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# NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## AS PER REVISED SYLLABUS OF DR. BAMU AURANGABAD

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-IV

NOTES
(NUMERICAL METHOD)
BY

28 MARKS

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 1
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

UNIT – IV
NUMERICAL METHOD
# Topics :

## 1. Solution of a lg ebraic and transcendental equation :

a) Newton ' s Raphson method .

## 3. Solution of Linear simul tan eous equations :

a) Gauss E lim ination method .
b) Gauss  Seidel method .

## 4. Solution of Ordinary differential equations :

a) Taylor series method .
b) Fourth order Runge  Kutta method .

# Defination :
1. A lg ebraic equation :
An exp ression of the form
f  x   a 0 x n  a1 x n 1  a 2 x n  2  _________  a n 1 x  a n
where a 0 , a1 , a 2 , ......... a n are cons tan ts and a 0  0 , n is positive int eger ,
is known as polynomial in x having deg ree n .
The poynomial f  x   0 is called as A lg ebraic equation.

2. Transcendental equation :
When f  x  contains a non a lg ebraic function ( other than polynomial in x )
such as Trignometric , Expoential , log arithmic etc . then f  x   0 is known as
Transcendental equation.

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 2
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

# Solution of a lg ebraic and transcendental equation by u sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method :

Pr ocedure :
1) Let given function as f  x   0 _________ (say eq  n I )
2) To find f '
 x  _________ (say eq  n II )
3) Find two values a and b (say) so that f  a  and f  b  are of opposite sign.
 ab 
4) Choose approximate root x lies between a and b  i.e x   say as ' c '  .
 2 
5) Putting the value of c in eq. ( I ) i.e To find f  c  .
 c  (a or b) 
6) Choose initial approximate root x 0 lies between c and a or b i.e find x 0   .
 2
7) Finding x1 , x 2 , x 3 , ________ , x n by u sin g Newton ' s Raphson method till you get
repeated approximation or stop the procedure when you get repeated root.
f  x0 
1. x1  x 0 
f ' x0 
; x 1 is called as first approximation 

f  x1 
2. x 2  x1 
f '  x1 
; x 2 is called as sec ond approximation 

f  x2 
3. x 3  x 2 
f ' x2 
; x 3 is called as third approximation 


proceeding in the same way n times , we get the general formula
f  xn 
x n 1  x n  ; n  0,1, 2, ............
f ' xn 
which is known as the Newton ' s  Raphson formula or Newton ' s iteration formula
or sucessive approximation .

# Re member :
1. If f '
 x  is zero or nearly zero then this method fails.

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 3
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## ********************* EXAMPLES ***********************

Ex.1 Find the real root of x 3  5 x  3  0 by u sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method
correct upto five decimal places .

Given that ,
f  x   x 3  5 x  3 ________  I 
f '
 x   3 x 2  5 __________  II 
Put x  0 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  0   3
Put x  1 in Eq n  I  ; we get f 1  1
As f  0   3 and f 1  1 are in opposite sign.
 root lies between 0 and 1.
0 1 1
Let x    0.5
2 2
Put x  0.5 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  0.5   0.625
As f  0.5   0.625 and f 1  1 are in opposite sign.
 root lies between 0.5 and 1.
0.5  1 1.5
Let x 0    0.75
2 2
Now find the approximate root x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , ________ , x n by u sin g N  R method .

## 1. First approximate root :

f  x0 
x1  x 0 
f ' x0 
f  0.75 
x 1  0.75 
f '  0.75 

x 1  0.75 
  0.3218125 
  3.3125 
x 1  0.75  0.09906
x 1  0.65094

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 4
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## 2. Second approximate root :

f  x1 
x 2  x1 
f '  x1 
f  0.65094 
x 2  0.65094 
f '  0.65094 

x 2  0.65094 
 0.02112 
  3.729 
x 2  0.65094  5.664 10  3
x 2  0.656604
3. Third approximate root :
f  x2 
x3  x2 
f ' x2 
f  0.656604 
x 3  0.656604 
f '  0.656604 

x3  0.656604 
 6.09030110  5

  3.707 
x 3  0.656604  1.643 10  5
x 3  0.65662043
4. Fouth approximate root :
f  x3 
x4  x3 
f ' x3 
f  0.65662043
x 4  0.65662043 
f '  0.65662043

x4  0.65662043 
 3.88 10  9

  3.71
x 4  0.65662043  1.046 10  9
x 4  0.656620431

## Since x 3  0.65662043 and x 4  0.656620431 .............. (consider upto 5 decimal places)

As x 3  x 4  0.65662 .............. ( repeated approximate root )
 x  0.65662 is the required root correct upto five decimal places .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 5
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

Ex.2  U sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method to find the real root of x e x  2  0.

Given that ,
f  x   x e x  2 ________  I 
f  x   x e x  e x _______  II 
'

Put x  0 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  0    2
Put x  1 in Eq n  I  ; we get f 1  0.718282
As f  0    2 and f 1  0.718282 are in opposite sign.
 root lies between 0 and 1.
0 1 1
Let x    0.5
2 2
Put x  0.5 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  0.5    1.17564
As f  0.5    1.17564 and f 1  0.718282 are in opposite sign.
 root lies between 0.5 and 1.
0.5  1 1.5
Let x 0    0.75
2 2
Now find the approximate root x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , ________ , x n by u sin g N  R method .

## 1. First approximate root :

f  x0 
x1  x 0 
f ' x0 
f  0.75 
x 1  0.75 
f '  0.75 

x 1  0.75 
  0.41225 
 3.708 
x 1  0.75  0.1112
x 1  0.8612

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 6
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## 2. Second approximate root :

f  x1 
x 2  x1 
f '  x1 
f  0.8612 
x 2  0.8612 
f '  0.8612 

x 2  0.8612 
 0.038 
 4.404 
x 2  0.8612  8.63 10  3
x 2  0.85257
3. Third approximate root :
f  x2 
x3  x2 
f ' x2 
f  0.85257 
x 3  0.85257 
f '  0.85257 

x3  0.85257 
  1.543 10  4

 4.35
x 3  0.85257  3.54713 10  5
x 3  0.852605471
4. Fouth approximate root :
f  x3 
x4  x3 
f ' x3 
f  0.852605471
x 4  0.852605471 
f '  0.852605471

x4  0.852605471 
  1.3478 10  7

 4.346 
x 4  0.852605471  3.101242522 10  8
x 4  0.852605502

## Since x 3  0.852605471 and x 4  0.852605502 .............. ( consider upto 4 decimal places)

As x 3  x 4  0.8526 .............. ( repeated approximate root )
 x  0.8526 is the required root correct upto four decimal places .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 7
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

Ex.3 U sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method to find the real root of x   cot x .

Given that ,
x   cot x  x  cot x  0
cos x
x 0  x sin x  cos x  0
sin x
Let f  x   x sin x  cos x ________  I 
f  x   x cos x  sin x  sin x
'

## i.e f '  x   x cos x _________  II 

Put x  0 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  0   1
Put x  1 in Eq n  I  ; we get f 1  1.381773291
Put x  2 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  2   1.402448017
Put x  3 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  3    0.566632472
As f  2   1.402448017 and f  3    0.566632472 are in opposite sign.
 root lies between 2 and 3.
23 5
Let x    2.5
2 2
Put x  2.5 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  2.5   0.695036744
As f  2.5   0.695036744 and f  3    0.566632472 are in opposite sign.
 root lies between 2.5 and 3.
2.5  3 5.5
Let x 0    2.75
2 2
Now find the approximate root x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , ________ , x n by u sin g N  R method .
1. First approximate root :
f  x0  f  2.75 
x1  x 0   2.75 
f ' x0  f '  2.75 

x 1  2.75 
  0.63806 
  2.541831541
x 1  2.75  0.251024
x 1  2.498976

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 8
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## 2. Second approximate root :

f  x1 
x 2  x1 
f '  x1 
f  2.498976 
x 2  2.498976 
f '  2.498976 

x 2  2.498976 
 0.69709 
  2.00051
x 2  2.498976  0.34846
x 2  2.847436
3. Third approximate root :
f  x2  f  2.847436 
x3  x2   2.847436 
f ' x2  f '  2.847436 

x 3  2.847436 
  0.13149 
  2.725130071
x 3  2.847436  0.048251
x 3  2.799185
4. Fouth approximate root :
f  x3  f  2.799185 
x4  x3   2.799185 
f ' x3  f '  2.799185 

x4  2.799185 
  2.1059935 10  3

  2.63669 
x 4  2.799185  7.987262439 10  4  2.798386274
5. Fifth approximate root :
f  x4  f  2.798386274 
x5  x4   2.798386274 
f ' x4  f '  2.798386274 

x 5  2.798386274 
  6.0139110  7

  2.635186 
x 5  2.798386274  2.282158 10  7  2.798386046

## Since x 4  2.798386274 and x 5  2.798386046 .............. ( consider upto 6 decimal places )

As x 4  x 5  2.798386 .............. ( repeated approximate root )
 x  2.798386 is the required root correct upto six decimal places .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 9
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

1.2
Ex.4  U sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method to find the real root of log 10  x   .
x

Given that ,
1.2
log 10  x    x log 10  x   1.2
x
x log 10  x   1.2  0
 log e  x  
Let f  x   x log 10  x   1.2  x    1.2
 log e 10  
 1 
f  x  x   log e  x    1.2  x  log 10  e   log e  x    1.2
 log e 10  
f  x   x  log 2.718282  log e  x    1.2
f  x   x  0.4343  log e  x    1.2
f  x   0.4343  x  log e  x    1.2 _________  I 
 
 x   0.4343  x 
1
  log e  x    0
'
f
 x 
f  x   0.4343  0.4343 log e  x  _________  II 
'

## Put x  1 in Eq n  I  ; we get f 1   1.2

Put x  2 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  2    0.93853
Put x  3 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  3    0.5784
Put x  4 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  4    0.1541014
Put x  5 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  5   0.3178134
As f  4    0.1541014 and f  5   0.3178134 are in opposite sign.
 root lies between 4 and 5.
45 9
Let x    4.5
2 2
Put x  4.5 in Eq n  I  ; we get f  4.5   0.07661
As f  4.5   0.07661 and f  4    0.1541014 are in opposite sign.
 root lies between 4.5 and 4.
4.5  4 8.5
Let x 0    4.25
2 2
Now find the approximate root x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , ________ , x n by u sin g N  R method .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 10
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## 1. First approximate root :

f  x0  f  4.25    0.04014 
x1  x 0   4.25   4.25 
f ' x0  f '  4.25   0.70721
x1  4.25  0.05676  4.30676
2. Second approximate root :
f  x1  f  4.30676 
x 2  x1   4.30676 
f '  x1  f '  4.30676 

x 2  4.30676 
  0.01387 
 0.709712 
x 2  4.30676  0.01954314  4.32630314
3. Third approximate root :
f  x2  f  4.32630314 
x3  x2   4.32630314 
f ' x2  f '  4.32630314 

x 3  4.32630314 
  4.79131110  3

 0.710566 
x 3  4.32630314  6.74295  10  3  4.33305
4. Fouth approximate root :
f  x3  f  4.33305 
x4  x3   4.33305 
f ' x3  f '  4.33305 

x4  4.33305 
  1.65384110  3

 0.71086 
x 4  4.33305  2.32654  10  3  4.33538
5. Fifth approximate root :
f  x4  f  4.33538 
x5  x4   4.33538 
f ' x4  f '  4.33538 

x5  4.33538 
  5.69868110  4

 0.710961
x 5  4.33538  4.05154  10  4  4.33579

## Since x 4  4.33538 and x 5  4.33579 .............. (consider upto 3 decimal places)

As x 4  x 5  4.335 .............. ( repeated approximate root )
 x  4.335 is the required root correct upto three decimal places .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 11
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## ********************* EXERCISE ***********************

Ex.1 U sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method evaluate 15 correct upto three decimal places.
Ans : x 2  x 3  3.873
 x2
Ex.2  By Newton ' s  Raphson method find the real root of sin x 
4
correct upto three decimal places.
Ans : x 2  x 3   1.934

Ex.3 By Newton ' s  Raphson method find the real root of the equation tan  x   tan h  x   0
Ans : x 2  x 3  2.365
Ex.4  Solve 6 x  5sin h x  0 u sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method .

Ex.5 Find the real root of x 3  2 x  5  0 by u sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method .

## Ex.6  Apply Newton ' s  Raphson method to solve the equation x  e  x  0

correct upto five decimal places.
Ans : x  0.6065

## Ex.7  Find a real root of x 3  4 x  9  0 by u sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method

correct upto five decimal places.
Ans : x  2.7065

## Ex.8 Find a real root of x 3  3 x  4  0 by u sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method

correct upto five decimal places.

cos x
Ex.9  U sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method find the real root of e x 
x
correct upto three decimal places.
Ans : x  0.518

## Ex.10  Find a real root of x  2 sin x  0 by Newton ' s  Raphson method

correct upto three decimal places.
Ans : x  1.896

Ex.11 U sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method find the real root of 3 y  1  cos y
correct upto three decimal places.
Ans : x  0.607

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 12
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

Ex.12  By Newton ' s  Raphson method find the real root of cos x  log x  0
correct upto three decimal places.
Ans : x  1.303

Ex.13 U sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method find the real root of 1  4 sin x  4 x
correct upto two decimal places.
Ans : x  1.17

## Ex.14  Solve x 2  25.5 by Newton ' s  Raphson method .

Ans : x  5.05 or  5.05

## Ex.15 By Newton ' s  Raphson method find the real root of 2 x  6  l n  x 

correct upto two decimal places.
Ans : x  3.26

Ex.16  U sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method find the real root of 3sin x  2 x  5
correct upto three decimal places .

Ex.17  U sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method find the real root of log x  cos x  0
correct upto three decimal places .

Ex.18 Use Newton ' s  Raphson method to obtain a root of the equation
4 ( x  sin x )  1 correct upto three decimal places .

Ex.19  Find the root of the equation x 1  log e x   0.5 by Newton ' s  Raphson method .

Ex.20  Find a root of the equation sin x  1  x 3 by Newton ' s  Raphson method .

Ex.21 U sin g Newton ' s  Raphson method to find the smallest positive root
of the equation tan x  x .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 13
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## Consider y  f  x  be a function . Suppose y 0 , y 1 , y 2 , ______ , y n are the entries

corresponding to the arg uments x 0 , x 1 , x 2 , ______ , x n then

f  x  y0
 x  x  x  x   x  x  ................  x  x  
1 2 3 n

 x  x  x  x  x  x  ............  x  x 
0 1 0 2 0 3 0 n

y1
 x  x  x  x  x  x  .................  x  x  
0 2 3 n

 x  x  x  x  x  x  ............  x  x 
1 0 1 2 1 3 1 n

y2
 x  x  x  x  x  x  .................  x  x  
0 1 3 n

 x  x  x  x  x  x  ............  x  x 
2 0 2 1 2 3 2 n

  

yn
 x  x  x  x  x  x  ................  x  x  .
0 1 2 n 1

 x  x  x  x  x  x  ............  x  x 
n 0 n 1 n 2 n n 1

This is known as Lagrange ' s int erpolation formula for unequal int erval .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 14
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## ********************* EXAMPLES ***********************

Ex.1 Apply the lagranges int erpolation formula to find the value of y at x  372.1
u sin g the following tabulated values of x and y .

## x : 361 367 378 387 399

y : 154.9 167 191 212.5 244.2

## Ans : Let x  372.1 , x 0  361 , x 1  367 , x 2  378 , x 3  387 , x 4  399

y 0  154.9 , y 1  167 , y 2  191 , y 3  212.5 , y 4  244.2
we know that Lagrange ' s int erpolation formula ,

f  x  y0
 x  x  x  x   x  x   x  x   y  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x 
1 2 3 4 0 2 3 4

 x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x 
0 1 0 2 0 x  x  x  x   x  x  x  x 
3 0 4
1
1 0 1 2 1 3 1 4

 y
 x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x   y  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x 
0 1 3 4 0 1 2 4

 x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x 
2
2 0 2 1  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x 
2 3 2 4
3
3 0 3 1 3 2 3 4

y
 x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  ...................  I 
0 1 2 3
4
 x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x 
4 0 4 1 4 2 4 3

y  372.1  154.9
 372.1  367  372.1  378  372.1  387  372.1  399  
 361  367  361  378  361  387  361  399 
167
 372.1  361 372.1  378  372.1  387  372.1  399  
 367  361 367  378  367  387  367  399 
191
 372.1  361 372.1  367  372.1  387  372.1  399  
 378  361 378  367  378  387  378  399 
212.5
 372.1  361 372.1  367  372.1  378   372.1  399  
 387  361 387  367  387  378  387  399 
244.2
 372.1  361 372.1  367  372.1  378  372.1  387 
 399  361 399  367  399  378  399  387 

##   12060.3729    26249.0469   22689.8541 

y  372.1  154.9    167    191  
 100776    42240   35343 
 8984.5731   4976.5851 
212.5    244.2  
  56160   306432 

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 15
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## y  372.1  154.9   0.11967505   167  0.621426299   191  0.641990043  

212.5   0.159981714   244.2  0.016240422 
y  372.1   18.53766534  103.7781921  122.6200983  33.99611438  3.965911137
y  372.1  177.8304218

Ex.2 Find the polynomial pas sin g through the set of po int s .
x : 0 1 3
y : 4 3 6
3
dy
Use this polynomial to find y at 1.5 ,
dx
at 0.5 and  y dx .
0

Ans : Let x 0  0 , x 1  1 , x 2  3
y 0  4 , y1  3 , y 2  6

## we know that Lagrange ' s int erpolation formula ,

y  x  y0
 x  x  x  x 
1 2
 y1
 x  x  x  x 
0 2
 y2
 x  x  x  x  ............  I 
0 1

 x  x  x  x 
0 1 0 2  x  x  x  x 
1 0 1 2  x  x  x  x 
2 0 2 1

y  x  4
 x  1 x  3 3
 x  0  x  3 6
 x  0  x  1
 0  1 0  3 1  0 1  3  3  0  3  1
y  x  4
x 2
 4 x  3
3
x 2
 3 x
6
x 2
 x
3 2 6
4 16 12 3 9
y  x  x 2  x  x2  x x2  x
3 3 3 2 2
4 3    16 9  12
y  x      1 x 2     1 x 
3 2   3 2  3
5   11 
y  x    x 2    x4
6  6 
y  x   0.833 x 2  1.833 x  4 ..................  II 
this is the required polynomial .
Now we calculate ,

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 16
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

1) To find y at x  1.5 :
Put x  1.5 in Eq n  II  we get ,
y 1.5   0.833 1.5   1.833 1.5   4
2

## y 1.5   1.87425  2.7495  4

y 1.5   3.12475

dy
2) To find at x  0.5 :
dx
We know that , y  x   0.833 x 2  1.833 x  4 ..................  II 
differentiating Eq n  II  w. r . to x we get ,
dy
 1.666 x  1.833
dx
 dy 
 dx   1.666  0.5   1.833
x  0.5

 dy 
 dx   1
x  0.5

3
3) To find  y dx :
0

## We know that , y  x   0.833 x 2  1.833 x  4 ..................  II 

we get ,
3
I   0.833 x  1.833 x  4  dx
2

0
3
 0.833 x 1.833 x 
3 2
    4 x 
 3 2  0

  7.497  8.2485  12    0  0  0 
 11.2485
3
  y dx  11.2485
0

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 17
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

Ex.3 Find log 10  656  by lagranges formula u sin g the following data :
log 10  654   2.8156 , log 10  658   2.812
log 10  659   2.8189 , log 10  661  2.8202

## Ans : Let x  656 , x 0  654 , x 1  658 , x 2  659 , x 3  661

y 0  2.8156 , y 1  2.812 , y 2  2.8189 , y 3  2.8202

## we know that Lagrange ' s int erpolation formula ,

f  x  y0
 x  x  x  x   x  x   y  x  x  x  x  x  x 
1 2 3 0 2 3

 x  x  x  x  x  x 
0 1 0 2  x  x  x  x  x  x 
0 3
1
1 0 1 2 1 3

 y
 x  x  x  x  x  x   y  x  x  x  x  x  x 
0 1 3 0 1 2

 x  x  x  x  x  x 
2
2 0 2 1 x  x  x  x  x  x 
2 3
3
3 0 3 1 3 2

...............................................  I 

## log 10  656   2.8156

 656  658  656  659  656  661 
 654  658  654  659  654  661
2.812
 656  654  656  659  656  661 
 658  654  658  659  658  661
2.8189
 656  654  656  658  656  661 
 659  654  659  658  659  661
2.8202
 656  654  656  658  656  659  
 661  654  661  658  661  659 

  30   30   20   12 
log 10  656   2.8156    2.812    2.8189    2.8202  
  140   12    10   42 

## log 10  656   0.60334  7.0455  5.6378  0.80577

log 10  656   8.45461  5.6378
log 10  656   2.81681
 This is the required solution.

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 18
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

Ex.4  What is vis cos ity of an oil at 140 0 c temperature . Use lagranges int erpolation formula
to find required vis cos ity with following inf ormation .
Temperature in deg ree : 110 130 160 190
Vis cos ity : 10.8 8.1 5.5 4.8
where vis cos ity is a function of temprature .

## Ans : Since , Vis cos ity is a function of temperature and it is represented by f  x 

 x  140 , x 0  110 , x1  130 , x 2  160 , x 3  190
y 0  10.8 , y 1  8.1 , y 2  5.5 , y 3  4.8
we know that Lagrange ' s int erpolation formula ,

f  x  y0
 x  x  x  x   x  x   y  x  x  x  x  x  x 
1 2 3 0 2 3

 x  x  x  x  x  x 
0 1 0 2  x  x  x  x  x  x 
0 3
1
1 0 1 2 1 3

 y
 x  x  x  x  x  x   y  x  x  x  x  x  x 
0 1 3 0 1 2

 x  x  x  x  x  x 
2
2 0 2 1  x  x  x  x  x  x 
2 3
3
3 0 3 1 3 2

...............................................  I 

f 140   10.8
140  130 140  160 140  190  
110  130 110  160 110  190 
8.1
140  110  140  160 140  190  
130  110 130  160 130  190 
5.5
140  110 140  130 140  190  
160  110 160  130 160  190 
4.8
140  110 140  130 140  160  
190  110 190  130 190  160 

##  10000   30000    15000    6000 

f 140   10.8    8.1    5.5    4.8  
  8000   36000    45000   144000 
f 140    1.35  6.75  1.83  0.2
f 140   8.58  1.55
f 140   7.03
 This is the required solution.

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 19
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## Ex.1 Find f  x  of the following data .

x : 1 3 5 6
f  x : 2 3 7 10
Also find f ' 1 .
Ans : f  x    0.009 x 3  0.5 x 2  1.342 x  2.75
f '
 x    0.027 x 2  x  1.342 , f ' 1   0.369

## Ex.2  If y 1   3, y  3   9 , y  4   30 and y  6   132.

Find the four po int lagranges int erpolation polynomial
that takes the same value as the function y at the given po int s .
Ans : f  x  x 3  3 x 2  5 x  6

## Ex.3 The following table of values of x and f  x  are given ,

u sin g lagranges int erpolation formula , find f  x  when x  0.16 .
x : 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
f  x : 1.005 1.020 1.045 1.081
Ans : f  0.16   1.013

Ex.4 Find f  x  , u sin g Lagranges int erpolation formula for the data .
x : 1 3 4 6
f  x : 3 9 30 132
Also find f ' 1 .

Ex.5 Find the int erpolating polynomial by u sin g lagranges int erpolation formula
for the following data and thus find the value of y for x  3.5 .
x : 0 1 2 4
y  x : 1 1 2.5 6
Ans : y  3.5   5.374

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 20
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## Ex.6  What is tan 33o u sin g Lagranges int erpolation formula ?

Use tan 30o  0.5774 , tan 32 o  0.6249 , tan 35o  0.7002 , tan 38o  0.7813.
Ans : f  tan 33o   0.64941

## Ex.6  Given the following table  set of values 

x : 0 2 5 1
f  x : 0 8 125 1
find first derivative of the function f  x  at x  4
u sin g Lagranges int erpolation formula .
Ans : f  x  x 3 , f '
 x  3 x 2 , f '
 4   48
Ex.8 Find the polynomial pas sin g through the set of po int s .
x : 0 1 2 5
y : 2 3 12 147
Ans : f  x  x 3  x 2  x  2

Ex.9 Find by the Lagranges int erpolation formula the equation of cubic curve
pas sin g through the po int s   2 ,  12  ,   1,  8  ,  2 ,3  ,  3,5 
Ans : f  x   0.07 x 3  0.15 x 2  4.02 x  3.9

Ex.10 Find f  5  by Lagranges int erpolation formula with the help of following data .
f 1  2, f  2   4, f  3  8 f  4   16 and f  7   128 .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 21
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## Consider a system of three equation

a1 x1  b1 x 2  c1 x 3  d 1
a 2 x1  b 2 x 2  c 2 x 3  d 2
a 3 x1  b 3 x 2  c 3 x 3  d 3

## above equations can be exp ressed in the matrix form

Let A X  B
Where ,
 a1 b1 c1 
 
A  a 2 b2 c 2   A is called as coefficient matrix .
 a 3 b3 c 3 
 

 x1 
 
X  x2   X is known as column matrix of var iable .
 x3 
 

 d1 
 
B  d 2   B is known as cons tan t matrix .
d 3 
 

# Solution of Linear simul tan eous equation by u sin g Gauss e lim ination method :

Pr ocedure :
1. We convert given equation in Agumented matrix i. e.  A / B or in matrix form i. e. A X  B .
2. We convert matrix A to upper triangular matrix by u sin g row transformation .
3. Consider new system u sin g upper traingular matrix .
4. Find the value of var iable i. e. x , y , z .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 22
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## ********************* EXAMPLES ***********************

Ex.1 Solve the following system of equation :
2x3y z  9
x 2 y 3z  6
3x y  2z  8

## Ans : Given equations are

2x3y z 9
x 2 y 3z  6
3x y  2z  8
above equations can be exp ressed in matrix form

Let A X  B By R1  R 2
 2 3 1   x  9  1 2 3  x  6
1 2 3   y   6  2 3 1   y   9 
         
 3 1 2   z   8   3 1 2   z   8 

By R 2  2 R1 and R 3  3 R1 By R 3  5 R 2
1 2 3   x  6  1 2 3   x  6 
0 1  5   y     3   0  1  5   y     3
         
 0  5  7   z    10   0 0 18   z   5 

R2 R3
By and
1 18
1 2 3  x   6 
0 1 5  y    3 
    
 0 0 1   z   0.28

## which is a canonical form of matrix

 New system is
x  2 y  3 z  6 ...........  I 
y  5 z  3 ...........  II 
z  0.28 ...........  III 

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 23
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## put z  0.28 in eq n  II  , we get

 y  5 (0.28)  3
y  1.4  3
y  3  1.4
i. e y  1.6
put y  1.6 and z  0.28 in eq n  I  , we get
 x  2 (1.6)  3(0.28)  6
x  4.04  6
x  6  4.04
i. e x  1.96
Thus x  1.96 , y  1.6 , z  0.28 are the required solution of given equations.

# Cross check :
put x  1.96 , y  1.6 , z  0.28 in given equation , we get L . H . S  R . H . S
or In some case approximately L . H . S  R . H . S

Ex.2 Solve the following system of equation by Gauss e lim ination method .
5 x  2 y  z  4 , 7 x  y  5 z  8 , 3 x  7 y  4 z  10

## Ans : Given equations are

5x2 y  z  4
7 x  y 5 z  8
3 x  7 y  4 z  10
above equations can be exp ressed in the matrix form

Let A X  B By R1 5
5  2 1   x   4   1  0.4 0.2   x   0.8 
7 1  5  y    8  7 1  5   y    8 
     
 3 7 4   z  10   3 7 4   z   10 

By R 2  7 R1 and R 3  3 R1 By R 2 3.8
1  0.4 0.2   x   0.8   1  0.4 0.2   x   0.8 
 0 3.8  6.4   y    2.4  0 1  1.7   y    0.632 
          
 0 8.2 3.4   z   7.6   0 8.2 3.4   z   7.6 

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 24
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

By R 3  8.2 R 2
1  0.4 0.2   x   0.8 
0 1  1.7   y    0.632 
    
0 0 17.34   z   2.42 

## which is a canonical form of matrix

 New system is
x  0.4 y  0.2 z  0.8 ...........  I 
y  1.7 z  0.632 ...........  II 
17.34 z  2.42 ...........  III 

17.34 z  2.42
2.42
z  0.14
17.34
i. e z  0.14

## put z  0.14 in eq n  II  , we get

 y  1.7 (0.14)  0.632
y  0.238  0.632
y  0.632  0.238
i. e y  0.9

## put y  0.9 and z  0.14 in eq n  I  , we get

 x  0.4  0.9   0.2  0.14   0.8
x  0.36  0.028  0.8
x  0.332  0.8
x  0.8  0.332
i. e x  1.132

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 25
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## Ex.3 Solve by Gauss e lim ination method :

1.2 x  2.1 y  4.2 z  9.9
5.3 x  6.1 y  4.7 z  21.6
9.2 x  8.3 y  z  15.2

## Ans : Given equations are

1.2 x  2.1 y  4.2 z  9.9
5.3 x  6.1 y  4.7 z  21.6
9.2 x  8.3 y  z  15.2
above equations can be exp ressed in matrix form

Let A X  B By R1 1.2
1.2 2.1 4.2   x   9.9   1 1.75 3.5   x  8.25
 5.3 6.1 4.7   y    21.6   5.3 6.1 4.7   y    21.6 
         
9.2 8.3 1   z  15.2  9.2 8.3 1   z  15.2 

## By R 2  5.3 R1 and R 3  9.2 R1 By R 2  3.18

1 1.75 3.5   x   8.25  1 1.75 3.5   x   8.25 
 0  3.18 3.19   y     22.13 0 1  1.0031  y    6.96 
          
 0 3.04  1.63  z    60.7  0 3.04  1. 63   z    60.7 

By R 3  3.04 R 2
1 1.75 3.5   x   8.25 
0 1  1.0031  y    6.96 
    
 0 0 1.42   z    81.86 

## which is a canonical form of matrix

 New system is
x  1.75 y  3.5 z  8.25 ...........  I 
y  1.0031 z  6.96 ...........  II 
1.42 z   81.86 ...........  III 

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 26
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

1.42 z   81.86
 81.86
z   57.65
1.42
i. e z   57.65

## put z   57.65 in eq n  II  , we get

 y  1.0031 ( 57.65)  6.96
y  57.83  6.96
y  6.96  57.83
i. e y   50.87

## put y   50.87 and z   57.65 in eq n  I  , we get

 x  1.75 y  3.5 z  8.25
x  1.75   50.87   3.5   57.65   8.25
x  89.0225  201.775  8.25
x  290.7975  8.25
x  8.25  290.7975
i. e x  299.0475

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 27
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## ********************* EXERCISE ***********************

Ex.1 Solve the following equation by u sin g Gauss e lim ination method :
x  2 y  3 z  9t  5
3 x  10 y  4 z  2 t  7
11 x  5 y  9 z  2 t  13
2 x  3 y  7 z  6 t  11
Ans : x   0.0802 , y  0.1224 , z  1.451 , t  0.108

Ex.2 Solve the following equation by u sin g Gauss e lim ination method :
x2 y 3z t  9
2
3 x  y  2 z  5 t  19
2
2 x  4 y  5 z  t  15
4 x  2 y  z  3 t  12

Ex.3 Solve the following set of linear simul tan eous equation
by u sin g Gauss e lim ination method :
7 x  2 y  4 z  16
2 x  y  7 z  10
2x3y5z  2

## Ex.4 Solve by Gauss e lim ination method :

2 x  y  z  10
3 x  2 y  3 z  18
x  4 y  9 z  16
Ans : x  7 , y  9 , z  5

Ex.5 Solve by Gauss e lim ination method the simul tan eous equation :
2 x1  3 x 2  x 3  13
x1  x 2  2 x 3   1
3 x1  x 2  4 x 3  15
Ans : x1  3 , x 2  2 , x 3  1

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 28
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

Ex.6 Solve the following equation by u sin g Gauss e lim ination method :
10 r  7 s  3 t  5 z  6
6r 8s  t 4 z  5
3 r  s  4 t  11 z  2
5r 9 s  2t  4 z  7
Ans : r  5 , s  4 , t  7 , z 1

Ex.7  Solve by Gauss e lim ination method the simul tan eous equation :
x1  4 x 2  x 3   5
x1  x 2  6 x 3   12
3 x1  x 2  x 3  4
Ans : x1  1.64 , x 2   1.14 , x 3  2.08

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 29
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

# Solution of Linear simul tan eous equation by u sin g Gauss seidel method :

## Consider the system of three equation as follows

a11 x  a12 y  a13 z  d 1
a 21 x  a 22 y  a 23 z  d 2
a 31 x  a 32 y  a 33 z  d 3 then

step1 : Observe the coefficient of x in all the three equations. The equation whose coefficient
of x is highest will be eq n  I  . In some case if coefficient of x is negative we will
consider the absoute value of that coefficient .

step 2 : Observe the coefficient of y in all the three equations. The equation whose coefficient
of y is highest will be eq n  II  .

## step 4 : from eq n  I  we write

d 1  a12 y  a13 z
x .............. IV 
a11

## step 5 : from eq n  II  we write

d 2  a 21 x  a 23 z
y ..............V 
a 22

## step 6 : from eq n  III  we write

d 3  a 31 x  a 32 y
z ..............VI 
a 33

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 30
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## step 7 : Find first approximation by substituting

a ) put y  0 , z  0 in eq n  IV  and we get x  x1
b) put x  x1 , z  0 in eq n V  and we get y  y 1
c) put x  x1 , y  y 1 in eq n VI  and we get z  z 1

## step 8 : Find sec ond approximation by substituting

a ) put y  y 1 , z  z 1 in eq n  IV  and we get x  x 2
b) put x  x 2 , z  z 1 in eq n V  and we get y  y 2
c) put x  x 2 , y  y 2 in eq n VI  and we get z  z 2

## Continue these process until the approximation repeats i . e

If x1  x 2 y 1  y 2 z 1  z 2 or x 2  x 3 y 2  y 3 z 2  z 3 then stop the procedure .

step 9 : These vlues of x , y , z is the required solution of given simul tan eous equation .

## Ex.1 Solve by Gauss  seidel method :

6 x  y  z  105
4 x  8 y  3 z  155
5 x  4 y  10 z  65

## Ans : Firstly we arranged the coefficient of x , y , z are diagonally l arg est .

we get ,
6 x  y  z  105 ...............  I 
4 x  8 y  3 z  155 ...............  II 
5 x  4 y  10 z  65 ...............  III 

## Now from eq n  I  , we get

105  y  z 105 y z
x   
6 6 6 6
i . e x  17. 5  0.17 y  0.17 z ...............  IV 

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 31
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

from eq n  II  , we get
155  4 x  3 z 155  4   3
y    x   z
8 8 8 8
i . e y  19.4  0.5 x  0.38 z ............... V 

## from eq n  III  , we get

65  5 x  4 y 65 5 4
z   x y
10  10   10   10 
i . e z   6.5  0.5 x  0.4 y ............... VI 
Now , we calculate

1) First approximation :
a) put y  0 , z  0 in eq n  IV 
we get x  x1  17.5  0.17  0   0.17  0 
x  x1  17.5
b) put x  x1  17.5 , z  0 in eq n V 
we get y  y 1  19.4  0.5 17.5   0.38  0 
y  y 1  10.65
c) put x  x1  17.5 , y  y 1  10.65 in eq n VI 
we get z  z 1   6.5  0.5 17.5   0.4 10.65 
z  z 1  6.51

1) Second approximation :
a) put y  y 1  10.65, z  z 1  6.51 in eq n  IV 
we get x  x 2  17.5  0.17 10.65   0.17  6.51
x  x 2  14.6
b) put x  x 2  14.6 , z  z 1  6.51 in eq n V 
we get y  y 2  19.4  0.5 14.6   0.38  6.51
y  y 2  9.5
c) put x  x 2  14.6 , y  y 2  9.5 in eq n VI 
we get z  z 2   6.5  0.5 14.6   0.4  9.5 
z  z 2  4.6

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 32
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

3) Third approximation :
a ) put y  y 2  9.5, z  z 2  4.6 in eq n  IV 
we get x  x 3  17.5  0.17  9.5   0.17  4.6 
x  x 3  15.103
b) put x  x 3  15.103 , z  z 2  4.6 in eq n V 
we get y  y 3  19.4  0.5 15.103  0.38  4.6 
y  y 3  10.01
c) put x  x 3  15.103 , y  y 3  10.01 in eq n VI 
we get z  z 3   6.5  0.5 15.103  0.4 10.01
z  z 3  5.1

3) Fourth approximation :
a ) put y  y 3  10.01, z  z 3  5.1 in eq n  IV 
we get x  x 4  17.5  0.17 10.01  0.17  5.1
x  x 4  15
b) put x  x 4  15 , z  z 3  5.1 in eq n V 
we get y  y 4  19.4  0.5 15   0.38  5.1
y  y 4  10
c) put x  x 4  15 , y  y 4  10 in eq n VI 
we get z  z 4   6.5  0.5 15   0.4 10 
z  z4  5

## Since third and fourth approximation are partially same .

 We conculde that
x  15 , y  10 and z  5 is the required solution of given equation .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 33
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## Ex.2 Solve by Gauss  seidel method :

3 x  0.1 y  0.2 z  7.85
0.1 x  7 y  0.3 z   19.3
0.3 x  0.2 y  10 z  71.4

## Ans : Firstly we arranged the coefficient of x , y , z are diagonally l arg est .

we get ,
3 x  0.1 y  0.2 z  7.85 ...............  I 
0.1 x  7 y  0.3 z   19.3 ...............  II 
0.3 x  0.2 y  10 z  71.4 ...............  III 

## Now from eq n  I  , we get

7.85  0.1 y  0.2 z
x ...............  IV 
3
from eq n  II  , we get
 19.3  0.1 x  0.3 z
y ............... V 
7

## from eq n  III  , we get

71.4  0.3 x  0.2 y
z ............... VI 
10

Now , we calculate

1) First approximation :
a ) put y  0 , z  0 in eq n  IV 
7.85  0.1 0   0 .2  0 
we get x  x1   2.61667
3
b) put x  x1  2.61667 , z  0 in eq n V 
 19.3  0.1 2.61667   0.3  0 
we get y  y 1    2.794524
7
c) put x  x1  2.61667 , y  y 1   2.794524 in eq n VI 
71.4  0.3  2.61667   0.2   2.794524 
we get z  z 1   7.00561
10

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 34
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

2) Second approximation :
a ) put y  y 1   2.794524 , z  z 1  7.00561 in eq n  IV 
7.85  0.1  2.794524   0.2  7.00561
we get x  x 2   2.99056
3
b) put x  x 2  2.99056 , z  z 1  7.00561 in eq n V 
 19.3  0.1 2.99056   0.3  7.00561
we get y  y 2    2.499625
7
c ) put x  x 2  2.99056 , y  y 2   2.499625 in eq n VI 
71.4  0.3  2.99056   0.2   2.499625 
we get z  z 2   7.000291
10

3) Third approximation :
a ) put y  y 2   2.499625, z  z 2  7.000291 in eq n  IV 
7.85  0.1  2.499625   0.2  7.000291
we get x  x 3   3.000032
3
b) put x  x 3  3.000032 , z  z 2  7.000291 in eq n V 
 19.3  0.1 3.000032   0.3  7.000291
we get y  y 3    2.49999
7
c ) put x  x 3  3.000032 , y  y 3   2.49999 in eq n VI 
71.4  0.3  3.000032   0.2   2.49999 
we get z  z 3   6.99999924
10

4) Fourth approximation :
a ) put y  y 3   2.49999 , z  z 3  6.99999924 in eq n  IV 
7.85  0.1  2.49999   0.2  6.99999924 
we get x  x 4   3.000000283
3
b) put x  x 4  3.000000283 , z  z 3  6.99999924 in eq n V 
 19.3  0.1 3.000000283   0.3  6.99999924 
we get y  y 4    2.50000004
7
c ) put x  x 4  3.000000283 , y  y 4   2.50000004 in eq n VI 
71.4  0.3  3.000000283   0.2   2.50000004 
we get z  z 4   6.999999991
10
Since third and fourth approximation are partially same .
 We conculde that
x  3 , y   2.5 and z  7 is the required solution of given equation .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 35
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## Ex.3 Solve by Gauss  seidel method :

2 x1  3 x 2  10 x 3  26
 9 x1  3 x 2  9   4 x 3
8 x 2  3 x 3  9  2 x1

## Ans : Firstly we arranged the coefficient of x , y , z are diagonally l arg est .

we get ,
 9 x1  3 x 2  4 x 3  9 ...............  I 
2 x1  8 x 2  3 x 3  9 ...............  II 
2 x1  3 x 2  10 x 3  26 ...............  III 
Now from eq n  I  , we get
9  3 x2  4 x3
x1  ...............  IV 
9
from eq n  II  , we get
9  2 x1  3 x 3
x2  ............... V 
8

## from eq n  III  , we get

26  2 x1  3 x 2
x3  ............... VI 
10

Now , we calculate

1) First approximation :
a ) put x 2  0 , x 3  0 in eq n  IV 
9  3 0  4 0
we get x1  x1 '   1
9
b) put x1  x1 '   1 , x 3  0 in eq n V 
9  2   1  3  0 
we get x 2  x 2 '   1.375
8
c) put x1  x1 '   1 , x 2  x 2 '  1.375 in eq n VI 
26  2   1  3 1.375 
we get x 3  x 3 '   3.2125
10

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 36
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

2) Second approximation :
a ) put x 2  x 2 '  1.375 , x 3  x 3 '  3.2125 in eq n  IV 
9  3 1.375   4  3.2125 
we get x 1  x 1 ''   0.886111111
9
b) put x 1  x 1 ''  0.886111111 , x 3  x 3 '  3.2125 in eq n V 
9  2  0.886111111  3  3.2125 
we get x 2  x 2 ''   2.10816
8
c ) put x 1  x 1 ''  0.886111111 , x 2  x 2 ''  2.10816 in eq n VI 
26  2  0.886111111   3  2.10816 
we get x 3  x 3 ''   3.05523
10

3) Third approximation :
a ) put x 2  x 2 ''  2.10816 , x 3  x 3 ''  3.05523 in eq n  IV 
9  3  2.10816   4  3.05523 
we get x 1  x 1 '''   1.0606
9
b) put x 1  x 1 '''  1.0606 , x 3  x 3 ''  3.05523 in eq n V 
9  2 1.0606   3  3.05523 
we get x 2  x 2 '''   2.00556125
8
c ) put x 1  x 1 '''  1.0606 , x 2  x 2 '''  2.00556125 in eq n VI 
26  2 1.0606   3  2.00556125 
we get x 3  x 3 '''   2.98955
10

4) Fourth approximation :
a ) put x 2  x 2 '''  2.00556125 , x 3  x 3 '''  2.98955 in eq n  IV 
9  3  2.00556125   4  2.98955 
we get x 1  x 1i v   0.99721
9
b) put x 1  x 1 i v  0.99721 , x 3  x 3 '''  2.98955 in eq n V 
9  2  0.99721  3  2.98955 
we get x 2  x 2i v   2.02141
8
c ) put x 1  x 1 i v  0.99721 , x 2  x 2 i v  2. 02141 in eq n VI 
26  2  0.99721  3  2.02141
we get x 3  x 3 '''   3.006981
10
Since third and fourth approximation are partially same .
 We conculde that
x 1  1 , x 2  2 and x 3  3 is the required solution of given equation .
(Mob. 8308369969) Page 37
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## Ex.1 Solve by Gauss Seidel method the equations :

10 x  y  z  18.141
x  y  10 z  38.139
x  10 y  z  28.140
Ans : x  1.234 , y  2.345 , z  3.456

Ex.2 Solve the following system of the equation by u sin g Gauss  Seidel method
and perform four Iterations :
10 x1  2 x 2  x 3  9
2 x1  20 x 2  2 x 3   44
 2 x1  3 x 2  10 x 3  22

## Ex.3 Solve by Gauss Seidel method and perform four Iteration :

83 x  11 y  4 z  95
7 x  52 y  13 z  104
3 x  8 y  29 z  71
Ans : x  1.052 , y  1.369 , z  1.962

Ex.4 Solve the following system of the equation by u sin g Gauss  Seidel method :
x1  10 x 2  4 x 3  6
2 x1  4 x 2  10 x 3   15
9 x1  2 x 2  4 x 3  20

## Ex.5 Solve the following system by Gauss Seidel method :

11 x  y  2 z  40
x  3 y  13 z  42
2 x  15 y  z  30
Ans : x  3.1816 , y  1.8025 , z  3.4

## Ex.6 Solve by Gauss Seidel method :

10 x  y  z  12
2 x  10 y  z  13
2 x  2 y  10 z  14

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 38
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## Ex.7  Solve by Gauss  seidel method :

x1  x 2  3   3 x 3
4 x1  2 x 3  4  x 2
 7  x 3  x 2   3 x1

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 39
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

##  f  x , y  ................ Eq n  I  with initial condition y  x 0   y 0

dy
Consider
dx
If y  x  is the solution of Eq n  I  then y  x  can be exp anded as a Taylor ' s
series about x  x 0 as follo ws

x  x  x  x 
2 3

y  x  y  x0    x  x0  y  x0   x   y '''  x 0   ..................
' 0 '' 0
y 0
2! 3!

## ********************* EXAMPLES ***********************

dy
Ex.1 U sin g Taylor ' s series method , obtain the solution of  3x y2
dx
when y  0   1 . Find the value of y  0.1 .

dy
Ans : given  3 x  y 2 ............ Eq n  I  with y  0   1
dx
 f  x , y  with y  x 0   y 0
dy
comparing with
dx
We get , f  x , y   3 x  y 2 and x 0  0 , y 0  1
We know that the Taylor ' s series exp ansion of y  x  which is solution
of Eq n  I  is

x  x  x  x 
2 3

y  x  y  x0    x  x0  y  x0   x   y '''  x 0   ............ Eq n  II 
' 0 '' 0
y 0
2! 3!
put x 0  0 , y 0  1 we get
x 2 '' x 3 '''
y  x   y  0  x y  0 
'
y 0  y  0   ............... Eq n  III 
2! 3!
dy
given , y '   3 x  y 2 ......... Eq n  A 
dx
i . e y '  x 0   3  x 0    y  x 0  
2

put x 0  0 , y  0   1
we get y '  0   1
diff n
Eq n  A  w . r . to x
y ''  3  2 y y ' ......... Eq n  B 

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 40
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

i . e y ''  x 0   3  2 y  x 0  y '  x 0 
put x 0  0 , y  0   1
we get y ''  0   3  2 y  0  y '  0 
y ''  0   3  2 11
y ''  0   5
diff n
Eq n  B  w . r . to x , We get
y '''  2  y y ''  y ' y '  ......... Eq n  C 

## y '''  x 0   2  y  x 0  y ''  x 0   y '  x 0  y '  x 0  

put x 0  0 , y  0   1
y '''  0   2  y  0  y ''  0   y '  0  y '  0  
y '''  0   2 1 5   11   2 5  1
y '''  0   12
Put y  0   1 , y '  0   1 , y ''  0   5 , y '''  0   12 in Eq n  III  , We get
5 2 x3
y  x  1 x  x  12   ...................
2 3!
y  x   1  x  2.5 x 2  2 x 3  ................... Eq n  IV 
is the required solution of given equation.
Now we find y  0.1 u sin g Eq n  IV 
We get , y  0.1  1  0.1  2.5  0.1  2  0.1  ...................
2 3

 y  0.1  1.127

Ex.2 Solve u '  t 1  2 u 2  by Taylor ' s series method given that u  0   1. Hence find u  0.2  .

## Ans : given u '  t 1  2 u 2  with u  0   1

Let u  y and t  x
given equation become
 y '  x 1  2 y 2  ............ Eq n  I  with y  0   1

 f  x , y  with y  x 0   y 0
dy
comparing with
dx
We get , f  x , y   x 1  2 y 2  and x 0  0 , y 0  1

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 41
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## We know that the Taylor ' s series exp ansion of y  x  about x  x 0

which is solution of Eq n  I  is

x  x  x  x 
2 3

y  x  y  x0    x  x0  y  x0   x   y '''  x 0   ............ Eq n  II 
' 0 '' 0
y 0
2! 3!
put x 0  0 , y 0  1 we get
x 2 '' x 3 '''
y  x   y  0  x y '  0  y 0  y  0   ............... Eq n  III 
2! 3!
given , y '  x 1  2 y 2   x  2 x y 2 ......... Eq n  A 

i . e y '  x 0   x 0  2  x 0   y  x 0  
2

put x 0  0 , y  0   1

we get y '  0   0  2  0   y  0  
2

i .e y '  0  0
diff n
Eq n  A  w . r . to x
y ''  1  2  x .2 y y '  y 2  ......... Eq n  B 

i . e y ''  x 0   1  2  2 x 0 y  x 0  y '  x 0    y  x 0   
2

 
put x 0  0 , y  0   1

## we get y ''  0   1  2  2  0  y  0  y '  0    y  0   

2

 
y ''  0   1  2 0  1   1  2 1  1  2
2
 
y  0   1
''

diff n
Eq n  B  w . r . to x , We get

 
y '''  0  2 2  x  y y ''  y ' y '   y y '   2 y y ' ......... Eq n  C 

## i . e y '''  x 0    4  x y y ''  x y ' y '  y y '   4 y y '

put x 0  0 , y  0   1
y '''  0    4  x 0  y  x 0  y ''  x 0    x 0  y '  x 0  y '  x 0   y  x 0  y '  x 0    4 y  x 0  y '  x 0 

## y '''  0    4  0  y  0  y ''  0    0  y '  0  y '  0   y  0  y '  0    4 y  0  y '  0 

y '''  0    4 0  0  1 0    4 1 0 
y '''  0   0
Put y  0   1 , y '  0   0 , y ''  0    1 , y '''  0   0 in Eq n  III  , We get

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 42
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

x2 x3
y  x   1  x  0     1   0   ...................
2! 3!
x2
y  x  1  ...................
2
Let y  u and x  t , we get
t2
u t   1   ................... Eq n  IV 
2
is the required solution of given equation.
Now we find u  0.2  u sin g Eq n  IV 
 0.2 
2

## We get , u  0.2   1  ...................

2
 u  0.2   0.98

dy 1
Ex.3 Solve  2 given that y  4   4 U s e Taylor ' s series method for the solution .
dx x  y
what is y at x  4.1 and at x  4.3 ?

dy 1
Ans : given  2 ............ Eq n  I  with y  4   4
dx x  y

 f  x , y  with y  x 0   y 0
dy
comparing with
dx
1
We get , f  x , y   2 and x 0  4 , y 0  4
x y
We know that the Taylor ' s series exp ansion of y  x  about x  x 0 is

x  x  x  x 
2 3

y  x  y  x0    x  x0  y  x0   x   y '''  x 0   ............ Eq n  II 
' 0 '' 0
y 0
2! 3!
put x 0  4 , y 0  4 we get

 x  4  x  4
2 3

y  x   y  4   x  4 y  4
'
 y ''
 4  y '''  4   ............... Eq n  III 
2! 3!
dy 1
given , y '   2 ......... Eq n  A 
dx x  y

i .e y '  x0  
1
 x0   y  x0 
2

put x 0  4 , y  4   4

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 43
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

1 1 1
we get y '  4      0.05
 4  y  4 16  4 20
2

diff n
Eq n  A  w . r . to x

y ''

x 2
 y   0   1 2 x  y ' 

1  2 x  y ' 
......... Eq n  B 
x  y x  y
2 2 2 2

1  2  x   y  x   '

x   
'' 0 0
i .e y
 x   y  x  
0 2
2

 
0 0

put x 0  4 , y  4   4
1  2  4   y '  4   18  0.05
we get y ''
 4  
16  4
2 2
 4  2  y  4  
 
18  0.05  8.05
y ''  4   
 20
2
400
y ''  4    0.020125
diff n
Eq n  B  w . r . to x , We get

## 1  x 2  y   2  y ''    2 x  y '  2  x 2  y  2 x  y '  

2

y '''    ......... Eq n C
 
 x  y
2 4

## 1 x 2  y   x 2  y  2  y ''    2 x  y '  2  2 x  y '  

y '''

 x  y 2 4

1  x  y  2  y   2  2 x  y  
2 '' ' 2

y '''   
 x  y 2 3

1 x   y  x    2  y  x    2  2  x   y  x   
2 2
'' '
 
x   
0 0 0 0 0
y '''
 x   y  x  
0 3
2

  0 0

put x 0  4 , y  4   4

y '''  4  

2

1  4   y  4    2  y ''  4    2  2  4   y '  4  

2

3
 4  2  y  4  
 

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 44
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

y '''
 4 

1 16  4 2  0.020125  2 8  0.05
2

16  4
3

## 1 201.979875  2  64.8025 

y '''  4  
 20
3

139.5975  129.605
y '''  4  
80000

1  90.0075 
y '''  4  
80000

90.0075
y '''  4  
80000

y '''  4   0.0113

## Put y  4   4 , y '  4   0.05 , y ''  4    0.020125 , y '''  4   0.0113 in Eq n  III 

We get ,
 x  4  x  4
2 3

## y  x   4   x  4  0.05     0.020125    0.0113  ...................

2! 3!
y  x   4   x  4  0.05    x  4   0.0100625    x  4   0.00188333  ................... Eq n  IV 
2 3

## is the required solution of given equation.

Now we find
1) To find y at x  4.1
put x  4.1 in Eq n  IV 
we get ,
y  4.1  4.005102508

1) To find y at x  4.3
put x  4.3 in Eq n  IV 
we get ,
y  4.3  4.014

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 45
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## ********************* EXERCISE ***********************

dy
Ex.1 U s e Taylor ' s series method to solve  x 2 y  1 , given y  0   1 . Find y  0.003 .
dx
x3
Ans : y  x   1 x   ...............
3
y  0.003  0.97

dy
Ex.2 Given the differential equation  x  y 2 with y  0   1 , obtain y  0.1
dx
by Taylor ' s series method correct upto four decimal places .
3 4
Ans : y  x   1  x  x 2  x 3  ...............
2 3
y  0.1  0.9137

dy
Ex.3 Given  x  y 2 , y  0   1 . Use Taylor ' s series method to compute y  0.1 and y  0.2 
dx
dy
Ex.4 Given the differential equation  1  x y with y  0   1 , obtain y  0.1
dx
by Taylor ' s series method correct upto four decimal places .

dy
Ex.5 U s e Taylor ' s series method to find y  0.1 and y  0.2  given  x 2  y with y  0   1 .
dx
Ans : y  0.1  0.91 and y  0.2   0.82
dy
Ex.6 U s e Taylor ' s series method to solve  x y  y 2 with y  0   1.
dx
Find y at x  0.1 , x  0.2 and x  0.3

dy
Ex.7  U s e Taylor ' s series method to find y  0.2  given that  2 y  3e x .
dx
Ans : y  0.2   0.664

dy 2x
Ex.8 Solve  y by Taylor ' s series method given that y  0   1 .
dx y
Find the value of y at x  0.1
Ans : y  0.1  1.0954

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 46
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## Ex.9 What is the value of u at t  0.1 when u '  2 t  3 u , u  0   1 .

Ans : Let u  y and t  x  given equation is y '  2 x  3 y , y  0   1
 y  0.1  1.36

dy
Ex.10 Solve x  x  y by Taylor ' s series method given that y  2   2 .
dx
and hence find y  2.1
dy y
Ans : The given differential equation is  1  y  2.1  2
dx x

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 47
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

##  f  x , y  with initial condition y  x 0   y 0 then

dy
Consider
dx
1) U sin g the value of x 0 and y 0 we can find y 1 corresponding to x 1  x 0  h as follows
y  x1   y 0  k i . e y 1  y 0  k
1
where , k   k 1  2 k 2  2 k 3  k 4 
6
but ,
k 1  h . f  x 0 , y 0 
 h k1 
k 2  h. f x0  , y0  
 2 2 
 h k2 
k3  h. f x0  , y0  
 2 2 
k 4  h . f  x 0  h , y 0  k 3 

## 2) U sin g the value of x 1 and y 1 we can find y 2 corresponding to x 2  x 1  h as follows

y  x 2   y1  k i .e y 2  y1  k
1
w here , k   k 1  2 k 2  2 k 3  k 4 
6
but ,
k 1  h . f  x 1 , y 1 
 h k1 
k 2  h . f  x 1  , y1  
 2 2 
 h k2 
k 3  h . f  x1  , y 1  
 2 2 
k 4  h . f  x 1  h , y 1  k 3 

Note : ' h ' is the int erval between equidis tan t values of x .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 48
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## ********************* EXAMPLES ***********************

Ex.1 Apply Runge  Kutta fourth order method to find the approximate value of y
dy
when x  0.2 given that  x  y 2 , y  1 when x  0. Take h  0.1
dx

dy
Ans : given that  x  y 2 ............ Eq n  I  with y  0   1
dx
 f  x , y  with y  x 0   y 0
dy
comparing with
dx
We get , f  x , y   x  y 2 and x 0  0 , y 0  1
We have to find the value of y at x  0.2
Since , x 0  0 and h  0.1
 x1  x 0  h  0  0.1  0.1
x 2  x1  h  0.1  0.1  0.2
i . e We find y 1 , y 2 coressponding x1 , x 2 i . e y  x 1  and y  x 2  
1) To find y 1 when x1  0.1 :
We know that
y 1  y 0  k .............. Eq n  I 
1
where , k   k 1  2 k 2  2 k 3  k 4  .............. Eq n  II 
6
but ,
k 1  h . f  x 0 , y 0 

k1  h  x 0   y 0  
2

 
k 1  0.1 0  1 
2
 
k 1  0.1

 h k1 
k 2  h. f x0  , y0  
 2 2
k 2  0.1 f  0.05 , 1.05

## k 2  0.1 0.05  1.05  

2
 
k 2  0.11.1525
k 2  0.11525

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 49
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

 h k2 
k3  h. f x0  , y0  
 2 2
k 3  0.1 f  0.05 , 1.057625

## k 3  0.1 0.05  1.057625  

2
 
k 3  0.11.168570641
k 3  0.116857064

k 4  h . f  x 0  h , y 0  k 3 
k 4  0.1 f  0.1 , 1.116857064

## k 4  0.1 0.1  1.116857064  

2
 
k 4  0.11.347369701
k 4  0.13473697

## Put the value of k 1 , k 2 , k 3 and k 4 in Eq n  II 

1
k 0.1  2  0.11525   2  0.110857064   0.13473697 
6
1
k   0.698951098 
6
k  0.116491849
Put the value of k in Eq n  I 
y1  y 0  k
y 1  1  0.116491849
y 1  1.11649185

## 2) To find y 2 when x 2  0.2 :

We know that
y 2  y 1  k .............. Eq n  I 
1
where , k   k 1  2 k 2  2 k 3  k 4  .............. Eq n  II 
6
and h  0.1 , x1  0.1 , y 1  1.1165

but , k 1  h . f  x1 , y 1   h x   y  2 
 1 1 
k 1  0.1 0.1  1.1165  
2
 
k 1  0.1347

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 50
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

 h k1 
k 2  h . f  x1  , y 1  
 2 2
k 2  0.1 f  0.15 , 1.1839

## k 2  0.1 0.15  1.1839  

2
 
k 2  0.11.55162
k 2  0.1552

 h k2 
k 3  h . f  x1  , y 1  
 2 2
k 3  0.1 f  0.15 , 1.1941

## k 3  0.1 0.15  1.1941 

2
 
k 3  0.11.575875
k 3  0.1576

k 4  h . f  x1  h , y 1  k 3 
k 4  0.1 f  0.2 , 1.2741

## k 4  0.1 0.2  1.2741 

2
 
k 4  0.11.823331
k 4  0.1823331

## Put the value of k 1 , k 2 , k 3 and k 4 in Eq n  II 

1
k 0.1347  2  0.1552   2  0.1576   0.1823331
6
1
k   0.9426331
6
k  0.15712
Put the value of k in Eq n  I 
y 2  y1  k
y 2  1.1165  0.15712
y 2  1.27361

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 51
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

dy
Ex.2 Find y 1.2  by Runge  Kutta fourth order method of  x2  y2
dx
with y 1  1.5. Take h  0.1

dy
Ans : given that  x 2  y 2 ............ Eq n  I  with y 1  1.5
dx
 f  x , y  with y  x 0   y 0
dy
comparing with
dx
We get , f  x , y   x 2  y 2 and x 0  1 , y 0  1.5
We have to find the value of y at x  1.2
Since , x 0  0 and h  0.1
 x1  x 0  h  1  0.1  1.1
x 2  x1  h  1.1  0.1  1.2
i . e We find y 1 , y 2 coressponding x 1 , x 2 i . e y  x 1  and y  x 2  
1) To find y  y 1 when x  x1  1.1 :
We know that
y 1  y 0  k .............. Eq n  I 
1
where , k   k 1  2 k 2  2 k 3  k 4  .............. Eq n  II 
6
but ,
k 1  h . f  x 0 , y 0 
k 1  0.1 f 1 , 1.5

## k 1  0.1  1  1.5  

2 2

 
k 1  0.11.80278 
k 1  0.18028

 h k1 
k 2  h. f x0  , y0  
 2 2
k 2  0.1 f 1.05 , 1.59014

## k 2  0.1  1.05   1.59014  

2 2
 
k 2  0.11.9055302
k 2  0.1906

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 52
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

 h k2 
k3  h. f x0  , y0  
 2 2
k 3  0.1 f 1.05 , 1.5953

## k 3  0.1  1.05   1.5953 

2 2

 
k 3  0.11.90984
k 3  0.190984

k 4  h . f  x 0  h , y 0  k 3 
k 4  0.1 f 1.1 , 1.690984

## k 4  0.1  1.1  1.690984  

2 2

 
k 4  0.1 2.0172821
k 4  0.20173

## Put the value of k 1 , k 2 , k 3 and k 4 in Eq n  II 

1
k  0.18028  2  0.1906   2  0.190984   0.20173
6
1
k  1.145178 
6
k  0.190863
Put the value of k in Eq n  I 
y1  y 0  k
y 1  1.5  0.190863  1.690863
y 1  1.691

## 2) To find y  y 2 when x  x 2  1.2 :

We know that
y 2  y 1  k .............. Eq n  I 
1
where , k   k 1  2 k 2  2 k 3  k 4  .............. Eq n  II 
6
and h  0.1 , x1  1.1 , y 1  1.691
but , k 1  h . f  x1 , y 1   0.1 f 1.1 , 1.691

2 2
 
k 1  0.2017295

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 53
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

 h k1 
k 2  h . f  x1  , y 1  
 2 2
k 2  0.1 f 1.15 , 1.791865

## k 2  0.1  1.15   1.791865  

2 2

 
k 2  0.1 2.12915011
k 2  0.212915011

 h k2 
k 3  h . f  x1  , y 1  
 2 2
k 3  0.1 f 1.15 , 1.79746

## k 3  0.1  1.15   1.79746  

2 2
 
k 3  0.1 2.133861
k 3  0.2133861

k 4  h . f  x1  h , y 1  k 3 
k 4  0.1 f 1.2 , 1.904386

## k 4  0.1  1.2   1.904386  

2 2
 
k 4  0.1 2.25093004 
k 4  0.225093003

## Put the value of k 1 , k 2 , k 3 and k 4 in Eq n  II 

1
k 0.2017295  2  0.212915011  2  0.213386   0.225093003
6
1
k  1.279425 
6
k  0.21324
Put the value of k in Eq n  I 
y 2  y1  k
y 2  1.691  0.21324
y 2  1.90424

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 54
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

## ********************* EXERCISE ***********************

Ex.1 Find y  0.2  u sin g step size 0.1 , with the help of Runge  Kutta fourth order method
dy y  3 x 2
given that  and y  0   1.5.
dx y  x2
Ans : x 0  0 , y 0  1.5 , h  0.1 , x1  0.1 , y 1  1.6004 , x 2  0.2 , y 2  1.7034

## Ex.2 U sin g Runge  Kutta fourth order method find y  0.2 

dy y  x
by solving  y  0   1 Take h  0.2
dx y  x
Ans : x 0  0 , y 0  1 , h  0.2 , x1  0.2 , y 1  1.17

Ex.3 Find y when x  0.2 u sin g step size 0.1 , with the help of Runge  Kutta
dy y 2  x 2
fourth order method given that  and y  0   1 .
dx y 2  x 2

Ex.4 U s e Runge  Kutta fourth order method to find y  0.2  with h  0.1 ,
dy
given that  x y with y  0   1 .
dx

dy
Ex.5 U s e Runge  Kutta fourth order method solve  1  y 2 with y  0   0
dx
then find y  0.2  and y  0.4 
Ans : h  0.2

dy
Ex.6 U sin g Runge  Kutta fourth order method solve  x  y with y  0   1
dx
then find y  0.1
Ans : y  0.1  1.11 and y  0.2   1.22

Ex.7  Apply Runge  Kutta fourth order method to find approximate value of y
dy
when x  0.2 . Given that  x  y 2 , y  1 when x  0 . Take h  0.1
dx

Ex.8 Use the Runge  Kutta fourth order method to calculate the value of y at x  0.2
dy
to four place of decimal with step size 0.1 of  0.31  0.25 y  0.3 x 2 with y  0   1
dx

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 55
NOTES ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - IV

dy
Ex.9 Find the value of y at x  0.6 by solving  x y 2  0 u sin g Runge  Kutta
dx
fourth order method . Given that y  0.4   1.72 use step step size of 0.2 .

## Prof. Gadekar Neeta

(Mob. 8308369969) Page 56