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Self-Assessment Quiz

Now that you have read Lesson 4 and have


completed the exercises, you should be ready to
take the self-assessment quiz. This quiz is
designed to help you assess how well you have
learned the content of this lesson. You may refer
to the lesson text whenever you are unsure of
the answer.

Unless otherwise instructed, choose ALL


correct choices for each question.
1. Tables and graphs are important tools for
which tasks of an epidemiologist?

A. Data collection

B. Data summarization (descriptive


epidemiology)

C. Data analysis

D. Data presentation
2. A table in a report or manuscript should
include:

A. Title

B. Row and column labels

C. Footnotes that explain abbreviations,


symbols, exclusions

D. Source of the data

E. Explanation of the key findings


3. The following table is unacceptable because
the percentages add up to 99.9% rather than
100.0%
Age group No. Percent
< 1 year 10 19.6 A. True
1–4 9 17.6
5–9 9 17.6
10–14 17 33.3 B. False
≥15 6 11.8
Total 53 4.In the following
table, the total number of persons with the
disease is:
Cases Controls Total
Total 25 25 50 A. 3
Exposed 22 12 34
Unexposed 3 13 16
B. 22

C. 25
D. 34

E. 50
5. A table shell is the:

A. Box around the outside of a table

B. Lines ("skeleton") of a table without the


labels or title

C. Table with data but without the title,


labels or data

D. Table with labels and title but without the


data
6. The best time to create table shells is:

A. Just before planning a study

B. As part of planning the study

C. Just after collecting the data

D. Just before analyzing the data

E. As part of analyzing the data


7. Recommended methods for creating
categories for continuous variables include:
A. Basing the categories on the mean and
standard deviation

B. Dividing the data into categories with


similar numbers of observations in each

C. Dividing the range into equal class


intervals

D. Using categories that have been used in


national surveillance summary reports

E. Using the same categories as your


population data are grouped
8. In frequency distributions, observations with
missing values should be excluded.

A. True

B. False
9. The following are reasonable categories for
a disease that mostly affects people over age
65 years:
Age Group
< 65 years
65–70
70–75
75–80
80–85
85

A. True

B. False
10. In general, before you create a graph to
display data, you should put the data into a
table.

A. True

B. False
11. On an arithmetic-scale line graph, the x-
axis and y-axis each should:

A. Begin at zero on each axis

B. Have labels for the tick marks and each


axis

C. Use equal distances along the axis to


represent equal quantities (although the
quantities measured on each axis may
differ)

D. Use the same tick mark spacing on the


two axes
12. Use the following choices for Questions
12a–d:

A. Arithmetic-scale line graph

B. Semilogarithmic-scale line graph.

C. Both

D. Neither

a.____ A wide range of values can be plotted


and seen clearly, regardless of
magnitude(One of the key advantages of a
semilogarithmic-scale line graph is that it
can display a wide range of values clearly

b.____ A constant rate of change would be


represented by a curved line (A starting
value of, say, 100,000 and a constant rate
of change of, say, 10%, would result in
observations of 100,000, 110,000,
121,000, 133,100, 146, 410, 161,051, etc.
The resulting plotted line on an
arithmetic-scale line graph would curve
upwards. The resulting plotted line on a
semilogarithmic-scale line graph would be
a straight line.

c.____ The y-axis tick labels could be 0.1, 1,


10, and 100 (Values of 0.1, 1,10, and 100
represent orders of magnitude typical of
the y-axis of a semilogarithmic-scale line
graph.

d.____ Can plot numbers or rates ( Both


arithmetic-scale and semilogarithmic-
scale line graphs can be used to plot
numbers or rates.
. Use the following choices for Questions 13a–
d:

A. Histogram

B. Bar chart
C. Both

D. Neither

a.____ Used for categorical variables on the


x-axis ( A bar chart is used to graph the
frequency of events of a categorical
variable such as sex, or geographic
region.

b.____ Columns can be subdivided with color


or shading to show subgroups (The
columns of either a histogram or a bar
chart can be shaded to distinguish
subgroups. Note that a bar chart with
shaded subgroups is called a stacked bar
chart

c.____ Displays continuous data (A


histogram is used to graph the frequency
of events of a continuous variable such as
time.

d.____ Epidemic curve (An epidemic curve is


a particular type of histogram in which
the number of cases (on the y-axis) that
occur during an outbreak or epidemic are
graphed over time (on the x-axis).
. Which of the following shapes of a population
pyramid is most consistent with a young
population?

A. Tall, narrow rectangle

B. Short, wide rectangle

C. Triangle base down

D. Triangle base up
. A frequency polygon differs from a line graph
because a frequency polygon:

A. Displays a frequency distribution; a line


graph plots data points

B. Must be closed (plotted line much touch


x-axis) at both ends

C. Cannot be used to plot data over time

D. Can show percentages on the y-axis; a


line graph cannot
. Use the following choices for Questions 16a–
d:

A. Cumulative frequency curve (The y-axis


of both cumulative frequency curves and
survival curves typically display
percentages from 0% at the bottom to
100% at the top. The main difference is
that a cumulative frequency curve begins
at 0% and increases, whereas a survival
curve begins at 100% and decreases.

B. Survival curve (Because a survival curve


begins at 100%, the plotted curve begins
at the top of the y-axis and at the
beginning time interval (sometimes
referred to as time-zero) of the x-axis, i.e.,
in the upper left corner.

C. Both (Because a cumulative frequency


curve begins at 0%., the plotted curve
begins at the base of the y-axis and at the
beginning time interval (sometimes
referred to as time-zero) of the x-axis, i.e.,
in the lower left corner.

D. Neither

a.____ Y-axis shows percentages from 0% to


100%

b.____ Plotted curve usually begins in the


upper left corner

c.____ Plotted curve usually begins in the


lower left corner

d.____ Horizontal line drawn from 50% tick


mark to plotted curve intersects at
median (Because the y-axis represents
proportions, a horizontal line drawn from
the 50% tick mark to the plotted curve
will indicate 50% survival or 50%
cumulative frequency. The median is
another name for the 50% mark of a
distribution of data.
. A scatter diagram is the graph of choice for
plotting:
A. Anabolic steroid levels measured in both
blood and urine among a group of athletes

B. Mean cholesterol levels over time in a


population

C. Infant mortality rates by mean annual


income among different countries

D. Systolic blood pressure by eye color


(brown, blue, green, other) measured in
each person
. Which of the following requires more than
one variable?

A. Frequency distribution

B. One-variable table

C. Pie chart

D. Scatter diagram

E. Simple bar chart


. Compared with a scatter diagram, a dot plot:

A. Is another name for the same type of


graph
B. Differ because a scatter diagram plots
two continuous variables; a dot plot plots
one continuous and one categorical
variable

C. Differ because a scatter diagram plots


one continuous and one categorical
variable; a dot plot plots two continuous
variables

D. Plots location of cases on a map


. A spot map must reflect numbers; an area
map must reflect rates.

A. True

B. False
. To display different rates on an area map
using different colors, select different colors
that have the same intensity, so as not to
bias the audience.

A. True

B. False
. In an oral presentation, three-dimensional pie
charts and three-dimensional columns in bar
charts are desirable because they add visual
interest to a slide.

A. True

B. False
. A 100% component bar chart shows the
same data as a stacked bar chart. The key
difference is in the units on the x-axis.

A. True

B. False
. When creating a bar chart, the decision to
use vertical or horizontal bars is usually
based on:

A. The magnitude of the data being graphed


and hence the scale of the axis

B. Whether the data being graphed


represent numbers or percentages
C. Whether the creator is an epidemiologist
(who almost always use vertical bars)

D. Which looks better, such as whether the


label fits below the bar
. Use the following choices for Questions 25a–
d (match all that apply):

A. Grouped bar chart (A grouped bar chart


(or a stacked bar chart) is ideal for
graphing frequency over two categorical
variables. A pie chart is used for a single
variable.

B. Histogram (both line graphs and


histograms are commonly used to graph
no of cases over time. histogram are often
used to graph cases over a short period of
observation, such as during an epidemic.

C. Line graph( line graphs are commonly


used to graph secular trends over longer
time periods
D. Pie chart (A pie chart (or a simple bar
chart) is used for graphing the frequency
of categories of a single categorical
variable such as breed of dog.

a.____ Number of cases of dog bites over


time

b.____ Number of cases of dog bites by age


group (adult or child) and sex of the
victim

c.____ Number of cases of dog bites by


breed of the dog

d.____ Number of cases of dog bites per


100,000 population over time
Rates over time are traditionally plotted by
using a line graph.