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Quantitative research

Quantitative research is a type of empirical investigation. That means the research focuses on
verifiable observation as opposed to theory or logic. Most often this type of research is expressed in
numbers. A researcher will represent and manipulate certain observations that they are studying.
They will attempt to explain what it is they are seeing and what affect it has on the subject. They will
also determine and what the changes may reflect. The overall goal is to convey numerically what is
being seen in the research and to arrive at specific and observable conclusions.
• Is a body of written works.
• Originated from oral traditions.
• Are imaginative works.
• Deals with stories and poetry.
• The content depends on the author.

Three Points of Literature

• Literature portrays human experience.
• Authors interpret these human experiences.
• It is an art form and a style of expression.

The Pre-Colonial Period

• This existed before the Spanish occupation in the 1500s.
• It is oral in nature and is full of lessons and ideas about life, its blessings, and its consequences.
• It contains ideas from birth to the grave.
• The oral characteristic of pre-colonial literature gives the possibility for many alterations.
• In the Philippine context, no matter how it may be considered as altered, pre-colonial literature is still
revered to by many Filipinos.
• The sources are usually the local native town folk.


1. Oral Literature
a. Riddles (Mga Bugtong) - These are statements that contain superficial words, but they
function figuratively and as metaphors, and are in the form of questions. These are questions
that demand deeper answers & Deals with everyday life. It usually has mundane things as
answers. This is used in the past as a form of game in small or large gatherings.

b. Proverbs (mga Salawikain) - These are statements that are considered as wise. These
are usually given by parents or elders of the community. There is belief that experience is the
best teacher.

2. Folk Songs
a. Lullabies - these is locally known as the Hele. These are sung to put to sleep babies. The
content varies, but usually, parents sing these with ideas on how hard life is and how they
hope that their child will not experience the hardships of life.

b. Drinking Songs - these are locally known as Tagay and are sung during drinking sessions.
c. Love Songs - to many Filipinos, these are known as the Harana. It can also be called
Courtship Songs and are used by young men to capture the heart of the girl that they love.
d. Songs of Death - are songs or chants that are usually given during exorcisms and
thanksgiving during good harvest.
e. Religious Songs - are lamentations that contain the roll of good deeds that the dead has
usually done to immortalize his or her good image.

3. Folk Tales - These are stories of native Filipinos. These deal with the power of nature personified,
their submission to a deity usually Bathala- and how this deity is responsible for the blessings an
calamities. These also tackle about irresponsibility, lust, stupidity,deception, and fallibility that
eventually leads to the instilling of good morals.
a. Myths - these tackle the natural to strange occurrences of the earth and how things were
created with an aim to give an explanation to things.
b. Legends – These stories usually come with a moral lesson that give credit to supernatural
powers, supernatural occurences, and other out-ofthis- world native imagination.
c. Fables - are short or brief stories that cater the children of the native Filipinos and are
usually bounded by good manners and right conduct. These stories use animals as characters
that represent a particular value or characteristic.
d. Epics - are very lengthy narratives that are based on oral traditions. These contain
encounters of fighters, stereotypical princes or heroes that save a damsel in distress.

The Spanish Period

• The start of the Philippine's more colorful history took place in March 6, 1521 when Ferdinand
Magellan docked on the shores of Homonhon.
• The Filipinos were then called “Ladinos”, meaning they were latinized.
• Filipinos were called two things. One is the “Taga-Bayan”, while the other is the “Taga-bukid” or
• A person who is a Taga-bayan is considered urbane and civilized and were in easy range of the
church and state.
• A person who is a Taga-bundok or Taga-bukid is called a Bruto Salvage (Savage Brute) or Indio
and were the ones who lived far from the center of the Spanish power.


1. Religious Literature

a. Pasyon b. Senakulo c. Komedya

2. Secular or Non-Religious Literature

a. Awit b. Korido c. Prose Narratives

3. Propaganda Literature

4. Revolutionary Literature

The Japanese Period and the Republic

• The Philippine literature came into a halt.
• The use of the English language was forbidden, and the use of the Filipino language was mandated
under the Japanese rule.
• For some this was a problem, but to most writers, it was a blessing in disguise.
• Almost all news papers were stopped except for some.
• Filipino literature was given a break during this period. Many wrote plays, poems, short stories, etc.
Topics and themes were often about life in the provinces.

1. Poetry

2. Fiction

3. Drama

4. Newspapers

5. Essays


21st Century Literature

In the 21st centruy Philippines, there are a lot of literary innovations that are adapted and
created by Filipinos. Nowadays, even those who do not have any significant literary background
make their own way using the freedom that they have to write and to express. There are a lot of new
froms from the basic genres of literature; thus, proving how far the literature in the Philippines has
gone and how far it will go on from here.