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WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT : SINGAPORE

Paper made by : - Vincentia Herawati V./171317

- Eklisia Hanani/171316877

INTRODUCTION :
Singapore, an island city-state off southern Malaysia, is a global financial center with a tropical
climate and multicultural population. Singapore have been issued with water scarcity since the
country does not have natural water source (aquifers or groundwater). Throughout the years,
the country has searched for a way to conserve water and meet the demand of 400 million
gallons daily. Today, Singapore has become one of the top countries that have most successful
water strategy in the world.
WATER SOURCE :
a.) Water imported from Malaysia
This water enters Singapore via a pipeline at the causeway between Singapore and
Johor, Malaysia. With the expiry date of 2061 for the second agreement approaching, this
has become the de facto planning horizon for Singapore to advance and diversify its
technologies as it moves towards the goal of water self sufficiency.
b.) NEWater
Five NEWater plants now provide 60 mgd (273 000 m3/d), which meets 30% of
Singapore’s water demands (Chew et al. 2011), and PUB expects that by 2060 NEWater
will meet 50% of Singapore’s demand. NEWater is used primarily as a replacement for
potable water in industrial processing, including microelectronics and wafer fabrication,
although a small percentage also is blended into reservoirs for indirect potable use.
c.) Desalination
Currently, singapore have three desalination plants with a combined capacity of 130 mgd
that can meet up to 30% of Singapore's current water demand. Two more desalination
plants will be ready by 2020. Desalinated water is expected to meet up to 30% of
Singapore's future water needs by 2060.
d.) Runoff from local catchment
Stormwater runoff is now captured from two-thirds of Singapore’s land area and stored in
seventeen reservoirs throughout the island for subsequent use. One of the most recent
additions to reservoir capacity is the Marina Barrage, which collects runoff from a 10 000
ha area having a population of around 1 000 000 people (Kamer et al. 2008).
WATER DEMAND

Water demand in Singapore is currently about 430 million gallons a day (mgd) that is enough to
fill 782 Olympic-sized swimming pools, with homes consuming 45% and the non-domestic
sector taking up the rest.

Singapore's per capita household water consumption was reduced from 165 litres per day in
2003 to 143 litres in 2017. The target is to lower it to 130 litres by 2030.

Farming is a water- and land-intensive activity, and Singapore, with only 710 square kilometres
to play with, is short of both. Currently a dismal 7% of vegetables are locally grown.

WATER INFRASTRUCTURE :

There are total of 17 reservoirs and dams in Singapore, four of them is located in SAF
restricted zones (source : Wikipedia). Marina Reservoir is the only reservoir located in the
centre of the city. It is also the largest reservoir, with a catchment area of 10,000ha, or one-sixth
the size of Singapore.

Major Water Treatment Works Major Wastewater / Sewage Treatment /


Reclamation Plants:
 Bedok Waterworks  Bedok Water Reclamation Plant
 Bukit Timah Waterworks  Changi Water Reclamation Plant
 Chestnut Avenue Waterworks  Jurong Water Reclamation Plant
 Choa Chu Kang Waterworks  Kim Chuan Water Reclamation Plant
 Woodleigh Waterworks  Kranji Water Reclamation Plant
 Pulau Tekong Waterworks (Offshore Island)  Seletar Water Reclamation Plant
 Serangoon Sludge Treatment Works
 Tuas Water Reclamation Plant
 Ulu Panda Water Reclamation Plant

WATER TREATMENT

Raw water from various sources is conveyed by pipelines to the waterworks where it is chemically
treated, filtered and disinfected. Treatment frees the water of harmful bacteria and suspended
particulate matters including those in the micron range, makes it clear, sparkling, odourless,
colourless, and safe for consumption.
Most treatment plants use chemical coagulation and rapid gravity filtration to remove suspended
particulate matters in the raw water. For chemical coagulation, correct doses of suitable
coagulants and coagulant-aids are added to the raw water to combine or 'flocculate' the colloidal
and larger particles of suspended matter. This causes the suspended matter to settle more readily
and then be removed in the sedimentation tank. The water is then passed through rapid gravity
filters which remove the finer particles of suspended matter.

At Chestnut Avenue and Choa Chu Kang Waterworks, the suspended particles are removed by
membrane filtration. The filtered water, on its way to the clear water tank, where it is temporarily
stored, is disinfected with chlorine to get rid of all harmful bacteria and viruses. Finally, the water
goes through a series of water quality tests before it is piped to the customers.

Aluminium sulphate is the main coagulant. In most cases, hydrated lime is also added to adjust
the pH of the raw water for the best flocculation results. Polyelectrolyte is used as a coagulant
aid. For disinfection, chlorine is used to destroy the bacteria and viruses. Ozone is used, as well
as chlorine, at Choa Chu Kang and Bedok Waterworks. Ammonia is added in the treated water
containing free chlorine to form a stable chlorine residual. Activated carbon is also used to remove
any bad taste and odour. Sodium silicofluoride is added to the water on its way from the filters to
the clear water tank. Fluoridation is a requirement by the Ministry of Health and has been a
practice since 1957. It helps in the prevention of dental caries.

WASTEWATER TREATMENT :
Used water from both domestic and non-domestic sources is is treated at four water reclamation
plants. Refer to the illustration below for the treatment process.

Treatment Process

1. Preliminary Treatment
The preliminary treatment process removes the debris and sandy materials from the used
water. The used water arrives at the water reclamation plant (WRP) and is first lifted up to
a higher elevation by pumps. With the help of gravity, the used water flows through the
various treatment tanks and automated mechanical screens to remove the debris. This is
followed by grit settling tanks or vortex grit chambers to settle and remove the heavier
sandy materials present in the used water.
2. Primary Treatment
The used water, now free of debris and sandy materials, flows through very slowly across
large tanks called primary clarifiers. The process allows the solid pollutants in suspension
in the used water to settle to the bottom of the tanks. The settled solids known as primary
sludge is collected by scrapers at the bottom of the tanks and removed regularly for
treatment. On the other hand, light materials like scum, greasy materials float up to the
surface of the tank, and is collected and combined with the sludge for further treatment.
The top water, which contains much less pollutants in suspension, leaves the primary
clarifiers for secondary treatment.
3. Secondary Treatment
The secondary treatment comprises the aeration tanks which includes a bio-reactor and
final clarifiers. The used water is mixed with a culture of micro-organism known as
activated sludge in the aeration tank. The micro-organism absorbs and breaks down the
organic pollutants in the used water. In order to sustain the biological activities in the
aeration tanks, a certain level of dissolved oxygen has to be maintained in the used water.
This is achieved by blowing air through air diffuser domes placed at the bottom of the
aeration tanks to create fine air bubbles in the aeration tan. By the time the used water
reaches the end of the aeration tanks, most of the pollutants would have been absorbed
by the micro-organism. The mixture of micro-organism and the treated water is then
channelled into the final clarifiers.
At the final clarifiers, the micro-organism settles to the bottom of the tanks. The clear
supernatant water at the top of the tank is collected and discharged from the tanks as final
effluent. The micro-organism which settles to the bottom as sludge is constantly drawn out
from the final sedimentation tank. A portion of the sludge is constantly returned back into
the aeration tanks to maintain a desired concentration of micro-organism in the aeration
tank to sustain the optimal bio-reaction process. The excess activated sludge is sent for
further treatment.

4. Final Effluent
The final effluent meets the discharge standards of 20 mg/l biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD) and 30 mg/l total suspended solids (TSS). Part of the final effluent is further treated
to industrial water which is supplied to the industries in Jurong Island. The final effluent is
also further treated using advanced membrane and reverse osmosis technologies to high
grade water called NEWater. The NEWater is supplied to the industries for use in the
industrial processes to conserve potable water.
5. Sludge Thickening
Raw sludge collected from the primary sedimentation tanks and excess activated sludge
from the secondary treatment process contain a high percentage of water. The water
content of the sludge is reduced by using dissolved air flotation thickener or centrifuge.
The thickened sludge is fed into anaerobic sludge digesters for further treatment.
6. Sludge Digestion
In the digesters, another culture of micro-organism thriving in an oxygen-deficient
environment breaks down the organic substances in the sludge. The sludge is allowed to
remain in the digesters for 20 - 30 days. The digestion process converts the organic matter
into biogas which contains 60 - 70% methane. The biogas is then used as fuel to power
dual-fuel engine generators which helps contribute to the electricity energy required at the
plant.
7. Sludge Dewatering
With the digested sludge still relatively wet, disposal is difficult. Using mechanical means
such as dewatering centrifuges, water content is substantially reduced to facilitate
handling and final disposal. The dewatered sludge is incinerated and the ash is disposed
at Pulau Semakau Landfill.

Domestic used water comprises mainly sewage and sullage water. These are generated from
households and commercial premises such as hotels, restaurants, shops through activities such
as cooking and washing. Industrial used water is the trade effluent generated by factories from
manufacturing process. Trade effluent discharge is controlled through the Trade Effluent
Regulations under the Sewerage and Drainage Act. Industries may have to pre-treat the trade
effluent to remove any chemical or undesirable pollutants to meet the discharge standards
stipulated in the regulations before it is discharged into the public sewer. The sewerage network
collects used water from domestic and non-domestic (e.g. industrial, commercial, etc) sources.
Used water is channelled through a combination of gravity sewers and pumping stations to the
water reclamation plants, where it is treated in accordance to international standards. Part of
this treated used water, which is safe enough to be returned to nature, is sent to a separate
treatment system in the NEWater Plants. The remaining is sent back to the sea.