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Reading Latin

GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY AND EXERCISES

Joshua Chang
Introduction

Morphology, page 4

1 Translate into Latin:

you (s.) are es


there are sunt
he is est
there is est
you (pl.) are estis
they are sunt
it is est
I am sum
she is est

2 Change s. to pl. and vice versa:

sum sumus
sunt est
estis es
est sunt
sumus sum
es estis

Reading, page 4

Using Note 5 in the grammar section, give the correct translation of these sentences:

(a) familia est.


It is a family.

(b) serva Staphyla est.


Staphyla is a slave.

(c) est enim aula auri plena (aula, pot; auri plena, full of gold).
For the pot is, in fact, full of gold.

(d) coquus est servus (coquus, cook; servus, slave).


The cook is a slave.

(e) Phaedra filia est.


Phaedra is a girl.

(f) in aedibus sunt Euclio, Phaedra et serva (in aedibus, in the house)
Euclio, Phaedra, and the slave are in the house.
(g) avarus est senex (avarus, miser; senex, old man).
The old man is a miser.

(h) est prope flumen parvus ager (prope flumen, near the river; parvus, small; ager,
field).
There is a small field near the river.

English-Latin, page 4

Translate the Latin sentences into English. Then translate the English sentences into
Latin, using the pattern of the Latin ones to help you arrange the word-order correctly.

(a) sunt in familia Euclio, Phaedra, Staphyla.


There are, in the household, Euclio, Phaedra, and Staphyla.
There is in the household a slave-girl.
est in familia serva.

(b) Euclio et Phaedra in aedibus sunt.


Euclio and Phaedra are in the house.
The slave-girl is in the house.
serva in aedibus est.

(c) Euclio sum.


I am Euclio.
You (s.) are a slave.
servus es. / serva es.

(d) filia Euclionis Phaedra est.


Euclio’s daughter is Phaedra.
Euclio’s slave is Staphyla.
Serva Euclionis Staphyla est.

(e) quis es?


Who are you (s.)?
I am Euclio.
Euclio sum.

(f) qui estis?


Who are you (pl.)?
We are Euclio and Phaedra.
Euclio et Phaedra sumus.
Section 1A

Morphology, page 9

1 Conjugate: celo; timeo; porto; habeo; (optional: habito; clamo; intro; voco; sum).

1st s. celo timeo porto habeo habito clamo intro


2nd s. celas times portas habes habitas clamas intras
3rd s. celat timet portat habet habitat clamat intrat
1st pl. celamus timemus portamus habemus habitamus clamamus intramus
2nd celatis timetis portatis habetis habitatis clamatis intratis
pl.
3rd celant timent portant habent habitant clamant intrant
pl.

1st s. voco sum


2nd s. vocas es
3rd s. vocat est
1st pl. vocamus sumus
2nd vocatis estis
pl.
3rd vocant sunt
pl.

2 Translate, then change pl. to s. and vice versa:

clamas you (s.) shout clamatis


habent they have habet
intrat he/she/it enters intrant
voco I call vocamus
sumus we are sum
portamus we carry porto
times you (s.) fear timetis
habetis you (pl.) have habes
est he/she/it is sunt
timet he/she/it fears timent
vocant they call vocat
celatis you (pl.) hide celas
timemus we fear timeo
habeo I have habemus
sunt they are est

3 Translate into Latin:

you (pl.) have habetis


I do hide celo
we are carrying portamus
they call vocant
you (s.) are afraid of times
she is dwelling habitat
there are sunt
it has habet
there enters intrat
she is est

Exercises, page 13

1 Decline: coquus; aula; (optional: servus, familia, corona, scaena).

nom. s. coquus aula servus familia corona scaena


acc. s. coquum aulam servum familiam coronam scaenam
gen. s. coqui aulae servi familiae coronae scaenae
dat. s. coquo aulae servo familiae coronae scaenae
abl. s. coquo aula servo familia corona scaena
nom. coqui aulae servi familiae coronae scaenae
pl.
acc. pl. coquos aulas servos familias coronas scaenas
gen. pl. coquorum aularum servorum familiarum coronarum scaenarum
dat. pl. coquis aulis servis familiis coronis scaenis
abl. pl. coquis aulis servis familiis coronis scaenis

2 Name the case or cases of each of these words:

servarum gen. pl.


coquo dat. s. OR abl. s.
coronam acc. s.
servos acc. pl.
scaenae gen. s. OR dat. s. OR nom. pl.
filia nom. s. OR abl. s.
coquus nom. s.
servi gen. s. OR nom. pl
coquum acc. s.
filiae gen. s. OR dat. s. OR nom. pl.
scaenas acc. pl.
servo dat. s. OR abl. s.
coquorum gen. pl.
aula nom. s. OR abl. s.
servis dat. pl. OR abl. pl.

3 Translate each sentences, then change noun(s) and verb to pl. or s. as


appropriate. E.g. coquus servam vocat: the cook calls the slave-girl. coqui servas vocant.
(a) sum servus
I am a slave-boy.
sumus servi.

(b) aulam porto.


I am carrying the pot.
aulas portamus.

(c) coronas habent.


They have garlands.
coronam habet.

(d) serva timet servum.


The slave-girl is afraid of the slave-boy.
servae timent servos.

(e) servas vocatis


You (pl.) call the slave-girls.
servam vocas.

(f) servae aulas portant.


The slave-girls are carrying the pots.
serva aulam portat.

(g) celamus aulas.


We are hiding the pots.
celo aulam.

(h) servas celant coqui.


The cooks hide the slave-girls.
servam celat coquus.

(i) familia coronam habet.


The family has a garland.
familiae coronas habent.

(j) vocat servus servam.


The slave-boy calls the slave-girl.
vocant servi servas.

Exercise, page 14

Write the Latin for:


onto the stage in scaenam
in the pot in aula
onto the garlands in coronas
into the pots in aulas
in the household in familia
towards the slave-woman ad servam
in the slaves in servis
towards the daughter ad filiam

Reading exercise, page 15

1 Read each of these sentences, then without translating, say what the subject of the
second verb is (in Latin). Finally, translate each sentence into English.

(a) servus in scaenam intrat. coronas portat.


servus
The slave-boy enters the stage. He is carrying garlands.

(b) coqui in aedibus sunt. servas vocant.


coqui
The cooks are in the house. They are calling the slave-girls.

(c) est in familia Euclionis serva. Staphyla est.


serva (more specifically: Euclionis serva)
Euclio’s slave-girl is in the household. She is Staphyla.

(d) in scaenam intrat Demaenetus. aulam auri plenam habet.


Demaenetus
Demaenetus enters the stage. He has a pot full of gold.

(e) coquus et serva clamant. servum enim timent.


coquus et serva
The cook and the slave-girl are shouting. Even they are scared of the slave-boy.

2 Take each word as it comes and define its ‘job’ in the sentences (e.g. Demaenetus
coquum . . .– Demaenetus is subject, so Demaenetus is doing something. coquum is
object, so Demaenetus is doing something to a cook). Then add an appropriate verb in
the right form (e.g. Demaenetus calls a cook – Demaenetus coquum vocat).

(a) aulam servus . . .


aulam is the object, so someone is doing something to a pot. servus is the subject, so a
slave is doing something to a pot.

aulum servus portat.

(b) serva coronam, aulam servus . . .1


serva is the subject, so the slave-girl is doing something. coronam is the object, so the
slave-girl is doing something to a garland. aulam is another object, so the slave-girl could
be doing something to a group of items including a garland and a pot, or this could be the
direct object of a new clause, meaning that someone is doing something to a pot. servus is
another subject, and corresponds to aulam. So a slave-girl is doing something to a
garland, and a slave-boy is doing something to a pot.

serva coronam, aulam servus portat.

(c) servas servi . . .


servas is the object, so someone is doing something to the slave-girls. servi is the subject,
so the slave-boys are doing something to the slave-girls.

servas servi vocant.

(d) familia coquos . . .


familia is the subject, so the household is doing something. coquos is the object, so the
household is doing something to the cooks.

familia coquos habet.

(e) Lar servos . . .


Lar is the subject, so Lar is doing something. servos is the object, so Lar is doing
something to the slaves.

Lar servos pulsat.

(f) aurum ego . . .


aurum is the object, so someone is doing something to the gold. Ego is the subject, so i
am doing something to the gold/

aurum ego celo.

(g) Euclio familiam . . .


Euclio is the subject, so Euclio is doing something. familiam is the object, so Euclio is
doing something to the household.

Euclio familiam videt.

(h) aulas auri plenas et coronas servae . . .


aulas is the object, so someone is doing something to the pots. auri is genitive, so
something is of gold. plenas is accusative and agrees with aulas as well as connecting to
auri. So someone is doing something to the pots full of gold. et is a conjunction, so
something is being added. coronas is the object, and joins with aulas through et, so
someone is doing something to the pots full of gold and the garlands. servae is the
subject, so the slave-girls are doing something to the pots full of gold and the garlands.

aulas auri plenas et coronas servae portant.


1
The verb must be s.
3 Define subject, verb, object and prepositional phrases in the following passages
and answer the questions:

(a) And now the sun had stretched out all the hills,
And now was dropped1 into the western bay;
At last he rose, and twitched his mantle blue;
Tomorrrow to fresh woods and pastures new.
(Milton, Lycidas 190-3)
Subjects: sun, he
Verbs: had stretched out, was dropped, rose, twitched
Objects: all the hills, his mantle blue
Prepositional phrases: into the western bay, to fresh woods and pastures new
1
What ‘was dropped’?

The sun ‘was dropped’.

(b) Still green1 with bays each ancient Altar stands,


Above the reach of sacrilegious hands;
Secure1 from Flames, from Envy’s fiercer rage,
Destructive War, and all-involving Age.
See from each clime the learn’d their incense bring!
(Pope, Essay on Criticism 181-5)
Subjects: each ancient Altar, the learn’d
Verbs: stands, bring
Object: their incense
Prepositional phrases: above the reach of sacrilegious hands, from each clime
1
What is ‘green’ and ‘secure’?

The altars (‘each ancient Altar’) are ‘green’ and ‘secure’.

4 With the help of the running vocabulary for 1A, work through the Latin passage
‘Demaenetus . . .’, following these steps:
(a) As you meet each word, ask
(i) its meaning
(ii) its job in the sentence (i.e. subject or object? part of a phrase?).
e.g.
Demaenetus coquos et tibicinas videt

Demaenetus ‘Demaenetus’, subject; coquos ‘cooks’, object; et ‘and’ almost


certainly joining something to coquos; tibicinas ‘pipe-girls’, object – part of a
phrase coquos et tibicinas: videt ‘(he) sees’, verb: ‘Demaenetus the cooks and
pipe-girls (he) sees’.
(b) Next produce a version in good English, e.g. ‘Demaenetus sees the cooks and
pipe-girls’.
(c) When you have worked through the whole passage, go back to the Latin and read
the piece aloud, taking care to phrase correctly, thinking through the meaning as you
read.

Demaenetus coquos et tibicinas videt. ad nuptias filiae veniunt. in aedis Demaeneti


intrant et nuptias parant. nunc aedes Demaeneti coquorum et tibicinarum plenae sunt.
Demaenetus autem timet. aulam enim auri plenam habet. nam si aula Demaeneti in
aedibus est auri plena, fures valde timet Demaenetus. aulam Demaenetus celat. nunc
aurum salvum est. nunc salvus Demaenetus. nunc salva aula. Lar enim aulam habet
plenam auri. nunc propre Larem Demaeneti aula sub terra latet. nunc igitur ad Larem
approprinquat Demaenetus et supplicat. ‘o Lar, ego Demaenetus te voco. o tutela meae
familiae, aulam ad te auri plenam porto. filiae nuptiae sunt hodie. ego autem fures timeo.
nam aedes meae furum plenae sunt. te oro et obsecro, auloam Demaeneti auri plenam
serva.’

[Part (a) was completed mentally, as for any translation.]

Demaenetus sees the cooks and pipe-girls. They are coming to his daughter’s wedding.
They enter Demaenetus’s house and prepare the marriage-rites. Now Demaenetus’s house
is full of cooks and pipe-girls. But Demaenetus is afraid. For he has a pot full of gold. For
if Demaenetus’s pot full of gold is in the house, he fears thieves very much. Demaenetus
hides the pot. Now the gold is safe. Now Demaenetus is safe. Now the pot is safe. For Lar
has the pot full of gold. Now Demaenetus’s pot lies concealed below the earth, near Lar.
Now, therefore, Demaenetus approaches Lar and prays. ‘Oh Lar, it is I, Demaenetus, who
calls you. Oh protector of my family, I bring you a pot full of gold. My daughter’s
wedding is today. But I am afraid of thieves. For my house is full of thieves. I beg you
and beseech you, protect Demaenetus’s pot full of gold.’

English-Latin, page 17

Translate the Latin sentences into English. Then translate the English sentences into
Latin, using the pattern of the Latin ones to help you arrange the word-order correctly.

(a) coquus aulam Demaeneti portat.


The cook is carrying Demaenetus’s pot.
The slave has the cooks’ garlands.
servus coronas coquorum habet.
(b) tu clamas, ego autem aulas porto.
You are shouting, therefore I am bringing the pots.
The slave girl is afraid. There fore I am calling the cook.
Serva timet. ego autem coquum voco.
(c) cur scaena plena est servorum?
Why is the stage full of slaves?
Why is the household full of cooks?
cur familia plena est coquorum?
(d) ego Lar te voco. cur me times?
It is I, Lar, who calls you. Why are you afraid of me?
(It is) I, Phaedra (who) enter. Why are you (pl.) hiding the pot?
ego Pheadra intro. cur aulam celatis?
(e) si aurum habet, Demaenetus timet.
If he has gold, Demaenetus is afraid.
If they hide the pot, the slaves are afraid.
si aulam celant, servi timent.
(f) coronas et aulas portant servi.
Garlands and pots are what the slaves are carrying.
(It is)1 a cook and a slave-gir; Demaenetus is summoning.
coquum et sevam Demaenetus vocat.
1
Put stressed words first in the sentence.
Section 1B

Exercises, page 22

1 Decline: honor, fur, (optional: Euclio (s.), Lar, aedis).

nom. s. honor fur Euclio Lar aedis


acc. s. honorem furem Euclionem Larem aede
gen. s. honoris furis Euclionis Laris aedis
dat. s. honori furi Euclioni Lari aedi
abl. s. honore fure Euclione Lare aede
nom. honores fures aedes
pl.
acc. pl. honores fures aedes
gen. pl. honorum furum aedium
dat. pl. honoribus furibus aedibus
abl. pl. honoribus furibus aedibus

2 Name the case of each of these words:

Euclionis gen. s.
furem acc. s.
aedium gen. pl.
honores nom. pl. OR acc. pl.
Lar nom. s.
senum gen. pl.
aedis gen. s. OR acc. ok.
honorem acc. s.
fur nom s.
Laris gen. s.

3 Translate each sentence, ten change noun(s) and verb(s) to s. or pl. as


appropriate, e.g. furem servus timet – the slave is afraid of a thief – fures servi timent.

(a) deinde thesaurum senis fur videt.


Then the thief sees the old man’s treasure.
deinde thesauros senum fures vident.

(b) Lar honorem non habet.


Lar does not have respect.
Lares honores non habent.*
* The name of a god can’t be changed into the plural, can it?

(c) igitur senem deus non curat.


Therefore the god does not look after the old man.
igitur senes dei non curant.
(d) quare tamen supplicatis, senes?
But why are you praing, old men?
quare tamen supplicas, senex?

(e) unguentum senex tandem possidet.


Finally the old man has ointment.
unguentos senes tandem possident.

(f) in aedibus senex nunc habitat.


The old man lives in the house now.
in aedibus* senes nunc habitant.
* How would you express the plural ‘houses’ if ‘aedes’ is already plural?

(g) fur aulam auri plenam semper amat.


A thief always loves a pot full of gold.
fures aulas auri plenas semper amant.

(h) honorem tamen non habet.


However a thief does not have respect.
honorem* tamen non habent fures.
* I’m not sure about this, but I think that ‘respect’ can’t be pluralised.

(i) quare in aedis non intras, senex?


Why aren’t you entering the temple, old man?
quare in aedis* non intratis, senes?
* Again, how would you express the plural ‘temples’ if the singular and plural have different meanings?

(j) servam clam amat senex.


The old man secret loves the slave-girl.
servas clam amant senes.

Exercises, page 24

1 Here to learn is a list of 2nd decl. neuter nouns like somnium:


exiti-um i 2n. ‘death’, ‘destruction’
ingeni-um 2n. ‘talent’, ‘ability’
pericul-um i 2n. ‘danger’

nom. s. exitium ingenium periculum


acc. s. exitium ingenium periculum
gen. s. exitii ingenii periculi
dat. s. exitio ingenio periculo
abl. s. exitio ingenio periculo
nom. exitia ingenia pericula
pl.
acc. pl. exitia ingenia pericula
gen. pl. exitiorum ingeniorum periculorum
dat. pl. exitiis ingeniis periculis
abl. pl. exitiis ingeniis periculis
2 Pick out the gen. pls. from the following list. Say what nouns they come from, with
what meaning (e.g. periculorum = gen. pl. of pericul-um i danger):
honorum, ingenium, aedibus, furum, exitio, servum, unguentoum, aurum, senum,
thesauris.

honorum = gen. sg. of honor, honori respect


furum = gen. pl. of fur, furis thief
unguentorum = gen. pl. of unguentum, unguenti ointment

3 Pick out, and give the meanings of, the pl. nouns in the following list: scaena,
serva, ingenia, familia, cura, unguentis, filia, somnia, corona, pericula.

ingenia = talents
unguentis = to/with/by ointments
somnia = dreams
pericula = dangers

Exercises, page 25

1 Attach the correct form of multus to these nouns (in ambiguous cases, give all
possible alternatives):

curas multas
aurum multum
fures multi/multos
senem multum
honoris multi
aedem multam
sevorum multorum
senum multum
aedis multae
coronae multae

optional:
servum multum
unguenta multa
aedis multae
familiam multam
aedium multorum
honor multus
aedes multas

2 Pair the given form of multus with the nouns with which it can agree:
multus: senex, cura, Larem, familiae, servus
multi: honor, aedes, Laris, senes, servi
multis: honoribus, aedis, curam, servum, deum, senibus, aurum
multas: senis, honores, aedis, curam, familias
multae: servae, aedi, curam, senes, di
multa: aedes, unguenta, senem, cura, coronarum
optional:
multos: aedis, unguentum, curas, servos, fures
multo: aurum, Larem, curam, honori, aedem
multorum: aedium, unguentorum, servum, senum, deorum, coronarum
multarum: furum, aurum, honorem, servarum, aedium

3 Translate into Latin:

many slave-girls (nom.) multae servae


of much respect multi honoris
of many garlands multarum coronarum
much gold multum aurum
many an old man (acc.) multum senem

4 Translate these sentences:

(a) multi fures sunt in aedibus.


Many thieves are in the house.

(b) multas curas multi senes habent.


Many old men have many concerns.

(c) multae servae plenae sunt curarum.


Many slave-girls are full of worries.

(d) multuum aurum Euclio, multas aulas auri plenas habet.


Much gold, many pots full of gold has Euclio.

(e) servos senex habet multos.


The old man has many slaves.

5 Translate these sentences:

(a) nulla potentia longa est. (Ovid)


No power is long-lived.

(b) vita nec bonum nec malum est. (Seneca)


Life is neither good nor bad.

(c) nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus. (Juvenal)


Nobility is only and goodness is unique.

(d) longa est vita si plena est. (Seneca)


Life is long if its is full.

(e) fortuna caeca est. (Cicero)


Happy are the blind.

Optional exercises, page 27

1 Identify the case (or cases, where ambiguities exist) of the following words, say
what they mean, and then turn s. into pl. and pl. into s.: servae, honori, thesauris,
familia, deum, filia, dis, corona, senum.

servae – gen. sg. / nom.pl. – of the slave girl / slave girls – servarum / serva
honori – dat. sg. – to respect / for respect – honoribus
thesauris – dat. pl. / abl.pl. – to the treasure / for the treasure / with the treasure / by the
treasure – thesauro
familia – nom. sg. – household / family – familiae
deum – acc. sg. – god – deos
filia – nom. sg. / abl. sg. – daughter / with the daughter / by the daughter – filiae / filiis
dis – dat pl. / abl. pl. – to the gods / for the gods / with the gods / by the gods – deo
corona – nom. sg. / abl. sg. – garland / with the garland / by the garland – coronae /
coronis
senum – gen. pl. – of the old men – senis

2 Give the declension and case of each of each of the following words:

thesaurum
2nd declension
acc. sg.
honorum
3rd declension
gen. pl.
deorum
2nd declension (irregular)
gen. pl.
servarum
1st declension
gen. pl.
aedium
3rd declension
gen. pl.

3 Case work
(a) Group the following words by case (i.e. list all nominatives, accusatives, genitives
etc.). When you have done that, identify s. and pl. within each group: Euclionem, seni,
thesauro, filiae, familia, dei, corona, scaenas, di, aedes, honoribus, servarum, multis.

Nominative: Accusative: Genitive: Dative: Ablative:


familia, sg. Euclionem, sg. filiae, sg. seni, sg. honoribus, pl.
corona, sg. scaenas, pl. dei, sg. honoribus, pl. multis, pl.
di, pl. aedes, pl. servarum, pl. multis, pl. thesauro, sg.
aedes, pl. thesauro, sg.
filiae, pl.

(b) Identify the following noun forms by showing:


what case they are
whether s. or pl.
their nom. s. form, gen. s. form and gender
their meaning
e.g. senem is acc. s. of senex sen-is, m. ‘old man’. Remember ambiguities!

(i) 3rd declension:


aedes nom. pl. or acc. pl. of aedes aed-is, f. ‘room’, temple’, in plural, ‘temples’,
‘house’
patris gen. sg. of pater patr-is, m. ‘father’
senibus dat. pl. or abl. pl. of senex sen-is, m. ‘old man’
honorum gen. pl. of honor honor-is, m. ‘respect’
senem acc. sg. of senex sen-is, m. ‘old man’
aedibus dat. pl. or abl. pl. of aedes aed-is, f. ‘room’, ‘temple’, in plural, ‘temples’,
‘house’
honori dat. sg. of honor honor-is, m. ‘respect’
sene abl. sg. of senex sen-is, m. ‘old man’
aedium gen. pl. of aedes aed-is, f. ‘room’, ‘temple’, in plural, ‘temples’, ‘house’
honoris gen. sg. of honor honor-is, m. ‘respect’
senes nom. pl. or acc. pl. of senex sen-is, m. ‘old man’
aedis nom. sg. or acc. pl. or gen. sg. of aedes aed-is, f. ‘room’, ‘temple’, in
plural, ‘temples’, ‘house’

(ii) 1st declension f.:


Phaedrae gen. sg. of Phaedra Phaedr-ae, f. ‘Phaedra’
aularum gen. pl. of aula aul-ae, f. ‘pot’
coronas acc. pl. of corona coron-ae, f. ‘garland’
scaena nom. sg. of scaena scaen-ae, f. ‘stage’
curis dat. pl. or abl. pl. of cura cur-ae, f. ‘worry’, ‘care’
filiarum gen. pl. of filia fili-ae, f. ‘daughter’
familiae gen. sg. or nom. pl. of familia famili-ae, f. ‘household’, ‘family’
Staphylam acc. sg. of Staphyla Staphyl-ae, f. ‘Staphyla’
servis dat. pl. or abl. pl. of serva serv-ae, f. ‘female slave’
aulam acc. sg. of aula aul-ae, f. ‘pot’
scaenas acc.pl. of scaena scaen-ae, f. ‘stage’

(iii) 2nd declension m.:


servi gen. sg. or nom. pl. of servus serv-i, m. ‘male slave’
coquus nom. sg. of coquus coqu-i, m. ‘cook’
thesaurum acc. sg. of thesaurus thesaur-i, m. ‘treasure’
servis dat. pl. or abl. pl. of servus serv-i, m. ‘male slave’
coqui gen. sg. or nom. pl. of coquus coqu-i, m. ‘cook’
servo dat. sg. or abl. sg. of servus serv-i, m. ‘male slave’
deos acc. pl. of deus de-i, m. ‘god’
thesauris dat. pl. or abl. pl. of thesaurus thesaur-i, m. ‘treasure’
coquo dat. sg. or abl. sg. of coquus coqu-i, m. ‘cook’
dei gen. sg. of deus de-i, m. ‘god’

(iv) Various declensions:


sene abl. sg. of senex sen-is, m. ‘old man’
servis dat. pl. or abl. pl. of servus serv-i, m. ‘male slave’
patris gen. sg. of pater patr-is, m. ‘father’
coquis dat. pl. or abl. pl. of coquus coqu-i, m. ‘cook’
honori dat. sg. of honor honor-is, m. ‘respect’
aedis nom. sg. or gen. sg. or acc. pl. of aedis aed-is, f. ‘room’, ‘temple’, in
plural: ‘temples’. ‘house’
aularum gen. pl. of aula aul-ae, f. ‘pot'
honorum gen. pl. of honor honor-is, m. ‘respect’
deum acc. sg. of deus de-i, m. ‘god’
servarum gen. pl. of serva serv-ae, f. ‘female slave’

Reading exercises, page 27

1 English and Latin


Pick out subject(s), verb(s) and object(s) in the following English sentences. Identify also
adjectives, and say with what nouns they agree.
a. In the long echoing streets the laughing dancers throng. (Keats)
Subject(s): dancers
Verb(s): throng
Adjective(s): long  streets
echoing  streets
b. And the long carpets rose along the gusty floor. (Keats)
Subject(s): carpets
Verb(s): rose
Adjective(s): long  carpets
gusty  floor
c. I bring you with reverent hands
The books of my numberless dreams. (Yeats)
Subject(s): I
Verb(s): bring
Object(s): books (direct)
you (indirect)
Adjective(s): reverent  hands
numberless  dreams
d. ‘Tis no sin love’s fruit to steal
But the sweet theft to reveal. (Jonson)
Subject(s): it (from ‘Tis)
Verb(s): steal, reveal
Object(s): love’s fruit, sweet theft
Adjective(s): sweet  theft
e. His fair large Front and Eye sublime declar’d
Absolute Rule. (Milton, describing Adam)
Subject(s): Front and Eye
Verb(s): declar’d
Object(s): Absolute Rule
Adjective(s): sweet  theft
f. Gazing he spoke, and kindling at the view
His eager arms around the goddess threw.
Glad earth perceives, and from her bosom pours
Unbidden herbs and voluntary flowers.
(Pope, translating Homer’s Iliad, where Zeus
makes love to his wife Hera.)
Subject(s): he, glad earth
Verb(s): spoke, threw, perceives, pours
Object(s): his eager arms, unbidden herbs and voluntary flowers
Adjective(s): eager  arms
glad  earth
unbidden  herbs
voluntary  flowers

2. In each of these sentences, the verb comes first or second. Say in each case whether
the subject is s. or pl, then, moving on, say in order as they come whether the following
words are subjects or objects of the verb. Next, translate into English. Finally, read out
the sentences in Latin with the correct phrasing.
a. clamant servi, senex, servae.
The verb comes first. The subject is plural. servi is a subject. senex is a subject. servae is
a subject.
The male slaves, the old man, and the female slaves are shouting.

b. dat igitur honorem multum Phaedra.


The verb comes first. igitur is a conjunction. honorem is the object. multum is an
adjective and agrees with honorem. Phaedra is the subject.
Therfore Phaedra pays much respect.

c. nunc possidet Lar aedis.


The verb comes second. Lar is the subject. aedis is the object.
Now Lar has a house.

d. amant di multum honorem.


The verb comes first. di is the subject. multum is an adjective and agrees with honorem.
honorem is the object.
The gods love a lot of respect.

e. dat aurum multas curas.


The verb comes first. aurum is the subject. multas is an adjective and agrees with curas.
curas is the object.
Gold gives many worries.

f. habitant quoque in aedibus servi.


The verb comes first. The subject is plural. quoque is an adverb. in aedibus is an
adverbial phrase of place. servi is the subject.
The slaves live in the house too.

g. est aurum in aula multum.


The verb comes first. The subject is singular. aurum is the subject. in aula is an adverbial
phrase of place. multum is an adjective and agrees with aurum.
There is a lot of gold in the pot.

h. timent autem fures multi senes.


The verb comes first. The subject is plural. autem is a conjunction. fures is probably the
object (but could be the subject). multi is an adjective and agrees with either senes or
fures. senes is probably the subject (but could be the object).
Most Probable: Indeed, many old men fear thieves.
Quite Probable: Indeed, many thieves fear old men.
Possible: Indeed, old men fear many thieves.
Unlikely: Indeed, thieves fear many old men.

i. quare intrant senex et servus in scaenam?