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Modul al-Kimiya Tingkatan 4

Bab 2
Chapter 2
Aktiviti
Activity

Sifat Zarah bagi Jirim


A
The Particulate Nature of Matter

Jenis Jenis
Jenis Zarah
Bahan Bahan Zarah Bahan Zarah
Type of
Substances Substances Type of Substances Type of
Particles
Particles Particles
Argon Atom Karbon dioksida Molekul Zink klorida Ion
Argon Carbon dioxide Zinc chloride
(Ar) Atom (CO2) Molecule (ZnCl2) Ion

Kuprum Atom Ammonia Molekul Ferum(II) sulfat Ion


Copper Ammonia Iron(II) sulphate
(Cu) Atom (NH3) Molecule (FeSO4) Ion

Oksigen Molekul Karbon Atom Asetamida Molekul


Oxygen Carbon Acetamide
(O2) Molecule (C) Atom (CH3CONH2) Molecule

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Struktur Atom/Structure of the Atom

Keadaan Fizikal Jirim


Physical State of Matter
B

1. Jirim mempunyai tiga keadaan fizikal iaitu pepejal, cecair dan gas.
Matter has three physical states. They are solid, liquid and gas.
Bab 2
Chapter 2
Aktiviti
Activity

Aktiviti 2.2 Lengkapkan jadual di bawah.

Activity 2.2 Complete the table below.

Keadaan Jirim Pepejal Cecair Gas


State of Matter Solid Liquid Gas

Rajah susunan
zarah
Diagram of the
arrangement of
particles

Zarah-zarah tersusun Zarah-zarah tersusun


dengan sangat padat dan dengan padat tetapi tidak Zarah-zarah berjauhan
Susunan zarah teratur. teratur. antara satu sama lain.
Arrangement of
The particles are packed The particles are closely The particles are far apart
particles
closely together in an packed but not in orderly from each other.
orderly manner. manner.

Zarah-zarah dapat
bergetar, berputar dan
Zarah-zarah hanya dapat
Pergerakan
Zarah-zarah dapat
bergerak ke seluruh
bergetar dan berputar
zarah
bergetar, berputar dan
cecair.
pada kedudukan tetap.
bergerak secara bebas.
Movement of Particles can only vibrate Particles can vibrate, Particles can vibrate,
particles and rotate at their fixed rotate and move rotate and move freely.
positions.
throughout the liquid.

Daya tarikan
Daya tarikan antara
Daya tarikan antara
Daya tarikan antara
antara zarah
zarah-zarah adalah
zarah-zarah adalah kuat.
zarah-zarah adalah
lemah.
Attractive forces sangat kuat.
Particles are attracted by The attraction forces
between the Particles are attracted by
strong forces. between particles are
particles very strong forces.
weak forces.

Kandungan
tenaga zarah Rendah Tinggi Sangat tinggi
Energy content Low High Very high
of particles

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Modul al-Kimiya Tingkatan 4

Bab 2
Chapter 2
Aktiviti
Activity

Aktiviti Bereksperimen (Sila rujuk Buku Teks Amali)


Experiment Activity (Please refer to Practical Text Book)

Menjalankan aktiviti untuk menentukan takat lebur dan takat beku naftalena atau
asetamida (etanamida).
To carry out activities to determine the melting point and freezing point of
naphthalene or acetamide (ethanamide).

14
Struktur Atom/Structure of the Atom

Perubahan Keadaan Jirim dengan Perubahan Haba


Changes in States of Matter with Heat Changes
D

Bab 2
Chapter 2
Aktiviti
Activity

Aktiviti 2.3 Lengkapkan rajah di bawah.

Activity 2.3 Complete the diagram below.

Dipanaskan/Heated
Tenaga kinetik zarah bertambah
Kinetic energy of particles increases

Pemejalwapan/Sublimation

Peleburan Pendidihan/Penyejatan
Melting Boiling/Evaporation

Pepejal/Solid Cecair/Liquid Gas/Gas


Pembekuan/Freezing Kondensasi/Condensatiion

Pengendapan/Desublimation

Disejukkan/Cooled
Tenaga kinetik zarah berkurang
Kinetic energy of particles decreases

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Modul al-Kimiya Tingkatan 4

Bab 2
Chapter 2
Aktiviti
Activity

Aktiviti 2.4 Lengkapkan rajah di bawah.

Activity 2.4 Complete the diagram below.


Suhu/°C
Temperature/°c

Mula mendidih Cecair + Gas


Start boiling Liquid + Gas
s
s
Ga
Takat didih Ga
Boiling point
id

ir
qu

ca
Mula melebur
Li
Lengkap mendidih

Ce
Start melting Complete boiling
Takat lebur
Melting point jal
pe
lid
Pe
o
Pepejal + Cecair Lengkap melebur
S Solid + Liquid Complete melting

Masa/min
Time/min

Bab 2
Chapter 2
Aktiviti
Activity

Aktiviti 2.5 Lengkapkan rajah di bawah.

Activity 2.5 Complete the diagram below.

Suhu/°C
Temperature/°c

Ga Mula terkondensasi
Cecair + Gas
Takat kondensasi s Start condensation
Liquid + Gas
Condensation point
Lengkap terkondensasi Mula membeku
Liq

Complete condensation Start freezing


uid

Pepejal + Cecair
Takat beku Solid + Liquid
Freezing point
Lengkap membeku So
Complete freezing lid
Masa/min
Time/min

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Struktur Atom/Structure of the Atom

Menentukan Keadaan Fizikal Jirim Berdasarkan Takat Lebur dan Takat Didih
E
Determine the Physical State of Matter based on the Melting Point and Boiling
Point
Bab 2
Chapter 2
Aktiviti
Activity

Aktiviti 2.6 Jawab soalan berikut.

Activity 2.6 Answer the questions below. Zarah R


Particle R

1. Contoh 1 Diberi takat lebur air ialah


0˚C dan takat didih air ialah 100˚C.
Apakah keadaan fizikal air pada
suhu:
Example 1 Given the melting point of

Yang manakah merupakan takat lebur


water is 0˚C and the boiling point of
dan takat didih bagi R?
water is 100˚C. What is the physical
state of water when the temperature
is: Which is the most probable melting and
boiling points for R?
a. 30˚C: Cecair. Air telah melepasi
takat lebur pada 0°C tetapi belum Takat lebur/˚C Takat didih/˚C
mencapai takat didih, iaitu 100°C. Melting point/˚C Boiling point/˚C
Liquid. The water already reach
melting point at 0°C but not yet A -123 -78
reach to boiling point, 100°C. B -17 135

b. 110˚C: Gas. Air telah melepasi C 0 78


takat lebur 0°C dan takat didih D 111 400

Cara menyelesaikan soalan:


100°C.
Catatan
Gas. The water already reach
melting point at 0°C and also Notes To solve the problem:
reach to boiling point 100°C. • Pada kotak jawapan, tambahkan tiga lajur
seperti di bawah.
2. Contoh 2 Rajah menunjukkan In the answer box, add three columns as
susunan zarah bagi bahan R pada
below.
suhu 100˚C. Takat lebur/˚C Takat didih/˚C
Melting Boiling
Example 2 Diagram shows the point/˚C point/˚C
particles arrangement of substance R A -123 -78
at 100˚C.
• Tuliskan pepejal, kemudian cecair dan akhir
sekali gas.
Write 'solid', follow by 'liquid' and lastly 'gas'.

17
Modul al-Kimiya Tingkatan 4

Takat lebur/˚C Takat didih/˚C


Pepejal Cecair Gas
Melting Boiling
Solid Liquid Gas
point/˚C point/˚C
A -123 -78

• Jawab soalan. Lihat di mana 100˚C, bahan telah menjadi cecair.


To answer the question. Look out for 100˚C, where the substance changes to liquid.

Pepejal Takat lebur/˚C Cecair Takat didih/˚C Gas


Solid Melting point/˚C Liquid Boiling point/˚C Gas

A -123 -78
B -17 100°C 135
C 0 78
D 111 400

3. Jadual menunjukkan takat lebur dan takat didih bagi empat bahan, P, Q, R dan S.
The table shows melting points and boiling points of four substances, P, Q, R and S.

Bahan Takat Lebur/˚C Takat Didih/˚C


Substance Melting Point/˚C Boiling Point/˚C
P -187 -126
Q 75 130
R 114 444
S -79 68

Antara bahan berikut, yang manakah cecair pada suhu 50˚C?


Which of the substances is a liquid at 50˚C?
A P
B Q
C R
D S

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Struktur Atom/Structure of the Atom

Bab 2
Chapter 2
Latihan 2.1
Exercise 2.1

1. Seketul hablur kuprum(II) sulfat diletakkan di dasar sebuah bikar yang berisi air. Bikar itu
kemudian dibiarkan sehingga tiada perubahan lagi.
A crystal of copper(II) sulphate is placed at the bottom of a beaker of water. The beaker
is left until there is no further change.
a. Pada pendapat anda, apakah proses yang telah berlaku?
In your opinion, what process took place?
Resapan/Diffusion
b. Apakah pemerhatian anda dalam eksperimen ini? Terangkan jawapan anda.
What is your observation for this experiment? Explain your answer.
[warna larutan asal kepada warna perubahan]
Larutan tidak berwarna menjadi larutan biru.
Zarah kuprum(II) sulfat bergerak dan mengisi tempat kosong di antara molekul-
molekul air.
Colourless solution turns blue solution.
The diffusion of copper(II) sulphate particles move and fill the empty space between
the particles (molecules) of water.
2. Pepejal P mempunyai takat lebur 60˚C. Sebuah tabung uji yang berisi leburan P pada
suhu 100˚C dibiarkan menyejuk pada suhu bilik.
Solid P has a melting point of 60˚C.A test tube of molten P at 100˚C is allowed to cool at
room temperature.
a. Lakarkan graf suhu melawan masa untuk penyejukan leburan P.
Sketch a graph of temperature against time for the cooling of molten P.

100

60

Takat beku/Freezing point

Masa/min
Time/min
t0 t1 t2 t3

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Modul al-Kimiya Tingkatan 4

b. Pada graf di (a), tandakan takat beku pada graf anda.


On graph (a) above, indicate the freezing point.
c. Terangkan bentuk graf itu.
Explain shape of the graph.
Dari t0 ke t1, bentuk graf adalah menurun kerana suhu bahan P berkurang,
Dari t1 ke t2, bentuk graf mendatar kerana suhu bahan P kekal disebabkan haba yang
dibebaskan ke persekitaran diseimbangkan oleh haba yang dibebaskan oleh zarah-
zarah yang membentuk pepejal.
Dari t2 ke t3, bentuk graf kembali menurun kerana suhu bahan P berkurang kembali.
From t0 to t1, the graph decreases because the temperature of substance P
decreases.
From t1 to t2, the graph constant because the temperature of substane P is constant
because the heat is lost to the sorrounding was exactly balanced by heat liberated as
the particles attract one another to form a solid.
From t2 to t3, the graph decreases again because the temperature of substance P
decreases again.

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