjects of popular
and learned interests. At an early age, I think sixteen, he went to the west, and
the first that was afterwards heard of him was his bringing to New York a
splendid collection of the mineralogy and natural history of the west.”*
In a part of the country where books were scarce, it was not easy to supply
this want. He purchased several editions of English classics at the sale of the
valuable library of Dirck Ten Broeck, Esq., of Albany, and his room in a short
time showed the elements of a library and a cabinet of minerals, and
drawings, which were arranged with the greatest care and neatness. Having
finished his primary studies, with high reputation, he prepared, under an
improved instructor, to enter Union College. It was at the age of fifteen that

*
Letter of L. L. Van Kleeck, Esq., to Dr. R. W. Griswold, June 4th, 1851.

210
he set on foot, as Mr. Van Kleeck mentions, an association for mental
improvement. These meetings drew together persons of literary tastes and
acquirements in the vicinity. The late John V. Veeder, Wm. McKown, and L. L.
Van Kleeck, Esqs., Mr. Robert Alsop, the late John Schoolcraft, Esq., G.
Batterman, John Sloan, and other well-known gentlemen of the town, all of
whom were his seniors in age, attended these meetings.
Mineralogy was at that time an almost unknown science in the United States.
At first the heavy drift stratum of Albany County, as seen in the bed of
Norman’s Kill; and its deep cuttings in the slate and other rocks, were his
field of mineralogical inquiries. Afterwards, while living at Lake Dunmore, in
Addison County, Vermont, he revised and systematized the study under the
teaching of Professor Hall, of Middlebury College, to which he added
chemistry, natural philosophy and medicine. Having now the means, he
erected a chemical furnace, and ordered books, apparatus, and tests from the
city of New York. By these means he perfected the arts which were under his
direction in the large way; and he made investigations of the phenomena of
the fusion of various bodies, which he prepared for the press under the name
of Vitriology, an elaborate work of research. Amongst the facts brought to
light, it is apprehended, were revealed the essential principles of an art which
is said to have been discovered and lost in the days of Tiberius Cæsar.
He taught himself the Hebrew and German, with the aid only of grammars
and lexicons; and, with the assistance of instructors, the reading of French.
His assiduity, his love of method, the great value he attached to time, and his
perseverance in whatever study or research he undertook, were indeed
indomitable, and serve to prove how far they will carry the mind, and how
much surer tests they are of ultimate usefulness ad attainment, than the most
dazzling genius these moral props. Self-dependent, self-acting, and self-
taught, it is apprehended that few men, with so little means and few
advantages, have been in so peculiar a sense the architect of their own
fortunes.
He commenced writing for the newspapers and periodicals in 1808, in which
year he also published a poetic tribute to a friend, which excited local notice,
and was attributed to a person of literary celebrity. For, notwithstanding the
gravity of his studies and researches, he had indulged an early poetic taste for
a series of years, by compositions of an imaginative character, and might, it
should seem, have attained distinction in that way. His remarks in the
“Literary and Philosophical Repertory,” on the evolvement of hydrogen gas
from the strata of Western New York, under the name of Burning Springs,
evinced an early aptitude for philosophical discussion. In a notice of some
archæological discoveries made in Hamburgh, Erie County, which were
published at Utica in 1817, he first denoted the necessity of discriminating
between the antique French and European, and the aboriginal period in our
antiquities; for the want of which discrimination, casual observers and
discoverers of articles in our tumuli are perpetually over-estimating the state
of ancient art.

211
About 1816 he issued proposals, and made arrangements to publish his
elaborated work on vitreology, which, so far as published, was favorably
received.
In 1817 he was attracted to go to the Valley of the Mississippi. A new world
appeared to be opening for American enterprise there. Its extent and
resources seemed to point it out as the future residence of millions; and he
determined to share in the exploration of its geography, geology, mineralogy
and general ethnology, for in this latter respect also it offered, by its curious
mounds and antiquities and existing Indian tribes, a field of peculiar and
undeveloped interest.
He approached this field of observation by descending the Alleghany River
from Western New York to the Ohio. He made Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and
Louisville centres of observation. At the latter place he published in the
papers an account of the discovery of a body of the black oxide of manganese,
on the banks of the Great Sandy River of Kentucky, and watched the return
papers from the old Atlantic States, to see whether notices of this kind would
be copied and approved. Finding this test favorable, he felt encouraged in his
mineralogical researches. Having descended the Ohio to its mouth one
thousand miles, by its involutions below Pittsburgh, and entered the
Mississippi, he urged his way up the strong and turbid channel of the latter, in
barges, by slow stages of five or six miles a day, to St. Louis. This slowness of
travel gave him an opportunity of exploring on foot the whole of the Missouri
shore, so noted, from early Spanish and French days, for its mines. After
visiting the mounds of Illinois, he recrossed the Mississippi into the mineral
district of Missouri. Making Potosi the centre of his survey and the deposit of
his collections, he executed a thorough examination of that district, where he
found some seventy mines scattered over a large surface of the public domain,
which yielded, at the utmost, by a very desultory process, about three millions
of pounds of lead annually. Having explored this region very minutely, he
wished to ascertain its geological connection with the Ozark and other
highland ranges, which spread at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, and he
planned an exploratory expedition into that region. This bold and hazardous
journey he organized and commenced at Potosi early in the month of
November, 1818, and prosecuted it under many disadvantages during that fall
and the succeeding winter. Several expert and practiced woodsmen were to
have been of this party, but when the time for setting out came all but two
failed, under various excuses. One of these was finally obliged to turn back
from Mine au Breton with a continued attack of fever and ague. Ardent in the
plan, and with a strong desire to extend the dominions of science, he
determined to push on with a single companion, and a single pack-horse,
which bore the necessary camp conveniences, and was led alternately by each
from day to day. A pocket compass guided their march by day, and they often
slept in vast caverns in limestone cliffs at night. Gigantic springs of the purest
crystaline water frequently gushed up from the soil or rocks. This track laid
across highlands, which divide the confluent waters of the Missouri from
those of the Mississippi. Indians, wild beasts, starvation, thirst, were the

212
dangers of the way. This journey, which led into the vast and desolate parts of
Arkansas, was replete with incidents and adventures of the highest interest.
While in Missouri, and after his return from this adventurous journey, he drew
up a description of the mines, geology, and mineralogy of the country.
Conceiving a plan for the better management of the lead mines as a part of
the public domain, he determined to visit Washington, to submit it to the
government.
Packing up his collections of mineralogy and geology, he ordered them to the
nearest point of embarkation on the Mississippi, and, getting on board a
steamer at St. Genevieve, proceeded to New Orleans. Thence he took shipping
for New York, passing through the Straits of Florida, and reached his
destination during the prevalence of the yellow fever in that city. He improved
the time of his quarantine at Staten Island by exploring its mineralogy and
geology, where he experienced a kind and appreciating reception from the
health officer, Dr. De Witt.
His reception also from scientific men at New York was most favorable, and
produced a strong sensation. Being the first person who had brought a
collection of its scientific resources from the Mississippi Valley, its exhibition
and diffusion in private cabinets gave an impulse to these studies in the
country.
Men of science and gentlemen of enlarged minds welcomed him. Mrs.
Mitchell and Hosack, who were then at the summit of their influence, and
many other leading and professional characters extended a hand of cordial
encouragement and appreciation. Gov. De Witt Clinton was one of his earliest
and most constant friends. The Lyceum of Natural History and the New York
Historical Society admitted him to membership.
Late in the autumn of 1819, he published his work on the mines and mineral
resources of Missouri, and with this publication as an exponent of his views,
he proceeded to Washington, where he was favorably received by President
Monroe, and by Mr. Calhoun and Mr. Crawford, members of his cabinet. At
the request of the latter he drew up a memoir on the reorganization of the
western mines, which was well received. Some legislation appeared
necessary. Meantime Mr. Calhoun, who was struck by the earnestness of his
views and scientific enterprise, offered him the situation of geologist and
mineralogist to an exploring expedition, which the war department was about
dispatching from Detroit to the sources of the Mississippi under the orders of
Gen. Cass.
This he immediately accepted, and, after spending a few weeks at the capital,
returned in Feb., 1820, to New York, to await the opening of the interior
navigation. As soon as the lakes opened he proceeded to Detroit, and in the
course of two or three weeks embarked on this celebrated tour of exploration.
The great lake basins were visited and explored, the reported copper mines on
Lake Superior examined, and the upper Mississippi entered at Sandy Lake,
and, after tracing it in its remote mazes to the highest practical point, he
descended its channel by St. Anthony’s Falls to Prairie Du Chien and the Du

213
Buque lead mines. The original outward track north-westward was then
regained, through the valleys of the Wisconsin and Fox Rivers, and the
extended shores of Lake Michigan and Huron elaborately traced. In this he
was accompanied by the late Professor David B. Douglass, who collected the
materials for a correct map of the great lakes and the sources of the
Mississippi.
It was late in the autumn when Mr. Schoolcraft returned to his residence at
New York, when he was solicited to publish his “narrative journal.” This he
completed early in the spring of 1821. This work, which evinces accurate and
original powers of observation, established his reputation as a scientific and
judicious traveler. Copies of it found their way to England, where it was
praised by Sir Humphrey Davy and the veteran geographer, Major Rennel.
His report to the Secretary of War on the copper mines of Lake Superior, was
published in advance by the American Journal of Science, and by order of the
Senate of the United States, and gives the earliest scientific account of the
mineral affluence of the basin of that lake. His geological report to the same
department made subsequently, traces the formations of that part of the
continent, which gives origin to the Mississippi River, and denotes the
latitudes where it is crossed by the primitive and volcanic rocks. The ardor
and enthusiasm which he evinced in the cause of science, and his personal
enterprise in traversing vast regions, awakened a corresponding spirit; and
the publication of his narratives had the effect to popularize the subject of
mineralogy and geology throughout the country.
In 1821, he executed a very extensive journey through the Miami of the Lakes
and the River Wabash, tracing those streams minutely to the entrance of the
latter into the Ohio River. He then proceeded to explore the Oshawanee
Mountains, near Cavein-Rock, with their deposits of the fluate of lime, galena,
and other mineral treasures. From this range he crossed over the grand
prairies of the Illinois to St. Louis, revisited the mineral district of Potosi, and
ascended the Illinois River and its northwest fork, the Des Plaines, to
Chicago, where a large body of Indians were congregated to confer on the
cession of their lands. At these important conferences, he occupied the
position of secretary. He published an account of the incidents of this
exploratory journey, under the title of Travels in the Central Portions of the
Mississippi Valley. He found, in passing up the river Des Plaines, a
remarkably well characterized specimen of a fossil tree, completely converted
to stone, of which he prepared a descriptive memoir, which had the effect
further to direct the public mind to geological phenomena.
We are not prepared to pursue minutely these first steps of his energetic
course in the early investigation of our natural history and geography. In
1822, while the lead-mine problem was under advisement at Washington, he
was appointed by Mr. Monroe to the semi-diplomatic position of Agent for
Indian Affairs on the North-west Frontiers. This opened a new field of inquiry,
and, while it opposed no bar to the pursuits of natural science, it presented a
broad area of historical and ethnological research. On this he entered with
great ardor, and an event of generally controlling influence on human

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pursuits occurred to enlarge these studies, in his marriage to Miss Jane
Johnston, a highly cultivated young lady, who was equally well versed in the
English and Algonquin languages, being a descendant, by the mother’s side,
of Wabojeeg, a celebrated war sachem, and ruling cacique of his nation. Her
father, Mr. John Johnston, was a gentleman of the highest connections,
fortune, and standing, from the north of Ireland, who had emigrated to
America during the presidency of Washington. He possessed great enthusiasm
and romance of character, united with poetic tastes, and became deeply
enamored of the beautiful daughter of Wabojeeg, married her, and had eight
children. His eldest daughter, Jane, was sent, at nine years age, to Europe to
be thoroughly educated under the care of his relatives there, and, when she
returned to America, was placed at the head of her father’s household, where
her refined dignified manners and accomplishments attracted the notice and
admiration of numerous visitors to that seat of noble hospitality. Mr.
Schoolcraft was among the first suitors for her hand, and married her in
October, 1823.
Mr. Johnston was a fine belles lettres scholar, and entered readily into the
discussions arising from the principles of the Indian languages, and plans for
their improvement.
Mr. Schoolcraft’s marriage into an aboriginal family gave no small stimulus
to these inquiries, which were pursued under such singularly excellent
advantages, and with untiring ardor in the seclusion of Elmwood and
Michilimackinack, for a period of nearly twenty years, and, until his wife’s
lamented death, which happened during a visit to her sister, at Dundas,
Canada West, in the year 1842, and while he himself was absent on a visit to
England. Mr. Schoolcraft has not, at any period of his life, sought
advancement in political life, but executed with energy and interest various
civic offices, which were freely offered to him. From 1828 to 1832, he was an
efficient member of the Territorial Legislature, where he introduced a system
of township and county names, formed on the basis of the aboriginal
vocabulary, and also procured the incorporation of a historical society, and,
besides managing the finances, as chairman of an appropriate committee, be
introduced and secured the passage of several laws respecting the treatment
of the native tribes.
In 1828, the Navy Department offered him a prominent situation in the
scientific corps of the United States Exploring Expedition to the South Seas.
This was urged in several letters written to him at St. Mary’s, by Mr.
Reynolds, with the approbation of Mr. Southard, then Secretary of the Navy.
However flattering such an offer was to his ambition, his domestic relations
did not permit his acceptance of the place. He appeared to occupy his
advanced position on the frontier solely to further the interests of natural
history, American geography, and growing questions of philosophic moment.
These particulars will enable the render to appreciate the advantages with
which he commenced and pursued the study of the Indian languages, and
American ethnology. He made a complete lexicon of the Algonquin language,
and reduced its grammar to a philosophical system. “It is really surprising”
215
says Gen. Cass, in a letter, in 1824, in view of these researches, “that so little
valuable information has been given to the world on these subjects.”
Mr. Duponceau, President of the American Philosophical Society, translated
two of Mr. Schoolcraft’s lectures before the Algic Society, on the grammatical
structure of the Indian language, into French, for the National Institute of
France, where the prize for the best essay on Algonquin language was
awarded to him. He writes to Dr. James, in 1834, in reference to these
lectures: “His description of the composition of words in the Chippewa
language, is the most elegant I have yet seen. He is an able and most
perspicuous writer, and treats his subject philosophically.”
Approbation from these high sources had only the effect to lead him to
renewed diligence and deeper exertions to further the interests of natural
science, geography, and ethnology; and, while engaged in the active duties of
an important government office, he maintained an extensive correspondence
with men of science, learning, and enterprise throughout the Union.
The American Philosophical, Geological, and Antiquarian Societies, with
numerous state and local institutions, admitted him to membership. The Royal
Geographical Society of London, the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries at
Copenhagen, and the Ethnological Society of Paris, inscribed his name
among their foreign members. In 1846, the College of Geneva conferred on
him the degree of LL.D.
While the interests of learning and science thus occupied his private hours,
the state of Indian affairs on the western frontiers called for continued
exertions, and journeys, and expeditions through remote regions. The
introduction of a fast accumulating population into the Mississippi Valley,
and the great lake basins, continually subjected the Indian tribes to causes of
uneasiness, and to a species of reflection, of which they had had no examples
in the long centuries of their hunter state.
In 1825, 1826, and 1827, he attended convocations of the tribes at very
remote points, which imposed the necessity of passing through forests,
wildernesses, and wild portages, where none but the healthy, the robust, the
fearless, and the enterprising can go.
In 1831, circumstances inclined the tribes on the Upper Mississippi to
hostilities and extensive combinations. He was directed by the Government to
conduct an expedition through the country lying south and west of Lake
Superior, reaching from its banks, which have from the earliest dates been the
fastnesses of numerous warlike tribes. This he accomplished satisfactory,
visiting the leading chiefs, and counseling them to the policy of peace.
In 1832, the Sauks and Foxes resolves to re-occupy lands which they had
previously relinquished in the Rock River Valley. This brought them into
collision with the citizens and militia of Illinois. The result was a general
conflict, which, from its prominent Indian leader, has been called the Black
Hawk war. From accounts of the previous year, its combinations embraced
nine of the leading tribes. It was uncertain how far they extended. Mr.
Schoolcraft was selected by the Indian and War Department, to conduct a

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second expedition into the region embracing the entire Upper Mississippi,
north and west of St. Anthony’s Falls. He pursued this stream to the points to
which it had been explored in 1806, by Lieut, Pike, and in 1820, by Gen.
Cass; and finding the state of the water favorable for ascending, traced the
river up to its ultimate forks, and to its actual source in Itasca Lake. This
point he reached on the 23d July, 1832; but a fraction under 300 years after
the discovery of its lower portions by De Soto. This was Mr. Schoolcraft’s
crowning geographical discovery, of which he published an account, with
maps, in 1833. He is believed to be the only man in America who has seen the
Mississippi from its source in Itasca Lake to its mouth in the Gulf of Mexico.
In 1839, he published his collection of oral legends from the Indian wigwams,
under the general cognomen of Algic Researches. In these volumes is revealed
an amount of the Indian idiosyncrasies, of what may be called their
philosophy and mode of reasoning on life, death, and immortality, and their
singular modes of reasoning and action, which makes this work one of the
most unique and original contributions to American literature. His love of
investigation has always been a characteristic trait.
The writer of this sketch, who is thoroughly acquainted with Mr. Schoolcraft’s
character, habits, and feelings, has long regarded him the complete
embodiment of industry and temperance in all things. He rises early and
retires early, eats moderately of simple food, never uses a drop of stimulant,
and does not even smoke a cigar. In temperament he is among the happiest of
human beings, always looks at the bright side of circumstances--loves to hear
of the prosperity of his neighbors, and hopes for favorable turns of character,
even in the most depraved. The exaltation of his intellectual pursuits, and his
sincere piety, have enabled him to rise above all the petty disquietudes of
everyday life, and he seems utterly incapable of envy or detraction, or the
indulgence of any ignoble or unmanly passions. Indeed, one of his most
intimate friends remarked “that he was the beau-ideal of dignified manliness
and truthfulness of character.” His manners possess all that unostentatious
frankness, and self-possessed urbanity and quietude, that is indicative of
refined feelings. That such a shining mark has not escaped envy, detraction,
and persecution, will surprise no one who is well acquainted with the
materials of which human nature is composed. “Envy is the toll that is always
paid to greatness.”
Mr. Schoolcraft has had enemies, bitter unrelenting enemies, from the wiles of
whom he has lost several fortunes, but they have not succeeded, in spite of all
their efforts, in depriving him of an honored name, that will live as the friend
of the red man and an aboriginal historian, for countless ages.
Some twenty years ago he became a professor of religion, and the ennobling
influences of Bible truth have mellowed, and devoted to the most unselfish and
exalted aims his natural determination and enthusiasm of character. God has
promised to his people “that their righteousness shall shine as the light, and
their just dealing as the noonday.” Protected in such an impregnable tower of
defence from the strife to tongues, Mr. Schoolcraft has been enabled freely to
forgive, and even befriend, those narrow-minded calumniators who have
217
aimed so many poisoned arrows at his fame, his character, and his success in
life. These are they who hate all excellence that they themselves can never
hope to reach.
Mr. Schoolcraft’s persevering industry is so indomitable, that he has been
known to write from sun to sun almost every day for many consecutive years,
taking no recreating, and yet these sedentary habits of untiring application
being regulated by system, have not impaired the digestive functions of his
usually robust health. One of his family remarks, “that she believed that if his
meals were weighed every day in the year they would average the same
amount every twenty-four hours.” He has, however, been partly lame for the
last two years, from the effects, it is thought, of early exposure in his
explorations in the west, where he used frequently to lie down in the swamps
to sleep, with no pillow save clumps of bog, and no covering but a traveling
Indian blanket, which sometimes when he awoke was cased in snow. This
local impediment, however, being entirely without neuralgic or rheumatic
symptoms, has had no effect whatever upon his mental activity, as every
moment of his time is still consecrated to literary pursuits.
In 1841 he removed his residence from Michilimackinack to the city of New
York, where he was instrumental, with Mr. John R. Bartlett, Mr. H. C.
Murphy, Mr. Folsom and other ethnologists, in forming the American
Ethnological Society--which, under the auspices of the late Mr. Albert
Gallatin, has produced efficient labors. In 1842 he visited England and the
Continent. He attended the twelfth meeting of the British Association for the
Advancement of Science at Manchester. He then visited France, Germany,
Prussia, Belgium, and Holland. On returning to New York he took an active
interest in the deliberations of the New York Historical Society, made an
antiquarian tour to Western Virginia, Ohio, and the Canadas, and published
in numbers the first volume of an Indian miscellany under the title of “Oneota,
or the Indian in his Wigwam.”
In 1845 the Legislature of New York authorized him to take a census, and
collect the statistics of the Iroquois, or Six Nations, which were published,
together with materials illustrating their history and character, in a volume
entitled, Notes on the Iroquios.
This work was highly approved by the Legislature, and copies eagerly sought
by persons taking an interest in the fortunes of this celebrated tribe. Contrary
to expectation, their numbers were found to be considerable, and their
advance in agriculture and civilization of a highly encouraging character;
and the State has since made liberal appropriations for their education.
In 1846 he brought the subject of the American aborigines to the notice of the
members of Congress, expressing the opinion, and enforcing it by facts drawn
from many years’ experience and residence on the frontiers, that it was
misunderstood, that the authentic published materials from which the Indians
were to be judged were fragmentary and scanty, and that the public policy
respecting them, and the mode of applying their funds, and dealing with them,
was in many things false and unjust. These new views produced conviction in

218
enlightened minds, and, during the following session, in the winter of 1847, an
appropriation was made, authorizing the Secretary of War to collect the
statistics of all the tribes within the Union; together with materials to
illustrate their history, condition, and prospects. Mr. Schoolcraft was selected
by the government to conduct the inquiry, in connection with the Indian
Bureau. And he immediately prepared and issued blank forms, calling on the
officers of the department for the necessary statistical facts. At the same time
a comprehensive system of interrogatories was distributed, intended to bring
out the true state and condition of the Indian tribes from gentlemen of
experience, in all parts of the Union.
These interrogatories are founded on a series of some thirty years personal
observations on Indian society and manners, which were made while living in
their midst on the frontiers, and on the data preserved in his well-filled
portfolios and journals; and the comprehensive character of the queries,
consequently, evince a complete mastery of his subject, such as no one could
have been at all prepared to furnish, who had had less full and favorable
advantages. In these queries he views the Indian race, not only as tribes
having every claim on our sympathy and humanity, but as one of the races of
the human family, scattered by an inscrutable Providence, whose origin and
destiny is one of the most interesting problems of American history,
philosophy, and Christianity.
The first part of this work, in an elaborate quarto volume, was published in
the autumn of 1850, with illustration from the pencil of Capt. Eastman, a
gentleman of the army of the United States, and has been received by
Congress and the diurnal and periodical press with decided approbation. It is
a work which is national in its conception and manner of execution; and, if
carried out according to the plan exhibited, will do ample justice, at once to
the Indian tribes, their history, condition, and destiny, and to the character of
the government as connected with them. We have been reproached by foreign
pens for our treatment of these tribes, and our policy, motives, and justice
impugned. If we are not mistaken, the materials here collected will show how
gratuitous such imputations have been. It is believed that no stock of the
aborigines found by civilized nations on the globe, have received the same
amount of considerate and benevolent and humane treatment as denoted by its
laws, its treaties, and general administration of Indian affairs, from the
establishment of the Constitution, and this too, in the face of the most hostile,
wrongheaded, and capricious conduct on their part, that ever signalized the
history of a barbarous people.
In January, 1847, he married Miss Mary Howard, of Beaufort District, South
Carolina, a lady of majestic stature hugh toned moral sentiment, dignified
polished manners, gifted conversational powers and literary tastes. This
marriage has proved a peculiarly fortunate and happy one, as they both
highly appreciate and respect each other, and she warmly sympathizes in his
literary plans. She also relieves him of all domestic care by her judicious
management of his household affairs. Most of her time, however, is spent with
him in his study, where she revises and copies his writing for the press. She is

219
the descendant of a family who emigrated to South Carolina from England, in
the reign of George the Second, from whom they received a large grant of
land, situated near the Broad River. Upon this original grant the family have
from generation to generation continued to reside. It is now a flourishing
cotton and rice growing plantation, and is at present owned by her brother,
Gen. John Howard. Her sister married a a grandnephew of Gen. William
Moultrie, who was so distinguished in the revolutionary war, ands her brother
a granddaughter of Judge Thomas Heyward, who was a ripe scholar and one
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Although one of her
brothers was in the battle of San Jacinto, she is herself the first permanent
emigrant of her family from South Carolina to the North, having accompanied
her husband to Washington, D. C., where he has ever since been engaged in
conducting the national work on the history of the Indians. To this work, of
which the second part is now in the press, every power of his extensive
observation and ripe experience is devoted, and with results which justify the
highest anticipations which have been formed of it. Meantime it is understood
that the present memoirs is the first volume of a revised series of his complete
works, including his travels, reviews, papers on natural history, Indian tales,
and miscellanies.
To this rapid sketch of a man rising to distinction without the aids of
hereditary patrimony, wealth, or early-friends, it requires little to be added to
show the value of self-dependence. Such examples must encourage all whose
ambitions are sustained by assiduity, temperance, self-reliance, and a
consistent perseverance in well weighed ends.

220
Appendix B: A Sketch of the Life
of Col. Lauren Schoolcraft
by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft
The following transcription is reproduced with the permission of Greg Parkes.

This sketch, dated Washington, April 21, 1856, is to be found in the Henry Rowe Schoolcraft
papers now in the Library of Congress, container 63. The papers have been microfilmed, and
are widely available via inter- library loan. The original consists of 49 manuscript pages plus
the printed obituary referred to on the final page. Henry began to suffer a series of strokes in
1849. By 1856, his handwriting had seriously declined from that of his youth. Henry seems
to have penned this over several days, as the hand writing, rarely good, tends to deteriorate
from fatigue and then rebound. It also tends to be worse when he was writing in rapid
excitement. Unfortunately he tended to become excited at the most genealogically interesting
parts. In a letter to John Johnston, his father-in-law, (1828), HRS stated that he is repeating
family lore repeated at innumerable fireside conversations. Some of it has been shown
contain error, as family stories seem always to accrete. I have footnoted those my research
has shown to conflict with historical fact. Many others may well be accurate, but some
caution and further research is advised.

HRS appears to have returned to the Sketch at least twice. While little is crossed out, much
was added by affixing a flysheet containing the new text over the old, with no indication that
he wished to delete the underlying text. This is a draft document. Spelling and punctuation,
and syntax have been preserved as well as possible, including far too many commas and too
few periods. I expect he would have corrected many of the mechanical errors if it were to be
published.

The boldface brackets contain pointers to sheets in the original. The text begins on sheet two,
the first being the title page. I generally did not try to guess at words difficult to make out,
unless the meaning seemed clear from context. In these cases, the word is followed by a
question mark and enclosed in parentheses. If it was not clear, (illegible) has been inserted.
At three places in the text, HRS left an intentional blank space, obviously planning to return
and add a specific number or name, but did not do so. These are indicated by an underscored
blank space.

A footnote preceded by an asterisk is Henry’s. One preceded by a number is my own attempt


to clarify the text. As usual, any errors are all mine. I must add my special thanks to David
Ellis for his assistance in decoding Henry’s handwriting.

Greg Parkes
East Aurora NY
July 2009
221
[Cover]
A Sketch of the Life of Col. Lauren Schoolcraft
[2][Flysheet] History has its minor, as well as greater heroes and the former
often occupy positions of usefulness & trust without which the latter would
sometimes be shorn of no little trust, place and effectiveness. He who throttles
a traitor & he who prosecutes a confession are alike benefactors of them and
it is certain that without men of the former class, the American Revolution
would have produced a failure.
[Continuation of sheet 2] The writer has often thought it his duty to put on
record some memoranda of the life of a man who was one of the earliest
actors in the stirring times of 1776, one who reputably occupied positions of
interest & peril, military and civic, throughout the entire period of the vital
conflict for American liberty. Laurence Schoolcraft was a man of genial
manners & great amenity of character, a fluent talker, possessing a retentive
memory, and retained, throughout life, the youthful patriotic principle,
strongly at the bottom of all his reminiscences of revolutionary scenes &
sacrifices. The fireside recital of these scenes was often double in intensity of
interest by the perils of night & day, which were thrown around the feeble and
scattered settlements of the frontiers of Albany county by lurking masses of
Indians & still more remorseless & [3] hateful tories, who not only the guides
of these deluded savages to the dwellings of the Whigs, but often with painted
faces, & a disguised dress, committed some of the most cruel shocking
murders themselves. Of the two duties to fight the British & fight the tories the
latter was decidedly the most meritous task.
The era is one, which has already lost much of its interest, in vague
generalities, and in the absorbing themes of our rapidly advancing national
growth & prosperity, and it would be well that all that is bitter of the
revolutionary times should be forgotten and forgiven. [Insertion mark for
flysheet] When the Revolution broke out the words Mississippi & Rocky
Mountains, California & Oregon were seldom or never pronounced in the
state of New York. [Continuation of sheet 3] Nor is it proposed to recall any
of these bitter transactions in these present memoranda; albeit, the border
warfare of the frontiers of Albany and Tryon counties, will long remain an
attraction for the pen of fiction & fancy, basing its creations on history. It is
trusted that the American Republic will long outlive the institutions of Greece
& Rome in duration & far surpass them in wisdom & power; but long as it
may endure, it will, probably, never have [4] so hard an ordeal to pass
through as the seven years intervening between 1776 and 1783, nor is it likely
ever again to produce more self sacrificing, high-minded & noble patriots,
definite and well defined views of human liberty, based on the revealed word
of God.
The details of the revolutionary character, in which he was an actor, would
doubtless have justified a full memorial, if undertaken in his life time, and
even now, after a lapse of sixteen years, could be made to assume a breath &
comprehensiveness, which could not but possess interest. But this expansion

222
of design, if it were the object, cannot now be given, for the requisite leisure
for it, cannot be adopted, and the only purpose of this paper is to pay a tribute
to one of the minor actors of the revolution, who, if he did occupy a broad
field of [5] power, was always useful, fearless, independent, ardent, cool &
brave, in the field he actively pursued, & always fulfilled, in these situations,
the best expectations of his copatriots. And so far as details here given, either
of his genealogy or of his own acts, they will be, exclusively drawn from his
fireside reminiscences & narratives.
In the Battle of Blenheim in 1704, under the Duke of Marlborough, James
Calcraft1 held the appointment of conductor of artillery. He was the stated
gunner of a company of British matrosses2. These posts he had held during
that distinguished commander’s splendid military career, on the continent, in
the prior campaigns of 1702 and 1703, and he continued to serve in the
British army, in the subsequent campaigns of 1706 &’7, and until 1709 or ‘10,
having been present at the siege of Liege, Masstricht, Ghent, Bruges, & other
conflicts. In these battles & sieges, no scratch came nigh him but the loss [6]
of an eye, which happened from the flash of the priming of a cannon, but from
which he eventually suffered no disfiguration. In this brilliant series of battles
and triumphs, under Marlborough, which all England & all Europe praised,
he thought, with excusable pride, that no little share of the honor redounded
to himself, for the artillery system was then, a leading arm, and the science of
gunnery, yet in its infancy. And he had the gratification to know that he was a
favorite with his commanders. He rejoiced in the glories of the reign of Queen
Ann, who appears to have enjoyed unlimited popularity in England. He was a
man of a robust form & constitution, of unimpaired health & great personal
activity, of which there are traditions of the weights & fatigues he could bear,
after he came to America, and was almost a hundred years old. It was the
tradition of the family, in England, that James ancestors had come over with
William the Conqueror.
The treaty of Utrecht of 1713, put an end to the continental wars, but, as
between Great Britain & France treaties always left a state of perpetual
watchfulness and danger, between the British [7] colonies & New France,
particularly on the wide frontier between New York & the Canadas. A
detachment of veteran troops was sent to America, in the interval, in which he
came agreeably to his own emphatic boasts “in a squadron of three ships of
Queen Ann.” He landed at New York, proceeding to Albany, which was then
the British headquarters. The tradition states that he left the service with two
companions named Yates & Glen. He chose the business of land surveyor, for
which the period afforded abundant employment. In this capacity, he visited
the new settlements along the Susquehanna, and finally located himself on the
waters of Schoharie creek. This settlement dates about 1712, and was the
result of a promise or alleged promise of Queen Anne, to certain Palatines
from Wittemburg in Saxony, who landed at London, on their way to America,
temporarily abiding on Livingston’s manor, on the Hudson in Dutchess
county. Respecting this promise, fierce land disputes soon arose, other
persons claiming the concession, which led to [8] unhappy disputes of title.

223
Some persons resisted the new claimants vie et armes, some repurchased the
title, & some went into the valley of the Susquehanna & obtained titles from
the executive successor of William Penn and settled in Pennsylvania. Of these,
the most important was Conrad Weiser Esqr., arising from the position he
held under Sir William Johnson as Chief Interpreter of his general
superintendency of Indian affairs in America, & from the great personal
influence that gentleman exercised, so many years, over the Iroquois, & other
tribes.
James Calcraft married the only daughter and only child of Christian
Camerer3, by whom he had a numerous family. In later years, he opened an
English school in that settlement, being the first of the kind in that frontier
portion of Albany county, and it is from this circumstance that the
orthography of the name derives its change. One of his sons migrated to the
Loyalhanna, in Clark county, Virginia where his posterity suffered severely
from the bloody invasions of the Shawnee Indians between 1770-1779 no less
than fourteen [9] being killed or captured. Another son went to the New York
grants in Otter creek, where the Green Mountain Boys finally expelled him
into Canada. His daughter Margaret was brought up in the family of Gen.
Bradstreet4, Albany where she married Col Green Brush of the British army.
His third son, John, removed into the township of Watervliet below the range
of the Helderberg, settling in the valley of the Tawasentha, or Norman’s Kill.
Being an architect and millwright, he created the extensive mills of Gen. Ten
Breock5 at the great falls of that stream at a spot which has been more
recently known as French Mills or Guilderland center. Noted as a man of
purpose, energy, strength, he was frequently a volunteer in the wars of the
colonial outbreaks, against the Indians, who harried across their frontiers
under the cruel influence of French counsels from the Gov. Gen. of New
France, who so long & so unsuccessfully pursued the policy of planting a
French colony in western New York. His loyalty was ever ready for this
service. He [10] was one of the army who made a winter expedition to
surprize Oswego6 on which occasion he saved his feet from the frost by
pouring his rum ration into his shoes. The children of John, were Lawrence,
John & Anne.
Lawrence was born February 3rd 1757. He was a young man of seventeen
when the American Revolution broke out. He was, exactly, six feet high,
slender, active, robust, enthusiastic. The loyalty of the Calcrafts for the British
crown, by a natural transition became loyalty in the Schoolcrafts in the west
frontier for the American cause. From listening to the conversations of well
informed men; from reading the few political tracts which reached the
interior, and from observation about him, his mind was early prepared for the
cause. In 1776 or 76 (sic), when the Committees of Safety were first appointed
to take the anomalous power of local government, executive and juridical, a
drummer and fifer, took their places, at the head of a street, several miles
long. They were followed by the three Committee men, on horseback, who
preceded forward, followed by an escort of patriots or “liberty boys” as they
were frequently called. At every farm house, at every shop and mill, a halt was

224
called & the [11] sentiments of the owner, or occupant was canvassed. If he
was a whig, he was left at home, if a tory, he was ordered to fall in, at a
certain rank. In this way the whole settlement was canvassed, & it was
positively known, who was for, & who against (sic), the revolution. Where
there was a doubt, of an individual, all eyes were fixed to watch, and from that
moment, the cause of liberty became the subject of eternal vigilance. These
just three causes of watchfulness, the open enemy, the Indian & tory, and of
these three the actual cause of apprehension & distrust, & hatred, were in the
order & intensity in which they are named. To meet the open foe was
honorable, to kill an Indian, no harm, and to kill a tory a praiseworthy act. If
every man had been paid he could not have watched closer, but everyone
appeared to watch the public interest & property as he expected no reward
but the honor of serving the cause of liberty & putting down tyrants!
[Insertion mark for flysheet] Nothing could be done on the borders of the
counties of Albany or Tryon, with either Indians or tories without petting
down Sir John Johnson7. Firmly seated as he was, in the valley of the Lower
Mohawk & extending his influence south west & north over the whole
colonies, the revolution hung crippled, at this point.
In January 1776, a large volunteer force under Gen Schuyer8, marched
against Sir John Johnson at the baronial Hall at Johnstown, where the
intriguing Knight was capitulated on terms (illegible) agreed with the
(illegible) General, delivered up the army of state militia (illegible) (illegible)
& put on his parole, which he soon broke, & and accompanied by his tory
followers, fled to Canada. All the elements of revolution were now hot, and
boiled over. Captures, murders, massacres, imprisonments, were in vogue,
week after week & day after day. The love of liberty was often the price of
death.
[Continuation of sheet 11] The popular voice elected him lieutenant &
adjutant of the 5th regiment [12] of New York State troops. He was also
deputed to serve civil process against suspected persons, who were brought
before the Committee of Safety. This was not an easy duty. A man had his life
in his hands, & requested no little candor, & no less decision of character.
Where every other house was a tory’s, every intervening piece of wood was an
ambuscade. A common mode of active young loyalists, was to flee to Canada,
& return, by stealth with a military commission in their pockets, & then
commence secretly, to recruit men. He traced out one of these men named
Schell9, who returned from Canada, with a lieutenant’s commission from the
Crown authorities. It was a case, which he deemed to require reference to the
executive at Albany. The distance was 16 miles, through dangerous defiles.
Putting spurs to his horse, he performed the journey by daylight. Gov George
Clinton was at the head of affairs. Having produced the proof & obtained
means & authority, the retreat of Schell was suddenly [13] surrounded and he
was carried a prisoner to Albany where he was brought before the Committee
of Safety. The case was stated the first day, it was adjourned for the defense &
further proceeding the second & the man was hanged9 the third.

225
The plan of attacking Quebec, at an early day, before troops could be sent
across the Atlantic to reinforce it, was one of the best & boldest conceptions
of the Revolution, and it was entrusted to the man of all others best fitted to
carry it out. Montgomery had already taken Montreal, & was on his way to
attack the rock fortress, when a reinforcement marched to his relief. This
expedition he joined, with alacrity, being his first military campaign since the
short one of the capture of Sir John Johnson at Johnson Hall, which he had
engaged in. And his anticipations & enthusiasm were at its height, (illegible)
he set out on an expedition, which, if successful, was to give the mastery, if it
did not terminate the great struggle. At Ticonderoga, the troops were formed
into hollow square, to hear the declaration of independence read. This had
been sent on by [14] express to overtake the troops. It expressed, he said, the
universal sentiment. Every body believed the recital of grievances and the
remedy. Nobody doubted that liberty was only to be won by a bold heart & a
strong arm. We had, said he, his black eye glistening with (martial?), “we had
long declared independence in our hearts: The troops and the people were,
indeed, far in advance of their leaders, at all times. To fight, said he, was the
universal sentiment, & it had been fixed, in the hearts of the people, as the
(alone?) remedy, from the news of Lexington.” In passing through Lake
George in boats, the beauty of the scenery made a strong impression on him,
& he often, in after life referred to it, & the little (illegible) of the (illegible) &
little excursions as the most surpassing of any he had ever conceived. The
events of the arrival of the army at Isle aux Noix, St John’s & were definitely
impressed on his mind, as so many (illegible) of the march. But the brave
Montgomery had fallen before the reinforcements reached, and with that fall,
began a series of retrograde movements.
The arrival of Burgoyne at [15] Quebec, with a large & well appointed army
to take the field, with the view of cutting the northern from the middle and
southern states, by striking (the?) Hudson at Albany, had every thing in
jeopardy, the next year. The contest was indeed to be won by bold hearts.
Early in the spring he again joined the regular forces, with his younger
brother John, yet scarce old enough to shoulder a musket. And while the latter
moved to the plain of Saratoga to join Schuyler he proceed(ed) to Fort
Stanwix at the head of the Mohawk.
In 1777 the cause looked black. Washington had evacuated New York & been
driven across the Jersies (sic). Burgoyne was marching on Albany with ten
thousand prime troops, Col St Leger, with Brant & his Iroquois, had left
Oswego, to drive Col. Gansevoort from Ft Stanwix, & sweep down the
Mohawk. To lead a small reinforcement to that place was a task of hazard,
which he undertook & successfully accomplished, eluding Indian & tory. He
had not been many days in that fort which was rechristened Schuyler, but
always popularly retained the name of Stanwix, when the British column were
discerned advancing from wood creek, with a bright array of soldiers,
arrayed in (illegible) & heard the notes of military music, while their flanks
were (illegible) with the infuriated Mohawks, [16] The throng, of yelling
Senecas, & the whole military strength of the Cayugas & Onandagas, with a

226
few Tuscaroras. Veterans might have quited. In strength they were far out
numbered. But the (illegible) soldiery looked on, undismayed, they saw the
guns planted in batteries, they felt that a real struggle was at hand, & they
knew that if conquered in the siege, the tomahawk and the scalping knife
would end the scene. Patriotism outnumbered means and discipline. Courage
& the good cause made up for men and cannon. For twenty one days, the
constant of the sentries on the wall were shot or shell. I have described some
of his reminiscences of this siege in another place.∗
It was a fortunate circumstance in this siege that St Ledger’s (sic) guns were
too light for battering trains. The patriotic inhabitants of the Mohawk valley,
under the brave Gen Herkimer, marched to the relief the post but were
waylaid & defeated at Oriskany. [17] It could be seen, from the ramparts, that
many the Indian forces had, had been drawn from the surrounding woods, to
engage in this ambuscade. Sir John’s camp, also shewed the withdrawal of
some troops, particularly the Royal Greens, a tory corps, who were handled
very roughly, that day, by Herkimer’s men. It was decided to make a sortie, in
this state of things, on Sir John’s camp. This event he graphically described.
When the men were paraded in the fort, the question of volunteering for the
sortie was stated by Col Willet10, who announced himself as their leader.
Eager for the conflict, my father was one of the first to advance. A force of
______ men was soon mustered, who issued in high spirits through the sally
port. They advanced instantly to the camp of Sir John, on the banks of the
Mohawk. It was warm weather. The knight was lying down in his dressing
gown. So quiet was the movement that he escaped, if by minutes, but all his
papers & camp items, arms etc. were taken, he flew, on foot, through the
Mohawk. Numbers of [18] his men were killed in the river, the plunder of the
camps was immense, & twenty one loads were drawn in to the fort by the
quarter master teams. The Indian camps were then attacked, and (illegible)
their thinned ranks sent howling into the forest -for they were in no plight to
make a stand. That day Herkimer was defeated at Oriskany, eight miles
distant, and that horrible night was the last, it is believed, in which prisoners
were roasted at the stake. The Senecas, who were the most numerous, had
suffered the severest in the fight and claimed, as stated by the war chief
Blacksnake11, the largest share of prisoners to torture. Joseph Brant12, exerted
his ultimate bravery& decision, and it was to him, & not his allies that the
enemy owed the triumph, - if that may be called a triumph, where the victor
looses about the same number as the vanquished, & the latter keep the
ground. Herkimer, after being shot through a leg, which brought him to the
ground, was placed by his (illegible) on his saddle, where he sat, & lighted &
smoked his pipe during the hottest of the conflict.
The cry of “shot” & “shell”, still continued by [19] the sentries on walls of
fort Stanwix. To lay down a few moments, at the cry of the latter, was an art
which everyone was expert in. A few days after at night fall, (sic) the battle of
Oriskany, a tory half breed Mohawk, called Hon Yost Schuyler, came, in a

∗ Considerations on the Siege of Fort Stanwix, NY Hist. Soc. [1842]

227
furtive manner, into the camp of Sir John. “Fly said he to the chief, a
detachment of the army at Saratoga, with cannon, are on their way. They are
already at fort Dayton (now Herkimer) and will be upon you tomorrow, See,
pointing to his doublet which he with the temper of a Falstaff, had riddled,
with bullets, I have myself narrowly escaped!” Next morning early the British
camp was seen to be such commotion. They abandoned the guns in their
breastworks - much of camp equipment, & were in full retreat for Wood creek,
where they ambushed, & accused each other, on the way, from the Indians
being particularly severe on their confidants who had promised them an easy
victory & much plunder.
In that war the first gleam of triumph, in a land atmosphere & was followed in
about a month, by the brilliant victory of Saratoga. [20] and the year closed
with the most important of all, the triumph of Washington at Trenton.
In returning home from the siege of fort Stanwix, he had, a little preceded his
brother John from Saratoga. By a chance it happened, that the latter had left
Schenectady on his way, shortly after a whig detachment had marched, in the
same direction, to break up a rendezvous of tories at Langrange’s13 on the
Norman’s kill. Finding the gang assembled, they fired once & killed one or
more. Soon after his brother, came on, by the same road. No persuasion could
convince the surviving tories, that the soldier had not been dispatched by his
service, & they took him prisoner, marched him around, determined that he
should pay life for life. On coming to a fork in the road he made a
demonstration which (illegible) him the hands with a charged piece, & to use
his expression “the devil dancing in his eyes” and rejoin his brother
Lawrence in safety14.
It seems have been hard for Mohawk tribe who fled with Sir John Johnson
from their lower Mohawk valley, & to Sir John himself, who there had indeed
left by far the richest territorial possessions, [21] of any (illegible) the
(illegible) in America - either to give up that valley, or to be satisfied with
forays, & expeditions, open or secret, against it. In 1780, a new, and as it
proved a final inroad was planed, and (in 1781 final Expedition?) Sir John
commanded seconded by Brant & the Seneca half breed chief Cornplanter15.
The motley force of regulars, tories & Indians entered the Schoharie valley by
night from a branch of the Susquehanna, and had preceded as far as the
middle fort, before they were discovered. But a small regular force was in the
fort, & that commanded by an imbecile, who had no heart to fight, but the
local militia & citizens, who opposed its surrender, notwithstanding these
were the better half a regiment of elite troops before with the enraged
Mohawks & Senecas yet smarting from their losses at Oriskany before them.
Thrice was a flag of truce at intervals fired on by the good rifleman Murphy16,
contrary to the order of the regular officer, but in accordance with the warm
support of the patriotic militia, who distrusted Sir John & his promises at a
capitulation, as much as they did the mercy of howling Mohawks. Among
those who sustained the policy of not receiving of a flag of truce & who
preferred dying with arms in their hands was the subject of these
reminiscences.

228
[22] It was a desperate state of things, and it required a desperate effort. It
was late in fall17, the harvests were gathered in, & the people had not
expected an invasion. They were unprepared, had not much ammunition or
warlike stores. The commander had but few men & no pluck, and had the
garrison capitulated every man woman & child stood the chance of having
been murdered between the fury of the Indians and tories. The result of this
act of defiance was, that the enemy, after besieging the fort nearly all day,
marched off to the lower fort, & finally to fort Hunter in the Mohawk valley.
During the siege, an iron gun, which (illegible) at one of the bastions, was
presented by him & his brother John, _____, at an assailable turn of the road,
where, from local knowledge, they knew the regular column must wheel &
they had the satisfaction afterwards, to know, that their gunnery was effect.
Hordes of Indians, were constantly engaged in burning houses, barns, &
haystacks, & made the air (illegible) with their yells. The destruction of
property was immense, & the whole valley was filled with flames & smoke.
Cattle were killed or driven off, by the enemies, & horses stolen. While this
scene of pillage was going on, a party of forty [23] to protect certain points,
on repress assaults. My father, who was of this number, be thought him of a
fine horse, in a neighboring pasture, & went out to see that he was taken. On
entering the field, he saw the animal coming towards, mounted by an Indian
chief, in full dress, crouching behind a clump of bushes, he waited his
opportunity & firing at the right moment, the rider dropped, & his horse came
up without a burden, whom he quickly mounted & rode back to the fort. This
turned out the last visit of Sir John, & his & his myrmydons of Indians &
tories. [Insertion mark for flysheet] The black cloud of war rolled off,
southwardly, after the defeat of Burgoyne & St Ledger [Continuation of sheet
23] and the settlement began breath from five or six years of intense watching,
alarms & suffering.
His father John, had removed to the banks of the Tawasentha, or Norman’s
kill in the township of Watervliet18, on the manor of Rensselaerwyck. To this
place, Lawrence also removed, and purchased a farm on one of (the?)
afluents of that stream, where he successfully cultivated a farm.
[24] As the revolutionary conflict died away, or passed off from the north to
the south, he entered fully into civil, industrial & social plans of a section of
country which had been desolated by a long triple war with Indians and tories
& Britons who did not appear to know whether to treat prisoners of war with
the full severity of culprits, or as only misguided rebels who resisted the
crown. Agriculture had been more or less neglected. There were no bridges
over many of the considerable streams, no well made roads or turnpikes, no
schoolhouses, or buildings of public, and the civil affairs were in a
disorganized condition. The skeleton system of the militia which had so often
furnished minute men & volunteers, exhibited features which called for
improvement & better organization. A prompt disciplinarian, & drill & field
officer, he soon, after the conflict, succeeded Stephen Van Rensselaer19, in the
command of the militia of Watervliet & Bethlehem and Guilderland, and for
many years shared the duties of the county magistracy. In 1781, he married

229
Miss Margaret Anna Barbara Rowe, a native of Fishkill, Dutchess county,
N.Y. by whom he [25] had a family of thirteen children.
The idea of assuming that feature of independent nationality, results from the
establishment of domestic manufactures, appears to have sprung up, in the
minds of capitalists, early after the close of the Revolution. So early as 1788,
a Mr DeNeufville20 and other emigrant freemen at Albany, associated for the
purpose erecting a manufactury of glass in the vicinity of that city, stating the
import of that article into the state at $30,000. A site a few miles west of the
city was selected. Difficulties, in its successful establishment, were however
encountered. In January 1793 the legislature granted them a loan of $3000
for five years and the workmen, were, by a subsequent law, exempted from
taxation without interest to establish the works, and in December of that year
they were in full operation. In April of the same year the company were
dissolved, & a new one formed in the name of Jeremiah Van Rensselaer & his
associates. The obstacles to the successful prosecution of the business yet
continuing, in 1796 a new organization or enlargement of the company was
effected, and Major Frederick DeZeng succeeded to the management. At this
time, a plan was devised of uniting the previously [26] previous desultory
efforts, and a village was laid out at the site, which in allusion to the
Secretary of the Treasury, who had recommended domestic manufactures,
was named Hamilton. This village was pleasantly situated on picturesque
eminences bounding on the Hunger Kill, a tributary of the Tawansentha, or
Norman’s Kill, at the distance of eight miles west of the city - having a
sanitary tract of the Pine Plains of Rensselaerwyck on the east, and the
agricultural glade & uplands of the Helderberg, on the west.
At this place three large furnaces of two operative crucibles each, were finally
erected. The adjacent forests of pine on the public ranges of the manor of
Rensselaerwyck, of which the company, had the privilege of cutting, furnished
the finest fuel for this the furnace, for as yet, coal was not used for this
manufacture in America, nor its natural repositories, even known. It is a
geological feature in the formation of these broad and sandy plains, stretching
between Albany and Schenectady, that they develop a sub-formation of wet-
grounds or marshes - or a minute kind of pseudo-prairies, covered with tufts
& grass, which are based on a strata of clean, white sand, which readily
fusible with mineral alkali furnishing a material suitable the manufacture of
window glass.
[27] Public sentiment strongly enlisted in this enterprise, a new impulse given
to the industry of the country & the village rapidly became populous.
Hydraulic works rose along the winding margin of a pure, copious & never-
failing stream, which had its sources in the geological formations of the
county, at the precise point of deepest lime, where the arenaceous deluvions21
rested on the angillaceous bed of that county. Its tall chimmes & furnaces
poured their fumes into the skies, & the air of business & activity of every sort
formed an entirely new feature amid the sober & staid agricultural laborers of
the surrounding country. The trains of loaded wagons that passed through
this village, in the winter months, from the western grand distances, on their

230
way to the city, could be counted daily by the hundred, & the (general boss
often?) paused, in admiration to see the artizan whirling his glittering
splendor of glass, as he stood working before, the monster red eyed many
eyed furnace of roaring flames. It probably [28] never occurred, to the
ancestors of the yeoman, that in taking their leases from the lord of the
Manor, with a quit rent, they were laying the foundation of what their
descents might construe into a species of slavery - and of up sturdy body of
anti-renters.
To this new & rising village, he removed in the spring of 1796 or 7, the
distance being but four miles, down the rural glades & across the Tawasentha
valley which did not carry lime out of the limits of the civil or military
jurisdiction, which he occupied. He took the leading interest in the cause of
primary instruction, and partly by contribution from the artizens & partly at
his own expense erected a convenient & substantial frame building, well
lighted, for a town school which was used in place of a small (illegible)
tenement. His experience during the war, in the discipline & management of
men, pointed him out, as a suitable General Agent to direct the several
manufactures which existed, at this place: and after they became, wholly, the
interest of Lieut. Gov. Van Rensselaer, they were [29] under his management.
They were enlarged by him, & an additional factory erected at a lower point
in the valley. The hydraulic works, driving a set stampers & saw mills were
built, and a state of prosperity given to the works, which they had never before
risen to. The foreign artisans, who were chiefly drawn from Nassau, Hesse &
other states of Germany communicated to him the skill necessary to direct the
manipulations of this article, and knowledge of several languages was found
to be no little advantage in the management & control of a motley population.
Hamilton village became noted, as the site of the Albany works, not only
through the state, but to some extent, in other parts of the union. And it served
as a nucleus for other manufactures which were established by his clients, or
personal agency, in western New York & in Vermont & New Hampshire.
[Unnumbered] Addison county, Vermont, & in Chestire County22 New
Hampshire.
[Continuation of sheet 29] The article of window glass, being [30] one of the
first necessity, in new settlements, created a great demand for the
multiplication of works for its manufacture at sites nearer to the scenes of
consumption, & he received frequent applications for the establishment of
works, in various parts of the country. What had been said by DeNeufville in
1788, became daily more & more emphatically true. Large sums were
annually paid out for this article to the invigoraty (sic) of foreign nations and
the consequent enfeebling of our own. Much of the article, was imported, at
the period from England, and although her laws rigidly prohibited the
emigration of her artisans, there were yearly, accessions from the less rigidly
guarded ports of Hamburg, Bremin (sic) & the mouth of the Rhine.

[Insertion mark for four sheets marked I, II, III and IV] death of John [I]
While living near the falls of the Tawasentha, & afterwards at the village of

231
Hamilton, in Albany county, death had removed his daughter Kate, at 7 years
of age, & had made repeated (visits?) on the year of infamy, with drawing
from the family, uncle, three infant male children & one female Anna Maria,
who died in 1801 on her first birth day. In proportion as these had numbered
but few years in the subluminary scenes, & made but slight advance to
individuals of character, the shock of their loss was of temporary duration.
Nature has formed the heart for hopefulness, and gives it capacities of
bearing the trials of life. But in the year 1806, he was destined to a far worse,
heavier, & more lasting trial in the lamented death of his eldest son John.
John was twenty four. There had been nothing wanting physically or
intellectually, from his youth up, to render him all that is attractive. Of a
perfect form and bright intellect, his manners were gentle & pleasing, yet
calculated by a [II] degree of (illegible) mixed with manly decision to lead
others. He was early an excellent musician on the violin & flute. None
excelled him in feats of horsemanship or the (illegible) sports & trials of skill
of the times. A fine disciplinarian & parade officer, he led 15th armed levies
one of the finest company of uniformed volunteers. He was the leading
merchant of the place; yet his tastes were of a decided literary & scientific
turn. He was an expert manipulator in electricity. He formed a private literary
club, of but two∗ persons beside himself∗, who met to read and discuss, & kept
their archives under lock & key. To say this of the period is to notice a trait in
advance of the times. The (illegible) (illegible) of Mr Kingal & Dr Wolcott,
satirical verse of Peter Pinder23, constituted the recitals of gayer hours of this
trio. He had, himself, decided poetic (illegible) composing with the rapidity of
an improvatrice24 A tendency to diseases of the [III] lungs were early
apparent, which, was probably promoted by the fascinating scene of knights
(sic) fishing & spearing by twilight in the Tawasentha. No attention - no skill -
no medical science could assist this pulmonary habit. Christmas morning of
1806 opened on a bright sunny morning, although the snow laid in a white
carpet in the streets. The approaches of this disease are insidious, often
(illegible) there is a reality, the least hope. About ten o’clock he called to his
mother to bring him a candle. To everyone else, it was light in the room. But
such was his perfect composure on the advances of death, that he did not
forget, to test the phenomenon by experiment. It was scarcely perceptible
when his spirit fled. But there lay the formed hopes & expectations of a family
within the arms of death, with the placidity of features of childhood. And when
his coffin, surmounted by his cap and sword, was taken from the door,
preceded by the gayly (illegible) ranks and (illegible) arms his favorite
volunteers, with muffled drums, [IV] such a long cortege of citizen & troops,
had never before followed a coffin to its burial, in that town.

[Continuation of sheet 30] The probability of war with Great Britain, which
seemed more likely, after the attack in the Chesapeake, as it [31] would cut off
importation; gave an additional impetus to the manufacture. The war of 1812,

∗ this included the poet of the time J.V. Veeder esq

232
the occurrence (sic) of which, as years rolled by, appeared inevitable,
operated strongly on the minds of capitalists & merchants, in stimulating the
growth of domestic manufactures. Between the years 1808 & 1816, hundreds
of thousands of dollars, were invested in each of the northern & middle states,
in manufactures. Every year added to this tendency; minds indulged in the
anticipation of prosperity, which (illegible) was in the end, imaginary, and
when the (peace?) of the year 1814 came, it fell on many of this class like a
thunderclap, producing a depreciation of property & extensive ruin, from
which not all, perhaps, suffered, but many were stunned financially (illegible).
But this was a reversal more easily perceived by retrospection, than it could
have been foreseen by anticipation. Up to 1808, this branch of manufacture,
had the fullest [32] confidence of the community. The success of the Albany
works, had originated a kind of intoxication of the mind. The legislature was
literally besieged by applicants for incorporations on this subject. In the
meantime changes were in operation, which threatened the prosperity of the
Albany works, which had been the premier in this branch. The native
resources which have been referred to, as causes of prosperity to this works,
were of an exhaustive character. New deposits of the siliceous basis for this
article, were indeed, still produced by search the aranacious plains, but the
stock of wood, was becoming exhausted. Thousands of acres of pinus
resinosa25 had been cut down, converted into fuel, & hauled out the plains;
but the wastes produced by new glass, on the (illegible) of this (illegible) as a
pseudo desert and unless coal should be discovered & conveyed, it became
easy to predict the transfer of the business to other regions, more abundant in
forest. [33] About 1808, yielding to the urgent solicitations of persons of
persons of means & influence in Oneida county, he proceeded to that quarter,
& erected similar works, which were located in the town of Vernon. These
works erected under the auspices of capitalists of Utica, became, from being
(illegible) into operation, successful & remunerative invests of stock, and had
the effect to extend The effect of seeing the article produced, in this frontier,
amid dense forests, where the wild Indian war whoop, once so dreadful, had
scarcely ceased, was to stimulate the manufacturing impulse. Two of his sons
were now of an age to take part, in extending this art. Early in 1810 his son
Henry, accompanied Mr Alexander B Johnson, a capitalist of Utica, to the
county of Ontario, proceeding to the open shore of Lake Ontario to the
Onosodus, or Sodus Bay. But the works were, eventually, located at Geneva
on the banks of Seneca Lake. About 1811-12 he dispatched his son Peter to
(illegible) at Salisbury at the western foot of the Green mountains Vt, where
works were erected on the picturesque shores of Lake Dunmore, [34] in
Addison county. He went, himself, in 1813 to Keene in Chestire (sic) county
N.H. where a manufactury, was established on the bank of the Ashuelot river.
No person had ever occupied so wide a field of usefulness in the art, or who
acquired the reputation for his skill & management of this branch of
manufacture.
[Insertion mark for flysheet] In 1823 his son Peter, died at the age of 33, at
Perryopolis, on the Youghohany, west of the Alleghenies, where his enterprise

233
had carried him. A man of very active & robust habits, & great decision of
character, he exercised a marked influence in the circles in which he moved.
He had given his energies & skill his life through in the extension of the glass
making art in which his father had attached such prosperity having exercised
this art, successfully in New York, Vermont & Pennsylvania.
[Continuation of sheet 34] To submit to the distinctions of (illegible) was one
of the maxims of advancing age.
A life of constant exertion, from his boyhood, began to require repose,
although he still possessed activity & good health, maintained a firm & erect
walk, and never gave way to despondent views of the picture of life. About
1816, he returned to his homestead & farm at Vernon, where the family had
continued to be permanently located, on his final return from New England
(illegible) his second daughter Catherine, from the scene of her education, at
one of the most celebrated & efficient female schools, and she was united in
marriage to W. H. Shearman of Oneida county. Age did not press heavily on
him, as years advanced. Of a spare constitution, temperate habits, and settled
mind, seeking & continuing employment of a character, which (illegible) or
(illegible) (illegible) he viewed its (illegible) [35] scenes with complacency. A
feeling of profound gratification at the triumph of the revolutionary struggle,
has been observed to be one of the apparent causes of longevity, in its
survivors. (illegible) he certainly regarded, at all times & at the advancing
prosperity & power of the union which had been predicted to so speedy &
disastrous a failure by the loyalists of 1776. Neither fretful nor envious at the
prosperity of others; a professing Christian from early years, & having a firm
confidence & trust in the triumph of virtue & modesty in every affair, however
small, under the superintending moral (illegible) his life passed on the calm
dignity of hope.
[Insertion mark for flysheet] At the eve of the close of the war commenced in
1812, his son Henry R, went to Mississippi valley, the (illegible) of its
minerals & geography, and in 1825, on a return visit to the parents at Vernon,
took to this new scene of enterprize, his youngest son James, & his daughter
Anna Maria. Thinned of the faces & voices, which once surrounded the fire
side, he was now admonished that he was advancing into another generation,
& that the parental cares of life was drawing to a close. The desolation is the
solitude of heart.
[Continuation of sheet 35] In 1829, his daughter Miss Margaret Helen, died,
being in her twenty third year. This daughter was the only child left at the
homestead, with her parents, the other members of the family having, at
various periods gone off, & sought their fortunes in the great west, or other
parts of the country. This bereavement, which so much narrowed the family
circle, was followed, in a few years, by another & severer blow, which left it
completely desolate. In 1832 [36] he was called to a final separation from a
wife who had been the choice of his youth, the partner of his middle life, & the
stay of his old age. Fifty & one years, - dating back to the close of the
Revolution, had she been his prudent domestic guide & efficient counselor, in
the changing scenes of weal & woe of domestic (illegible) A Christian &
234
member of the church, from early life, of mildness, yet decision of character,
ever hopeful, yet submissive to divine dictates, a woman of domestic
assiduosity & neatness, & as moral pride & character of an elevating
influence, she was ever a friend when counsel was meet, & a support when
support was necessary. A strong taste for shrubs & flowers characterized the
precincts of the dormitory, which she (illegible) when her portrait was drawn
holding a (illegible) rose in one hand. It is the last blast of the tempest that
sweeps away & desolates, the (illegible) which had only bowed before it
before. This sacrifice he was called to make on the 16th February 1832, in her
seventy second year. She was buried [37] beside her daughter on the banks of
the Skenando at Vernon, where a monument is erected to her memory, with
the inscription-”Her children rise up & called her blessed” Prov. His eldest
daughter Catherine Ann, (Mrs Shearman) had died the year previously, and
his grandchildren living in the present, were now the only immediate objects
of his sympathies. For a time, he kept up the domestic hearth fire, with the aid
of hired assistants, but gave up this, & took board at a neighbors house in the
rural neighborhood. In 1837 he writes in his hymn book - “I thank God that I
have yet eye-sight, so that I can see a little in the Holy scriptures, Amen.”
While living in the upper waters of the Tawasentha, in Watervliet, about 1793,
he had accidently struck a sharp axe into one of his feet, nearly severing it, in
[38] two, but by daily the (sic) alcoholic refreshments, in keeping the wound
clean, it was completely restored, nor did any lameness, result from it. But
when the weakness of age, had whereof to complain, (the?) because a
valiturious nature appeared to fall back on the old injury. Whatever the cause
were, the foot assumed a dark appearance & developed a (illegible)
mortification. This appeared to be (illegible) The discoloration ascended the
leg, and after a few days, confinement, the disease became mortal. He died on
the 7th June 1840, [in] his 84th year. He was interned on the Skenando,
beside the remains of his wife & daughters, where a joint monument preserves
their memory.
In an obituary notice of the National Intelligencer (31 July 1840) his demise is
....
(Washington 21 April 1856)

Text of the obituary:

DIED
At Vernon; Oneida County, N.Y., on the 7th June, ult, in the 83d year of his
age, Colonel LAWRENCE SCHOOLCRAFT, a soldier of the Revolution.
The death of a soldier of the Revolution is every day becoming an event more
and more solemn and peculiar interest. The lapse of more than half a century
has left but few to tell the story of the birth of American Independence; and
the living evidences of the character and spirit of the men who achieved it are
fast passing away. The generation is now at hand to which history will bear
witness alone of their exalted patriotism and devotion to liberty. Protected
amid the dangers of battle and the storms of war; suffered to live, for the most

235
part, beyond the ordinary lot of mankind; to be witnesses of the triumphant
and increasing success of the principles for which they fought and bleed;
favored in the eminent usefulness of their lives; identified with the history of
all the civil, political, and religious rights which we enjoy; made the object of
reverence and respect by a whole nation, the people of which are indebted to
them for the privilege of free American citizenship and the Republican form of
Government; they have, in a most emphatic and peculiar manner, enjoyed the
blessing of heaven. And while the favor of a still further prolonged existence
we cannot ask for them, from the Author of our being, each inroad made by
the great conqueror upon the ranks of this fast diminishing band of patriots is,
and should be, a deep and fruitful source of mingled feeling and emotion.
The least we can do is to testify to our feelings of gratitude to them;
individually and collectively, to bear appropriate witness of our appreciation
of their lives and character, and to give renewed evidence that they are not
passing from off the stage if the world without our notice, and the tribute of
our hearts. To do this in a brief manner, is the object of this obituary.
To make distinctions is(in?) the personal character of the soldier’s of the
Revolution, is no part of the writer’s intention; but to say that in Colonel
Lawrence Schoolcraft, the Revolutionary army found one of its most fearless
champions, and that in him was personified, in an eminent degree, the
principles which inspired to liberty, is but due his memory. At an early age,
enlisting in the regular army as a private soldier, the record of his life finds
him a participator and actor in some of its most thrilling scenes.
Of a temperament ardent and active, of a mind vigorous and energetic, of a
spirit bold and daring, nay, even indomitable in its aspirations for freedom, he
became at once conspicuous among his brethren in arms, and a terror to his
country’s foes. He rendered active service under General Washington’s
movement on Canada, was at the siege of Fort Stanwix under General
Gansevoort, and volunteered in the sortie on the British under St Leger and
Johnson. After having served the period of his enlistment in the regular army,
he returned to his native county (Albany New York) and as an officer of the
militia remained in service during the remainder of the war. In his pursuit of
those most bitter and dangerous of his country’s enemies-the royalists and
tories-he was effective and tireless. “The Schoharie country,” to use the
words of another, “was at that time the scene of many bloody encounters
between the settlers and the tories and Indians, under Butler and Brand; but
for the vigilance of the local militia, the whole of that fertile country would
have been laid to waste, and the inhabitants butchered by the blood thirsty
savage.” Often has the writer of this listened with horror to the recital of
Indian atrocities committed on the inhabitants of that ill-fated district; and it
would seem, as the words fell from the lips of the aged hero, that he was
“fighting his battles o’er again.” On the subject of the Revolution, its causes
and effects, he was ever eloquent.
A single anecdote connected with the subject of this notice, serves to illustrate
the spirit of the times in ‘76.-When the declaration of Independence had been
made formally by Congress, the troops, by general order, were formed into a
236
hollow square to hear it read. This was at Ticonderoga, where Col.
Schoolcraft was then present. “To assemble,” said he, “for the purpose of
hearing read a formal Declaration of Independence, seemed to the troops to
be singular. We had all declared independence in our hearts long before, nor
did the formality of a declaration add strength to the motives which impelled
us.” The fact is worthy of being noted, as evidence that that glorious
instrument, penned by the immortal Jefferson, was not the creator, but the
offspring of the spirit which burned in the bosoms of the people, and which
impelled them onward in the cause of liberty, “conquering and to conquer.”
No man was more ardent in the cause, none looked forward with greater
hopes of its ultimate triumph and success, none cherished with deeper
devotion, or adhered with more fixedness of purpose, to the principles for
which the soldiers of the revolution contended than did Colonel Schoolcraft.
These principles governed and actuated him, not only in his military career,
but through his whole course of an active, civil and political life. His arm was
sworn to liberty; his heart was wedded to its principles, and from the dawn of
his public life to its close, he was ever the uncompromising foe to tyranny in
all its forms.
Besides his military services, the country, and especially New York, is
indebted to Col. S. for the proficiency he introduced into the art and
manufacture of glass. At an early day hr devoted himself to this important, but
then almost hidden branch of manufacture, and with his son, Henry R
Schoolcraft, esq., of Michigan, established several works In his native state,
and in New Hampshire and Vermont. For twenty five years he held the office
of Justice of the Peace in Oneida county, and during a residence of thirty two
years was honored, respected, and loved as a brave soldier, a useful citizen,
and an upright man. Trusting to the God of battles for the issue of his
country’s fate, he was prepared when his summons came, to trust to the same
source for his individual and final security. “I thank God that I have yet
eyesight, so I can read a little in the Holy Scriptures, Amen,” was the last
sentence he ever recorded. Sentiment well worthy a father of the Revolution!
He has finished his course; and his grave adds another hallowed spot to the
soil of this land of freedom. Few of his compatriots have outlived him; but the
memories of none will be forgotten. Future, unborn generations, not so
fortunate as we in being permitted to receive as a parting legacy, the paternal
blessing of our revolutionary sires, will consecrate the places of their repose-
They have not-cannot be forgotten by their posterity.
“For they have
left a tree to bud
And blossom, where their dust is laid;
“Tis freedom, bought with freeman’s blood,
And worthy of the price they paid.
“A voice calls to
us from the grave;
A voice is sounding on the air;
Keep ye the boon your father’s grave
237
And be the men your fathers were.”
F.W.S

1
James was born in 1688 in Caton, Lancastershire. While he could have been at Blenheim, it is doubtful he could have
held an important position at this young age.
2
Formerly, in the British service, a gunner or a gunner's mate; one of the soldiers in a train of artillery, who assisted the
gunners in loading, firing, and sponging the guns.
3
Actually Johan Willhelm Kammer, 1679-1749. Anna was not the only child, but may have been the only to survive
childhood.
4 HRS errs on this point. John Bradstreet did not arrive in Albany until the spring of 1755 when Margaret would have

been in her early twenties. There seems to have been a yet undiscovered relationship with him, however. She married
Crean Brush, (c. 1725-1778)
5 Abraham Ten Broeck (1734-1810) general and Mayor of Albany, operated a knitting mill in Hamilton by 1785.
6
February, 1783. The expedition reached Oswego, but surprise was lost, so there was no attack. (History of
OswegoCounty, Everts & Co, Philadelphia, 1877)
7 Sir John Johnson, 2nd Baronet (1741 - 1830), was a loyalist leader during the American Revolution.
8 In January, 1776, Johnson gathered several hundred armed supporters at Johnstown. He sent a letter to Governor

William Tryon, stating that he and his loyalist neighbors had conferred about raising a battalion for the British cause.
He also said he could also raise five hundred Indians which when used with his regular troops could retake all of the
forts captured by the rebels. On January 20, 1776, General Schuyler, with a force of Continental troops and the Tryon
County militia numbering around 3,000, disarmed Johnson and about 300 of his loyalist supporters; Johnson was
thereupon paroled.
9 Jacob Schell, apprehended 24 October, 1780, ordered confined 25 October 1780. The Minutes of the Commissioners

for Conspiracies contain no mention of his death.


10 Marinus Willett ( 1740 - 1830) was an American soldier and political leader from New York.
11 Chainbreaker (c.1760 - 1859), aka Governor Blacksnake and Tah-won-ne-ahs, was a Seneca warchief, who, along

with other Iroquois leaders fought on the side of the British during the American Revolutionary War.
12 Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant (c. 1743 - 1807) was a Mohawk leader and British military officer during the

American Revolution. Brant was perhaps the most well-known North American Indian of his generation.
13 HRS perhaps refers to either Joseph or Jellis LaGrange, both tories from the Norman's Kill.
14 I had difficulty with this passage and I am still not sure we have rendered it correctly. Somehow, John was released

from his captivity.


15 Gaiänt'wakê (aka Cornplanter; c. 1750 - 1836) was a Seneca war-chief.
16 Timothy Murphy (1751-1818), a veteran of Saratoga and Valley Forge, sent in garrison to Schoharie in 1778. He

married and settled there. A sniper of Col. Daniel Morgan's Rifle Corps,. He is credited with disrupting Burgoyne's
command structure by shooting two critical staff officers, influencing the outcome at Bemis Heights.
17 October 17, 1788.
18 At this time, Watervliet included all of Albany County excluding Albany itself.
19 Stephen van Rensselaer III ( 1764 - 1839), Lieutenant Governor of New York, statesman, soldier, and land-owner,

the heir to one of the greatest estates in the New York region at the time.
20 In the Village of Hamilton, in 1785, Dutchman Leonard DeNeufville started a glass factory called the Hamilton

Glass Works. It was subsequently owned by Patroon Jeremiah VanRensselaer (brother of Stephen).
21 Arenaceous deluvions...angillaceous bed: sandy glacial deposits on a quartz bed. HRS is showing off!
22 Keene, NH is and was in Cheshire County. HRS mistakenly uses “Chestire” twice.
23
Peter Pinder, a pseudonym of John Wolcot (1738 - 1819), English satirist. Mr.Kingal has not been unidentified.
24
HRS seems to be trying for “improvisatrice” a female improviser (OED). So his Italian wasn't so good!
25 Red pine.

238
Appendix C: Schoolcraft Ancestral
News, Volume 2 Number 1
January 1989, pp. 3 - 19
Letter Written by Margaret Bush
With Editorial by Edward J. Schoolcraft

This is a transcription of a letter written by Margaret Bush on the 24th day of March 1868.
The letter is postmarked April 1, 1868, Lyon Brothers, 33 Courtlandt St., NY., and is
addressed to Mr. J. M. Bennett, Buckhan(n)on, Upshur Co., WV.

To the best of my recollection of the famous Schoolcraft family on this 24th


day of March in the year of our Lord 1868, I, Margaret Bush, sworn and
subscribe this is written in my own hand.
William and Austead Schoolcraft were brothers, William had a son Matthew,
don't know no more on this line. Austead had 2 sons, James 1737 who had son
James II 1775 who married Mary Carpenter and second wife was Catherine
Bush whom he married when he was 50 years old on June 18, 1825,
performed by Rev. John Mitchell. Catherine was borne October 1805 and is
the daughter of Adam and Margaret Bush, my namesake.
Austead second son was John 1745 whose wife was killed by Indians in
September 1779. Their children were John 1761, Jacob 1762, who married
Mary Ann Parsons, Leonard 1763, Lucy 1764, Matthias 1765, Mary 1766,
Martha 1766, Simon 1768, Michael 1769, Austin 1770, Sarah 1772, Polly
1773, Nancy 1774 and Charity 1774. When Indians killed Mrs. Schoolcraft
eight of her small babies was killed to, Lucy, Mary, Martha, Austin, Sarah,
Polly, Nancy and Charity. Matthias, Simon and Michael was captured by
Indians in 1781 on Pigeon Roost of Stonecoal, Matthias was killed and Simon
and Michael remained with the Indians. Jacob escaped. Leonard was 16 when
he was captured in 1779 and made to run the gauntlet and was recognized
many times while making raids on the whiteman. Jacob had these children,
Aaron, James, Mary, Ann, John and Permelia.
/s/ Margaret Bush

Margaret Bush's letter is a very interesting document, but some of her statements leave me
with an uneasy feeling: It is evident that she possessed a considerable amount of information
on the Schoolcraft family. Knowing no more about Margaret than I do raises the question of
exactly how she happened to know as much as she apparently knew about them. She began
her letter by writing, "To the best of my recollection of the famous Schoolcraft family." From
that statement, my understanding is that she was claiming to have personal, first-hand
knowledge of the family, and was not merely repeating what she had read somewhere or had

239
been told by others. I am convinced that her letter was a sincere effort on her part to record
an accurate and truthful accounting of her "recollection" of the Schoolcrafts, and I am willing
to accept it as such. There is nothing in her letter that gives me reason to believe that she
would have deliberately made any statement that she knew to be incorrect. But, regardless of
her sincerity, I think that there are some erroneous statements in the letter.

For anyone to prepare a detailed and comprehensive analysis of her letter, statement by
statement, would take a considerable amount of time and would cover many pages. Then,
after all is said and done, the effort would have served little useful purpose, because many of
the questions would still remain. It will not be possible to properly evaluate Margaret's letter
until we learn more about her, or until we discover more information about the group of
Schoolcrafts under discussion. However, Margaret made 2 separate statements that I cannot
allow to pass without comment.

First, let's look at her statement in paragraph 2 where she wrote, "Austead had 2 sons, James
1737 who had son James II 1775 who married Mary Carpenter and second wife was
Catherine Bush whom he married when he was 50 years old on June 18, 1825, performed by
Rev. John Mitchell." I agree that she was probably correct when she wrote that "James II
1775" married Mary Carpenter. But, I doubt that "James II 1775" was also married to
Catherine Bush. I cannot say for certain that she is wrong, -- maybe she knew something that
we don't. There is, however, a considerable amount of evidence which leads me to believe
that the James Schoolcraft that married Catherine Bush in 1825 was a man born about 1804.

I believe that he was a son of Jacob Schoolcraft and a woman named Parsons. Please note
that later, in paragraph 3, Margaret wrote that one Jacob Schoolcraft married Mary Ann
Parsons. There are, at the present time, Schoolcraft researchers that claim Jacob married
Rebecca Parsons. Speaking for myself, I don't know whether Jacob's wife was Mary Ann
Parsons or Rebecca Parsons. I do know, however, that I think it is more probable that it was
Jacob's son, James Schoolcraft, that married Catherine Bush as opposed to "James II 1775"
having married her.

The second matter that I feel it is necessary to comment on is with regards to Margaret's
statements about one Matthias Schoolcraft. In paragraph 3 she wrote that among the children
of John Schoolcraft was a son, Matthias, born in 1765. That may be correct, but later, in the
same paragraph, she wrote that, "Matthias, Simon and Michael was captured by Indians in
1781 on Pigeon Roost of Stonecoal, Matthias was killed and Simon and Michael remained
with the Indians." My understanding of that statement is that she is claiming that the Matthias
killed in the above incident was John Schoolcraft's son, Matthias, born in 1765. I will refrain
from going into all of the details here, but there is a considerable amount of evidence
available that causes me to doubt that Margaret was right. I believe that the Matthias killed in
the above incident was John Schoolcraft's brother, and was the son of Austien and Catherine
Countryman Schoolcraft. He was baptized in St. Paul Lutheran Church, Schoharie Co., NY.
on 17 Mar 1745.

I would not want my comments above to be misunderstood. They are in no way intended to
detract from the importance of Margaret Bush's letter. In my opinion, her letter is the most
revealing document found up to this time concerning that branch of the Schoolcraft family in

240
early Northwest Virginia, and I think that the importance of her letter is self-evident. It is
obvious that Margaret had an intimate and wide-ranging knowledge concerning that family,
and I, for one, would relish the thought of being able to sit and talk with her for a few hours
or days.

Letter Written by J. W. Calhoun


With Editorial by Edward J. Schoolcraft

This is is a transcription of a letter written by Mrs. J. W. Calhoun in April


1905. The letter is postmarked 11 Dec., Fairmont, West Virginia and is
addressed to J. M. Bennett, Recorder, Buckhannon, Upshur Co., West
Virginia.
April 1905
Ancestors of the Schoolcraft family received permission from me to go
through my property to the old Hire graveyard on the hill. I was born in 1823
and as long as I can recollect folks always spoken of the Injuns murdering the
Schoolcraft mother and eight of her little babies, who were buried by John
Hire himself. The father was too upset and ill over loosing his family. Then in
1781 three more of his sons, Matthias, Michael and Simon went pigeon
hunting and were captured by Injuns. Leonard married a squaw and helped
John and Jacob return to their father. I have played amist the stones on the
hill and do believe they had letters on them at one time. I've always been told
these headstones were graves of the murdered Schoolcraft family and other
graves was of Matthias and other Hire children. The ancestors plan to erect a
monument in the Hever Cemetery for the Schoolcraft family so they won't be
forgotten.
/s/ Mrs. J. W. Calhoun

The Hire (Hyre) graveyard, referred to by Mrs. Calhoun is located on property now owned
by Mr. & Mrs. Ozel Smith. It is reached by driving west from Buckhannon, WV on Highway
33/119 to Brushy Fork Road, a distance of approximately 1 mile. Turn left onto Brushy Fork
Road and drive south until you reach the first gravel road on your right. Turn right and drive
to the Smith farm, RR # 3, Box 358.

In August of 1988 I visited the Hire (Hyre) cemetery. As I walked up the grass covered,
gently sloped hill approaching the cemetery I experienced some second thoughts about my
visit and was tempted to turn around and leave. I felt as though I was an unwanted intruder in
a place that was far too sacred for my presence. Surely the horrible circumstances
surrounding the death of some of those buried there for so many decades had earned them the
right to peace and solitude. However, I knew deep in my heart that somewhere, somehow
they knew that I was there, not out of curiosity alone, but to also pay my respects because I
cared. I am sure that they were pleased. As I went forward and walked among the graves I
was reminded of a passage I once read somewhere which said, "Only the forgotten are truly
dead." It was a very emotional, reverent, and rewarding experience for me, -- one that I shall
never forget.

241
In the cemetery there are whitestone markers for John Hyre, his wife, and his son and
daughter-in-law, which are easily readable. There are also 3 or 4 irregular shaped
brownstones visible which could have been intended as headstones. In addition, there is a
bronze memorial marker, placed there a few years ago by Mr. W. E. "Bill" Smith of
Buckhannon, WV. My observation of the site leads me to conclude that there are probably
from 12 to 15 unmarked graves in the cemetery. There are indentations which, while not
exactly symmetrical, are consistent with what one would expect in a cemetery dating back in
time more than 200 years. Mr. Smith has owned the land for over 40 years, and as his time
and health has permitted, he has made efforts to keep the cemetery cleared of brush and
overgrowth.

I do not know of any facts that are contrary to any of Mrs. Calhoun's statements. On the other
hand, there are some points that favor and lend strength to them. First: The land records show
that John Hyer's land was subsequently owned, for a period of time, by the Calhoun family.
Second: Given the close proximity of John Hyer°s land to John Schoolcraft's land, there are
several logical reasons which would explain why Mrs. Schoolcraft and her eight children, as
well as Matthias Schoolcraft, would possibly have been buried there. Third: Given the fact
that Mrs. Calhoun was born in 1823, surely there would have been some of the local
residents still living that would have had first-hand knowledge of the massacre and burial of
the Schoolcrafts. And fourth: The fact that Schoolcraft descendants requested permission
from Mrs. Calhoun for access to the cemetery strongly indicates that they also had good
reason to believe that the Hyre cemetery was the burial site of the massacred Schoolcrafts.

John Schoolcraft, his Family and the Massacre


Editorial by Edward J. Schoolcraft

The information to be presented here goes hand in hand with the letters written by Margaret
Bush and Mrs. J. W. Calhoun.

In the month of August 1988 I was in West Virginia, having gone there to meet with Dennis
Rodgers for the purpose of attending the annual meeting of the Hacker's Creek Pioneer
Descendants in Jane Lew, and to also do some research on the early Schoolcraft family that
had lived in that area. We had somewhat limited success in our research efforts, but one piece
of interesting information did come to light, and may give some insight as to the identity of
John Schoolcraft's wife. In order for you to better understand my comments and conclusions
regarding this information, I think that it is necessary for you to have some background on
two different, but related subjects. This background will hopefully enable you to better
evaluate the information to be presented. If you are one that insists on facts, I must tell you
up front that the information to be presented here concerning John Schoolcraft's wife falls far
short of being factual. I well understand that there will be those that consider my comments
to be little more than conjecture, and that statement would be hard for me to argue against.
However, in my own mind, I am convinced that there is somewhat more here than pure
conjecture.

For the background on the first subject it is necessary that we go back in time to the period of
the mid-1750's to the area near Moorefield, Hampshire Co., Virginia (now Hardy Co., WV.)
Some of you will recall that one John Schoolcraft and Jacob Schoolcraft made claim to

242
having been born near Moorefield in Hampshire County in the years of 1757 and 1759
respectively. Also living in Hampshire County during that time was a family named Brake.
The head of that family was Jacob Brake Sr. It has been reported that Jacob Brake Sr. was a
native of Germany and had come to this country with his father, Johaan Von Brecht, or John
Brake in English. Jacob Brake Sr. was a married man with 6 children. His wife was a woman
known as Miss Nyeswanan. Conflicting reports leave me uncertain as to the actual date, but
sometime about 1758 a group of Indians, in one of their many raids upon the settlers in the
area, attacked the home of Jacob Brake Sr. During the attack Jacob Brake Sr.'s wife, Miss
Nyeswanan, and one of his children were slain. Three of his children were able to escape
unharmed, and two of his sons, Jacob Jr. and Abram, were taken captive by the Indians. We
are concerned with the one son, Jacob Brake Jr. At the time of his capture Jacob was a young
boy, reportedly about 11 years old. He was carried away and for the next 10 years or so of his
life he was held captive by the Shawnees in various villages in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana,
and Michigan. During his captivity Jacob was supposedly adopted into the tribe by an Indian
woman. Supposedly one of her four sons had been killed in a skirmish with white settlers,
and she adopted Jacob as a replacement for her dead son. After being held captive for more
than 10 years Jacob made contact with a white trader that was visiting an Indian village near
White Woman's Creek, Ohio. Jacob asked the trader to carry word of his whereabouts to his
family, which the trader did. Jacob's brother, John, immediately traveled to the village and
successfully negotiated his release. Jacob returned to the area where he had been living at the
time of his capture, and remained there for some years. However, by about 1780 he had
evidently left the Shenandoah Valley, crossed the mountains and settled near Buckhannon,
Monongalia Co., Virginia (now Upshur Co., WV.) About the year of 1785 Jacob Brake Jr.
married Jesse Slaughter and they became the parents of 5 children: Abraham W., John B.,
Magdalene, Leah Ann, and Elizabeth. Jacob Brake Jr. died about 1831 and is buried in
Heavener Cemetery, Buckhannon, WV.

We will now, for the time being, leave Jacob Brake Jr. and direct our attention to the
Schoolcraft family that settled in the Buckhannon area. Surely by now most of you are
familiar with the terrible tragedies that befell that family during the relatively short period of
time between the years of 1779 to 1781. I don't want to belabor the subject, but bear with me
while I once again briefly outline the reported events:

• Soon after April 1779, Leonard Schoolcraft was taken captive by a


group of Indians while he was outside the fort at Buckhannon.
• In October 1779, John Schoolcraft's wife and eight of his children
were slain by a group of Indians at the family cabin near
Buckhannon. At the same time two of his sons were taken captive
by the Indians.
• In November 1833, one Jacob Schoolcraft appeared in open court
in Lewis Co., Virginia (now WV) at which time he made a
declaration for the purpose of obtaining benefits for services
rendered during the Revolutionary War as an Indian Scout. In his
declaration Jacob stated that during the month of June 1780 a party
of six Indians came into the area of the Hacker's Creek Settlement
and killed his brother, Joshua, two of Joshua's children, and took as
captives two of Joshua's other children. I must say that at this time

243
I have no facts that would give me cause to dispute Jacob's
statement concerning the above event.
• In the fall of 1780, Austien Schoolcraft was slain by the Indians
near Buckhannon, and Austien's niece was taken captive.
• In April of 1781, Matthias, Simon, and Michael Schoolcraft were
returning from a pigeon hunt on Stonecoal Creek and were
surprised by some Indians. Matthias was killed and Simon and
Michael were taken prisoner.

If you haven't been keeping a tally, let me give you the total: 14 killed and 8 taken captive, of
which only 3, as far as is known, ever lived to see freedom again. That is a terrible toll on
one family, and cause for reflection. Almost from the time of the establishment of the
settlement at Jamestown, anytime the whiteman and Indians came into contact with each
other there would eventually be controversy, which all too often resulted in death on one side
or the other, and occasionally death on both sides. Frequently those controversies would
escalate to a point where all-out warfare would result, -- such as it did at the Battle of Point
Pleasant. But all-out warfare was a rare event. The Indians were not suitably trained or
inclined to fight pitched battles. They were more along the lines of what is referred to today
as guerrilla fighters. Surprise, sneak attack, ambush, hit and run, -- those tactics were their
forte. They were much more adept in attacking a small group of hunters or explorers, -- a
lone individual. Pity to an isolated cabin that they suspected of being only lightly defended,
or undefended. History proves that most whites were slain under circumstances that can be
described as pure chance. They were caught in the wrong place, at the wrong time under
unfavorable circumstances.

At first glance the tragedies that befell the Schoolcraft family might be thought to fit in that
category, but I disagree. The almost complete annihilation of that group of Schoolcrafts
simply does not fit into the mold of random surprise attacks or killings. I am convinced, in
my own mind, that for some reason there was an Indian, or a group of Indians, that had made
a conscious decision dedicated to the elimination of that family from the face of the earth, --
and they were nearly successful in their efforts toward that end.

In order to find a possible reason for the Indian's efforts to eliminate the Schoolcrafts we
need to turn our attention to the three Indian captives, Leonard, Simon, and Michael
Schoolcraft. It has been reliably recorded that after their capture by the Indians the three of
them joined with their captors in raids upon the settlements and whites in the area where they
had lived prior to their capture. The most famous episode concerns only Leonard and his
participation in what has come to be known as the "West Tragedy." I won't go into the story
of the event here because it is fully recorded in explicit detail in Withers' Chronicles of
Border Warfare and in McWhorter's Border Settlers. The event leaves us with the question:
Why would Leonard willfully take part in such a dastardly deed? I think there are two
separate and probable reasons. An old family legend says that prior to his being taken captive
by the Indians, Leonard had formed an attachment to one of the local girls. Sometime after
his capture in 1779 Leonard supposedly returned to the settlement and asked her to come live
with him among the Indians as his wife. In her natural wisdom she refused and her refusal
supposedly infuriated Leonard. Mary Ann Hacker, the daughter of John Hacker, may have
well been that girl. On 15 February 1787 Mary Ann Hacker married Edmund West Jr. The

244
"West Tragedy" occurred just a few months later on 5 December 1787. Mary Ann's marriage
may have added fuel to the fire already burning within Leonard, and the "West Tragedy" was
his form of retribution for an imagined wrong. I want to add that I am well aware of how
family legends can become confused and distorted over the years, but I am willing to grant
that there possibly is some basis in fact in the above legend, and thereby would partially
explain Leonard's actions. But it does not explain why Simon and Michael, as has been
reported, would participate in other raids at other times and places. There must be more of a
reason than the above.

We are all aware that during the 1700's literally 100's of males were taken captive by the
Indians at various times and places. But, how many can we name that turned renegade? Very
few!! Now, I don't want to imply that I am an expert on the subject, but I have done some
research on the matter. I have found, within my limited research, one persistent and recurrent
statement was used to describe a large percentage of the very small number of so called
"white renegades", -- and that is that they were half-breeds. I have long been convinced that
Leonard, Simon and Michael had mixed loyalties to the whites and Indians. Why the mixed
loyalties? For the simple reason that they, like the renegades referred to above, were half-
breeds. I think that it is probable that their mother was an Indian woman.

At this juncture I want to make some observations which may not be obvious at first glance.
From reading the various accounts and the two letters which relate to the incidents involving
this group of Schoolcrafts it would, I think, be logical for one to assume that John
Schoolcraft was the father of Leonard, Matthias, Simon, Michael, John, Jacob and Austin
Schoolcraft. However, as I have pointed out previously, I don't think that the Matthias
Schoolcraft, that was killed at the time Simon and Michael were taken captive, was John
Schoolcraft's son. I think that it is more likely that John and Matthias were brothers. I can't be
certain, but I think that the other 6 males in question here were John's sons. If I am correct,
then we are left with an oddity about John's 6 sons, which is: Only his son, Austin, reportedly
a young boy, was killed by the Indians, and his other 5 sons were taken captive. Any one of
several reasons could explain why the young boy, Austin, was killed along with his mother
and 7 sisters. But, I question why the Indians would kill the mother and 8 children in October
1779, yet, at the same time take John and Jacob captive. I also question why the Indians
would later, in April 1781, kill John Schoolcraft's brother, Matthias, but, here once again,
take 2 more of his sons captive. I think that the reason was because John Schoolcraft's sons
were half-breeds. I may be reading too much into those events or allowing my imagination to
run wild, but, as I have said before, I think that the Indians had a preconceived plan relating
to the Schoolcrafts, and it appears to me that the fate of John's family was, for the most part,
exactly what the Indians had hoped for.

After reaching the conclusion that John Schoolcraft's wife was an Indian woman I must
admit that I thought that there was little or no possibility of finding any information which
would either prove or disprove that possibility. However, some information has surfaced that
does tend to substantiate my belief that John's wife was an Indian woman.

While in West Virginia in August 1988, I had arranged for a meeting with Mrs. Janet
Cosgrove of Buckhannon, WV. Janet had furnished me with the copies of the letters written
by Margaret Bush and Mrs. J. W. Calhoun, both of which are included herein. However,

245
because of the poor quality of my copies, I had been unable to make complete transcriptions.
I had asked Janet to allow me access to the originals to enable me to complete my
transcriptions, and she was agreeable to my request. After I had completed the task our
conversation was naturally focused on the Schoolcraft family. Janet, while not professing any
great knowledge of the group, did exhibit an interest. I then proceeded to outline my belief
that John Schoolcraft's wife was probably an Indian woman; and that probability was also,
for some reason, the underlying cause for the Indian's unrelenting efforts to exterminate the
entire family group; and to some extent would explain the actions of Leonard, Simon and
Michael. After I had finished with my long winded spiel a smile came over Janet's face and
she said to me, "I know that you are right. John Schoolcraft's wife was an Indian woman, and
I have the proof of that." Needless to say, my heart was about to jump out of my chest at that
point. I asked Janet what possible form of proof could she have. She then told me the
following about Jacob Brake Jr.: After settling in the Buckhannon area Jacob gained quite a
reputation as a storyteller. He was able to hold an audience spellbound with his stories
concerning people and events in earlier Virginia. As his renown grew he was encouraged and
advised by his friends to make some sort of written record of his vast knowledge. He
eventually did start keeping a journal of sorts, wherein he would from time to time write
comments concerning his knowledge of certain people and events with which he was
familiar. Janet said that apparently his memory was so remarkable that he could not only give
the date of birth of some individual, but could also pinpoint the day of the week that that date
fell on. Janet also told me that Jacob's journal was in her possession and that it contained
statements to the following effect:

1. Jacob Brake Jr's. mother was Miss Nyeswanan, she was an Indian woman, and she
was the daughter of an Indian Chief.

2. John Schoolcraft's wife was Miotoka 1 Nyeswanan, and that Jacob Brake Jr's. mother
and John Schoolcraft's wife were sisters.

3. All of John Schoolcraft's troubles were connected with his Indian wife.

4. Sometime after Jacob Brake Jr's. mother was killed by the Indians in 1758 her grave
was exhumed at which time several artifacts, such as beadwork, pottery, and silver
ornaments were removed and retained by her descendants.

5. Janet also told me the reason that Jacob Brake Jr's. mother was referred to as "Miss
Nyeswanan". Evidently it was an established custom in Indian families that the oldest
daughter in the family would be the first to marry, followed by the next oldest
daughter, etc. Apparently Jacob Brake Jr's mother had broken with that tradition and
married Jacob Brake Sr. before her older sister, Miotoka, had married John
Schoolcraft. The use of "Miss Nyeswanan" was the Indian's way of signifying that
fact.

After Janet had finished giving me the above information I asked her for permission to see
the journal, and to permit me to make photocopies of the passages that were pertinent to the
Schoolcrafts. She did not grant me my request, and that is where the matter now stands. I
want to add one point of my own which may be of some significance. According to William
Couper's History of the Shenandoah Valley there was, during the mid-1750's, an Indian

246
village near the settlement of Moorefield, Hampshire Co., Virginia. That could possibly
explain how Jacob Brake Sr. and John Schoolcraft first became acquainted with their wives.
As best as I can tell from related articles, Chief Killbuck was the leader of the group of
Indians that were living in Hampshire County during that time.

In closing let me say that I realize very well that I may be a victim of my own overactive
imagination in reaching some of the conclusions that I have. But, I don't think so. I have
considerable difficulty in believing that the fate of all those Schoolcrafts was the result of
pure chance, -- that they were simply the victims of circumstances. I would especially
welcome any information which would tend to explain what reasoning the Indians used to
justify their actions against that group of Schoolcrafts which included, I think, and Indian
mother and her half-breed children.

247
Appendix D: Document Images
Figure 1: Lancaster and Caton, a Composite from Greenwood 1818

249
Figure 2: Albany Muster 1713, A. Company, Soldier 78

250
Figure 3: First Reformed Church, Schenectady, Austien
(The prior page provides the year of baptism.)

251
Figure 4: Schoharie to Albany, Extract from Cóvens and Mortier 1780
A chorographical map of the Northern Department of North-America, drawn from the latest
and most accurate observations, at Amsterdam by Cóvens and Mortier and Cóvens, Junior.
H. Klockhoff, sculp.

CREATED/PUBLISHED [Amsterdam] 1780.

252
Figure 5: Donation by Lawrence to St. Paul’s Church

253
Figure 6: Anaquassacook (Schermerhorn) Patent

254
Figure 7: Queen’s Loyal Rangers, Col. Peters command [part of]

255
Figure 8: 3rd Company Roster circa 1778

256
Figure 9: Bennington Battlefield

257
Figure 10: Agreement of Adam Schoolcraft and Isaac Afselstine

258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
Figure 11: Jacob Rose Family Record

266
267
Figure 12: Stanbridge circa 1830-37

268
Figure 13: Missisquoi County, Joseph Bouchette [H11/300 -1831 #11 of 12]
Towns of Stanbridge and St. Armand annotated to show the locations of the Schoolcrafts in
those towns.

269
Figure 14: Locations on a Modern Map
Modern map corresponding to Joseph Bouchette’s map in Figure 13 annotated to show the
locations of the Schoolcrafts in those towns.

270
Figure 15: Canadian Archives National Map Collection [NMC 19134]
Stanbridge in about 1850. (View this image from the right.)

271
Figure 16: Missisquoi Bay circa 1830

272
Figure 17: Rouville Militia Annual Return, 1838

273
274
Figure 18: South Beech Ridge Cemetery - McClellan 1941

275
276
Figure 19: Early West Virginia Settlement

277
Appendix E: Outline Descendent
Reports
James Schoolcroft of Caton, Lancashire
James Schoolcroft Also known as Jacobi Shoulecroft Scowlcrofte Skoulecroft
born Conjecture Bef. 1615
fact Bef. 1631 in England; Master of Arts5
fact Bet. 1631 - 1652 in Lancaster, Lancashire, England; Headmaster of the Royal
Grammar School5
fact 09-Jan-1648/49 in Caton, Lancashire, England; Presbyterian Minister, Caton
chapelry32
died Abt. 30-Aug-1657 in Caton, Lancashire, England20
buried 30-Aug-1657 in Caton, Lancashire, England; St. Paul's Church20

married Proven Margaret [Unidentified]8


born Conjecture Bef. 1617
died Abt. 08-Jul-1664 in Caton, Lancashire, England20
buried 08-Jul-1664 in Caton, Lancashire, England; St. Paul's Church20
1. Proven: Augustine Schoolcroft21
born Abt. 03-Nov-1633 in Caton, Lancashire, England21
fact Bet. 1657 - 1658 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England; Bachelor of Arts6
fact Bet. 1663 - 1680 in Colwich, Staffordshire, England; Vicar6, 14
died Abt. 16-Feb- 1699/00 in England6
buried 16-Feb-1699/00 in England6
married Proven Sarah Greensmith13, 6
a. Proven: Elizabeth Schoolcroft13
born Abt. 04-Jun-1668 in Colwich, Staffordshire, England13
2. Proven: Richard Schoolcroft21
born Abt. 06-Feb-1635/36 in Caton, Lancashire, England21
fact 12-Apr-1654 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England; Admitted to St. John's College7
died Abt. 04-Mar-1656/57 in England20
buried 04-Mar-1656/57 in Caton, Lancashire, England; St. Paul's Church20
3. Proven: William Schoolcroft21
born Abt. 06-Feb-1635/36 in Caton, Lancashire, England21
married Proven Margaret Knight21
4. Proven: Thomas Schoolcroft21
born Abt. 18-Oct-1638 in Caton, Lancashire, England21
died Bef. 16405
5. Probable: Robert Schoolcroft21
born Abt. 20-Feb-1641 in Caton, Lancashire, England21
6. Proven: Henry Schoolcroft8
born Conjecture Bet. 1641 - 1644 in Caton, Lancashire, England8
married Proven Elizabeth Hodgson20
born Abt. 23 -Jan-1639 in Caton, Lancashire, England20

278
a. Proven: James Schoolcroft20
born Abt. 23-Nov-1665 in Caton, Lancashire, England20
married Conjecture [Unidentified]
i. Proven: James Schoolcroft Also known as Schoolcraft21
born Abt. 27-Jun-1688 in Lancaster, Lancashire, England21
military Bet. 1710 - 1713 in Albany, Albany, New York, USA; Private in British
Army, Court Martial and pardon for desertion.24, 25
died Abt. 1790 in Anaquassacook, Jackson, Washington, New York, USA;
Probably. Near Cambridge by the Vermont line [Previously Albany Co.]27
married Proven Madalena [Unidentified]26
died Bet. 1720 - 1725 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; Probably.
[Previously Albany Co.]29
married Proven 2nd Anna Christina Kammer Also known as Cammerer Kemmer28,
29

born Abt. Jun-1704 in Niederbieber, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany23


died Bet. Aug-1741 - Aug-1743 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA;
Probably. [Previously Albany Co.]30, 31
married Proven 3rd Elizabeth [Unidentified]31
ii. Proven: Augustine Schoolcroft21
born Abt. 09-Nov-1690 in Lancaster, Lancashire, England21
fact Bet. 1714 - 1721 in Madison's & Pigg's Corner, Beulahville, King William,
Virginia, USA; Indentured servant33, 34
fact 1722 in Stafford, Virginia, USA; Probably Overwharton Parish. Debt to
Rawleigh Travers35, 36, 37
died Aft. 1722 in Virginia, USA; Probably36
married Conjecture [Unidentified]38
b. Proven: Margaret Schoolcroft20
born Abt. 16-Feb-1671 in Caton, Lancashire, England20
7. Proven: James Schoolcroft21, 8
born Abt. 19-Jan-1642 in Caton, Lancashire, England21
married Proven Rebecca Haynes22
a. Proven: guardianship Thomasin Burrowes22
8. Proven: John Schoolcroft21, 8
born Abt. 28-Jun-1644 in Caton, Lancashire, England21
9. Proven: Mary Schoolcroft21
born Abt. 08-Oct-1648 in Caton, Lancashire, England21
died Bef. 16505

1 Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country and Detailing Some Facts and Opinions on Two
Particular Branch of This Family-With Regards to the Migration of That Branch From New York, to Virginia and
Kentucky. CREATED/PUBLISHED: Edward J. Schoolcraft, 4809 Douglas MacArthur NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico
87110, 1986 (4th Printing 1993, w/revisions)
2
Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire. Royalist Composition
Papers, Vol. 36, pp. 216-217
3
A History of Britain, Simon Schama, Published by BBC Worldwide Ltd.
4
Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire. Royalist Composition
Papers, Plundered Minister's Accounts,Vol. 36, pp. 149-150
5
Athol Murray History of the Royal Grammar School, Lancaster. Master and Pupils, 1572-1680, pp. 39-41. James
Schoolcroft is first mentioned in 1631, but may have succeeded Foster in 1625. ... About two years before his sons
went to Cambridge, he ceased to be Headmaster.

279
6
Venn's Alumni Cantabrigienses. Part 1, Vol 4, pp. 30. Schoolecroft, Augustine. Adm. sizar (age 19) at St. John's,
Apr. 12, 1654. S. of James, clerk. Bapt. Nov. 3, 1633, at Lancaster. Matric. 1654; B.A. 1657-8. Ord. deacon (Lincoln)
Mar. 10; priest, Mar 13, 1660-I. C. at Colwich, Staffs', in 1659, to John Greensmith, whose daughter he married in
1666. V. of Colwich, 1663-70. Buried Feb. 16, 1699-1700. Brother to the next. (Wm. Salt Arch. Soc., 1915).
7 Venn's Alumni Cantabrigienses. Part 1, Vol 4, pp. 30. Schoolecroft, Richard. Adm. sizar (age 18) at St. John's, Apr.

12, 1654. S. of James, clerk, Lancaster. Bapt there, Feb. 6, 1635-6. Matric. 1654. Brother of Augustine (above).
8 Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire. Lancashire Wills Proved at

Richmond, Vol. 10, Schoolecroft, Margaret, of Caton, L 1664


9 Registers of Caton (Lancashire) 1585-1718 by Henry Brierley [FHL BRITISH Film #0844812, IGI]. Caton Parish

Register, burials 1585-1718, pp. 112, 4 Mar 1657 Mr rich: Schoolcroft, in ecclia.
10 Registers of the Parish and Priory Church of Lancaster by Henry Brierley [FHL BRITISH Film #0844800, IGI].

Marriage William SCOWCROFT, M, Spouse Margaret KNIGHT or NIGHTINGALE, Date 28 Nov 1773, Place Saint
Mary, Lancaster, Lancashire, England.
11
Registers of Caton (Lancashire) 1585-1718 by Henry Brierley [FHL BRITISH Film #0844812, IGI]. Marriage
Henry SCHOOLCROFTE, M, Spouse Eliz. HODGSON, Date 14 May 1664, Place Caton, Lancashire, England.
12
FHL BRITISH Film 6414251: The parish church of St. Paul, Caton with Littledale, Caton Green Road, Brookhouse,
North Lancashire: existed 1246, O.S. map ref. SD542 646. transcribed by Barbara Baxter ... [et al.]
13 FHL BRITISH Film 417187: Parish Church of Colwich (Staffordshire) Parish registers, 1659-1871. Christening

Elizabeth SCHOULCROFT, F, Father Augustine SCHOULCROFT, Mother Sarah, Date 4 Jun 1668, Place Colwich,
Stafford, England
14 Staffordshire and Stoke-onTrent Archive Service, Wolseley Papers Ref. D(W)1781/9/2/40. Date 16 Nov. 32 Chas. II

[1680] Sir Chas. Wolseley: Augustine Schoolcroft, Vicar of Colwich and Geo. Austine, inn holder.
15 Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire. Marriage Bonds at

Lancaster, Vol. 74.


16 History of Heversham
17 Levens Hall
18 Lancashire Inquisitions, Vol. 17. Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and

Cheshire.
19 Royalist Composition Papers, Vol. 36, pp. 196-199. Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to

Lancashire and Cheshire.


20 FHL BRITISH Film 1278857: Chapelry of Caton (Lancashire) Parish registers, 1585-1900.
21 FHL BRITISH Film 1526146: St. Mary's Church (Lancaster, Lancashire) Parish registers, 1599-1900.
22 West Yorkshire Archive Service, Ingilby Records, Ref. WYL230/3166.
23 Henry Z. Jones Jr., The Palatine Families of New York, (Picton Press, Camden, ME), pp. 430 et seq.: Anna

Christina², bpt. June of 1704-sp.: Jehan Wilh. Kämmer, Elsa Christina-d/o Christian Diederich there, Anna Gertraudt-
servant at Johannes Mees's from the Neuburgische country, and Johann Daniel-s/o Weyandt Wirttges at Seg.
(Niederbieber Chbk.). She md. James Schoolkraft (HJ); the will of William Schoolcraft of Schoharie 22 Sept 1760
mentioned property left by his grandfather William Canner (Fernow Wills #1551).
24 Albany Militia Muster Roll, 1713, A. Company, soldier 78
25 The Schoolcraft Families of Schoharie, NY and Missisquoi County, QC
26 New York, Schenectady: First Reformed Church, Baptism of Astien ob Augustien on [2 April 1720], parents Jacob

Shultgraft & Madalena Schultgraft, sponsors Phillip Schueler & Grechen Vrooman.
27 The Schoolcraft Families of Schoharie, NY and Missisquoi County, QC. James Schoolcraft's Death
28
New York, Schoharie: The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, Baptism of Johannes on 28 April [1731],
parents Jacobus Schoelgraft & Anna Christina Kemmer, sponsors Johannes Ingolt & Joh: Siever & Margrieta Bekker.
29 The Schoolcraft Families of Schoharie, NY and Missisquoi County, QC. James Schoolcraft's Children
30
New York, Schoharie: The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, Baptism of Catharina on July 26, 1741,
parents Jaems Schoelkrafft & Anna Christina, sponsors Johannes Finck & Catharina Seibel.
31 New York, Schoharie: The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, Baptism of James on August 12 1743,

parents Asten Schoelkrafft & Catharina Contriman S:H:V: sponsors James Schoelkrafft & Elisabeth S:H: Vrouw
32 Society for the Publication of Original Documents Relating to Lancashire and Cheshire. Royalist Composition

Papers, Vol. 36, pp. 216-217, Ref. to Folio 579. Certificate signed by James Schoulcroft, minister, of Caton, declaring
that compounder took the National Covenant before him 9 January, 1648[-9], witnessed by Hen. Porter and Christopher
Atkinson, X his mark.

280
33
Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country, Edward J. Schoolcraft. Abstracts of Virginia Land
Patents and Grants for the period of 1695 to. 1732: Rice WILLIAMS & John DOWNER, 740 acs (N.L.), in a fork of
Mattapony Riv., about 12 mi. above the inhabitants of K.&Q. Co.; beg. at Madison's & Pigg's cor.; by S. side of the
main run; 16 Dec 1714. pp. 213. Imp. of 15 pers: Joseph Grigory, Jos. Arch., Walter Williams, Wm. Mattock, Thos.
Essex, Richd. Care, Reynard Mackdaniel, Wm. Ingram, Sarah Howard, Henry Loyde, James Risque, Jane Clemments,
Jno. Moore, Thomas Curtis, Augustine Schoolcroft.

281
James Schoolcraft, Christened June 27th, 1688
Proven: James Schoolcroft aka Schoolcraft31
born Abt. 27-Jun-1688 in Lancaster, Lancashire, England31
military Bet. 1710 - 1713 in Albany, Albany, New York, USA; Private in British Army,
Court Martial and pardon for desertion.28, 32
died Abt. 1790 in Anaquassacook, Jackson, Washington, New York, USA; Probably.
Near Cambridge by the Vermont line [Previously Albany Co.]33

married Proven Madalena [Unidentified] aka Magdalena Bef. 17203


died Bet. 1720 - 1725 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; Probably. [Previously
Albany Co.]34
1. Proven: Austien Schoolcraft aka Austin Astien3
born Abt. 02-Apr-1720 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; Probably. [Previously Albany
Co.]3
fact 21-May-1760 in Augusta, Virginia, USA; Estate appriasal of Daniel Richardson, Will Book1,
35

fact 11-Dec-1766 in Blue Grass, Highland, Virginia, USA; Originally Crab Apple Bottom,
Augusta County. Land adjoining Mattias on the South Branch of the Potomac River below Crab Apple
Bottom1, 36
died Abt. Oct-1780 in Fink's Run, Lorentz, Upshur, West Virginia, USA; Near Fort Buckhannon1,
37

married Proven Catharina Countryman Bef. 174125


died Abt. Jun-1787 in Harrison, West Virginia, USA; [Previously VA]1, 38

married Proven 2nd Anna Christina Kammer aka Cammerer Kemmer Abt. 1727 in
Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; Probably. [Previously Albany Co.]20, 34
born Abt. Jun-1704 in Niederbieber, Neuwied, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany18
died Bet. Aug-1741 - Aug-1743 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; Probably.
[Previously Albany Co.]12, 25
2. Proven: James Schoolcraft39
born Conjecture Abt. 1728 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; Probably. [Previously
Albany Co.]39
military Bet. 19-Nov-1745 - 18-Aug-1747 ; Prisoner in Québec40, 34
3. Proven: William Schoolcraft aka Wilhelm41, 42
born Conjecture Abt. 1730 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; Probably. [Previously
Albany Co.]35
died 13-Apr-1761 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA27, 42
buried Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA27
married Proven Maria Elizabeth Schneider 09-May-1749 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA;
St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church5
census 1810 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; pp. 32.1143
4. Proven: John Schoolcraft aka Johannes20
born Abt. 28-Apr-1731 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; [Previously Albany Co.]20
census 1790 in Watervliet, Albany, New York, USA; pp. 141.3444
military 1755 ; Private in Capt. William McGinnis Company, NY45
military Bet. 1779 - 1781 ; Sergeant assigned to 3rd Regiment NY Militia.46
died Abt. 17959

282
married Proven Anna Barbara Boss Bef. 17589
died 16-Dec-1784 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA47
5. Proven: Christian Schoolcraft41, 48
born Conjecture Abt. Apr-1732 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; Probably.
[Previously Albany Co.]48
military 25-Jun-1777 in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Le Haut-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada; Enterred
3rd Company, Queen's Loyal Rangers49, 50
military 16-Aug-1777 in Walloomsac, Hoosick Falls, Rensselaer, New York, USA; Battle of
Bennington51
military 22-Aug-1777 in Walloomsac, Hoosick Falls, Rensselaer, New York, USA; Transferred to
Capt. Samuel McKay49, 53
military 19-Sep-1777 in Stillwater, Saratoga, New York, USA; Bemis Heights; Captured at 1st
Battle of Freeman's Farm53, 52
military Bet. 1779 - 1780 in Cambridge, Washington, New York, USA; Private assigned to 16th
Regiment, probably did not serve54
fact Bet. 1766 - 1777 in Anaquassacook, Jackson, Washington, New York, USA; [Previously
Albany Co.]55, 56
fact 18-Apr-1778 in Cambridge, Washington, New York, USA; Appeared before Commissioners
for Conspiracies57
fact 15-May-1778 in Cambridge, Washington, New York, USA; Appeared before Commissioners
for Conspiracies57
fact 27-Dec-1779 in Anaquassacook, Jackson, Washington, New York, USA; [Cambridge
District]58
fact Bet. 1782 - 1784 in Burlington, Chittenden, Vermont, USA; Schoolcraft name associated with
Burlington VT and Caldwell's Manor59
fact 17-Oct-1783 in Montréal, Quebec, Canada56
fact 25-May-1790 in Noyan, Le Haut-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada; Christie's Manor60
died Aft. 25-May-179060
married Proven Elisabeth Margareth Becker 09-Oct-1753 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA;
St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church6
born Abt. 10-Mar-1736 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; [Previously Albany Co.]8
6. Proven: Lawrence Schoolcraft aka Johann Lorentz61
born Abt. 20-Mar-1732/33 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; [Previously Albany Co.]23,
61

census 1790 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; pp. 200.1262


census 1800 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; pp. 1170.1463
military 1755 in New York, USA; Private in Capt. William McGinnis Company, NY45
military Bet. Jul-1778 - 08-Apr-1781 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; Revolutionary
War veteran, Adjutant of Col. Vrooman's Regiment64
fact Bet. 1781 - 1784 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; Trustee and elder St. Paul's
chaurch66
fact 17-Apr-1786 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; Substantial donation to St. Paul's
church65
died Aft. 23-Sep-180867
married Proven Anna Maria Schneider aka Snyder 23-Oct-1759 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York,
USA; St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church7
born Abt. 13-Mar-1736/37 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; [Previously Albany Co.]19
married Proven 2nd Christina Sternberg Bet. 1778 - 180867
born Abt. 1732 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; [Previously Albany Co.]68
died Aft. 23-Sep-180867
7. Proven: Margaret Schoolcraft aka Margaretha29, 8
born Abt. 1734 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; [Previously Albany Co.]29, 8
died Apr-1805 in Westminster, Windham, Vermont, USA69
partner Claimed John Montressor Bef. 1760 in New York, U.S.A.70

283
married Claimed 1st Crean Brush 10-Aug-1765 in Albany, Albany, New York, USA; House of
General Bradstreet29, 70
fact 1779 in Warren, New York, USA; Crean Brush & Co. at west side, mid point of Lake
George71
married Proven 2nd Patrick Wall Aft. 176569
census 1791 in Westminster, Windham, Vermont, USA; pp. 129.02.1972
census 1800 in Westminster, Windham, Vermont, USA; pp. 642.0773
census 1810 in Westminster, Windham, Vermont, USA; pp. 394.02.1474
8. Proven: Maria Magdalena Schoolcraft aka Maria Elizabeth8
born Abt. 29-Sep-1735 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; [Previously Albany Co.]8
married Proven Balthasar Kern 23-Sep-1764 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; St. Paul's
Evangelical Lutheran Church24
9. Proven: Elizabeth Schoolcraft29, 11
born 25-Dec-1738 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; [Previously Albany Co.]11, 21
died 11-Mar-1822 in Chenango, Broome, New York, USA21
married Proven William Rose aka William Ross 30-Oct-1760 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York,
USA; St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church75
born 14-Sep-1738 in Kassel, Hessen, Germany21
census 1790 in Walkill, Ulster, New York, USA; pp. 063.1776
census 1800 in Colchester, Delaware, New York, USA; pp. 1296.2577
census 1810 in Colchester, Delaware, New York, USA; pp. 404.1878
died 25-Apr-1819 in Colchester, Delaware, New York, USA21
10. Proven: Catherine Helen Schoolcraft29, 12
born Abt. 26-Jul-1741 in Schoharie, Schoharie, New York, USA; [Previously Albany Co.]12
married Proven William Heens Bet. 16-Oct - 04-Nov-1861 in Schenectady, Schenectady, New York,
USA; Reformed Dutch Protestant Church79

married Proven 3rd Elizabeth [Unidentified] Abt. 174325, 81

1
Concerning the First Schoolcraft Immigrants to This Country and Detailing Some Facts and Opinions on Two
Particular Branch of This Family - With Regards to the Migration of That Branch From New York, to Virginia and
Kentucky. CREATED/PUBLISHED: Edward J. Schoolcraft, 4809 Douglas MacArthur NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico
87110, 1986 (4th Printing 1993, w/revisions)
2 Library of Congress, Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft Papers,

http://lccn.loc.gov/mm73039115, container 36, reel 19, unbound correspondence, Jan 1826 to Dec 1829, letter from
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft to John Johnston.
3 New York, Schenectady: First Reformed Church, Baptism of Astien ob Augustien on [2 April 1720], parents Jacob

Shultgraft & Madalena Schultgraft, sponsors Phillip Schueler & Grechen Vrooman.
4
New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, "Register of the boys and girls, who for the first
time, have been at Holy Communion with me." The first is for Wilhelm Schulkraf on June 24th, 1744 stating first
communion. The second page records Christian Schulkraf on April 10th, 1748 and Lorentz Schulkraf on July 14th,
1751.
5 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Marriages Vol. 1 pp. 206 #2: Marriage on 9 May

[1749] of Wilhelm Schulkraf and Maria Elisabet Schneider Text Dom. 6. 14.
6
New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Marriage on 9 Oct [1753] of Christian Schulkraf &
Elisabet Margareth Becker on account of my absence married by Domine Schuyler.
7 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Marriage on 23 Oct [1759] of Lorentz Schulkraf &

Maria Schneider.
8 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Two Baptismal Pages Possessed by St. Paul's

Evangelical Lutheran Church but not from St. Paul's: Baptism of Elisabetha Margaretha [Becker] on Mar 10 [1735/36],
parents Andonius Becker, sponsors John Phillipps Bergmann besides John Peter Knickern's daughter, Elisabeth
Margretha.

284
9
Personal memoirs of a residence of thirty years with the Indian tribes on the American frontiers: with brief notices of
passing events, facts, and opinions, A. D. 1812 to A. D. 1842. CREATED/PUBLISHED: Philadelphia, Lippincott,
Grambo and co., 1851. John the third son.
10 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Two Baptismal Pages Possessed by St. Paul's

Evangelical Lutheran Church but not from St. Paul's Dual baptism: Baptism of Maria Magdalena on Sept 29 [1735],
parents Schimms Schulkrafft, sponsors Pieter Mann, Margaret, his wife. Baptism of Margretha on [Sept 29 1735],
parents [Schimms Schulkrafft], sponsors Maria Elisabeth [Schoolcraft?].
11 New York, Schoharie: The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, Baptism of Elisabeth on Decemb: 28

1738, parents James Schilkragt & Anna Christina Kemmer S:H:V, sponsors Jacob Snyder & Elisabeth Snyder.
12 New York, Schoharie: The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, Baptism of Catharina on July 26, 1741,

parents Jaems Schoelkrafft & Anna Christina, sponsors Johannes Finck & Catharina Seibel.
13 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Peter on [1760] born Jan 9 [1760],

parents Lorentz Schulkraf & Maria, sponsors Peter Schneider and his wife.
14
New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Schulkraf, Jacob on [1761] born 18 Dec
1761, parents Lorentz & Maria Schulkraf, sponsors Jacob Schnider & Elizabeth Mann.
15
New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Lorentz on [1763] born Nov 15 [1763],
parents Lorentz Schulkraf & Maria, sponsors Peter Schneider Jun. & Maria Elisabeth Schulkraf.
16 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Lysabeth on [1775] born Oct 18 [1775],

parents Lorentz Schulkraft & Maria, sponsors Peter Schneider and his wife.
17 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Maria on [1778] born Sept 9 [1778],

parents Lorentz SchulCraff & Maria, sponsors Johannes Schneyder and his wife.
18 Henry Z. Jones Jr., The Palatine Families of New York, (Picton Press, Camden, ME), pp. 899 et seq.: Peter Snyder

was a freeholder at Schoharrie in 1763 (Albany Co. Freeholders). He md. Elisabetha Catharina Brucker (HJ). The ch.
of Peter² and Elisabetha Catharina were: i) Anna Maria³, bpt. 15 March 1736/37 - Sp.: Johs. Scheyver and A. Maria
Scheyver (Schoharie Luth. or Ref. Chbk.). She md. Lorentz Schoolcraft 23 Oct 1759 (Schoharie Luth. Chbk.).
19 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baptism of Anna Maria [SCHNEYDER] on Mar 13

1736/37, parents Pieter Sneyer & Elys. Sneyer, sponsors Johns. Scheyver & A. Maria Scheyver.
20 New York, Schoharie: The High and Low Dutch Reformed Congregation, Baptism of Johannes on 28 April [1731],

parents Jacobus Schoelgraft & Anna Christina Kemmer, sponsors Johannes Ingolt & Joh: Siever & Margrieta Bekker.
21 National Archives W4578, micropublication M804, Record Group 15., New York: Jacob Rose Family Record.,

William Rose was born in Hefse Cafsel Germany Sept 14th, 1738. Elizabeth Schoolcraft was born in Schoharie New
York U.S.A. Dec. 25th, 1738. William Rose married to Elizabeth Schoolcraft in Schoharie N. Y. 1760. Jacob Rose, son
of William Rose was born in Schoharie N. Y. April 21st, 1761.
22 Henry Z. Jones Jr., The Palatine Families of New York, (Picton Press, Camden, ME), pp. 430 et seq.: Anna

Christina², bpt. June of 1704 - sp.: Jehan Wilh. Kämmer, Elsa Christina - d/o Christian Diederich there, Anna Gertraudt
- servant at Johannes Mees's from the Neuburgische country, and Johann Daniel - s/o Weyandt Wirttges at Seg.
(Niederbieber Chbk.). She md. James Schoolkraft (HJ); the will of William Schoolcraft of Schoharie 22 Sept 1760
mentioned property left by his grandfather William Canner (Fernow Wills #1551).
23 New York, Schoharie: St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Two Baptismal Pages Possessed by St. Paul's

Evangelical Lutheran Chu