You are on page 1of 13

BOARD OF ADVANCE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

RESEARCH PROPOSAL FOR POST GRADUATE PROGRAM


1. Name of Student: Muhammad Arsalan Khan
2. Department: Mechanical Engineering
3. Date of Registration in the M.Sc Degree Program Spring 2014
4. Major area of study: Materials
5. Topic of Research: “Microstructural Analysis of the failed Exhaust Valves of a Heavy-duty
Natural Gas powered I.C engine.”
6. Courses Studied:
S. No Course code Courses
1 ME-5365 Phase Equilibrium of Materials
2 ME-5392 Mechanical Behavior of Materials
3 ME-5391 Applications and Selection of Materials
4 ME-5351 Characterization of Materials
5 ME-5352 Material Thermodynamics
6 ME-5356 Bio-Materials
7 ME-5390 Design of Experiments
8 ME-5398 Technical Writing and Research Methodology
9 ME-5390 Flexible Manufacturing Systems
7. Summary of Research Proposal:
Wear and failure of the exhaust valves, is an unavoidable problem in Internal
combustion engines which ultimately lead to under performance, large down time,
and high maintenance costs. Basically there are various modes of exhaust valve wear
and failure but in this case, the main mode is that of wear and failure of the exhaust
valve face. The type of fuel used for combustion deters the combustion temperature
and the composition of the exhaust deposits/soot, which affects the mode and rate of
wear in the exhaust valves. During this research, the effects of natural gas on the wear
leading to failure of the exhaust valves of a natural gas operated heavy-duty engine
are going to be determined by different metallurgical investigations including
Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM, X-ray Diffraction XRD, Thermo Gravimetric
Analysis TGA, etc. These tests are going to be performed on different (new, used, and
failed) exhaust valves samples and soot deposit specimens, the results of which are
then going to be co-related and conclusions are to be drawn regarding the reasons for
the wear and failure of the exhaust valves.

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


1
Introduction:
Wear and failure of the exhaust valves, is an unavoidable problem in Internal
combustion engines which ultimately lead to under performance, large down time,
and high maintenance costs. Numerous changes in material, design and construction
have greatly improved engine valve life and its performance. However, these up
gradations have a difficulty keeping pace with the high demands placed upon engine
valves due to the continual increase in requirements of engine performance in a
worldwide competitive environment [1].
Any type of valve failure affects the engine performance thus making it
mandatory to give due importance to failure analysis of Internal combustion engine
valves. The possible modes of exhaust valves failure are wear failure and valve face
recession, fatigue failure, thermal fatigue, erosion / corrosion of valves, overheating
of valves, carbon deposits built up, guttering, torching, etc. In addition, enhanced
combustion and cleaner fuels lead to almost negligible solid combustion products that
might ease the wear conditions.
The exhaust valve recession is the most common form of valve wear in natural gas-
fired engines and is caused by wear of both the valve-face and the valve-seat. This
type wear occurs by metal abrasion, high temperature corrosion, frictional sliding, and
adhesion mechanisms [2-5].

Figure 1 showing the nomenclature


of an exhaust valve Figure showing the specifications of
natural gas powered engine [21]
(Model: G3406)

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


2
Available research literature about valve failures indicates that valve design is a
complicated task because the valve is subjected to various loads at any point of time,
such as reverse loading at a high temperature, stress concentration at the keeper’s
groove area, fatigue wear in the stem and carbon deposits at exhaust valves, etc.
Sometimes the wear will be greater on the valve-seat, and at other times the wear will
be greater on the valve-face.
This depends on materials and other factors, such as operating conditions, fuel type,
and lubricant grade, etc. in addition, The Exhaust valves are more prone to thermal
stress, than the intake valves. This is because the intake valves are virtually cooled by
in-flowing fresh air. However burnt gases have a very high temperature in the range
of 800-10000C because of this frequency of failure of exhaust valves due to thermal
stresses is higher than the inlet valves [6].
The wear of the contact surfaces in the case of the exhaust valve could lead to change
in the combustion conditions and increase in emission levels. Obviously, this sharpens
the requirements for reduced wear, to keep the emissions low throughout the life of
the engine, and presents a great challenge to the manufacturers. In addition, the
tribological situation in the exhaust valve system in future is expected to be severe for
engines that will follow the Euro 6 emission regulations [7], which is briefly
compared to earlier legislations in Fig 2. Because of higher demands on performance
and the increasing use of alternative fuels, engine valves are challenged with greater
wear problems than in the past and to resolve these issues, Valve manufacturers have
been continuously working with the engine manufacturers in an effort to improve the
valve quality and life.

Figure 2 showing the accepted emissions of soot PM and NOx depending on legislations [9].

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


3
a. Topic of Research:

“Microstructural analysis of the failed exhaust valves of a heavy-duty natural


gas powered I.C engine.”

b. Problem Statement:
The problem focused by the researcher in this study is to investigate the root causes of
wear, in the exhaust valves of a heavy-duty, natural-gas dedicated, Internal
Combustion engine.
The increasing demands from environmental legislations and the need to
conserve fossil fuels are changing the conditions that, the valve system is exposed to
in heavy duty engines. The use of natural gas as an alternate to run these heavy duty
engines resulted in increased pressures, higher temperatures and lower amounts of
soot which could build up a protective film, are some of the increasing challenges
which the system has to endure.
This study will help in identifying the key reasons of failure of the exhaust
valves, which ultimately resulted in an increase in the frequency of top-end over-
hauling of the engines of natural gas operated engines.

c. Objectives:
The main objective of this research is to investigate the type, mechanism and sources
of wear, which lead to failure of some specific exhaust valves of a Natural gas
dedicated I.C engine. So the sub-objectives of this research can be defined as:
 To study the micro-structure and fracture surface of failed exhaust valves
specimens, using the SEM and contrasting that microstructure with that of a
new exhaust valve specimen.
 To find out the structure, phases, crystallographic characteristics and chemical
composition of the solid particles deposited on the face of the exhaust valve
using X-ray Diffraction XRD
 To conclude and relate to the different micro-structural data acquired by
various techniques, to know the causes of wear so as to avoid such wear and
failures in future.

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


4
d. Literature Survey

The exhaust valve and its seat insert wear have significant effects on the engine
performance and also failure of the exhaust valve might result in the machine
downtime which will certainly effect the operations. Therefore, investigation of the
relationship between the exhaust valve, the seat insert wear and the cause of the wear
is a much needed requirement.
The benchmarking of microstructures of failed valves v/s new valves revealed
that the size of grains, grain boundaries, and distribution of carbide particles across
the material matrix is affected by high temperature conditions and the effects are more
severe for exhaust valves [6]. Exhaust valves are exposed to thermal stress more than
intake valve because intake valve are virtually cooled by in-flowing fresh air.
However burnt gases have very high temperature in the range of 800 - 10000C
because of this frequency of failure of exhaust valve is higher than inlet valve. The
wear mechanism in exhaust valves of such heavy duty engines has been found to be a
combination of oxidation and adhesive wear [7].

Figure showing: A) % change in the micro structure of new exhaust valve vs. failed exhaust valve
B) % change in the micro structure of failed exhaust valves vs. failed inlet valves [7].
The different test variables needed to fully co-relate the engine performance to
exhaust valve and valve seat operation include: the combustion pressure and
temperature, the running speed of the engine at full and varying load, the materials
used for manufacturing of exhaust valve and seat insert, the type and grade of
lubrication oil used, the type and composition of fuel used by the engine, valve
open/closing speed and impact force, straightness adjustment defect, valve rotation
and its angle, etc. [6-19].
The following facts were found by studying the literature review on the discussed test

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


5
variables: If the engine speed, load or temperature increased, the valve and the seat
insert wear increased [8-11] i.e. if the combustion pressure increased, the valve and
the seat insert wear also increased [8]. The valve seat and seat insert wear rate was
found highest when the engine speed was high [9]. Similarly the tests performed
under identical conditions showed that due to the uneven contact with the valve seat,
the valve tends to have side movement which aggravates valve seat wear [10]. The
materials used for inlet and exhaust valves are generally different because of the
different operating conditions to which these are subjected [11]. The material for
exhaust valve must have the following mechanical properties to operate in the more
severe conditions [12].
 Sufficient strength and hardness to resist tensile forces and wear
 Adequate fatigue strength
 High creep strength
 Resistance to corrosion
 Resistance to oxidation at the high operating temperatures
 Small coefficient of thermal expansion to avoid excessive thermal stresses
 High thermal conductivity for good heat dissipation
Also, in the case of the seat insert material, the wear rate of the sintered
material insert was different from that of the cast material insert [13]. Methane burns
hot and can cause severe oxidation and nitration of the engine oil in some gas engines.
Gas engines do not produce soot and there is no liquid fuel to help lubricate the intake
and exhaust valves, so the oil’s ash is relied on to lubricate the hot valve face/seat
interface. Consequently, ash content and composition can have a significant effect on
head life. Many gas engine installations also run full-load [14], so the amount of the
solid lubricant film has a significant effect on the extension of the valve lifetime
which also depends on the type of fuel being used [15].
The compatibility of the exhaust valve and seat material is also of great
significance in case of valve failure [16], and the tests on the valve and the seat insert
by material revealed different depths of the valve and valve insert wear [17]. The
higher the valve hardness, the greater will be the valve seat wear.
On the basis of these characteristics, different materials are being used in exhaust
valves manufacturing. Nimonic 80A Alloy is a nickel-chromium alloy that is

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


6
strengthened by the additions of titanium and aluminum. It has high tensile and creep-
rupture properties at temperatures up to 815°C.Nimonic 105 is a wrought nickel-
cobalt-chromium base alloy strengthened by additions of molybdenum, aluminum and
titanium. It has been developed for service up to 950°C, and combines the high
strength of the age hardening. INCONEL 751 super alloy 5Cr21Mn9Ni4N (21-4N),
Pyromet 31 and Stellite 6 (hard facing) heat-resistant steel are also usually used as the
exhaust valve plate materials [1].
The current statistics about valve failures clearly point to the fact that valve
design is a complex and complicated task. Incidentally, the valve is subjected to
various loads and over exceed in any of these loads might lead to exhaust valve wear
or failure which affects the engine performance thus making it mandatory to give due
importance to failure analysis of internal combustion engine valves. Failure of valve
trends and modes can be summarized in categories like wear failure, valve face
recession, fatigue failures, thermal fatigue, erosion/corrosion of valve, overheating of
valves, carbon deposition of valves etc. [18].

Valves used in LPG Fueled retrofitted SI engines operate in a very hostile


environment of high temperatures, pressures along with impact loading, thermal
stresses, and fatigue loading too. Since pressures and temperatures affecting the
valves vary with the type of fuel used and its combustion characteristics, valves are
exposed to different dynamic and thermal stresses [19]. Valves also fail due to surface
erosion and corrosion. The erosion - corrosion of exhaust valves (valve guttering) is a
recognized failure mode in internal combustion engines powered by LPG fuels [20].
All these failure contributing mechanisms alter the microstructure of valves and
metallographic images of these variations can be stitched together to provide an
insight into valve behavior and its failure.
In order to investigate the effect of failure modes on damaged valves, failed valves
will be taken from an In-line 6 cylinder, 4-Stroke-Cycle, 24 valves, natural gas
powered IC engine. This research describes a detailed metallurgical investigation and
microscopic analysis of that particular exhaust valve of a natural gas powered engine,
which catastrophically failed in service. The failure had taken place at the face of the
exhaust-valve.

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


7
e. Methodology:

The methodology followed is explained in the proceeding lines:

The microstructure analysis of the exhaust valves will consist of micro-level study of
three categories of Specimens consisting of samples prepared from failed engine
exhaust valves which will be contrasted with the microstructure of new exhaust
valves, in addition the soot deposits on the exhaust valve face are also going to be
studied.
In the analysis process, sample preparation is the essential primary stage, so
Specimens will be taken from the plates of the failed valves and a new valve, and are
going to be prepared by specific standard methods for each of the macro and micro
level examination and metallurgical tests. In addition, a powdered sample is also
going to be acquired from the exhaust valve deposits for the analysis.
Firstly, the samples are going to be viewed using a light microscopy, then the
chemical composition of the plate material and the deposits will be determined by
spectroscopy chemical analysis.
Then the microstructure of the specimen, surface topography (fracture
surface), composition and other properties such as electrical conductivity are going to
be studied by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the structure, phases and
crystallographic characteristics of valve deposits are going to be identified by X-ray
diffraction (XRD)
Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) is also going to be done for a failed
exhaust valve specimen and exhaust valve deposits, which is an analytical technique
used to determine a material’s thermal stability and its fraction of volatile components
by monitoring the weight change that occurs as the specimen is heated.

Figure showing two failed exhaust valve specimens acquired from natural gas powered
engine (Model: G3406)

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


8
These investigations are also going to be performed on samples taken from
new and unused exhaust valves, the results of which are going to be compared with
that of the failed exhaust valve samples which will ultimately lead to finding out the
root causes of wear leading to the failure of the exhaust valves of natural gas powered
heavy duty engine.

Sample Light
SEM XRD / XRF TGA Conclusion
preparation microscopy

Figure showing the flow diagram of the methodology.

Work schedule/plan:

f. Proposed starting date: 1st January, 2016

g. Expected date of completion: 8th August , 2016

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


9
8. Are facilities available for the work? Yes

9. Additional facilities required (give details) N/A

10. Expected expenditure (give details)

S.No Item Cost


1 Materials 10,000
2 Experimental setup 10,000
3 Microscopy 10,000
Total 30,000

11. Remarks, if any

Signature of Candidate & date

Name ___________________________________ Sign & Date ______________

Recommendation and Signature of the Supervisor:

Name ___________________________________ Sign & Date ______________

Recommendation and Signature of the Co-Supervisor:

Name ___________________________________ Sign & Date ______________

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


10
Recommendation and Signature of the Postgraduate Advisor:

Name_________________________________ Sign & Date_________________

Recommendation and Signatures the Project Research Evaluation Committee:

1. Name ________________________________________ Sign & Date ___________

2. Name ________________________________________ Sign & Date _____ _____

3. Name ________________________________________ Sign & Date ______ ___

Recommendation and Signature of Department Chairman: _______________________

Secretary BOASAR _______________________

_______________________ _______________________
Dean Vice Chancellor

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


11
References
[1]. Z.W. Yu, X.L. Xu, “Failure analysis and metallurgical investigation of diesel engine exhaust
valves.” Institute of Metal and Technology, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, PR China.
Received 24 September 2004; accepted 16 October 2004
[2]. Yuvraj K Lavhale, Prof. Jeevan Salunke “Overview of Failure Trend of Inlet & Exhaust Valve”
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014),
[3]. Oh Geon Kwon a, Moon Sik Han b, “Failure analysis of the exhaust valve stem from a Waukesha
P9390 GSI gas engine”, Engineering Failure Analysis 11 (2004) 439M47, Received 14 May 2003;
accepted 17 May 2003
[4]. Z. Grzesik, e.t. all, “High temperature corrosion of valve steels in combustion gases of petrol
containing ethanol addition” Corrosion Science 77 (2013) 369–374
[5]. J. A. Schauer, “Hot Corrosion of Nickel-Base Exhaust Valves in a Natural Gas Engine,”
SAE 910055 (1991).
[6]. Ajay Pandey, R. K. Mandloi , “Effects of High Temperature on the Microstructure of Automotive
Engine Valves” , Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications
Vol. 4, Issue 3, pp.122-126 (March 2014)
[7]. P. Forsberg, P. Hollman, S. Jacobson, “Wear mechanism study of exhaust valve system in modern
heavy duty combustion engines”, Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström laboratory,
Uppsala University, Sweden, Accepted 29 November 2010
[8]. Sanoj. T, S. Balamurugan, “Thermo Mechanical Analysis of Engine Valve” International Journal of
Science and Research. Volume 3 Issue 5, (May 2014)
[9]. Chun, K. J., Hong, J. S. and Lee, H. J., “A Study on Engine Valve and Seat Insert Wearing Depending
on Speed Change,” SAE Paper, No. 2004-01-1655, (2004).
[10]. Lewis, R., Dwyer-Joyce, R. S. and Josey, G., “Investigation of Wear Mechanisms Occurring in
Passenger Car Diesel Engine Inlet Valves and Sear Inserts,” SAE Paper, No. 1999-01-1216, (1999).
[11]. Wang, Y. S.,Narasimhan, S., Larson, J. M., Larson, J. E. and Barber, G. C., “The effect of operating
conditions on heavy duty engine valve and seat wear,” Wear, Vol. 201, No. 1-2, pp.15-25, (1996)
[12]. Goli Udaya Kumar, Venkata Ramesh Mamilla, “Failure Analysis Of Internal Combustion Engine
Valves By Using Ansys”, American International Journal of Research in Science, Technology,
[13]. Jae Soo Hong, Yang Soo Kim and Keyoung Jin Chun, “Study on Exhaust Valve and Seat Insert Wear
Depending on Fuel Type”, International Journal Of Precision Engineering And Manufacturing Vol.
13, No. 2, pp. 253-260 (February 2012)
[14]. N. K. Smrcka “Development of a New-Generation Low-Ash Oil Additive Package for Natural Gas

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


12
Engines,” ASTM Paper 91-ICE-A (1991).
[15]. Pyle, W. R. and Smrcka, N. R., “The Effect of Lubricating Oil Additives on Valve Recession in
Stationary Gaseous-Fueled Four-Cycle Engine,” SAE Paper, No. 932780, (1993).
[16]. Kimihiko, A., Akira, M. and Akio, Y., “Hard faced Valve and P/M Valve Seat System for CNG and
LPG Fuel Engines,” SAE Paper, No. 2005-01-0718, (2005).
[17]. Sato, K., Midorikawa, T., Takahashi, T. and Oshige, H., “Development of Valve Seat Material for
Gas-Fueled Engines,” SAE Paper, No. 2000-01-0911, (2000).
[18]. Naresh Kr. Raghuwanshi, Ajay Pandey, R. K. Mandloi, “Failure Analysis of Internal Combustion
Engine Valves: A Review”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and
Technology Vol. 1, Issue 2, (December 2012)
[19]. M. I. Karamangil A. Avci and H. Bilal, “Investigation of the effect of different carbon film thickness
on the exhaust valve”. Heat Mass Transfer 44 (2008).
[20]. C.G. Scott, A.T. Riga, H. Hong, “The erosion - corrosion of nickel - base diesel engines exhaust
valves”. Wear 181-183, pp. 485 – 494 (1995).
[21]. Engine performance is obtained in accordance with SAE J1995, ISO3046/1, BS5514/1, and
DIN6271/1 standards. www.catoilandgas.cat.com

Candidate signature Supervisor Signature Chairman Signature

PREC Member 1 PREC Member 2 PREC Member 3


13