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Virtual Performance Solution


2013
EDUCATION PACKAGE

Tutorial 15
Virtual Performance Solution 2013 Education Package
© 2013 ESI Group Tutorial 15

Tutorial 15
Connecting
Parts with a
Tied Interface

Problem description
Outline Mesh independent connection of two parts modeled with shell elements

Analysis type(s): Explicit, 3D analysis

Element type(s): Shell, tied

Materials law(s): Elastic, elastic-plastic

Model options: Boundary conditions, Nodal loads

Key results: Displacements, Tying force

Prepared by: Wang Kunpeng, Pierre Culiere

Date: February 2008

Version V2 (updated December 2013 for Visual-Crash PAM V9.0)

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Virtual Performance Solution 2013 Education Package
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Background information

Pre-processor, Solver and Post-processor used:


• Visual-Mesh: for generation of the geometry and meshes.
• Visual-Crash for PAM: to assign controls, material, load, constraints and time history data.
• VPS/PAM-CRASH (Explicit): to calculate the solution.
• Visual-Viewer: to evaluate the results for contour plots, deformations, etc.

Prior knowledge for the exercise:


No prior Visual or VPS/PAM-CRASH knowledge is required for working through this exercise.

Problem data and description:


Units: kN, mm, kg, ms, Kelvin

Description: Two steel plates are bonded with an


adhesive. The model represents a lap
joint tension test.

Both plates have the same size:

Length: 50 mm
Width: 20 mm
Thickness: 2 mm

The overlap is of 10 mm and


corresponds to the bonding area.

Loading: Part 1 has one end fixed; part 2 is pulled with an imposed velocity.

Material: Steel material data: E=210 kN/mm2, ν=0.3 and density 7.8*10-6 kg/mm3).
Adhesive: stiffness unknown.

Supplied datasets:
No datasets or meshes are needed to tackle the problem; the mesh will be generated as a part of the
exercise.

It is recommended that you use the following names for the VPS/PAM-CRASH input and results files:

For the elastic Tied Model mesh use Tied_Elastic.pc


For the Elastic-Plastic Tied Model mesh use Tied_Elastic_Plastic.pc
In each case completed PAM-CRASH datasets are available in case you get into trouble.

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Part 1: Create Plates in Visual Mesh


This part of the tutorial is not detailed. If you need more guidance on meshing, please refer to Exercise 1
of this tutorial.

Start Visual Crash for PAM (VCP) and activate the Visual-Mesh context. The context bar is normally
located on the left side of the screen.

Creating a New Model

Select File and option New then specify the model


unit system:

Set Source Units to mm, kg, ms


Set Target Units to mm, kg, ms
Click OK

Planning and specifying nodal points


Plate 1 has four points in the x-y plane with one corner
at the origin (x=0, y=0) and the other points having the
coordinates shown; (z=0 for all points).

Defining the (corner) points


The four corner points are defined using the Node >
By XYZ, Locate… panel.

Entered coordinates and click Create Node. Default


node ID numbers are used.

For the four points, use z=0.

Generating the mesh surface


Go to 2D > 3/4 Point Mesh and choose the option
4 point polygon. Then click on the four corner nodes
in sequence.

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Generating the mesh of part 1


Click on Mesh and a new panel opens to control the mesh parameters: element sizes, type of mesh and
connection (stitching) to adjacent meshes. Use a 5mm element size and click Mesh.
The mesh will appear; accept it by clicking Create Mesh then OK and click Close to close the mesh
panel.

Generating the mesh of part 2 by transforming part 1

1. Go to 2D>Transform
2. Select option Translation
3. Verify that Offset is selected
4. Click on Shell button
5. Select all elements of part 1
6. Input the exact offset value:
dx=0, dy=40, dz=-2.
The 2 mm gap in Z between the shell
parts corresponds to their thickness. The
adhesive thickness is neglected.
7. Click on Update Entities  you get a
preview of the transformation
8. Choose Copy
9. Assign a new Part ID (2) to the new part
10. Click Copy to finish creating part 2
11. Removing “coincident nodes”: Click
Checks > Coincident Nodes. Select
Check > Fuse all then APPLY and
Close.

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Saving and Ending the meshing work


The meshing work is now complete. It is probably
wise to save the data with File > Save As to a
suitable folder with a suitable name. Export this as
a filename.vdb file; which is the default name for a
Visual Environment Database.

A suitable name could be “Tied_Elastic.vdb”.

Remark: Instead of File > Save, it is possible to use File > Export to save data in a solver input file
format (.pc) format. However, some of the information, like geometry data would be lost.

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Part 2: Define test conditions in VCP


This involves:

Starting Visual Crash PAM for creating the Tied Model.

Using VCP for defining:


• Boundary conditions on PART 1 (fixed end)
• Boundary conditions on PART 2 (velocity at end)
• Part and material data
• Control data

Starting Visual-Crash PAM


You may now duplicate the file of the model you just created. If things go wrong, it is
possible to go back to this back-up file and start things again.
1. Copy Tied_Elastic.vdb to Tied_Elastic.vdb.backup
(in Windows explorer or Linux shell)
2. Click Applications and select Crash PAM

Introduction to Tied Interfaces


A TIED interface is a mesh independent connection entity of the PAM-SCL solver library. It ties a set of
slave nodes to master segments, here, elements. For this interface, the slave nodes can be positioned
at a distance to the master surface.

Slave nodes are searched around a given master


segment within a box delimited by a thickness of
value hcont (the contact thickness) around the
master segment.

Once a node is found to be slave to a segment, the


solver uses penalty forces to keep the node at a
fixed position relative to the segment.

Rupture: the tied may fail according to a simple


rupture model defined with the RUPMO entity. A
simple rupture model consists in setting maximum
normal and tangential forces and using a criterion
combining both values.

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Generating the Tied Interface


1. Select Crash>Links>Tied
2. Click on the IPART value 0 (blue circle) for getting the Data Model Entities card

3. Click on NEW PART and it will be showed in highlight


4. Click on OK button and value 0 will change into 3 (we have already created part 1 and part 2, so the
software will create a successive value 3)
5. Change the NAME into TIED for simplifying.
6. Choose the Slave nodes:
• Choose the nodes as shown on part 2,
or the entire part 2 if you want slave
nodes to be found by proximity search
(using a radius to be defined later)
• Click Update Selection(green arrow)
• Node or part numbers appear in the
card’s main body

7. Choose the Master elements:


• Select the Sel option as Ele.
• Choose the master elements as shown
or the entire part 1 if you want an
automatic search.
• Click Update Selection  element or
part numbers appear in the card’s main
body (brown frame)

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8. Click on Apply button for finishing the TIED


interface creation, and close the TIED
creation window pressing Close tab. The
defined TIED interface should appear as
follows in the Explorer.

Define the link search distance

In the explorer, go to Tied>Parts


and right click “Edit” on the tied you
created

A panel pops up. In the panel set the


following values:
• TCONT = 1.5 mm
• RDIST = 2
Click Apply then Close buttons.

Boundary conditions (fixed end and other constraints)


1. Select Crash>Loads > Displacements BC.
2. Select end nodes of PART 1 and click Update Selection(green arrow). Selected nodes appear in a
list.

3. Activate the required constraint: X, Y, Z for translational and U, V, W for rotational degrees of
freedom. Choose “1”, meaning constrained, for all degrees of freedom
4. Choose an appropriate title for the constraint; e.g. “Fixed_End_of_PART1”
5. Save the condition with Apply and Close.

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Loading conditions (at the opposite free end of PART 2)


The aim now is to apply positive (x) velocity loading at onse free end of part 2.

1. Select Crash>Loads >3D BC to assign nodal velocity loads.


2. Select VEL3D type on the top of the 3D BC’s creation card instead of DIS3D (pre-selected by
default).
3. Select nodes at end in positive X- direction and click Update Selection. Nodes appear in the list.
4. Give the nodal loads a suitable title; e.g “Velocity_of_X Axis_PART2”.
5. Click on IFUN1’s value 0, select New, and a new panel to define the load curve will open. Click on
File>New>XY: this has created a new curve data.
6. In the new panel, define the velocity function. The x-axis is time and y-axis is velocity. Assume the
velocity starts at zero and increases to 10mm/ms at 5 ms, then it decreases into ZERO at 10 ms, then
click Finish.
7. Select this NewCurve_1 and click Assign Curve
8. Press Save To Model and Close
9. Velocity Curve Scaling: The
velocity peak is 10 mm/ms and we
would like this to be 3 mm/ms in X
axis. A convenient way is to set the
velocity scale factor SFAC1 =0.3.
(SFAC1 correspond to IFUN1)
10. Make sure the load curve
(IFUN1=1) is assigned to this set of
nodes. Finish with Apply and
Close.

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Assigning Material and Part data


This is done using two entities which are linked together; namely:

1. Material data for material data such as modulus, density and plasticity information.

2. Part data for (geometric data such as thickness).

Shell Material data


Select Crash > Materials Editor and then select the type of Material Model; in this case use a 101
–ELASTIC_SHELL. Enter data as in picture hereafter. Save with Apply and Close.

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Part data
1. In the explorer panel open the Parts folder
2. Double click the required part and define thickness and material data as indicated on the picture.
3. Finish with Apply and Close.
4. Repeat previous step for Part n°2

Tied Material data

Choose Type 301 for Tied


material, then assign this
material to the Tied
through Part Card. Please
use parameters as in the
figure hereafter

Set the VPS/PAM-CRASH Control Data


This controls the analysis and allows specific data like the problem analysis time (in ms in this case),
specific output information and output intervals for the results to be defined.

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Title
1. In the explorer panel, develop Control, then
New. Click on Basic Controls.
2. Select the following options: ANALYSIS,
INPUTVERSION, TITLE
3. In the Basic Controls panel, select TITLE
4. A title can now be added. It will appear in
Visual Viewer results.
5. Finish with Apply and Close.
6. Similar steps for INPUTVERSION with 2013
7. For ANALYSIS, select Explicit

1. In the explorer panel, develop


Control, then New. Click on
Standard Controls
2. In the Standard Controls panel
select RUNEND (open, edit and
enter 10.0 for the solution time).

For the ouput control (OCTRL): right click on Pam controls and select advanced control

• Set THPOUTPUT to INTERVAL with 0.1


ms (100 states) for time histories (.THP or
ERF file)

• Set DSYOUTPUT to INTERVAL with 0.5


ms (20 states) for deformed structure
(.DSY or ERF file)

• Click Apply and Close.

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Special output options

By default only limited node and element time


history information is stored on the .THP and .DSY
files; for example, nodal displacements and
velocities, and element local stresses. A wide
range of additional information is available, but
this must be specified. For example in the explore
option Controls > Standard Controls > OCTRL
click on the tab Advanced. Then click on SHLTHP
> ALL > OK and click on SHLPLOT> ALL > OK
to output all available shell contour variable to the
.DSY, .THP and .ERF files. Finish with Apply.

Saving the dataset (as a .pc file)


Click on File > Export and save the dataset with a suitable name, e.g. Tied_elastic.pc. Make sure the
directory location for the export is correct.

• Remark 1: The File >Save option would save


the model as a vdb binary format, readable
by Visual Environment but not by the solver.

• Remark 2: Some formats (e.g. DYNA3D and


NASTRAN) can also be saved: See the Data
type options. However, a different context
should be loaded to define conditions for
these solvers.

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Part 3: Running the


VPS/PAM-CRASH job
Start the simulation
Open the ESI Group folder on the Desktop and select /VP Education Version/2013/
Virtual-Performance Solver 2013.0 Education executable.

The dataset file name and its location will be requested.

If the dataset is valid, it will proceed through the dataset initialization phase into the solution phase. If
there are data errors the run will stop with an abnormal termination message. Inspect the output file for
errors (search for ‘ERROR’ and investigate). Correct the dataset; preferably in VISUAL CRASH (or in
the editor) and run the analysis again.

The solver progression can be monitored by the information displayed in the listing windows:
CYCLE TIME TIME-STEP ELEMENT NO DTMIN FAC. KINETIC EN INTERNAL EN TOTAL EN DTMIN NB.
6190 0.9512E+01 0.1483E-02 SHELL 119 0.1000E+01 0.2104E+00 0.7129E+03 0.8667E-01 0

Once the message NORMAL TERMINATION appears in the listing windows, you can proceed to Part 4,
results evaluation:
N O R M A L T E R M I N A T I O N

TOTAL NUMBER OF CYCLES = 6519


AVERAGE TIME PER ZONE CYCLE = 0.5113E+01
NUMBER OF SHELLS ELIMINATED = 0
NUMBER OF SOLIDS ELIMINATED = 0
NUMBER OF BEAMS ELIMINATED = 0
GLOBAL CONTACT SEARCHES = 10

CPU(s) ELAPSED(s) CPU% ELAPS%


--------------------------------------
INPUT/INITIALIZATION 1.0000E+00 1.9000E+01 25.00 76.00
INTERNAL FORCES 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 25.00 4.00
NODAL OPERATIONS 2.0000E+00 3.0000E+00 50.00 12.00
OUTPUTS 0.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 0.00 4.00
CONTACTS 0.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 0.00 4.00
CONSTRAINTS(RB,RW,BC..) 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.00 0.00
KJOINT/MBS SOLVERS 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.00 0.00
ADAPTIVE MESH (STAMP) 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.00 0.00
--------------------------------------
TOTALS 4.0000E+00 2.5000E+01 100.00 100.00
--------------------------------------

CPU TIME 4.000E+00 (s)


ELAPSED TIME 2.500E+01 (s)
RATIO CPU/ELAPSED TIME 16.00 %

NORMAL TERMINATION,EXITO MESSAGE

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Part 4: Results Analysis in


Visual-Viewer
Starting Visual Viewer

Click on Applications > Viewer.

Three files are available for results visualization which depend of the
OUTPUT_FILE_FORMAT specified in the OCTRL section:

• filename.THP stores time history information at selected points,


elements, etc.
• filename.DSY contains deformation and contour plots of the full
structure.
• filename_RESULT.erfh5 stores time history information at selected
points, elements, etc and deformation and contour plots of the full
structure(it’s the combination of filename.THP + filename.DSY).

Basic 3D Model Display (.DSY file)

Open both results files at once using


File > Open Project. The geometry of the
model is displayed.

Click the last arrow of the animation toolbar


to display the last state.

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Time history results (.THP file)

Click (Import and Plot) to open


the curve plotting panel. Make sure the
THP file is selected.

1. Select entity type GLOBAL

2. Select kinetic, internal and total


energies under “components”

3. Select multiple curves per


graph

4. Click PLOT.

The total energy remains constant: the


run is stable.

Using similar steps, time history information can be plotted for:

• stress-strain variables for elements to be selected in VCP (output > Nodal Time History)
• Node kinematics for the nodes selected in VCP (output > Nodal Time History)
• Forces in the tied interface forces (select SECTION entity type)

Animation

Go to Results > Animation Control

Press Play and use the Speed Control slider to


adjust the viewing speed.

Additional tabs are available for overlaying the


Initial Mesh or viewing selected states
simultaneously. Click Close to exit this panel.

The tied interface appears as one-dimensional


elements connecting master and slave parts.

 The tied elements are overly stretched.

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Contour of stresses

Click Results > Contour and under


Entity types activate entity type
SHELL can be selected and, for
example, the variable Max equivalent
Stress over thickness.

 The stresses are largely over the


steel yield stress (~0.3 GPa for mild
steel). For such stretching, we should
use an elastic-plastic material model.

The model is purely elastic, and the


validity limits for this type model have
been exceeded.

Some shell elements of part 1 and part 2 have non-physical deformations They are actually zero-energy
modes that occur in under-integrated element formulations. They are called hourglass modes due to
the shape of the elements.

We will next overcome these two problems by using an elastic-plastic material model for parts 1 and 2.

Save the session as Template


You can save the current Visual-Viewer session as a template, e.g. “Tied.tpl”. The template will be used
at next iteration to rebuild automatically all result pages.

Then, just go to Applications and select Crash PAM.

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Part 5: Elastic-plastic material


variant
Model Modification
Open again the filenename.pc file.

1. Change part 1 and part 2 material type from 101 to 103.

2. Open the material editor and create a new material (you may also modify the existing material).

3. Choose the material type 103 (iterative plasticity)

4. Assign a new name to this material, for example you can call it
“Material_Elastic_Plastic”(highlighted in the purple color)

5. Input parameters as in the following screen shot (highlighted in the red and brown color)

6. Click on Apply and Close buttons

7. If you created a new material, assign it to part 1 and part 2 by editing Part data

Export the Model and run


As in former steps, export the model with a new name, “Tied_Elastic_Plastic.pc”, and run the new model
using the solver.

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Results update using the template


1. Open the Visual Viewer context and go to File > Open.
2. In the Open dialog, choose to open file as “template file”
3. Select the template you saved in the previous Visual Viewer session, Tied.tpl.
4. Choose the new DSY and THP files to be
read
5. Press OK  The results from last session
are rebuilt using the new files
6. The results of the previous session are then
displayed again
7. Select page 1 in the explorer.
8. Go to Spectrum control in the Contour
panel and perform a reset to adjust the
color scale to the new results.

Key results
• The new stresses have
normal values, and no
hourglass deformation is
observed.
• The plates plastify and limit
the effort in the link to about
52 kN. (Click on the force
curve to display min/max
information in the console).

Possible extension
The maximum force in the link is 52 kN (. For an area of 20 x 60 = 1200 mm2, this gives an approximate
stress of 43 MPa. The adhesive may not sustain such a high stress. The exercise can be extended by
the introduction of a rupture model (RUPMO in VCP auxiliary folder).

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