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Name: Samah Obeid Unit Name and Number: Secondary Curriculum A1, 102087

Student Number: 18523108 Tutor Name: Elmarie Filmater Tutorial day: Monday, 7 pm

Science Unit Outline

The creation of energy in nature 5 weeks

Unit Tile: Duration (weeks): (3 x 60 minutes lessons / week)
5 10
Stage: Year:

Key Concepts / Big Ideas How is the energy created in the nature?
(Essential Question)
This unit will be applied during Term 3 of year 10. At this point, students are more confident in working in
Unit Context:
laboratory, and will be more skilled in conducting many experiments, by following many of the Stage 5
(Scope and Sequence Working Scientifically outcomes. This unit will be achieved the content descriptors of CW4 Different types
Information) of chemical reactions are used to produce a range of products and can occur at different rates and involve
energy transfer (ACSSU187) . Students would have some of the knowledge, for example, on the energy and
the role of respiration in given energy for the cells. Also, teacher should consider that students are able to
use Google Docs.

Literacy Focus Numeracy Focus ICT Focus Differentiation

Read and analyse a text Read the thermometer Use devices to take photos and Differentiation in literacy:
Create a poster and survey Calculate the temperature change videos students can express their ideas
by writing or drawing
Make measurements
Communicate using Analyse data Conduct research using the Differentiation in ICT: students
metalanguage Construct tables to represent data internet can use Google Docs to record
Write procedures of the Make a series of dilution their words that can help them
Create a survey using the
in writing. Also, ICT such as
experiments internet
excel can help students to
Write aims, hypotheses and Use spreadsheets to create create their graphs.
conclusions graphs
Read and follow instructions.

Cross Curriculum Priorities

 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and
 Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia  Sustainability

General Capabilities
 Intercultural
 Critical and  Ethical • Information and • Literacy • Numeracy • Personal and
creative thinking understanding communication understanding social capability
technology capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas

 Civics and citizenship  Difference and diversity • Work and enterprise


Values and Attitudes


appreciates the importance of science in their lives and the role of scientific inquiry in increasing understanding of the world around them
shows a willingness to engage in finding solutions to science-related personal, social and global issues, including shaping sustainable futures
demonstrates confidence in making reasoned, evidence-based decisions about the current and future use and influence of science and
technology, including ethical considerations

Strand Outcomes
Questioning A student: develops questions or hypotheses to be investigated scientifically SC5-4WS
and predicting
WS4 Students question and predict by:
a. formulating questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically (ACSIS164, ACSIS198)
b. predicting outcomes based on observations and scientific knowledge

Planning produces a plan to investigate identified questions, hypotheses or problems, collaboratively SC5-5WS
produces a plan to investigate identified questions, hypotheses or problems, individually
and collaboratively SC5-5WS
WS5.2 Students plan first-hand investigations by:
a. planning and selecting appropriate investigation methods, including fieldwork and laboratory
experimentation, to collect reliable data (ACSIS165, ACSIS199)
b. describing a logical procedure for undertaking a range of investigation types
WS5.3 Students choose equipment or resources for an investigation by:
a. identifying appropriate equipment and materials

Conducting A student: undertakes first-hand investigations to collect valid and reliable data and information collaboratively
undertakes first-hand investigations to collect valid and reliable data and information,
individually and collaboratively SC5-6WS
Strand Outcomes
WS6 Students conduct investigations by:
a. collaboratively using appropriate investigation methods, including fieldwork and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data (A
e. reporting data and information, evidence and findings, with accuracy and honesty
Processing and A student: processes, analyses and evaluates data from first-hand investigations and secondary sources to develop
analysing data evidence-based arguments and conclusions SC5-7WS
and information
WS7.1 Students process data and information by:
a. selecting and using a variety of methods to organise data and information including diagrams, tables, models, spreadsheets and
c. accessing data and information by using a range of appropriate digital technologies
Problem applies scientific understanding and critical thinking skills to suggest possible solutions to
solving identified problems SC5-8WS
WS8 Students solve problems by:
a. describing strategies to develop a range of possible solutions to an identified problem
c. applying the processes of Working Scientifically in developing creative solutions to problems
f. applying critical thinking in considering suggested proposals, solutions and conclusions, including a consideration of risk
g. evaluating different approaches used to solve problems (ACSIS172, ACSIS206

Communicating presents science ideas and evidence for a particular purpose and to a specific audience,
using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations SC5-9WS
WS9 Students communicate by:
a. selecting and using in presentations, for different purposes and contexts, appropriate text types including discussions, explanations,
expositions, procedures, recounts or reports
b. selecting and constructing an appropriate table, type of diagram, table or graph (histogram or sector, column or line graph) to present
information and show relationships clearly and succinctly using digital technologies as appropriate
d. proposing ideas that demonstrate coherence and logical progression
e. presenting scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing
evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and
representations for specific audiences (ACSIS174, ACSIS208)
Knowledge and understanding
Strand Outcomes Content
Chemical world discusses the importance of chemical reactions in CW4 Different types of chemical reactions are used
the production of a range of substances, to produce a range of products and can occur at
and the influence of society on the development different rates and involve energy transfer.
of new materials SC5-17CW (ACSSU187)

Knowledge Working Scientifically Teaching and Learning Strategies Assessment Resources

& Content For Learning
a. identify Questioning and predicting Teacher background: to assess the learning progress of Formative Class activity: Marble and
that students, the teacher will ask students at the end of each assessments: ruler
chemical WS4 Students question and
predict by: point of the contents to complete the worksheet called 1)students will
reactions Ask students to get one
identify my learning progress (IMLP): What have I learnt, complete the
involve a.formulating questions or ruler, to set one marble at
energy How did I learn, and how will I use or relate this knowledge worksheet:
hypotheses that can be the end of the ruler.
transfer and investigated scientifically to my life? What are the difficulties in learning, what are IMLP
can be the activities that I like? Students will use Google Docs Ask students to set the
b. predicting outcomes based 2) share with
exothermic which provides students with the opportunity to record other two marbles in the
on observations and scientific the whole class
or their voices and translate them into words which can help middle of the ruler
knowledge their images,
endothermic them in writing.
Processing and analyzing data written Ask students what will
and information sentences and happen if we click the first
their data
a.selecting and using a variety marble towards the two
Teacher background: to assist students to identify the
of methods to organise data marbles
energy, and the difference between exothermic and
and information including endothermic reactions. Students will investigate the Ask students to try it, ask
tables models, spreadsheets presence of energy, and conduct one experiment to identify them what they conclude
and databases
exothermic and endothermic. Also, with teacher guidance, and how the energy
e.identifying data which students will identify the safety strategies in working in the transfer from the first
supports or discounts a
laboratory. marble to the second to the
question or hypothesis being
investigated or third marble to the end of
Pair Activity: Marble and ruler
a proposed solution to a the ruler.
problem Explore the transfer of the energy between the objects ,
Pair activity: hot and cold
Conducting from one marble to another marble
investigations Ask students to imagine the energy. They can draw, choose
an image from the internet or write.
WS6 Students conduct
Ask each student to hold it
investigations by: Teacher asks students why people drink V and red bull. Ask
for three seconds and if
a. collaboratively using
students if these drinks are healthy.
they feel any change in
appropriate investigation Group Activity: safety issues temperature
methods, including laboratory
experimentation, to collect Create a document on Google Docs identifying the
reliable data important steps on getting safety during the conduction of
Pair activity: the change of
the experiments
b. safely constructing, the temperature in
assembling and manipulating Class shares different ideas chemical
identified equipment reactions
Teacher sums all the steps in one document to be printed
c. selecting and using and posted in the class.
appropriate equipment, Ask students to conduct five
including digital technologies, Questioning and predicting: identifying the reactions in reactions using different
to systematically and hot and cold packs, and the change in temperature in reactants:
accurately collect and record different chemical reactions
data For the first reaction in the
first tube: Add one strip of
e. reporting data and sodium hydroxide and 20
Class activity: In this section, students will identify the
information, evidence and cm ( put 3) of Hydrochloric
difference between cold and hot packs, followed by
findings, with accuracy and acid
conducting an experiment
honesty For the second reaction in
Communicating the second tube: Add 20 cm
b.selecting and constructing
Pair activity: hot and cold packs of Citric acid and one
an appropriate table, type of Identify the reasons of the use of cold and hot packs spatula of baking soda
diagram, table or graph to For the third reaction in the
present information and show Indicate the difference between the cold and hot packs,
according to the use of cold packs in preventing swelling third tube: Add 1 strip of
relationships clearly and
and hot packs in treating injuries copper Sulphate and one
succinctly using digital
spatula of zinc powder
technologies as appropriate
Predict that the difference in the work of cold and hot pack
is related to the type of reaction For the fourth reaction in
the fourth tube: Add 20 cm
of ethanoic acid and one
Pair activity: the change of the temperature in strip of sodium carbonate
chemical reactions For the fifth reaction in the
fifth tube: Add one strip of
Students develop the aim, hypothesis and conclusion of the
calcium oxide and 20 cm of
experiment on their portfolios, and follow the procedures.
During and after the experiment, students will :
Detect the danger related to the use of chemical products
Construct tables showing the whole results and the
necessary information
Calculate the temperature change and measure the volume
or the mass necessary for conducting the experiment
Share the results with other students: each pair will present
the results on Google Docs and compare with other groups
Draw conclusions made by scientific evidence, students are
able to write definitions of endothermic and exothermic
reactions, and to identify which chemical products can
generate endothermic or exothermic reaction
Ask them to identify which chemical products is present in
the cold and hot packs.
Ask students to now add endothermic or exothermic to
their previous image or text.
Ask students to give examples on exothermic or
endothermic taking place in everyday situations

b. compare Questioning and predicting Review on the previous lesson: draw a name from the Formative Bunsen burner:
combustion assessments:
WS4 Students question and hat Step 1: Close the Bunsen
predict by: 1) students will burner air hole and use a
respiration Ask questions to the name drawn
as types of a.formulating questions or complete the match to light the flame
chemical hypotheses that can be worksheet Explain what the colour of the
reactions investigated scientifically :IMLP flame is. What proof is there
Combustion and respiration
that release 2)draw/ write a that energy is released in the
b. predicting outcomes based
energy but Teacher background: to assist students to compare combustion reaction?
on observations and scientific text
occur at combustion and respiration in releasing energy, students
knowledge Step 2: Slowly open the air
different will conduct experiments on both of the reactions, ask 3)play the
rates Processing and analyzing data students to take photos or videos of their experiments. game: draw a
and information name from the Compare the differences in
Students develop the aim, hypothesis, conclusion of each the flame
WS7.1 hat
experiment on their portfolios, and follow the procedures.
a.selecting and using a variety Pair Experiment: complete
of methods to organise data During and after the experiment, students will: and incomplete
4) Ask each pair combustion
and information including Combustion to create a small
tables models, spreadsheets poster
Identify the combustible and non-combustible products 1) Place 50 cm3 of
and databases comparing
Pre- assessment on using Bunsen burner: combustion and water in one of the
investigations respiration, and beakers and
Activity: Bunsen Burner License
will discuss with measure the
a. collaboratively using Students get the Bunsen burner license if they are able to the whole class. temperature of the
appropriate investigation identify the parts of the Bunsen burner, and know how to Students can
methods, including laboratory use Bunsen burner water
put their images
experimentation, to collect and their results 2) Set the beaker on
Class activity: Bunsen burner
reliable data
of their the top of one
Construct a document on Google Docs on the safety issues
b. safely constructing, experiments
that students must be aware of during the use of Bunsen gauzes on a tripod.
assembling and manipulating
identified equipment Burner
3) Use the orange
c. selecting and using Search on the name of fuel present in Bunsen burner ‘safety’ flame to
appropriate equipment, Ask students if this fuel can be found at their homes heat the beaker for
including digital technologies,
to systematically and Pair Experiment: complete and incomplete combustion 5 minutes. After that
accurately collect and record With the Bunsen burner, students will investigate the two move the Bunsen
data burner to one side.
types of combustion
e. reporting data and
information, evidence and
Relate each type of flame to each type of reaction 4) Measure the
findings, with accuracy and Calculate the temperature and measure the materials temperature of the
honesty water and describe
Construct a table showing the results
Communicating what happen to the
Students share their results
b.selecting and constructing bottom of the gauze
an appropriate table, type of Relate combustion reactions to daily life reactions, for
diagram, table or graph to example: cooking 5) Wait until the
present information and show beaker cool, then
Discuss which type of combustion is more dangerous on
relationships clearly and
human life move it off the
succinctly using digital gauze and prepare a
What are the strategies that humans can do to avoid fires in
technologies as appropriate new beaker with 50
schools, laboratory or homes.
cm3 of cold water,
What are the steps that this school maintains if a fire
happens accidently? repeat the same
steps by using the
blue ‘roaring’ flame.
Respiration: Group Work
6) Ask students to
Discussion with students on their knowledge of respiration
prepare a table
This section is divided to two parts:
showing the flame
1) Investigating Aerobic Cellular Respiration and type, temperature,
change of the
Students are able to: temperature, and
the observation of
Identify the colour of the indicator at the start and the end gauze and beaker
of the experiment
Identify the role of the indicator through the change in
hydrogen carbonate by identifying its final colour, which
will indicate if carbon dioxide was added or removed. This
will identify if the reaction was photosynthesis or

Compare and contrast respiration to complete or

incomplete combustion

Discuss how respiration is important in our lives, not only

Link for investigating
for humans, but for all living things (animals and plants).
Ask students to draw or write a sentence if the respiration http://www.amybrownscie
does not occur in life nce.com/2012/03/lab-use-
2) Investigating Fermentation with Yeast only the second part of the
Students are able to: experiment

Identify the type of sugar suitable for the fermentation

Relate the importance of the reaction of fermentation and
the use of yeast to the daily products, such as bread
Inform students how older people used this reaction to
make bread
c.describe Questioning and predicting Review last content : each pair will show the whole class Show their
the effects of their poster on combustion and respiration videos on
factors, eg WS4 Students question and
predict by: experiment: Hot
temperature Temperature, catalyst, concentration, surface Chocolate and
and a.formulating questions or tension (particle size)
catalysts, on
hypotheses that can be
the rate of investigated scientifically Teacher background: to assist students in describing the students will
some effect of different factors on the reaction rate, students will complete the
b. predicting outcomes based
common conduct three different experiments. worksheet
on observations and scientific
chemical :IMLP
knowledge In all the experiments, students will write the aims,
Planning Investigations hypotheses, and conclusions on their portfolios and will Share their data
follow the procedures. Also, they will indicate the safety
WS5.2 Students plan first-
requirements of the experiment. Students will share their
hand investigations by:
data through Google Docs
a. collaboratively using
appropriate investigation Introduction to the lesson:
methods, including fieldwork Name three reactions: slow, medium and fast
and laboratory
Ask them to relate the reactions to their life
experimentation, to collect
What are the reasons that make the reactions faster or
reliable data
slower than others?
b. safely constructing,
assembling and manipulating
identified equipment First part : the effect of temperature on the reaction rate
c. selecting and using The first experiment: Group Activity (3 students): Hot
appropriate equipment,
Chocolate and water
including digital technologies,
to systematically and Students are able to:
accurately collect and record
Work collaboratively, and divide work between students:
record their data, take videos and conduct the experiment
e. reporting data and
information, evidence and Describe the relation of dissolving hot chocolate with the
findings, with accuracy and temperature of water: describe which temperature
honesty dissolves hot chocolate quickly or slowly.
Processing and analyzing data Create a table to record the results
and information
Second part: the effect of catalyst on the reaction rate
a.selecting and using a variety https://www.youtube.com/
of methods to organise data Elephant toothpaste conducting only by teacher watch?v=UkLEnD6Seto
and information including Students will:
tables models, spreadsheets
and databases Describe how the catalyst can interact with real products

Communicating Describe the foam produced to the different concentrations

of catalyst
b.selecting and constructing
an appropriate table, type of Third part: the effect of the particle size on the reaction
diagram, table or graph to rate
present information and show
relationships clearly and
Pestle and mortar: Ask students if they were to cut food
succinctly using digital into pieces, which instrument will they use and why the effect of the particle size
technologies as appropriate on the reaction rate: page 51
Pair activity conducting the experiment
in chemical patterns student
e. presenting scientific ideas Students are able to:
and information for a
particular purpose, including Create a graph of their results
constructing evidence-based Relate the size of the chemical product to the speed of The effect of the
arguments and using reaction: which size makes the reaction faster or slower? concentration on the reaction
appropriate scientific
fourth part: rate: page 47 in chemical
language, conventions and
patterns student guide
representations for specific The effect of the concentration on the reaction rate
Pair activity:
Students are able to :
Use electronic balance to measure
Record data and make graphs and tables
Make a series of dilution
Identify the dependent and independent variables
Relate the different concentrations of sodium thiosulfate to
the speed of reaction
d. analyse Conducting investigations Reading, and comprehension a text and discussion https://www.oup.com.au/_
how social, _data/assets/pdf_file/0016/
ethical and e. reporting data and Teacher background: help students to analyse the impact of
information, evidence and 58300/CAS_SB10_TXT_07_7
environment a new product on social, environmental and ethical issues
findings, with accuracy and students will 7099_SPREADS.pdf
al for many generations
honesty complete the
Class activity: worksheet:
ns can
influence Processing and analyzing data Students will able to read the text and answer the questions IMLP
decisions and information to develop arguments on the importance of consideration
Conducting a
a.selecting and using a variety of social, environmental, and ethical factors of products
scientific survey
of methods to organise data Discuss how the work of Fritz Haber led to produce chlorine Share the
and information including gaz in the World War 1 and how his process of making
related to results of the
tables models, spreadsheets
the ammonia led to the making of explosives. Also, identify the survey
and databases
development danger of using chemical weapons on children in Middle
and Communicating East, and North Koreas’ threats towards Australia.
production b.selecting and constructing
of new Ask groups of three students to draw or write a text using
an appropriate table, type of Google Docs on what will happen if Australia gets attacked
materials diagram, table or graph to
by nuclear weapon or chlorine gas.
present information and show
relationships clearly and
succinctly using digital
Designing and creating a survey
technologies as appropriate
e. presenting information for a Help students to design a survey on Google Docs to gather
particular purpose, including and examine data on a range of people opinions about the
constructing evidence-based impact of products on the different aspects of life, and why Link to the video:
arguments and using it is important for scientists to take into consideration the https://www.youtube.com/
appropriate scientific social, environmental, and ethical issues of their products. watch?v=4_k3PneUY9Y
language, conventions and
representations for specific Watch video: How to Use Google Docs to Create a Survey
Class activity
With teacher assistance, the class creates a short survey (4–
6 questions)
Each group of 3 students :
Uses the questions to survey six people including family
members, friends and teachers from different groups of
ages. Each student in the group can survey two people
Students evaluate their survey information to recognise the
range of opinions
Students present their results
The class analyses the views and results presented by each
e. describe Communicating Students will
examples to Communicating: Preparing a poster
b.selecting and constructing complete the Link to the video
show where
an appropriate table, type of worksheet:
advances in Teacher background: teacher helps students to present
science diagram, table or graph to IMLP
their ideas and data by creating a poster. Also, students will https://www.youtube.com/
and/or present information and show
conclude how the same process of producing ammonia can Creating a watch?v=pJHXlT86rSk
emerging relationships clearly and
be dangerous or of benefit. presentation
science succinctly using digital
technologies as appropriate
Students will research the importance of the ammonia
d.proposing ideas that
process and technology on the rise of career opportunities
demonstrate coherence and
logical progression
in industrial chemistry

e. presenting scientific ideas Watch video: PRESENTATION SKILLS - HOW TO START A

and information for a PRESENTATION OR A SPEECH
particular purpose, including
constructing evidence-based
and arguments and using Each group are able to :
technologies appropriate scientific Search on the topic, using different resources
significantly language, conventions and Discuss as a group which points should be presented,
affect representations for specific depending on which points are more relevant and more
people's audiences
persuasive to the audience.
Processing and analyzing data
generating and information Learn how to choose academic information
new career a.selecting and using a variety Divide the work between each other
opportunities of methods to organise data Decide the strategies of preparing the poster: number of
in areas of and information including slides, images and words included in each slide.
chemical tables models, spreadsheets
science such and databases Each group will be assessed by the class and teacher
biochemistry c.accessing data and using the criteria:
and industrial information by using a range relevant to the topic, use scientific information, use of
chemistry of appropriate digital convincing language, creative presentation and working
technologies collaboratively
Conducting investigations
Class activity: all students will listen to all the groups, assess
e. reporting data and
them, and discuss their ideas.
information, evidence and
findings, with accuracy and

Summative Assessment Description: Outcomes Assessed:

Students will do a written assessment at the end of the unit. The assessment will be for two Discusses the importance of chemical
hours. The students will be sitting separately in the classroom. The assessment is divided into reactions in the production of a range of
five sections covering the first four content descriptors. The activities in each section are substances, and the influence of society
different. In the first section, students will be assessed if they are able to extract information by on the development of new materials.
reading a table. In the second section, students will complete the empty boxes. In the third
section, students will write the answers, but not long sentences, and also answer by reading a processes, analyses and evaluates data
table. In the fourth section, students will be assessed if they are able to extract information by from first-hand investigations and
reading a graph. In the fifth section, students will also write their answers, and will be asked to secondary sources to develop evidence-
critically analyse in the final question of this section. Teacher assists students by giving hints and based arguments and conclusions SC5-
underlining words. 7WS
The choice of teachers on implementing these types of questions is to give all students the applies scientific understanding and
opportunity to success by considering the abilities of all students to write. In addition, the critical thinking skills to suggest possible
reading of graphs and tables is significant in promoting their scientific process. solutions to identified problems SC5-8WS

Evaluation of Teaching and Learning:

In each content of the lesson, students will complete the worksheet: IMLP: What have I learnt, How did I learn, and how will I use or relate
this knowledge to my life? What are the difficulties in learning, what are the activities that I like? Teacher will consider the opinions of
students to improve the learning strategies.
For the final exam: How many students did the final exam? What was the average mark of the whole assignment? In which sections did the
majority of students achieve less or more? What was the average mark of each section?


Science by Doing. Engaging students with science. (2015). Year 9 Chemical Reactions, student guide. Retrieved from:
Science by Doing. Engaging students with science. (2015). Year 9 Chemical Patterns, student guide. Retrieved from:

For the assessment:

Total marks: 30
Section A

Reaction Initial Temp. (oC) Final Temp. (oC)

A+B 18 24
C+D 18 5
E+F 21 11
G+H 17 28
J+K 18 18

A. Write down the reactions which are exothermic? Hint: compare the temperature (1 mark)
Answer: ______________________________________________________
B. Write down the reactions which are endothermic? Hint: compare the temperature (1 mark)
Answer: ______________________________________________________

C. Write down the reactions are did not take place? Hint: compare the temperature (1 mark)
_ Answer: _____________________________________________________

d. Explain how you decide which of these reactions are exothermic, endothermic and which are no reaction occur. (1 mark)


Section B
What is the name of the material that the scientists can use to observe the complete and incomplete combustion? (1mark)


In the following image, write the answers in each box. (1 mark for each box) hint: one word in each box
Section C: Students will get extra one mark if all the answers are correct.
Tubes The initial colour indicator of hydrogen The final colour indicator of What is the name of the reaction
carbonate hydrogen carbonate occurred in the tube?
1 Orange/red Yellow (mark 1)
2 Orange /red purple (mark 1)

Explain your answers that you wrote in the table? (1 mark)

Identify the importance of using indicator colour in the experiment? (1 mark)

Which types of sugars are used by yeast to ferment? (1 mark)

Why yeast is important in the production of bread? (1 mark)

Section D:

The following questions are related to the above image

1) What is the temperature of HCL when the reaction rate is 0.005? ( 1 mark)
2) What is the reaction rate of HCL when the temperature is 30? ( 1 mark)

3) In which temperature, the reaction rate starts? ( 1 mark)

4) Explain the relation between the temperature and the reaction rate? ( 1. 5 mark) hint: look to the line)

Questions (not related to the image)

What are the factors (not included the temperature) that affect the reaction rate? (1.5 marks)

Read the three scenarios:

a) If you use one whole tablet of the Alka-Seltzer, then you dissolve in the water
b) If you broke the tablet of the Alka-Seltzer into 5 pieces, then you dissolve in the water
c) If you broke the tablet of the Alka-Seltzer into powder, then you dissolve in water
The question: in which scenario, the reaction rate will be the slowest? (1 mark)

Explain your answer: (1 mark)

Section E:
If you create a new product, as a scientist, what are the three factors that you should consider during your work? Name the three factors (1. 5

Explain why is it important to consider these three factors? (1. 5 mark)

ICT resources:

Inquiry is defined as an active learning process, where students are engaged directly in completing activities, not in activities that already done
to them (Anderson, 2002). To improve science teaching, teachers should determine their roles, the roles of students, and the type of students’
activities (Anderson, 2002). There is a debate on minimising the role of the teacher in inquiry science (Ødegaard et al., 2014). However the role
of the teacher is essential in inquiry, to encourage students to analyse the data, and to scaffold their personal understandings of scientific
knowledge (Ødegaard et al., 2014). Also, the role of teachers is to plan effective strategies dominated by activities that improve the
participation of students (Anderson, 2002). In addition, theory and beliefs are not eliminated from the process of teaching in an inquiry
environment, but should be included with conducting practical activities (Anderson, 2002). This justification will explain the importance of flow
theory, literacy and technology in promoting the engagement of students.

Dropping out of schools is one of the most persistent problems amongst high-school students (Shernoff et al., 2003). The continuous approach
of disengagement, isolation and boredom are one of the elements that lead to drop out from schools (Shernoff et al., 2003). The
understanding of flow theory can help in encouraging the engagement of students in class, through concentration, attraction and enjoyment
simultaneously (Atombo et al., 2017). Related to the flow theory, engagement increases in an authentic environment when students are
participating in activities solving real situations (Atombo et al., 2017), more than watching videos or listening to teachers (Shernoff et al.,
2003). The unit offers students to discover beyond the function of hot and cold packs, how the combustion and respiration occurred in the
nature, and using real equipment and products. In addition, the participation is related to the amount of control and the interest of students in
the activities (Shernoff et al., 2003). This unit provides students a high level of control on the activities that can promote their concentration
and motivation. The students will conduct experiments in a right procedure, create graphs to record the data in a fair manner and help
teachers in designing one experiment. Also, students will investigate real situations by surveying people or creating a presentation that
provides students control in their surveys, through their roles in deciding the interviewers, or the techniques to present.

Flow theory indicates that students should experience challenges and develop the required skills to do these challenges (Tramonte & Willms,
2010). It is not meant to give difficult experiments with high challenges and low skills or easy experiments with low challenges and high skills
(Tramonte & Willms, 2010). The experiments in this unit are constructed to be suitable to the skills of students whilst experiencing the
challenges simultaneously. In a flow learning environment, students develop their learning process by meeting new challenges that lead to the
development of new skills (Shernoff et al., 2003). In each experiment, students will have new challenges that help them to develop new skills,
such as dilution, using the Bunsen burner and electronic balance. Moreover, they will master the same skills, such as developing aim,
hypothesis and conclusion for each experiment and creating tables. Finally, the balance of skills and challenges is also significant to achieve
enjoyment (Steele & Fullagar, 2009). The term enjoyment is not meant to provide only pleasure to students, but also success (Steele &
Fullagar, 2009). Students feel successful and enjoyable when they participate in the tasks for their own benefits (Steele & Fullagar, 2009).
Students in this unit are not only conducting experiments to record data, they are also relating the investigation to their life scenarios: the
importance of yeast in the production of bread, and the identification of complete combustion reactions at homes.

“Increased interest in socio-cultural perspectives on teaching and learning has emphasized language as the central form of mediational means
in science teaching” (Ødegaard et al., 2014, p. 3001). Many students indicate that the learning of the science language is the most significant
achievement, and also the highest barriers in their scientific learning process (Ødegaard et al., 2014). From the socio-cultural perspectives and
the opinions of students, literacy is one of the main aspects in promoting scientific knowledge (Ødegaard et al., 2014). In addition, there are
two types of senses in literacy: fundamental and derived senses (Ødegaard et al., 2014). In this unit, the fundamental senses appear in the
activities by applying The Budding Science and Literacy project that incorporates: reading, writing, doing and talking (Ødegaard et al., 2014).
Students in this unit will read the procedures, write the aim, hypothesis and conclusion, conduct the experiment, share and discuss the results
(Ødegaard et al., 2014). The derived senses appear when students can develop their academic progress through understanding the scientific
knowledge (Ødegaard et al., 2014). The interpretation and critical analysis of texts has the same value as the interpretation and collection of
data (Ødegaard et al., 2014). This occurs in this unit when students try to understand the information to conclude significant issues whilst
reading the text. It also occurs when students interpret and analyse the ideas and research to prepare a presentation. Also, this can be
consistent with one of the roles of teachers in presenting the information through stories, more than presenting theories (Anderson, 2002).

In order for students to enhance their knowledge using their technological skills and experiences, teachers must acknowledge students’
existing understanding and shape the learning process around this understanding when integrating technology into learning (ChanLin, 2008).
The priority is not only to employ technology in the science class, but the priority is to relate the use of technology to real-world situations
(ChanLin, 2008). In this unit, the connection and the transfer of knowledge will be promoted when students organise their real data from their
own investigation, present the results of their survey, their experiments, and their research (ChanLin, 2008). The transfer of their data and
information through the use of technology has a role in promoting the literacy skills of students. Using technology is a method that teachers
can employ in their missions to develop young readers who own the greater levels of literacy skills and previous knowledge to be skilled
readers (Biancarosa & Griffiths, 2012). In addition, students feel more responsible by checking if their information is transferred in an honest
way (ChanLin, 2008). Also, their social responsibilities will increase, by dividing the work between them and investigating their own parts
during conducting their survey and presentations (ChanLin, 2008).

Anderson, R.D. (2002) Reforming Science Teaching: What Research Says About Inquiry. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 13(1), 1-12.

Atombo, C., Wu, C., Zhang, H. & Wemegah, T.D. (2017) Perceived enjoyment, concentration, intention, and speed violation behavior: Using
flow theory and theory of planned behaviour. Traffic Injury Prevention, 18(7), 694-702.DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2017.1307969.

Biancarosa, G., & Griffiths, G. G. (2012). Technology Tools to Support Reading in the Digital Age. The Future of Children, 22(2), 139-160.

ChanLin, L.J. (2008). Technology integration applied to project‐based learning in science. Innovations in Education and Teaching International,
45(1), 55-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14703290701757450

Ødegaard, M., Haug, B., Mork, S.M., & Sørvik, G.O. (2014). Challenges and Support When Teaching Science Through an Integrated Inquiry and
Literacy Approach. International Journal of Science Education, 36(18), 2997-3020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2014.942719.
Shernoff, D.J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., & Shernoff, E.S. (2003). Student Engagement in High School Classrooms from the Perspective
of Flow Theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(2), 158–176. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-94-017-9094-

Steele, J.P., & Fullagar, C.J. (2009). Facilitators and Outcomes of Student Engagement in a College Setting. The Journal of Psychology, 143(1), 5-
27. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3200/JRLP.143.1.5-

Tramonte, L., & Willms, D. (2010). The prevalence of anxiety among middle and secondary school students in Canada. Canadian Journal of
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