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Basic Reservoir Engineering

Ricardo Jorquera
Technology Manager
Quito- Ecuador

© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 1


Objectives

• Review of some of the fundamentals basics of petroleum


engineering
Agenda

• Petroleum Geology
• Physical Characteristics of a Reservoir
• Reservoir Fluids Mechanics
• Reservoir Fluid Overview
• Basic Parameters used in Reservoir Engineering
• Calculations of Hydrocarbons
• Reservoir Drive Mechanics
• Productivity Index and Skin Factor
Petroleum Geology
Types of Rocks

Extrusive igneous rock


Igneous
Rocks
Intrusive or Plutonic igneous rock

Conglomerates (Breccia)
Clastics Sandstones
Shales

Carbonates
Sedimentary
Chemicals Evaporities
Rocks
Chert
No - Clastics
Carbonates (Limestone)
Organics
Coal

Metamorphic
Rocks
Types of Rocks
• Igneous Rocks (from Magma when cools and solidifies)
– basalt (ext.), granite, scoria, pumice) etc.

Pumice

Granite

Scoria
Types of Rocks
 Sedimentary Rocks (compressed and cemented)

Conglomerate

Sandstone

Dolomite
Shale Halite

Limestone
Types of Rocks
• Metamorphic Rocks (from sedimentary rocks, any type change by heat / pressure)
– marble (metamorphosed limestone), schist, gneiss, etc.

Schist

Gneiss

Marble
Clastic Rock -
Formed From Debris (weathering and erosion) of Older Rock
Rock Type Particular Diameter

Conglomerate Pebbles - 2 to 64 mm
Sandstone Sand - 0.06 to 2 mm
Siltstone Silt - 0.003 to 0.06 mm
Shale Clay - Less than 0.003 mm

Nonclastic - Mostly of Chemical or Biochemical Origin

Rock Type Composition

Limestone Calcite - CaCO3


Dolomite Dolomite - CaMg(CO3)2
Salt Halite - NaCI
Gypsum Gypsum - CaSO4.2H2O
Chert Silica - SiO2
Coal Chiefly Carbon
The Rock Cycle

Igneous Weathering, transport


rocks Sediments
and deposition

Weathering, transport and


Heat and Pressure
(Metamorphism)

Cooling & solidification

Compression &
Cementation
(crystallization)

deposition
Magma

Heat and Pressure Sedimentary


Metamorphic
Melting
(Metamorphism) rocks
rocks
The Rock Cycle
Depositional Environments A depositional environment
will control the size, sorting,
and shape of rock particles
A depositional environment
will control the size, sorting,
and shape of rock particles
Conditions Required for Hydrocarbon Reservoir
Conditions Required for Hydrocarbon Reservoir

 Mother rock
– rich in organic material
 Alteration
– molecular structure change by heat and hydrocarbon
migrate through porous media or fracture
 Trap
– trapped by a impermeable rock
 Reservoir Rock
– porous and permeable
Hydrocarbon Traps

 Trap Types

– Structural

– Stratigraphical

– Combined
Structural Geology
Folds

Younger layer beneath older

Axial Plane
Structural Geology
Faults
Faults
Structural Geology
Unconformities
Structural Traps
Stratigraphic Traps

Lenticular Traps Pinch out Traps

Diagenetic Stratigraphic Traps Permeability Changes


Stratigraphic Traps

Unconformities Traps
Combination Traps

• Salt Domes
Other Traps
Meteoric
Water
Asphalt Trap

Biodegraded
Oil/Asphalt
Partly
Water Biodegraded Oil

Hydrodynamic Trap
Hydrostatic
Head
Shale

Water
Oil
Origen del Petróleo
Physical Characteristics of a Reservoir
Area and Thickness

The total area of a reservoir and its thickness are of considerable


importance in determining if a reservoir is a commercial one or not.
Net Pay Thickness

Shale
h1 Sand

h2

h3

hnet = h1 + h2 + h3
φ
Porosity ( )
Defined as the fraction of total volume occupied by pores or voids

Pore Volume
φ= *100
Total Volume

•Total Porosity

•Effective Porosity or interconnected


Porosity it depends largely :

De que factores depende:


Example (1)

Depth = 6182 ft
Porosity = 17,2 %
Permeability = 1439 md
Example (2)

Depth = 8630 ft
Porosity = 21 %
Permeability = 84 md
Permeability - Definition of a Darcy
Permeability – Radial Flow

A radial-flow, analogous to flow


into a wellbore may be derided
form Darcy’s law

2πkh( pe − pw )
q=
µ ln re / rw
Effect of Grain Size on Permeability
Same Effective Porosity – Different
Permeabilities
Saturations (Sw, So, Sg) Water Saturation: Sw
Is defined as the fraction of pore
volume filled with water:
Water Filled Pore Volume
Oil H2O Sw = x100
Total Pore Volume
Oil Saturation: (So)
Defined as the fraction of pore volume
filled with oil:
Oil Filled Pore Volume
So = x100
Total Pore Volume
Gas Saturation: (Sg)
Defined as the fraction of pore volume
filled with Gas:
Gas Filled Pore Volume
Sw + So + Sg = 1 Sg =
Total Pore Volume
x100
Effective Permeability and Relative Permeability (1)

The permeability has been adopted as a measure of porous rocks’


ability to conduit fluids if only one fluid is present in the interstices

Effective Permeability is the permeability of a flowing phase which does


not saturate 100% of the rock. The effective permeability is always less
than the absolute value of k for the rock.

2πko h( pe − pw )
qo =
µ o ln re / rw
Relative Permeability is the ratio of effective permeability (to a fluid) to
absolute permeability of the same rock.

kw ko kg
k rw = k ro = k rg =
k k k
Effective Permeability and Relative Permeability (2)
The Effective Permeability of a fluid is a function of the Fluid Saturation
and Wettability. Water wet rocks have high Kro and oil wet rock conversely.

Relative Permeability Curves


1.0 1.0

Water Relative Permeability, Kro


1
Oil Relative Permeability, Kro

0.8 3 0.8

Kro
0.6 0.6

0.4 0.4
Krw
0.2 0.2

2
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Water Saturation Sw
Irreducible Water Critical Oil
Saturation saturation
© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 41
Structural Contour Maps
Which depicts the depth of a specific formation from the surface. They can show the angle of a fault
Maps
Maps
UNIDAD DE EXPLOTACION FURRIAL
YACIMIENTO NARICUAL INFERIOR
MAPA ESTRUCTURAL FUL-64

0'
40
-1 5 2 0 0 '
FN-14
FN-9
-1 5 F N-10
FN-3
0' F UL- 32 FUL-41 FUL -44
00
-1 5 FN-16
FN-11
F N-18 00' FUL -13
FN-8 - 148 FUL -16
FN -6 FUL -29
FUL-49
FN-5 FN-1 2 FUL -59
FN-1 F UL-24 FUL-56
FN-13 FUL-30
FUL -6 FU L-8 1 FUL-54
F N-17 FU L-7 0
FU L-75 FUL-67 FUL-36
F N-15 FU L-5 1 FUL -19 F UL-1 F UL-57
FN-2 FU L-6 2 F UL-28 F UL-48
MUC -51 FU L-6 6 FUL-9 FU L-69
L OC -13 LOC-7
FUL -10
L OC -14 F UL-12 FUL -45 F UL-3
L OC-12 FUL-34
MUC -38 FUC-17 FUL-61 F UL-15 FU L-72
MUC -45 F UC -2 LOC-10 FUL -43 LOC-6
F UL-65 FUL -53
FU L-4 F UL-20
FUL-5 F UL-27
FUC-5 FUL-71 FUL -58 FUL -22
FUL-63 FUL-31
C RC-18 FUC -3 F UC -19 FUL -18
FUL-50
FUC-2 3 FUL -7 FUL-2
FUC-18 FUL -68 FU L-8
FUC -16 F UC-1 FU L-2 3
FUL -52 FUL -33 FUL-26
FUL-11 F UL-60
FU C-8
FUC-14 FUL-40
F UC-15 FUC-4 FUL -35
L OC -9
FUC-35 FU L-14
FUL -47
FUC-21
F UC-33 F UC-25
FU L-1 7 FUL-38
FUC-32 F UC-31 F UL-46
F UL-37
FUC-7
FUC-13 FUC-6
FUC -29 FU C-10 F UL-21
FU C-26 FUL-55
FUC-11 FU C-27
FU L-25
NW-11 FU C-9 F UL-42
F UC -20 F UC -12
FU C-24 Produc tor

FU C-22
FUL-39 40 0'
-1 4 Iny ector de Agua
FU C-28
-146 00'
C RC-16 -1480 0' Inyector de Gas

Alto Angul o
CRC-13
"Normal" Pressure Distribution from Surface
through a Reservoir Structure
Reservoir Fluid Overview
HYDROCARBONS

ALIPHATICS AROMATICS, CnH2n-6

ALKANES, ALKENES, ALKYNES, CYCLIC ALIPHATICS


CnH2n+2 CnH2n CnH2n-2

CYCLOALKANES

Also called:
CnH2n
Napthenes
Cycloparaffins
Alicyclic Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbon
Combination of C and H

• Alkane Series (CnH2n+2) (paraffines)

Methane CH4
Ethane C2H6
Propane C3H8
Butane C4H10
Pentane C5H12
Hexane C6H14
-------------- ------------
Tetrocontane C40H82

• Cycloalkanes ( CnH2n)
(cycloparaffens or naphtenes)

Cycloexane C6H12
Hydrocarbon
Combination of C and H

• Arene or Aromatic Series (C6H2n)


Classification of Hydrocarbons
Reservoir Gas API
Fluid Surface appearance GOR Range C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
SG gravity

Dray Gas Colorless gas Essentially no 0.60 96 2.7 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.4
liquids 0.65

Wet Gas Colorless gas with small >100 0.65 60º


amount of clear or MSCF/bbl 0.68
straw-colored liquid

Condensate Colorless gas with 3 to 100 0.65 50º 87 4.4 2.3 11.7 0.8 3.8
significant amount of MSCF.bbl 0.85 70º
light-colored liquid (900-18000
m3/m3)

Volatile or Brown liquid with About 3000 0.65 40º 64 7.5 4.7 4.1 3 16.7
high various yellow, red or SCF/bbl 0.85 50º
shrinkage oil green hues (500 m3/m3)

Black or low Dark Brown to black 100-2500 30º 49 2.8 1.9 1.6 1.2 43.5
shrinkage oil viscous liquid SCF/bbl (20- 40º
450 m3/m3)

Heavy Oil Black, very viscous Essential no 10º 20 3 2 2 2 71


liquid gas in 25º
solution

Tar Black substance Viscosity <10º 90+


>10000 cp
Hydrocarbon Behavior
(Single component / Constant temp.)
Hydrocarbon Behavior
(Single component / Constant temp.)
Vapor Pressure Curves for Two Pure Components and Phase
Diagram for a 50:50 Mixture of the Same Components
Reservoir Fluid PVT Diagram

RESERVOIR
Pressure (PR, TR) CRITICAL POINT

ONE PHASE LIQUID

WELLBORE

sEPARATOR
Psep (PSEP, TSEP)

SINGLE PHASE
VAPOR

Tsep

Temperature
Phase Diagram of a Typical Black Oil

Pressure path
in reservoir
Critical
Point Dewpoint line
Pressure, psia

Black Oil

% Liquid

Separator

Temperature, °F
Phase Diagram of a Typical Volatile Oil

Pressure path Critical


1 point
in reservoir

2
Volatile oil
Pressure

% Liquid

Separator

Temperature, °F
Phase Diagram of a Typical Retrograde Gas

Pressure path
in reservoir
1
Retrograde gas
2
Pressure

Critical point

% Liquid

Separator

Temperature
Phase Diagram of a Typical Wet Gas

Pressure path
in reservoir

1
Pressure

Wet gas

Critical % Liquid
point
2

Separator

Temperature
Phase Diagram of a Typical Dry Gas

Pressure path
in reservoir
1
Pressure

Dry gas

% Liquid
2

Separator

Temperature
Three Gases

• Dry gas - gas at surface is same as gas in


reservoir
• Wet gas - recombined surface gas and
condensate represents gas in reservoir
• Retrograde gas - recombined surface gas
and condensate represents the gas in the
reservoir but not the total reservoir fluid
(retrograde condensate stays in reservoir)
Relationships between Surface and Downhole Volumes
— Dissolved Gas Systems
Oil Formation Volume Factor (Bo)

Gas at Surface
Oil at Surface

Oil Volume in Place Pb


Bo =
Oil Volume at Surface

Oil in Place
Gas in Solution (Rs)

Gas at Surface
Oil at Surface

Gas Volume at Surface


GOR = Pb

Oil Volume at Surface

Oil in Place
Typical PVT Data for Differential Vaporization of an Undersaturated Oil at Constant
Temperature (305°F)
Sampling of Reservoir Fluids

The purpose of sampling is to obtain a


representative sample of reservoir
fluid identical to the initial reservoir
fluid.

For this reason, sampling operations


should ideally be conducted on virgin
reservoirs (having not yet produced)
or in new wells completed in
undepleted zones, containing fluids
identical to the initial reservoir fluids.
Sampling at Surface

Pressure
Separator Gas

sEPARATOR
Psep (PSEP, TSEP)
RESERVOIR
(PR, TR)

Gas
Pressure

Tsep

Temperature

sEPARATOR

Pressure
Psep (PSEP, TSEP) Separator Oil

Oil
Tsep
sEPARATOR
Temperature Psep (PSEP, TSEP)

Tsep

Temperature
GOR ≠ Rs Vg 1 + Vg 2 + Vg 3
GOR =
Vo
Surface

Vg1 Vg3
GWR Vo

Vg2

Bg Bw Bo

Water Oil Rs
Gas

Reservoir
Gas-Oil Ratio
(for Pr < Pb and no Free Gas Cap)

  µ  k rg 
GOR = R s +  B o  o  
 B  µ  k 
 g  g  ro 

where:
GOR – Production gas oil ratio
Rs – Gas in solution in oil
Boand Bg – Oil and gas volume factors
µo and µg – Oil and gas viscosities
krg/kro – Gas/oil-relative permeability-ratio
Rock and Fluid Properties
µ
Viscosity ( )

• A measure of resistance to flow


• Symbols
–µo, µg, µw
• Units – cp
• Source – Lab measurements, correlations
• Range and typical values

–0.25 – 10,000 cp, Black oil


–0.5 – 1.0 cp, Water
–0.012 – 0.035 cp, Gas
Variation of Viscosity with Pr

Visc

Pb Pressure
Oil density, ρo , is the ratio of the mass of the oil plus its
dissolved or solution gas per unit volume, which
varies with temperature and pressure.

350γ o + 0.0764γ g Rs
ρo =
5,615 Bo

where
ρo = oil density, lbm/cu ft
γo = oil specific gravity
γg = gas specific gravity
Rs = solution or dissolved gas, scf/STB
Bo = oil FVF, bbl/STB
350 = density of water at standard conditions, lbm/STB
0.0764 = density of air at standard conditions, lbm/scf
5.615 = conversion factor, cu ft/bbl
API Gravity, ºAPI
In the petroleum industry, it is common to express
gravity in terms of the API gravity of the oil

141.5 Light oil


API = − 131.5
γo ºAPI
45
SG (gr/cm3)
0.802
40 0.825
35 0.850
API= API oil gravity 30 0.876
γo = oil specific gravity 25 0.904
20 0.934
15 0.966
10 1.000
Heavy Oil
PVT: Black Oil
Wellbore Radius (rw)

rw

Bit Size
or
Caliper Reading
Fluid Compressibility (Co, Cg, Cw)

1 ∂Vo ∂ ln(Vo )
co ≡ − =−
Vo ∂p ∂p

• Fractional change in volume due to a unit


change in pressure
• Symbol – co, cg, cw
• Units – psi-1, microsips (1 microsip = 1x10-6
psi-1)
• Source – Lab measurements, correlations
Compressibility

When an oil well is produced (oil, gas and water) what happens with the
Formation Pressure??

Rock, pore volume compressibility, Cf

1  ∂V p  1 ∂φ
cf =   cf ≡
Vp  ∂p T φ ∂p
4x10-6 psi-1, well-consolidated sandstone
30x10-6 psi-1, unconsolidated sandstone
4 to 50 x 10-6 psi-1 consolidated limestones
Compressibility

When an oil well is produced (oil, gas and water) what happens with the
Formation Pressure??

Oil compressibility, Co
1  ∂ρ o 
co =  
ρ o  ∂p T
1  ∂Vo 
co = −   1  ∂Bo 
Vo  ∂p T co = −  
Bo  ∂p T
Co = 10 x 10-6/psi
Compressibility

When an oil well is produced (oil, gas and water) what happens with the
Formation Pressure??

Water compressibility, Cw
1  ∂ρ w 
cw =  
ρ w  ∂p T
1  ∂Vw 
cw = −   1  ∂Bw 
Vw  ∂p T cw = −  
Bw  ∂p T
Cw = 3 x 10-6/psi
Compressibility

When an oil well is produced (oil, gas and water) what happens with the
Formation Pressure??

1  ∂ρ g 
Gas compressibility, Cg

cg =  
ρ g  ∂p T
1  ∂Vg 
cg = −   1  ∂Bg 
Vg  ∂p T cg = − B  ∂p 
g  T
Cg ≅ 1/psi = 400 x 10-6 (for a 2500 psi well)
Total Compressibility (Ct)

ct = c f + S o co + S wcw + S g c g
Typically,
Cw : 3E-6, 1/psi
Co : 3E-6, 1/psi (Black oil)
Cg : 1/pressure, 1/psi
Cf : 6E-6, 1/psi
Reservoir Drive Mechanism
Oil Reservoir Drive Mechanisms

 Solution-gas drive
 Gas-cap drive
 Water drive
 Combination drive

 Gravity-drainage drive
Reservoir Energy Sources

• Liberation, expansion of solution gas


• Influx of aquifer water
• Expansion of reservoir rock and compression of
pore volume
• Expansion of original reservoir fluids
- Free gas
- Interstitial water
- Oil, if present
 Gravitational forces
Solution Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Solution Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs

• No original gas cap or aquifer


• Main source(s) of reservoir energy
• liberation and expansion of dissolved gas
• Possible secondary gas cap
• liberated free gas can migrate up-structure
• Typical production characteristics
• Rapid GOR increase after Pb
Solution Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Formation of Secondary Gas Cap
Solution Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Typical Production Characteristics

Initial reservoir
pressure

Bubblepoint
pressure

0 5 10 15

Oil recovery, % of OOIP


Reservoir pressure behavior
Solution Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Typical Production Characteristics

800 400
Oil production rate, STB/D

400

Gas/oil ratio, SCF/STB


Pressure, psia

Gas/oil
600 300 ratio 300

400 200 Reservoir 200


pressure

200 100 100


Oil production rate

0 0 0

Time, years
Production data
Gas Cap Drive

Oil producing well

Oil Oil
zone Gas cap zone

Cross Section
Gas Cap Drive

• Free gas phase exists as an original gas cap


• Pure gas-cap drive reservoir has no aquifer
• Main source(s) of reservoir energy
• Expansion of gas cap and liberation and expansion of solution
gas in the oil zone
• Gas cap expands pushing GOC down and
maintaining higher pressure
• Good sweep
• Typical production characteristics
• dramatic GOR increase when gas breakthrough
Gas Cap Drive
Typical Production Characteristics
Pressure, psia

1300
Reservoir pressure
1200
1100

Gas/oil ratio, scf/STB


1000
900 800
Gas/oil ratio
600
Oil production rate,

400
2 200
MSTB/D

0
Oil
1

0
Time, years
Production data
Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs

• Oil zone in communication with acquifer


• Main source(s) of reservoir energy
• influx of acquifer water - edge-water drive, bottom-water drive
• Pressure decline relatively slow
• GOR kept relatively low and stable
• Water production increases steadily
• Oil production declines when water breakthrough
• Reasonable sweep - depends on mobility ratio
Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Edge-Water Drive

Oil producing well

Oil Zone

Water Water

Cross Section
Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Bottom-Water Drive

Oil producing well

Oil Zone

Water

Cross Section
Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Typical Production Characteristics
Pressure, psia

Gas/oil ratio, MSCF/STB


2300
2200 Reservoir pressure
2100
2000 Gas/oil ratio
2
1900 40

Water cut, %
1
0 30
Oil production rate,

100 Water
20
80 10
MSTB/D

60 0
Oil
40
20
0

Time, years
Production data
Combination Drive in Oil Reservoirs

Gas cap

Oil zone

Water

Cross Section
Gravity Drainage in Oil Reservoirs
 Main energy - gravitational force
 Good drainage efficiency and recovery factor

Gas

Gas

Oil

Gas
Oil Point C

Point B
Oil
Point A
Pressure Trend
100

Water drive
80
Reservoir pressure,
Percent of original

60

Gas-cap drive
40

20
Solution
-gas drive
0 0 20 40 60 80 100
Cumulative oil produced, percent of original oil in place
Reservoir pressure trends
GOR Trend
5

Solution-
gas drive
4

Gas-cap drive
3

1
Water drive

0 0 20 40 60 80 100

Cumulative oil produced, percent of original oil in place


Gas/oil ratio trends
Gas Reservoir Drive Mechanisms

• Volumetric reservoir (gas expansion drive)

• Water drive
Volumetric Gas Reservoirs
• Gas reservoir with no acquifer
• Main source(s) of reservoir energy
• expansion of gas
• Pressure decline slowly and continuously
• No water production
• Flowing life can be increased by reducing surface back-
pressure through installing compression
Water Drive in Gas Reservoirs
• Gas reservoir with acquifer
• Main source(s) of reservoir energy
• expansion of gas and water influx
• Pressure decline slower than volumetric gas reservoir
• Water production may start early and increases with time
• Flowing life can be increased by installing continuous or intermittent water
removal equipment
Oil Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
(summary)

 Solution-gas drive
 Gas-cap drive
 Water drive
 Combination drive

 Gravity-drainage drive
Gas Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
(summary)

• Volumetric reservoir (gas expansion drive)

• Water drive
Average Recovery Factors
Oil Reservoirs

Average Oil Recovery


Drive Mechanism Factors,
% of OOIP
Range Average
Solution-gas drive 5 - 30 15
Gas-cap drive 15 - 50 30
Water drive 30 - 60 40
Gravity-drainage 16 - 85 50
drive
Average Recovery Factors
Gas Reservoirs

Average Gas Recovery Factors,


Drive Mechanism % of OGIP
Range Average
Volumetric 70 - 90 80
reservoir
(Gas expansion
drive)
Water drive 35 - 65 50
Properties Favorable for Oil Recovery
• Solution-gas drive oil reservoirs
• Low oil density
• Low oil viscosity
• High oil bubblepoint pressure
• Gas-cap drive oil reservoirs
• Favorable oil properties
• Relatively large ratio of gas cap to oil zone
• High reservoir dip angle
• Thick oil column
Properties Favorable for Oil Recovery
• Water drive oil reservoirs
• Large aquifer • High relative oil permeability
• Low oil viscosity • Little reservoir heterogeneity and
stratification
• Gravity drainage oil reservoirs
• High reservoir dip angle • Large fluid density difference
• Favorable permeability distribution • Large segregation area
• Low withdrawal
Properties Favorable for Gas Recovery

• Volumetric gas reservoir (gas expansion drive)


• Low abandonment pressure

• Water-drive gas reservoir


• Large aquifer
• Small degree of reservoir heterogeneity and stratification
Basic Reservoir Engineering

Ricardo Jorquera
Technology Manager
Quito- Ecuador
Preguntas???

© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 110