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Typing Book Prepared by Vivaan Sharma

Following massive protests over the death of 13 women who underwent the
sterilization procedure of tubectomy in Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh last
November, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has written to all States
reminding them that every person should be counselled about the different family
planning options available. The letter completely contradicts the Union
government’s intent of achieving population stabilization almost exclusively
through sterilization. In a letter sent in October 2014 to 11 high-focus States, the
Ministry had noted that the 2020 family planning goals had ―underlined the
importance of sterilization‖ surgeries in these States. Even the recently released
draft National Health Policy 2015 highlights the ―challenge‖ of population
stabilization in six of the 11 States. In order to achieve the annual targets, the
government recently increased the compensation given to women/men, motivators
(Accredited Social Health Activists) and doctors.

If the revised incentive given to motivators is Rs.200 for tubectomy and Rs.300
for vasectomy, the amount is as high as Rs.1,000 for a ―permanent limiting method‖
(tubectomy or vasectomy) in the case of couples after up to two children.
The higher incentive earmarked for permanent limiting methods is another reason
why more women will now end up on the operating table. The government
recently added a new component — post-partum sterilization done soon after or
within seven days of delivery. This approach works to the government’s advantage
as more women are opting for institutional delivery to avail of the cash incentive
earmarked for it. Given the government’s primary focus on permanent and
irreversible family planning options, the question of counselling women on the
different options and giving them full freedom to choose the best one, will at best
remain on paper, and not in practice. Sterilization is the most prevalent form of
contraception in the country, constituting nearly 75 per cent of the.2002

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Typing Book by Vivaan Sharma

With a high number of tubectomies conducted every year and in a camp-

based approach, tubectomy-related deaths as a result of poor quality of care will be
inevitable even when they are done in health-care facilities. Unfortunately, the
camp-based approach is set to continue. The pressure to meet targets, the
incentives given to motivators and doctors and the permanent nature of sterilization
would mean that the question of counselling men and women of the different
options may remain on paper. When Mahinda Rajapaksa called a fresh presidential
election two years ahead of the scheduled January 2016 end to his second term in
office, he did so because he was confident of being voted back for another six
years. There was no real challenger on the horizon at that time, and Mr. Rajapaksa,
who had made the 2009 military victory over the LTTE the main theme of his
government, believed that Sinhalese voters would once again repose their faith in
him. Indeed, so entrenched had he become that few imagined he would lose, and
that too to a relative unknown like Maithripala Sirisena, who was the Health
Minister in the Rajapaksa Cabinet.

Mr. Sirisena’s sudden emergence as a candidate of an opposition alliance

took Mr. Rajapaksa by surprise. He had been unable to see, surrounded as he was
by a cabal, that his one-family authoritarian rule had angered senior members of
his Sri Lanka Freedom Party, and taken the shine off his image among the majority
Sinhalese as the President who ended a 30-year war. The Tamil voters in the North
and East, alienated as they were by the Rajapaksa government’s abject failure to
face up to the challenges of post-war ethnic reconciliation, were always going to
vote against him. The foot-dragging on investigations into alleged war crimes, the
militarisation of the Tamil-dominated North, the hardships that this posed for the
people, And the huge political failure on devolution of powers all ensured that the
Tamil vote would go against him. Another significant.2005

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Typing Book by Vivaan Sharma

With no apparent attempt by the government to crack down on communal

violence even after a bout of deadly rioting in 2013. The departure of the Sri Lanka
Muslim Congress from the ruling coalition to the Sirisena camp just days ahead of
the election, was the final blow against the Rajapaksa regime. Mr. Sirisena rode to
victory on an out-and-out anti-Rajapaksa vote that rendered irrelevant his own
perceived handicaps: the absence of personal charisma; a late start; doubts about
whether a candidate of a diverse opposition group could provide a stable
leadership; and the lack of resources in comparison to what the incumbent had at
his disposal. He had to his advantage a rural base in the north-central districts of
Sri Lanka, and aside from the backing of a ginger group of the ruling SLFP that
defected along with him, the backing of the main opposition United National Party,
and the Jathika Hela Urumaya, a party of Buddhist monks. With this he managed
to poll nearly half of all Sinhalese votes cast, sweeping up in addition the Tamil
and Muslim votes to win 51.28 per cent of the vote share compared to his
opponent’s 47.58. The outcome is an unequivocal victory for democracy and a
lesson to the whole region in peaceful regime change.

The new President of Sri Lanka has his work cut out. To begin with, the
focus is bound to be on Mr. Sirisena’s campaign promise to abolish the powerful
Executive Presidency, which will require a constitutional amendment supported by
two-thirds of Parliament, a difficult proposition. One option before him is to
dissolve Parliament and call a fresh election a year ahead of schedule. The
coalition itself is made up of disparate and mutually antagonistic parties that must
learn to work together. UNP leader Ranil Wickramasinghe has already been named
the new Prime Minister. Former President Chandrika Kumaratunga, who, after
retiring from politics in 2005 re-emerged on the scene to mentor the SLFP
defectors, may well emerge as a third power centre. Quickly.2007

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Mr. Sirisena will need to repair the much-eroded confidence in Sri Lanka as
a country that respects the rule of law, independence of the judiciary and media
freedom. Most importantly, the new dispensation must waste no time in addressing
the Tamil demand for a just peace, because on this hinges the future of the country
itself. With his vast powers, Mr. Sirisena can immediately redress some long-
standing demands including returning to Tamils the land owned by them that the
Army took over in the 1990s and has stubbornly refused to vacate. Devolution of
powers to the Northern Province should also be high on his list of priorities, and if
a new Constitution is being planned with a Westminster-style government, just
power-sharing with the Tamil minority should find a place. The new dispensation
will also need to move speedily on addressing alleged war crimes, starting with
ascertaining how many Tamil civilians actually died in the last phases of the war.
But Tamil stridency on these demands will hinder rather than help matters. As the
main and most credible political representative of the Tamils, the Tamil National
Alliance must play a responsible role.

Tamil Nadu’s political parties must desist from fanning any extremist
demands, for which there is no place on either side of the Palk Strait. For New
Delhi, the change in Sri Lanka presents the opportunity to build a bilateral
relationship that is based on mutual trust and honesty rather than on mutual
suspicion. In recent months, the growing military relationship between Colombo
and Beijing was one of the big concerns in New Delhi. As a sovereign country, Sri
Lanka must be free to choose its friends and allies. But the least New Delhi can
expect is that its defence concerns will not be compromised by a friendly
neighbour. India’s relations with Sri Lanka are civilisational, not contractual, and
despite all the ups and downs, the ties between the people of both countries, based
on culture, religion and trade, have continued.2003

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Typing Book by Vivaan Sharma

Both countries have a common strategic interest in a peaceful Indian Ocean.

It is from this large base that both must now work to strengthen mutually beneficial
ties. The belated decision of the Delhi Police to treat the death of Sunanda Pushkar
in January 2014 as a case of murder may have ended the year-long uncertainty
about the fate of a meandering probe that has been bogged down in forensic and
medical investigations, but it also raises troubling questions about the functioning
of the force. Whatever the initial circumstantial clues that made suicide a more
probable cause of death, there was little justification for the police to delay the
registration of a first information report until a year after she was found dead in a
hotel suite. And even that has been done more than three months after a medical
report categorically said Ms. Pushkar’s death was unnatural and due to poisoning.
The latest report of December 29, 2014, largely reiterated the finding. While the
circumstances — signs emerged that not everything was all right between Ms.
Pushkar and her husband Shashi Tharoor when she had a spat on Twitter with a
foreign journalist just a day before her death — did indicate that she may have
been under great psychological stress, there appeared to be some reluctance on the
part of the police to address suspicions of foul play.

There were suggestions that she may have died of a drug overdose, and
adding to the theory was evidence found on the crime scene. Two used strips of a
drug meant to treat panic and anxiety disorders, were found, but it was neither
prescribed for Ms. Pushkar nor was it consumed, as the viscera analysis showed. It
would not have been difficult to trace their origin by using the batch number or
ascertain if it was prescribed for her and by whom. The theory that she suffered
from Lupus has been proved wrong by the final report that states categorically that
Ms. Pushkar was a normal, healthy woman with no ailments. It is to be hoped that
the police.2004

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Typing Book by Vivaan Sharma

Don't be surprised if you come across a statue of Nathuram Godse, the killer of
the Mahatma Gandhi, in the temple in your vicinity. After its attempt to install Godse
statues at few identified places in Uttar Pradesh was foiled by the State Police, the
Hindu Mahasabha plans to install them in the premises of temples across India.

The Hindutva outfit is in touch with saints and temple trusts which supervise
hundreds of temples, assured it of their support. At present the outfit is quite
determined but tight upped about how it plans to install statue of Nathuram Godse on
January 30, the day Godse shot dead Mahatma Gandhi. The Hindutva outfit has decided
not to publicise its programmes of the installation of the statue after it felt "too much
media coverage" became an "obstacle" in its work.

After its public announcement to build a temple for Godse in Sitapur district and
install a Godse statue at an identified place in Meerut, the Uttar Pradesh police sealed
the two places. While treating the issue as serious problem for law and order the State
police also plans to invoke section 144 of the IPC at the two places.

As per the revised strategy, the outfit will first install Godse statue across the
country and will then inform the media in order to avoid possible crackdowns by the
Uttar Pradesh government and possible roadblocks posed by the other State
government in the country. UP because According to senior functionaries of the
Hindutva group, they met several group of saints during the recently concluded "Magh
Kumbh mela" in Allahabad. "After we announced about our plans the government
sealed the place. We don't want unnecessary attention. We would rather focus on
competing the job at hand," he told this correspondent.

According to a senior Hindu Mahasabha leader who didn't want to be quoted

because of the sensitivity of the issue, Godse statue might soon be seen within temple
premises across the country -- to start with, in temples in the Hindi speaking States like
Madhya Pradesh.2010

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Typing Book by Vivaan Sharma

"We met hundreds of saints during the Magh Kumbh Mela in Allahabad who
assured us of their support and now we are planning to install statues in temples with
the support of these saints," said the outfit leader.

"We have a dedicated set of youths who are brimming with nationalistic fervour
and who are ready to put Godse statue at the Raj Ghat at the cost of getting arrested but
we don't want to work like that. We just want to spread the message of 'Akhand bharat'
(unified India) which was the main mission for Nathuram Godse ji," added another. He
clarified that the statues won't necessarily be in the main part of the temples so as not to
equate Godse with the Hindu Gods. "After some serious thinking and discussion with
saints, we decided that as mark of respect to Godse we can install his statues somewhere
in the premises of temples. We do have statues of great Hindu reformers and great men
in temple premises," maintained the Hindutva leader.

While justifying the proposed move, the Hindu Mahasabha leader said: "Godse
was no less than any other greater because he sent across the message of unified India
and protested against the division the country by Klimt Gandhi".

The Hindutva group has ordered about five hundred statues from artists in
Jaipur. It also plans to inaugurate and launch small libraries which would provide
literature highlighting Godse's "point of view about unified India and correct sequence
of events as far as Gandhi's killing is concerned". The public announcement by the outfit
to install a Godse statue and subsequent well reported bhumi pujan in Meerut for the
statue, had resulted in its leaders being booked under various sections of the IPC.

In a step that could significantly push the bar for quality online education in the
country, IIT Bombay has embarked on a commendable mass online education
programme that will provide free online courses and give access to high quality, IIT-
style education to Indian students in Indian languages. On the Republic Day.2002

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Typing Book by Vivaan Sharma

Online Courses (MOOC) in computer programming, thermodynamics, and

signals and systems from the institute‟s IITBombayX platform developed in
collaboration with edX, a not-for-profit initiative by MIT and Harvard. Describing the
initiative as ―pathbreaking‖, Prof. Khakhar credited Prof.

Deepak Phatak of the Computer Science and Engineering Department for

bringing it to IIT Bombay. ―The rapid evolution of technology makes it imperative for
students and teachers to incorporate the various offerings of technology in their learning
process,‖ he said, launching the first three courses. The Introduction to Computer
Programming will be 16-week course in two parts aimed at computer programming

The course on Thermodynamics, designed for mechanical engineering students,

will last 12 weeks. Signals and Systems will be a 16-week course in two parts designed
for electrical engineering students. The students will get an honour certificate of
achievement certifying successful completion of the course after they have qualified in
the tests. Simultaneously, IIT Bombay will also offer training workshops for invited
teachers on effective teaching and mentoring students in online courses for each of these
three subjects under the Train 10,000 Teachers or T10KT programme of the institute.

Mass Open Online Courses or MOOCs have emerged as the most inexpensive
mechanism for offering quality education online to a very large number of learners and
in addition to traditional course materials like videos, readings and problem sets, it
incorporates aspects of active learning, collaborative discussions on forum, online
quizzes etc.

Global educational institutions are increasingly adopting MOOCs and given

India‟s need for reaching out to largest possible number of learners, MOOCs are seen as
the best way forward to ensure quality in education and vocational training. ―We have
about 3500 colleges, but the academic infrastructure is not up to the expected levels and
quality of education suffers.2005

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In other institutes, computer programming students may be given 10, 20, or 30

line programmes to write, but in IIT Bombay, students write 200 to 250 line
programmes. So, simply put IITBombayX stands for extended online educational
services from IIT Bombay and IIT-style learning,‖ Prof Phatak told The Hindu on

He said the IITBombayX courses will be initially offered in English and Hindi,
but eventually in all Indian languages as the project expands nationally. ―The courses
will also be important for collecting data on student behaviour and their approach in
online education which we could share with other educational institutions,‖ Prof Phatak
said, adding that anyone from 15 year-old to 75-year -olds can register for the courses,
and there is no limit on how many can enrol at a time.

Prof Phatak said the IITBombayX platform will soon offer other courses like a
course in agriculture designed by Hyderabad-based International Crops Research
Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (Icrisat), and a course by Tata Institute of Social
Science on open source animation tools. ―A chemistry course by Dr. Mangala Sunder of
IIT Madras is also being planned,‖ he said.

Facebook has exceeded analysts‟ predictions with annual results of double the net
profit posted by the company a year earlier — thanks to good business growth through
mobile devices in 2014.

The company earned in 2014 a net profit of $2.9 billion, nearly double the figure of
2013, while Facebook‟s income last year amounted to $12.4 billion, representing an
increase of 58.4 per cent compared to the previous year. The results presented on
Wednesday showed that the business branch of Facebook grew more last year and
confirmed the success of the company to make the network more mobile-based.

In December 2014, the number of Facebook subscribers reached 890 million which
meant a growth of 18 per cent compared to a year earlier. Of the total number of active
daily users, 745 million (84 per cent) logged in to the network through.2007

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Typing Book by Vivaan Sharma

In addition, revenues derived from advertising on mobile phones during the last
quarter of 2014 accounted for 69 per cent of total revenue, 16 percentage points more
than in the same period in 2013. To take full advantage of this trend, Mark Zuckerberg‟s
company presented Facebook Audience Network last year, a network that puts in
contact exhibition platforms — mostly mobile applications — with advertisers.

Facebook Mobile aims to penetrate emerging markets such as Latin America and
Southeast Asia where not everyone has access to computers but where the use of smart
phones is significantly increasing. During the three months of October, November and
December, Facebook shareholders earned profits of $0.25 per share, compared to the
$0.20 in the same period the previous year, while the company had a turnover of $3.8
billion, marking an increase of 48.6 per cent, with $2.58 billion for the last quarter of

Facebook‟s results, however, did not meet investor expectations and the share
price slipped by 1.81 per cent to $74.87 per share in electronic trading after the close of
the markets in New York. Eminent singer and theatre director Shekhar Sen has been
appointed the new chairman of the Sangeet Natak Akademi, the country's premier
institution for the performing arts.

Mr. Sen was recently awarded the Padma Shri on Republic day for his
contribution to the arts. According to an order issued by the Culture Ministry on
Wednesday, Sen has been appointed for a term of five years with immediate effect. The
Akademi has been without a head after earlier chairperson Leela Samson, who was
appointed by the UPA government, quit on September 30 last year.

―Sen has done many research-oriented musical programmes and rendered many
significant bhajan albums since 1983 as singer, lyricist and composer, the statement
from the Ministry said. It added that he is famous for his mono act musical plays ―Tulsi‖,
―Kabeer‖, ―Vivekananda‖, ―Sanmanti‖, ―Saahab‖ and ―Soordas‖ which have been highly

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All his plays are written, directed and enacted by him, often featuring him in the
protagonist's role. He performed his play 'Kabeer' at the Lok Sabha in 2005. He has
been the recipient of numerous State awards. Motorola, the first company to take the
online route for sales of its handsets in India, on Thursday said it is looking at setting up
offline experience centres in the country that would double as service centres.

Motorola India General Manager Amit Boni said, ―We are looking at setting up
about 5-10 experience centres across various metros this year, starting with Bangalore.‖
These centres are aimed at enabling customers to experience the touch and feel of the
device before they make their buying decision, he added. Asked if the company will sell
devices via the offline route, Mr. Boni replied in negative. Motorola, which sells devices
in India through e-commerce major Flipkart, currently sells three handsets in the
country - Moto E, Moto G and Moto X in the market, beside a smartwatch, Moto 360.
The company also announced that it has sold over 3 million devices in the country.

―We have crossed the three million device sales milestone. The three handsets
are priced differently, but the Moto E and Moto G make up a large chunk of the sales,
almost 80-85 per cent,‖ Mr. Boni said. Are economic reforms riding piggyback on the
political appeal of Hindutva under the Narendra Modi government? Or is Hindutva
being smuggled into a discourse in which growth and development alone matter? Either
way, the Bharatiya Janata Party‟s reforms agenda seems inseparable from — even if
not organically linked to — the Hindutva project.

But the tensions are palpable, with many of those who are intent on pushing for
the right-wing economic agenda uncomfortable with the antics of the Hindu religious
right, seen as a distraction, or worse, a hindrance.

As a party, the BJP is many things to many people. And it would have to remain
that way if it is to retain support in a country as diverse as India.2010

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True, there are many who have a foot in both the camps, but in the days and
months ahead, the contradictions between the Hindutva project and the economic
reforms project would become more evident. This is when the leaders in the government
and the party will try and force a compromise, and use the two sections in the service of
each other. Hindutva would, then, be politically sold to the aspiring middle classes as a
facilitator of reforms, and the reforms would be pushed down the throat of the
economically marginalised sections as a necessary adjunct of their political mobilisation.

But for those who want to rescue the BJP from regressive Hindutva politics, and
make it the foremost right-wing neo-liberal party of India, the challenge is to keep the
two sets of agenda separate: to isolate the religious lumpen elements and not allow them
to discredit the economic reforms. Politicians would rather not undo the yoking of these
two different programmes. Economic reforms are, after all, painful to push through. It is
for those interested in marketing the reforms as reforms, and not in some other guise, to
make the distinction clear: if the reforms are to succeed over the long term, they have to
be their own justification, and not ride on a communally divisive project.

Whether those involved with Swarajya will be able to do what the BJP politicians
are hesitant to undertake remains to be seen. Rearticulating the „Indian Right‟ point of
view to an India that is now considered the youngest nation in the world (70 per cent of
the country‟s population is said to be below the age of 35 based on the 2011 census),
with a growing and increasingly assertive middle class with, as they say, fire in its belly,
could well be an excruciating tightrope walk.

Steering this boat, when the socio-political milieu is more in sync with
discounting ideologies if not totally debunking them, and when concepts like nation-
building and national identity are sought to be constructed on a religious basis.2002

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Typing Book by Vivaan Sharma

But the current scene is no sociology of melancholy or despair for an enthusiastic

band of thought leaders led by noted writer and journalist Sandipan Deb, who see in
these testing times a great opportunity to rationally and humanely build a ―liberal right-
of-centre discourse,‖ as he put it, which they hope will redefine both tradition and
modernity in India and give the country far greater self-esteem in the comity of nations.

Big ambitions, but thought processes, begin somewhere. Calling themselves

―India‟s new liberal right,‖ Mr. Deb and his team are all set to shortly relaunch the
Swarajya magazine, which was started in 1956 by the veteran journalist, Khasa Subba
Rao, with the patronage of C. Rajagopalachari, popularly known as Rajaji, one of the
tallest leaders of the freedom movement and Mahatma Gandhi‟s „conscience keeper.‟

Rajaji gave Swarajya its Charter, to champion the cause of ―individual liberty,
private enterprise, the minimal state and cultural rootedness,‖ Mr. Deb explained in an
hour-long interview to The Hindu in New Delhi recently. Those core principles will
continue to guide the new Swarajya, 59 years since its inception, he said, while
underscoring that Rajaji‟s vehicle of communication was ―the first coherent and
consistent intellectual response to Nehruvian socialism and the ever expanding Big
State in newly independent India.‖

Aiming at a formal launch in early February 2015, Swarajya in its new avatar will
be a glossy monthly instead of a weekly, have a strong digital presence and hopes to be
on a par with magazines like The Economist in generating top quality content, including
commentary, opinion and essays. It will ―naturally be a magazine of ideas,‖ says Mr.
Deb, whose fame as an author spread with his book ―The IITians: The Story of a
Remarkable Indian Institution and How its Alumni are Reshaping the World.‖

On January 15, it was an extremely cold evening in Delhi as Mr. Deb and I tried in
vain to spot the noted Barista Coffee shop at Connaught Place.2011

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Typing Book by Vivaan Sharma

Then, as we settled down on the mezzanine floor of another quiet and sombrely
lit café nearby, sans the Italian flavours, the entire gamut of what it is to run a liberal
journal now unfolded. The new editorial-director of Swarajya was unflinching to every
query that this correspondent posed.

It was a totally different era when Rajaji started Swarajya in the mid-1950s, as a
right-of-centre, conservative magazine. Reminded of the great literary critic George
Steiner‟s memorable one-liner, ―the long liberal summer is over,‖ I gently prodded Mr.
Deb as to how he saw the journal‟s revival ―in the age of Hindutva‖ and religious

Mr. Deb, with both an IIT and IIM background, retorted that he would rather use
the word ―classical liberal‖ than ―conservative‖ because ―we are for, and also Rajaji
stood for, and we also hope to stand for, individual freedom, human rights, gender
equality, freedom of expression etc., which are not usually associated with the term
„conservative‟; we are in fact right-wing liberals — we will support gay rights for

Doctrinaire „Hindutva‟ is not to be conflated with being a simple Hindu, he made

clear. ―We are not in any way embarrassed about being Hindu, but we are against
lumpen Hinduism,‖ he said. Swarajya will also promote the scientific temper, but will
not fall for uncritical, uninformed, self-glorifying forays into the Sanskritic past as
reflected in recent public statements like ―the spaceship was invented in India.‖

However, real, solid Indian advances made in mathematics and physics, whether
they were by Aryabhatta, Madhava, Brahmagupta or the Kerala school of
mathematicians, are things that should be seriously studied, he argued. Again on the
issue of secularism, Mr. Deb said, ―we are against mixing of religion with politics … We
are for secularism, but a certain sort of secularism which is not aimed at creating only
vote banks.‖ Mr. Deb acknowledged that in the last two decades, the right-wing debate
in the Indian polity, politically.2013

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The formation of a special team to carry forward the probe from now on is a
positive sign, but the lapse of nearly a year bodes ill for the prospects of gathering
credible and relevant evidence to unearth the whole truth. The investigation has
undoubtedly been tardy, hesitant and overcautious: a clear sign that it has been
weighed down by the stature of Mr. Tharoor. Some caution is justified when
political personages are involved to avoid the impression of favouritism or
vindictive targeting, but it should not be at the cost of a free and impartial
investigation. Sensitivity towards the privacy of individuals involved cannot
detract from the quest for the truth. The horrific terrorist attack in Paris at the
office of the French magazine Charlie Hebdo is a direct assault on the freedom of
speech, thought and expression, the fundamentals on which all open, democratic
societies are built.

Ten staff members at the satirical weekly, including four of its top
cartoonists, were gunned down by masked men who entered the building and
targeted the editorial meeting in what seemed to be a well-planned and
professional operation. They left shouting Allahu-Akbar, killing two policemen on
the street outside before driving off in a getaway car. Since 2006, when it first
published the Danish cartoons of Prophet Mohammed, Charlie Hebdo had been
under threat of violent attacks by Islamist groups. Refusing to be intimidated, the
publication continued to caricature Islam even after a firebombing in November
2011, just as it also relentlessly lampooned Christianity and Judaism — its
Christmas week cover caricaturing the birth of Jesus was designed to provoke and
cause offence. Self-censorship in order not to hurt religious sensibilities is now the
norm in most parts of the world, so too in India, where media and expressions of
popular culture including cinema, art and writing have to walk the tightrope daily
in deference to what Salman Rushdie in an interview to this newspaper

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Irrespective of what anyone thinks of its editorial policy, all who believe in
freedom of expression and the democratic way of life must express solidarity with
the magazine, and condemn this unspeakable act of violence against them.
Attacking democratic freedoms is part of a larger agenda. Whether it is al-Qaeda,
IS or any other group, extremist ideology thrives best in a polarised society. If the
sizeable numbers of people adhering to the Muslim faith have been able to resist.
Islamism, it is because French republicanism has been able to surmount even the
most divisive controversies, such as the ban on wearing the hijab and niqab in
public and the Islamophobic discourse by the French right-wing parties that
surrounded it. While the inevitable security measures will have to be taken, it
would be most unfortunate if the attack on Charlie Hebdo were to give rise to a
backlash against French Muslims. That would result in precisely what Islamist
groups want — an alienated Muslim population that would become a recruiting
ground for their violent cause.

Maintaining freedoms and equality before the law in the face of a severe
challenge to security is the most difficult test for any democratic polity and society.
Raising concerns over the impact of climate change, world leaders laid thrust on
renewable energy and sustainable development at the Vibrant Gujarat Summit here
on Sunday. U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged investors to ―shape and
agree on the post-2015 development agenda with a set of sustainable development
goals.‖ He set 2030 as the target to provide universal access to energy to all seven
billion people in the world, double energy efficiency and double the use of
renewable energy. Praising Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s smart city initiative
for encouraging the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency, Mr. Ban urged
the Indian business community ―to lead the transformation we need to achieve
sustainable development and inclusive growth.‖ ―India is in.2002

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The Summit saw participation by 8,500 delegates, including 2500 foreign

delegates from around 120 countries and about 30 world leaders from the field of
politics and business. Large conglomerates from India and abroad announced huge
investment and job creation plans. While Reliance Industries chief Mukesh
Ambani said his group would invest Rs. 1 lakh crore in 12-18 months across
businesses, Kumar Mangalam Birla of Aditya Birla Group announced investment
plans for Rs. 20,000 crore in the State. Prime Minister Narendra Modi cited the
Centre’s recent decisions to invite foreign investment in Railways, Defence and
Insurance. Projecting India as a 3D investment destination, Mr. Modi said the
country had ―democracy, demography and demand.‖ World Bank president Jim
Yong Kim projected the Indian economy to grow 6.4 per cent this year. U.S.
Secretary of State John Kerry sought India’s cooperation in ensuring sustainable
development. The police on Sunday arrested 43 people, including five Nepalese
women, from an illegal casino in the upmarket DLF Phase-II here. Rs.20 lakh in
cash, two dozen cell phones, playing cards, branded liquor and a currency counting
machine were seized from the spot.

Acting on a tip-off, several police teams, under the supervision of Deputy

Commissioner of Police (East) Deepak Saharan, raided the ―L‖ block house in the
early hours. The casino was being run by three men in partnership, two of whom
have been arrested. Naresh Malhotra, one of the owners and a resident of the area,
reportedly told the police that the premises was taken on a monthly rent of Rs. 3
lakh and the customers were served branded liquor and meals. ―The casino
housed a bar, a kitchen and restrooms. Besides a dozen bouncers, five Nepalese
girls were hired on contract on a salary of Rs. 20,000 per month to help and
entertain the customers,‖ said Mr. Saharan. The customers were charged an entry
fee of Rs.1 lakh. Only those known to the owners were permitted to visit the place.
Closed circuit.2006

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The casino was being run from the basement of the three-storey building.
Most of those arrested belong to Delhi; others are from Gurgaon, Faridabad and
Bihar. A case under Excise and Gambling Acts has been registered at DLF-II
police station. The Coimbatore Medical College Hospital (CMCH) is all set to
become a 2,000-bed facility this year. The Rs. 57 crore-centenary building, with
five blocks, will accommodate around 1,000 beds besides six modern operation
theatres and several super speciality departments. It is likely to be commissioned in
April. The Public Works Department (Medical Wing) began construction of the
extended facility on October 18, 2012. The CMCH is the tertiary referral centre for
several Western districts and even border districts of Kerala such as Palakkad. It
treats anywhere between 7,000 and 8,000 outpatients every day besides the 1,200-
odd in-patients. Hospital Dean S. Revwathy says shifting the casualty, zero-delay
accident, trauma and toxicology wards/departments besides Intensive Medical and
Coronary Care Units to the new building will be a priority. The new building will
also have the infrastructure to facilitate organ transplantations. It requires two
operation theatres, one to remove the organ and another to transplant it, with the
facilities located adjacent to each other.

Conducting organ transplantation at CMCH has been a long-time demand of

people of this region since only the private hospitals in Coimbatore performed
complicated procedures. CMCH doctors said had the expertise but only
infrastructure, additional manpower and Government permission was lacking. It is
also likely to accommodate some of the new super speciality departments that have
been sought by the CMCH. These include surgical gastroenterology, vascular
surgery, medical oncology, rheumatology and endocrinology (surgical and
medical). It will also have provisions to accommodate a catheterisation laboratory,
the Dean added. Further, the hospital has also sought an increase.2003

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Neuro-Surgery Department, which has only two assistant surgeons to

perform emergency operations to the ever-increasing number of road traffic
accident victims in the region, said Dr. Revwathy. Chief Minister Siddaramaiah
launched the restoration work of the Lansdowne Building and performed the
ground-breaking ceremony here on Sunday. The restoration exercise has been split
into two contracts, of which one has been finalised and will be taken up.
Lansdowne Building was constructed in 1892 to commemorate the visit of British
Viceroy Sir Lansdowne and his wife to the city. The heritage structure, which was
a shopping arcade of its times, lacked maintenance and it partially collapsed in
August 2012, resulting in the death of four persons. After this incident, it has been
out of bounds for the public.

The government has sanctioned Rs. 6 crore for the works, of which Rs. 3
crore will be utilised for the restoration of the heritage structure while the
remaining sum will be used for underground drainage work and providing
electricity, apart from embellishing the surrounding precincts. The original
structure was constructed using brick and lime mortar, and the first floor had a
Madras Terrace that was replaced with Reinforced Cement Concrete. With 54
shops on the ground floor and 42 shops in the first floor, the structure, including its
portico, has a built-up area of 1,183.61 sq m.

The consultant for the conservation work is the Indian Heritage Cities
Network Foundation, Bengaluru. Soon after the collapse of the heritage structure,
the government constituted an expert committee and there were two reports. One
report was submitted by a team headed by C.S. Vishwanath of the Karnataka
Quality Control Authority (and who is now no more), Syed Shakeeb Ur Rahman,
who was then the vice-principal of SJCE, Mysore, and V. Govindan Kutty, head of
IHCN. The report of Vishwanath and Mr. Rahman stated that the decorative arches
were in a dilapidated state but the foundation was intact with no.2003

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Voting for Delhi assembly elections will be held on February 7 (Saturday)

and the counting will be held on February 10 (Tuesday), the Election Commission
announced on Monday. Addressing a press conference, the EC said, "In order to
restore mandate of people, the election results will be known before February 15."
"1.3 crore voters will vote to elect candidates from 70 constituencies in the national
capital. 11,763 polling stations have been set up across Delhi," chief election
commissioner VS Sampath said. "The notification for the polls would be done on
January 14, last date for filing nomination would be January 21, the date for
scrutiny would be January 22 and the last date for withdrawal of nominations
would be January 24," Sampath said. As per the SC order on Nota, Sampath said
that the option to not vote for any candidate will be provided in all electronic
voting machines. Sartaj Aziz, adviser to Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on
national security and foreign affairs, has alleged that India is using Afghanistan
soil to carry out attacks on Pakistan.

Sartaj Aziz, however, also admitted that the India's involvement had
decreased since the adoption of a joint Pakistan-Afghan policy to not to let their
soils be used against each other. In an interview to Dawn TV, Sartaj Aziz also
criticized the Modi government's non-cooperative attitude on the India-Pakistan
talks. "The stance of the previous governments in India was subtle, but the Modi-
led government said that if Pakistan is to maintain good ties with India, then it
should compromise on Kashmir," Aziz told dawn. Sartaj Aziz also added that the
Modi government wanted resumption of stalled India-Paksitan talks on its own
terms and conditions, which were not acceptable to Pakistan. Sartaj Aziz said that
Pakistan would not differentiate between 'good' and 'bad' Taliban and both civil
and military were on the same page when it came to dealing with terrorists. The
special investigation team (SIT), formed to probe.2001

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MP Shashi Tharoor's wife Sunanda Pushkar, is looking at all angles in the

case, Delhi Police chief BS Bassi said on Monday. When asked that whether
Shashi Tharoor will be questioned regarding his wife's alleged murder, the Delhi
Police chief said that nothing has been decided yet. "The investigation is in its
primary stage and we can't come to a decision so early," Bassi said. The MP is
likely to be questioned sometime this week along with a politician and a senior
police officer, a source said on Sunday. Just exactly who they are hasn't been
revealed yet. The source also said that a formal notice may not be served to
Tharoor if he becomes available to record his statement before police. Congress
MP Shashi Tharoor returned to Delhi on Sunday. Tharoor was staying at an
Ayurveda treatment centre in Guruvayur for the last 15 days. US secretary of sate
John Kerry said on Monday that the US is working with India to strengthen its
fight against terrorism. Speaking at the Vibrant Gujarat summit, Kerry said that
"during my discussion with PM Modi and other officials, we reviewed the progress
of our economic relationship and how to take it ahead."

"The US investment in India have risen from $2.4 billion to $28 billion,"
John Kerry said. Kerry also said that he had discussions with PM Modi as
President Obama is visiting India. "Obama is really happy to be the first US
President to be visiting India twice," Kerry said. "I am impressed with what I have
seen during the Vibrant Gujarat summit," the US secretary of sate said. Gujarat has
an opportunity to gain significantly from the fresh impetus in Indo-US ties, John
Kerry said. "PM Narendra Modi has built a reputation by building efficiency,
trying to make decisions faster, by streamlining bureaucracy. It be extrapolated to
rest of India," John Kerry said. "The US will work towards PM Narendra Modi
vision to supplying 24/7 electricity to India," Kerry said. John Kerry also said that
"we are committed to work with India to reach.2000

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A 55-year-old man, his wife and daughter were found dead in their house
near Kabirbaug in Narayan Peth on Sunday morning. The police suspect the family
died of suffocation from the smoke emanating from the burning of coal in an urn in
the bedroom. They reached late, but NPS ( National Pension System) investors
have finally joined the party in the capital markets. An analysis by ET shows that
NPS schemes have generated better returns than the provident fund. The average
NPS fund for Central government workers has given 10.35% returns since launch,
while the average state government scheme has delivered 10.84%.

The NPS schemes for the general public have also done very well, thanks to
the bullishness in the equity markets and the recent rally in bonds. The average
equity fund has generated 14.6%, while the corporate bond fund has given 10.6%.
Gilt funds have given average returns of 9.9%. These calculations are based on SIP
returns on monthly contributions from inception till December 2014. The high
returns should be music to the ears of the estimated 36 lakh government employees
(14 lakh central government and 22 lakh state government) who have nearly Rs
53,500 crore invested in NPS. Three pension funds manage this gigantic corpus,
which is almost 92% of the assets under management (AUM) of the NPS. But the
higher returns have been accompanied by greater volatility. The NPS funds did
very well in 2012-13, but gave pathetic returns in the following year.

As bond yields shot up in 2013-14, the SIP returns of the average Central
government fund was 5.4% while the average state government fund grew only
4.9%. The 18% returns from equities that year didn't help much as these funds had
only a small portion of their corpus in stocks. The Pension Fund Regulatory and
Development Authority (PFRDA) allows NPS managers to invest up to 15% in
equities, but no pension fund manager has ever hit that ceiling. As on November
30, 2014, the central government scheme of UTI Retirement Solution.2006

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"The unsaid benchmark use for the central government NPS is the EPFO
rate of return. Therefore, PF managers keep a lower allocation to stocks. But this
compromises the long-term return potential of the scheme. They should ideally
increase the exposure to equity," says Manoj Nagpal, head of marketing and
business development at Zyfin Advisors and founder CEO of Outlook Asia
Capital. Despite the conservative allocation, NPS funds have given good returns in
the first nine months of 2014-15. This is due to the bond rally in 2014. The 10-year
benchmark bond yield fell 135 basis points — from 9.1% in April 2014 to around
7.8% by the end of 2014 — pumping adrenaline into the NAVs of funds
overweight on government bonds. The average SIP return of the gilt funds in 2014-
15 is close to 22%, better than the 20% delivered by the equity funds in the period.
In the NPS segment for the private sector, the E class (equity) funds have done
well with average SIP returns of 14.6% since the scheme was thrown open to the
public in May 2009. ET looked at the returns of four types of investors in the past
three fiscals and since launch (see table).

Cold wave conditions continued unabated in Kashmir Valley with minimum

temperatures hovering below freezing point, causing severe problems to the
residents. Even as more than half of the 40-day harshest winter period in Kashmir,
known as 'Chillai-Kalan', has passed, weather in the Valley continues to remain dry
and cold. The Meteorological Department has said there is a possibility of light
rain or snowfall at isolated places in the state over the next 24 hours. The Valley is
currently under the grip of 'Chillai-Kalan' which began on December 21. The
chances of snowfall are maximum and most frequent during this period which
leads to rise in night temperatures, bringing respite from the cold wave conditions,
which otherwise intensify due to dry weather in winters, a MeT official said. The
dry weather has resulted in increased cases of cough, flu.2000

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The problems of the residents in the Valley are compounded by freezing of

water taps, pesky power cuts and development of a thin layer of frost on roads due
to severe cold. Many water bodies, including the famous Dal Lake, were partially
frozen as the bone-chilling cold intensified. With the weather remaining dry, the
minimum temperatures in Kashmir and Ladakh region continued to remain below
freezing point. Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, recorded a
low of minus 3.1 degrees Celsius, down by about a degree from the previous
night's minus 2.2 degrees Celsius, a MET department spokesman said. France will
deploy nearly 5,000 security forces and police to protect the 700 Jewish schools in
the country, as Prime Minister ManuelValls said that the gunman who attacked a
kosher supermarket probably had an accomplice. Amedy Coulibaly, who killed a
policewoman in southern Paris then four Jewish shoppers in a hostage drama,
probably received help from someone else, Manuel Valls said, pledging "the hunt
will go on".

Interior minister Bernard Cazeneuve promised to boost security at Jewish

institutions, telling parents of a Jewish school to the south of Paris that soldiers
would also be posted as reinforcements. The Jewish community has been
particularly shaken by Friday's attack on the kosher supermarket in eastern Paris,
which came just two days after two other gunmen - Said Kouachi and his brother
Cherif Kouachi - stormed the offices of Charlie Hebdo satirical weekly,
slaughtering 12 people. As it emerged that Cherif Kouachi met Coulibaly in prison,
Valls said France would move to isolate Islamist detainees from the rest of the
prisoner population, so as to prevent jails from being used as a breeding ground for
radicals. In a move that will benefit lakhs of students and impact over 400
universities across the country, the University Grants Commission has mandated
the introduction of grading system from 2015-16. It has directed universities to
standardize their.2003

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Currently, many universities follow the numerical marking system. The new
move will provide wider options for students to learn and ensure their seamless
mobility across institutions. The move comes following a meeting last week
between state education ministers and HRD minister Smriti Irani. The regulatory
body has directed universities to introduce the choice-based credit system (CBCS)
and credit framework for skill development (CFSD). Currently, some universities
follow the credit system for courses at different levels. Under CBCS, students will
pursue three types of courses - foundation, elective and core. Students must pursue
core subjects every semester, and can pick electives from a pool of subjects
unrelated to their disciplines. IIT Bhubaneswar (IITBBS) has 'censured' a professor
for mental harassment of two M Tech girls. Sources said the IIT took action
against the professor this weekend after the minutes of a meeting of the board of
governors (BOG) held in New Delhi in December reached here. The BOG, under
the chairmanship of S K Roongta, took the decision on the basis of inquiry report
by a seven-member committee.

IITBBS director Sujit Roy said the case had reached a logical conclusion.
"The institute followed the laid down procedures for such an allegation with due
diligence. The faculty member concerned was censured and issued certain
strictures. It is a closed chapter for us now," Roy told TOI on Sunday. On April 27,
2014, the girls had lodged a complaint with the IIT director alleging that the
professor wanted them to visit his chamber frequently, even at night, and
threatened to spoil their career by awarding poor marks. The institute had
constituted an inquiry panel to probe the charges and sent the professor on leave.
As part of the punishment, the teacher can never hold any administrative post, such
as dean or head of any department or committee in the institute. The professor was
already a dean and founder head of a department since 2009 when the.2001

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When US President Barack Obama convened NATO summit in Chicago, it

was trumped up as an important meet of America and its allies. In fact, agenda for
this two-day summit was fixed: America and its allies were to draw a roadmap for
foreign troops' withdrawal from Afghanistan before the 2014 deadline. As such
Pakistan along with some other 30 countries, including Afghanistan and Russia
was invited to participate in the summit. Thinking that the summit would allow a
chance for a bilateral meeting with the US President and thus enhance his
political stature back home, Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari failed to realize
that dealing with Americans in the background of Pakistan's stated position on
reopening of ground routes for supplies to Afghanistan would be a tricky matter.
Since November last year, in protest against killing of 24 Pakistani soldiers in air
strikes by US and its allies, Islamabad has shut down its ground routes for NATO
supplies to Afghanistan. It may be remembered that before Islamabad closed
down its ground routes, the US could move 35,000 containers through Pakistan's
Torkham gate border alone.

Such effective transportation of goods through Pakistan helped the US in

undermining challenges from the Taliban and Al Qaeda in the South Asian
country. After it shout down the border gates for passage of American and its
allies' supplies, the US and NATO chose Central Asian routes to ferry goods to
Afghanistan, a cumbersome task full of challenges. Prospect, however, brightened
when at a recent meeting with American diplomats, Pakistani authorities said
they could think of reopening land routes provided the US and its allies paid
charges for this. Pakistan, according to sources, demanded thousands of dollars
per truck for smooth passage of supplies in to Afghanistan. American rejected the
demand. It was presumed that a meeting between Pakistani counterpart would
perhaps help in resolving the issue. But the US President who has made troops'
pull-put from Afghanistan.

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Bringing Business Stability and Maintaining Full Employment Conditions: Another

main objective of taxation is to bring about business stability and maintain full
employment conditions. Low rate of taxation during a business depression shall
accelerate more income to the people and help in raising demand and, thus,
revive business activity. On the other hand, high rates of taxes and additional
taxes may be useful to check inflationary pressure on prices. Thus, tax policy may
be used as a regulatory mechanism to achieve price stability, check business
booms and depression and also maintain full employment.

Promoting Capital Formation: Another objective of taxation is the promotion of

capital formation. With particular reference to underdeveloped and developing
countries, One of the main objectives of taxation is to make savings more
dynamic and promote capital formation. In underdeveloped countries, the savings
can easily directed towards production and capital formation through the
assistance of taxation. Political Objectives: Particularly in democratic countries
taxation is used as a weapon for attaining political objectives. For instance, lower
and middle-class voters may be attracted by imposing high taxes on rich people
and luxury goods and nominal or no taxes on goods consumed by poor and
middle-class people.

Increase in National Income: Another objective of taxation is to increase the

national income. Tax is the main source of the government income. This income is
used for productive purposes and thereby overall production is increased. This
increase in production leads to increase in national income of the country along
with increase in per capita income. In underdeveloped countries, major part of
the income is spent on economic development programmes which too increases
national income as well as per capita income. Restrict Unnecessary Consumption:
Another objective of taxation is to restrict the unnecessary consumption
particularly of harmful commodities, such as wine.

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Maintenance of Proper Standard: Another objective of taxation is the

maintenance of proper standard. Equitable: Direct taxes are based on the canon
of equity. Their burden is equitably distributed as they are progressive in nature.
As the income of a person increases, the rate of income tax also increases, so all
direct taxes fall heavily on the people whose income. Fortunately the days of the
mad rush to get cash from the bank are long gone We now enjoy the convenience
of using a nearby automatic teller machine (ATM) or you can even get "cash back"
at your local grocery, hardware or convenience store. The card you use at the
ATM is known as a debit card. When debit cards first appeared it was easy to tell
them apart from credit cards. Debit cards didn't have a credit card company logo
on them; instead, they usually just had your bank name, your account number
and your name.

Today debit cards look exactly like credit cards even carrying the same
logos. Both types of cards can be swiped at the checkout counter, used to make
purchases on the internet, or to pay for the fill up at the gas pump. When you use
your debit card to make a purchase, it's just like using cash. The account that is
attached to your debit card, in most cases your checking account, is automatically
debited when you use your debit card. The cost of your purchase is deducted
from the funds you have in that account. On the other hand, when you use your
credit card to make a purchase you are using someone's else's money, specifically
the issuer of the credit card, usually a banking institution. In effect, you agree to
pay them back the money you borrowed to make your purchase. In addition you
will also pay interest on the money "loaned" to you at the rate which you agreed
to when you applied for their credit card. This is known as the annual percentage
rate (APR). While the two cards might act and look alike, the levels of consumer
protection that each type of card provides can be different. While the two

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Under federal law, if someone steals your credit card you're only
responsible to pay the first Rs. 50 (for example) of unauthorized charges.
However, if you notify the credit card issuer before a thief is able to make any
charges you may be free from all liability. If the credit card is not physically
present when an authorized or fraudulent purchase is made, such as over the
internet, you're also free from liability for those charges. MasterCard and Visa
offer zero-liability protection where you won't pay any charges if someone uses
your credit card to make an unauthorized purchase. The protection offered to
debit card fraud is similar but with a few exceptions. For example, your liability
under federal law is limited to Rs. 50, the same as for a credit card, but only if you
notify the issuer within two business days of discovering the card's loss or theft.
Your liability for debit card fraud can jump up to Rs. 500 if you don't report the
loss or theft within two business days. And if you are the type of person that gives
a passing glance to your monthly bank statement, you could be totally liable for
any fraudulent debit card charges if you wait 60 days or more from the time your
statement is mailed.

Visa and MasterCard zero-liability protection applies to your debit card but
only for transactions that do not involve the use of your PIN (personal
identification number). Additional protection against fraudulent use of your credit
or debit cards may be available through your homeowner's or renter's insurance.
Check your policy or with your agent for more information about your coverage.
Also be aware that you should contact your card issuer by certified letter, return
receipt requested, after you're contacted them by phone to protect your
consumer rights. As for which card to use for that type of purchase, most experts
agree that you should use your debit card for the same of purchases you'd make
as if you were using cash. Therefore, it makes more sense to use your debit

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Avoid using your debit card for any online purchase or for something which
is expensive. You will find it much easier to dispute a charge when you use your
credit card. If you gold-plated, limited edition, hip-swinging Elvis wall clock arrives
broken, your credit card company will remove the charge until the problem
resolved. With your debit card you are stuck dealing with the merchant directly to
resolve any problems with a purchase, even if your banking institution could
really use a gold-plated, limited edition, hip-swinging Elvis wall clock of their very
own. Advantages in Using Credit Cards. The advantages and acceptability of credit
cards from the customer's view point vary from that of a banker or member

To the Card Holder: The small and attractive plastic credit cards are very
easy to carry and they shopping, without the burden of carrying wards of currency
notes with its inherent risks, inconveniences and dangers. Numbers of fringe
benefits are available to the credit card holder. It has increased the purchasing
power and has also become a status symbol to holder. In short, it can be said that
the cardholder has at his disposal 'instant credit' upto a fixed limit whenever he
needs it. To the Issuer: The credit cards enable the issuer to provide a fuller
service to their customers. They are also useful marketing tools, as they open up
relationship with merchants. Even as a vociferous lobby is pushing hard towards
land acquisition, the Centre was has refused to accept suggestions of a
parliamentary committee that prohibits acquisition of land for private companies.
Recommendations of the committee took the policymakers by surprise. Now,
contrary to this suggestion, the Centre is keen to go ahead with its Land
Acquisition Bill which they claim is mandatory for the purposes of infrastructure
and industrial development.

Union Rural Development minister Jairam Ramesh and Union Law minister
Salman Khurshid ruled out any such possibility as recommended

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Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) president Sharad Pawar favoured the

acquisition of land by the state governments. "We cannot think of
industrialization or starting of any Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects in the
absence of acquisition of land by the state. Every project will come to standstill.
So this (acquisition) has to happen. There is no way out," said Sharad Pawar,
Maratha strongman and an important UPA allay, whose view matters on every
crucial issue.The parliamentary committee had recommended that the
government need not acquire land for PPPs or the private sector. The committee
argued that since the government did not acquire capital or manpower for the
private sector, it should not acquire land either. It also argued that no country in
the world other than India acquires land for private companies.

Jairam Ramesh rejected the suggestion to delete a clause in the Land

Acquisition Bill, allowing the government to acquire land for PPP projects. He also
said the government would not compromise with the fundamental principles in
the Bill, whose thrust is on urbanization and industrialization. The Rural
Development minister said that India would not have industrialized to the extent
it did without support of the government's land acquisition policy. However,
specific provisions for compensation have been made to compensate land owners
in case of acquisition of land. The draft Bill proposes adequate compensation in
terms of subsistence allowance.Attacking the UPA government and threatening a
fight to the finish by August on the issue of black money, Anna Hazare and yoga
guru Baba Ramdev sat on a day- long fast on Sunday protesting against
corruption. In their first appearance on a public platform after a year, Hazare and
Ramdev arrived at the protest venue of Jantar Mantar together this morning after
visiting Mahatma Gandhi's memorial and Shahid Park. Ramdev began his
campaign by issuing a warning to the government to get ready for "fight to the
finish" by

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But you hold the high constitutional post. You have to take care of the
political, constitutional and democratic responsibility. "Your personal honesty is
not enough. You have to be politically honest too. You have to keep your Cabinet
honest. Then people will respect you (more)," Ramdev told his supporters, who
were waiving the tricolour. Before beginning his fast, he told reporters that he
was intensifying the protest to bring back black money stashed away abroad and
"I want the countrymen to be part of the fight to finish by August". Ramdev also
invoked the name of Rajiv Gandhi saying when the former prime minister talked
about only 15 paise out of a rupee reaching the beneficiaries, it was "ideal" but
"when we talk about it, then we are called "khalnayaks (villains)". The protest also
had its share of drama when a man in his late twenties and claiming to be a
'volunteer' of Team Anna, tried to attempt self-immolation alleging that he was
mistreated by prominent members of India Against Corruption.

Meanwhile, minister of state for parliamentary affairs Harish Rawat said

Team Anna and Ramdev were free to voice their concern against corruption but
they cannot be allowed to "destroy" the existing institutions to tackle graft. "They
have full freedom to voice concern against corruption. But Anna Hazare and
Ramdev should understand that in the name of fighting corruption, if they want
to destroy the existing institutions, the country will not accept it...," he told
reporters. In his address, Ramdev claimed that FDI worth Rs 20 lakh crore held the
"key" to people involved in stashing away black money abroad. If the government
names the actual investors of FDI, the puzzle with regard to black money will be
solved," he said in an apparent reference to Foreign Institution Investors (FII),
which can allegedly be used by people to stash away black money. Seeking
answers to the fall of the rupee and dipping GDP from finance minister Pranab
Mukherjee, Ramdev said the Indian Economy.

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Recalling the police crackdown on his supporters last year, Ramdev claimed
it was "Ravan lila" played out at the Ramlila grounds. The dais had a picture of
Rajbala who died following injuries suffered by her during the police action last
year at Ramlila grounds. "Even Mahatma Gandhi had said that India needs its own
laws. But we still have British era laws like the one on land acquisition and the
Police Act. We need to remove the archaic laws and have swadeshi laws," he said.
Ramdev claimed efforts by the government to tarnish the image of Team Anna
members and his aides had failed to break the movement against corruption.
"Whenever we talk of corruption, those in the power and leaders of the ruling
party maintain that laws are not made on the streets... We are not against
anyone... There is no family feud," he said.

This is the first time that Ramdev and Hazare are sitting on a joint fast.
From Team Anna, Arvind Kejriwal, Kiran Bedi and Manish Sisodia were the
prominent members who joined Hazare and Ramdev in the day-long fast. The
association with Ramdev had been opposed by a section within Team Anna on the
ground that the yoga guru was facing corruption charges. In an apparent
disapproval by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) of Gujarat Chief Minister
Narendra Modi’s style of working, an article in the organisation’s mouthpiece has
indicated that the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has several prime ministerial
candidates. It also disapproved of Modi’s reported insistence on resignation of
Sanjay Joshi from the BJP’s national executive last week. The article, which figures
in the latest issue of Panchjanaya, said it was being felt that Modi needed to do a
rethink about organisational capabilities. “It seems Narendra Modi needs to
review his style of working and organisational ability,” it said. The article assumes
significance because its author Devendra Swaroop is a former editor of
Panchjanaya and has access to views of the RSS insiders. “The role of Narendra
Modi in the Sanjay Joshi episode at BJP’s national executive meeting in Mumbai is
worth considering…why despite having faith in the Sangh, Modi could not control
his unhappiness towards a fellow RSS functionary is a mystery.

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He made Joshi’s presence a prestige issue and allowed the media to attack
the BJP and the Sangh,” the article said. It also attacked Modi over media reports
about Joshi changing his travel plans and boarding a plane instead of going by
train after the Mumbai meeting as the train would have touched places in
Gujarat. “It allowed opponents of the BJP to speak against Modi,” it said. Modi
apparently insisted that he would attend the conclave only if his bete noire Joshi
resigned from the party’s national executive and the party bowed to his demand.
In a dig at Modi’s prime ministerial ambitions, it said that the BJP had several
chief ministers and central leaders who were capable of being its prime
ministerial candidates. But it said that the decision should be taken by the the
parliamentary party after the party won the Lok Sabha election. The article in the
RSS mouthpiece slamming Modi’s action at the BJP executive close to veteran BJP
leader L.K. Advani launching an attack on party president Nitin Gadkari, saying
“the mood within the party is not upbeat”.

Advani said in his blog that people were angry with the Congress-led
government but they were upset with the BJP too. Expressing her dissatisfaction
over the partial cut in the petrol price hike, West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata
Banerjee Saturday requested Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to ensure its
complete rollback. “We are not happy with this partial cut in petrol prices by Rs.2
per litre. When the crude oil prices are coming down in the international market,
then why is there an oil price hike in India? Why shouldn’t the hiked prices be
completely rolled back?” a close aide quoted Banerjee as saying. “The chief
minister has told Dr. Singh to see that there is a total roll back. He has said that he
will look into the matter,” the aide said. Banerjee Saturday made the request to
Manmohan Singh during his brief visit to the city. “She requested him to think
over a rollback,” the official Trinamool Congress website said.

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In a partial rollback, oil marketing companies cut petrol prices by Rs.2 a litre
with effect from midnight Saturday after crude prices softened in the global
market, easing pressure on a government that faced a political backlash for the
hike in the petrol prices 10 days ago. Banerjee earlier led a protest rally of several
thousands here, asking the central government to roll back the increased
petroleum prices. Banerjee also demanded a “national status” for the annual
Ganga Sagar Mela held at the Sagar Island of South 24-Parganas. British troops in
Afghanistan managed to save a 28-year-old woman British aid worker along with
three others in Afghanistan Saturday. She was kidnapped May 22. Prime Minister
David Cameron described the raid as “extraordinarily brave” and “breath-taking”
after Helen Johnston was freed in the morning by the country’s special forces, The
Sun reported. Cameron personally authorised the operation to liberate Johnston
from a cave Friday afternoon over rising fears for her safety.

A number of British Special Air Service (SAS) troops were reportedly

involved in the operation, the report said. Johnston was freed along with three
other hostages in an early morning mission. The prime minister confirmed all four
hostages, including Kenyan Moragwe Oirer and two Afghan civilians, were safe. In
a statement, Johnston’s family said: “We are delighted and hugely relieved by the
wonderful news that Helen and all her colleagues have been freed.” The decks
have been cleared for the race to Raisina Hills following Nationalist Congress Party
leader P A Sangma's categorical assertion that he will contest for the Presidential
post, come what may. In a significant move, Samajwadi Party supermo Mulayam
Singh Yadav's presence at a function to mark three years of UPA's rule has
seemingly increased the comfort level of the Congress in handling number games
for the presidential post. So far the Congress has displayed sphinx-like silence on
its ultimate choice. While

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While a resolute and contrite Sangma has assured Tamil Nadu Chief
Minister J Jayalalithaa and Odisha Chief Minister Naveen Panaik about how
serious he is on contesting, and sought to engage in course-correction by
apologizing to UPA chairperson Sonia Gandhi for his outbursts on her foreign
origin a few years ago, old political angularities are likely to impact the Raisina
Hills endgame. Even as the National Democratic Alliance spruces up its act, the
eventual outcome will be clear by this weekend. By then, the Bharatiya Janta
Party's national executive would have indicated its mind after deliberation on the
issue in Mumbai. While as far as a section of the meida is concerned, senior
Congress leader Pranab Mukerjee continues to be the frontrunner, hectic
backroom parleys are going on. A senior functionary of the mother party told this
periodical: "It is not that we are indecisive and confused... but we have to tread
carefully because we do not want any post announcement embarrassment."

Along with old probable like Hamid Ansari, other names that are doing the
rounds include Karan Singh and Gopal Krishna Gandhi. But if it is still Pranab’s
name on everyone's lips, his "indispensability factor" to the UPA has come to the
force. Meanwhile, Maratha strongman Sharad Pawar has created a buzz by his
rejection of party colleague P A Sangma for the Presidential slot. Pawar has got
firm support from Samajwadi Party chief Mulayam Singh Yadav on this issue. "I
favour a political person for this position," said Yadav, thus creating a flutter in
political parlance. The political concurrence that has emerged between Pawar and
Mulyam Singh Yadav is considered to be significant. Both the top UPA allies firmly
argued on these lines at the Prime Minister's residence on May 22, setting the
tone for Presidential elections in July. Both were equally optimistic that only the
UPA can muster adequate numbers to secure the victory of their candidates. With
shadow of concern over Manmohan With

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With shadow of concern over Manmohan Singh-led UPA II government's

performance looming large, it seems to have fallen on Congress chief Sonia
Gandhi's shoulder to remind UPA's stakeholders about the need for course
correction. And it was clearly there when she at a function held at the Prime
Minister's residence to mark three years of the UPA rule, asked the Congress
leaders as well as ministerial colleagues for soul searching. "Barely two years are
left to seek a fresh mandate two years are left to seek a fresh mandate and this is
not possible by making vacuous promises alone. This is the occasion when need
to reiterate our commitment for progress and ensure speedy delivery," she
thundered. Trinamool Congress chief Mamata Banerjee was absent. By making his
presence at the function, Samajwadi Party supremo Mulayam Singh Yadav had,
however compensated the absence of Mamata. While it signaled major political
development, yet it didn't rescue those occupying seats of power as well as those
in the party's organization hierarchy from the hard message of Sonia. In fact, her
take was sharp and incisive; there was no prevarication when she told her party
leaders that they should ensure better delivery in implementation of projects.

Probably, Uttar Pradesh Assembly poll's disastrous outcome had significant

proved this point which is still fresh in the memory of every Congressman. More
space was given to the PM on the issue. He came out with an emphatic
statement: "Notwithstanding the difficulties that we are facing, I am convinced
that we will prove the doomsayers, who claim that India's economy is in retreat,
wrong as we have often done in the past. We should keep faith the hard work,
ingenuity and resilience of our farmers, workers, industrialists, engineers and
scientists. We have pursued this objective by enhancing fund fro agriculture, rural
development and social sectors." The PM highlighted how MNREGA now reaches
one of every five households in the country. He enumerated more.

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Life free from illness and ailment and living a reasonably long life
span are indicative of a healthy life. Availability of pre and post natal health
care facilities in order to reduce infant mortality and post delivery deaths
among mothers, old age health care, adequate nutrition and safety of
individual are important measures of a healthy and reasonably long life.
India has done reasonably well in some of the health indicators like decline
in death rate from 25.1 per thousand in 1951 to 8.1 per thousand in 1999
and infant mortality from 148 per thousand to 70 during the same period.
Similarly, it also succeeded in increasing life expectancy at birth from 37.1
years to 62.3 years for males and 36.2 to 65.3 years for females from 1951
to 1999. Though, these are great achievements, a lot needs to be done.

It has also done reasonably well in bringing down birth rate from 40.8
to 26.1 during the same years, but it still is much higher than many
developed countries The situation is more alarming when seen in the
context of gender specific and rural and urban health indicators. India has
recorded declining female sex ratio. The findings of 2001 Census of India
are very disturbing particularly in case of child sex ratio between 0-6 age
groups. The other significant features of the report are, with the exception
of Kerala, the child sex ratio has declined in all the states and it is the most
alarming in the developed state of Haryana and Punjab where it is below
800 female children per thousand male children. What factors are
responsible for it? Is it the social attitude or scientific methods of sex-
determination? Freedom from hunger, poverty, ignorance, illiteracy and any
other forms of domination is the key to human development. You have
already studied the concepts, indicators and approaches to human
development and methods of calculating the index in your book,
―Fundamentals of Human Geography.‖ In this chapter, let us try to
understand the applicability of these concepts.

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The leaders of the freedom movement had realized the importance of

rights and demanded that the British rulers should respect rights of the
people. The Motilal Nehru committee had demanded a bill of rights as far
back as in 1928. It was therefore, natural that when India became
independent and the Constitution was being prepared, there were no two
opinions on the inclusion and protection of rights in the Constitution. The
Constitution listed the rights that would be specially protected and called
them „fundamental rights‟. The word fundamental suggests that these
rights are so important that the Constitution has separately listed them and
made special provisions for their protection. The Fundamental Rights are
so important that the Constitution itself ensures that they are not violated by
the government.

Fundamental Rights are different from other rights available to us.

While ordinary legal rights are protected and enforced by ordinary law,
Fundamental Rights are protected and guaranteed by the constitution of
the country. Ordinary rights may be changed by the legislature by ordinary
process of law making, but a fundamental right may only be changed by
amending the Constitution itself. Besides this, no organ of the government
can act in a manner that violates them. As we shall study below in this
chapter, judiciary has the powers and responsibility to protect the
fundamental rights from violations by actions of the government. Executive
as well as legislative actions can be declared illegal by the judiciary if these
violate the fundamental rights or restrict them in an unreasonable manner.
Fundamental rights are not absolute or unlimited rights. Government can
put reasonable restrictions on the exercise of our fundamental rights. It is
estimated that leather industry will require at least one millions additional
man power in the next five years. The skill gaps at the level of designers,
technologists and management professionals are more stark and
demanding. With the expansion

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The Indian Constitution has ensured the independence of the

judiciary through a number of measures. The legislature is not involved in
the process of appointment of judges. Thus, it was believed that party
politics would not play a role in the process of appointments. In order to be
appointed as a judge, a person must have experience as a lawyer and/or
must be well versed in law. Political opinions of the person or his/ her
political loyalty should not be the criteria for appointments to judiciary. The
judges have a fixed tenure. They hold office till reaching the age of
retirement. Only in exceptional cases, judges may be removed. But they
have security of tenure. Security of tenure ensures that judges could
function without fear or favors. The Constitution prescribes a very difficult
procedure for removal of judges. The Constitution makers believed that a
difficult procedure of removal would provide security of office to the
members of judiciary.
The judiciary is not financially dependent on either the executive or
legislature. The Constitution provides that the salaries and allowances of
the judges are not subjected to the approval of the legislature. The actions
and decisions of the judges are immune from personal criticisms. The
judiciary has the power to penalize those who are found guilty of contempt
of court. This authority of the court is seen as an effective protection to the
judges from unfair criticism. Parliament cannot discuss the conduct of the
judges except when the proceeding to remove a judge is being carried out.
This gives the judiciary independence to adjudicate without fear of being
criticized. The appointment of judges has never been free from political
controversy. It is part of the political process.
The judiciary has the power to penalize those who are found guilty of
contempt of court. This authority of the court is seen as an effective
protection to the judges from unfair criticism. Parliament cannot discuss the
conduct of the judges except when

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The Indian Constitution has ensured the independence of the

judiciary through a number of measures. The legislature is not involved in
the process of appointment of judges. Thus, it was believed that party
politics would not play a role in the process of appointments. In order to be
appointed as a judge, a person must have experience as a lawyer and/or
must be well versed in law. Political opinions of the person or his/ her
political loyalty should not be the criteria for appointments to judiciary. The
judges have a fixed tenure. They hold office till reaching the age of
retirement. Only in exceptional cases, judges may be removed. But they
have security of tenure. Security of tenure ensures that judges could
function without fear or favors. The Constitution prescribes a very difficult
procedure for removal of judges. The Constitution makers believed that a
difficult procedure of removal would provide security of office to the
members of judiciary.
The judiciary is not financially dependent on either the executive or
legislature. The Constitution provides that the salaries and allowances of
the judges are not subjected to the approval of the legislature. The actions
and decisions of the judges are immune from personal criticisms. The
judiciary has the power to penalize those who are found guilty of contempt
of court. This authority of the court is seen as an effective protection to the
judges from unfair criticism. Parliament cannot discuss the conduct of the
judges except when the proceeding to remove a judge is being carried out.
This gives the judiciary independence to adjudicate without fear of being
criticized. The appointment of judges has never been free from political
controversy. It is part of the political process.

Besides this, no organ of the government can act in a manner that

violates them. As we shall study below in this chapter, judiciary has the
powers and responsibility to protect the fundamental rights from violations
by actions of the government.

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We cannot understand the power of rumors and prophecies in history

by checking whether they are factually correct or not. We need to see what
they reflect about the minds of people who believed them – their fears and
apprehensions, their faiths and convictions. Rumors circulate only when
they resonate with the deeper fears and suspicions of people. The rumors
in 1857 begin to make sense when seen in the context of the policies the
British pursued from the late 1820. As you know, under the leadership of
Governor General Lord William Bentinck, the British adopted policies aimed
at ―reforming‖ Indian society by introducing Western education, Western
ideas and Western institutions. With the cooperation of sections of Indian
society they set up English-medium schools, colleges and universities
which taught Western sciences and the liberal arts.
The British established laws to abolish customs like sati and to
permit the remarriage of Hindu widows. On a variety of pleas, like
misgovernment and the refusal to recognize adoption, the British annexed
not only Awadh, but many other kingdoms and principalities like Jhansi and
Satara. Once these territories were annexed, the British introduced their
own system of administration, their own laws and their own methods of
land settlement and land revenue collection. The cumulative impact of all
this on the people of North India was profound. It seemed to the people that
all that they cherished and held sacred – from kings and socio-religious
customs to patterns of landholding and revenue payment – was being
destroyed and replaced by a system that was more impersonal, alien and
oppressive. This perception was aggravated by the activities of Christian
missionaries. In such a situation of uncertainty, rumors spread with
remarkable swiftness. To explore the basis of the revolt of 1857 in some
detail, let us look at Awadh, one of the major centers where the drama of
1857 unfolded. Governor General Lord Dalhousie described the kingdom of

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In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary

education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.
It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory,
comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional,
selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or " higher" education ( university,
vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this
period, or a part of it, may be called secondary or high
schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational
schools. The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system
to another. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education
also varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally
around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling.
Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United
States, Canada and Australia primary and secondary education together
are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year 1–
13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common
knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a
profession. The emergence of secondary education in the United States did
not happen until 1910, caused by the rise in big businesses and
technological advances in factories (for instance), that required skilled
workers. In order to meet this new job demand, high schools were created,
with a curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better prepare
students for white collar or skilled blue collar work. This proved to be
beneficial for both employers and employees, for the improvement in
human capital caused employees to become more efficient, which lowered
costs for the employer.
Then came the times when Women got to the space of equality in the
work place, achieving their own dreams, and becoming equal financial
contributors within their households. Now I believe it is time for them to lead
the way forward this New Year,

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We believe that an empowered woman can change a lot in the

society. Unlike other Women Empowerment programs, we believe that
Money as an energy is one of the most powerful empowerment tools. We
believe in practical steps to create income for women, who are capable and
intelligent and willing to work, however due to various reasons are unable
to do it today. The reasons could be varied for various women, some
women could be deprived of these opportunities because their men don‟t
want them to work, the others may be restricted due to family pressures or
peer pressures. It is time to let go of all pressures and work towards
becoming empowered with regular income coming your way.

It is amazing that from an early age, women start to learn about some
of the finest human qualities like compassion, self awareness, sacrifice,
service, devotion by observing their own mothers, grandmothers and other
women in their lives. If my research is correct, then the four pillars of
business which are dedication, consistency, honesty are also attributes of
women…For many centuries, the role of woman was to be the nurturing
institution for her children, to be the solid foundation for her spouse, and to
be the soldier fighting against the world‟s sufferings. Then came the times
when Women got to the space of equality in the work place, achieving their
own dreams, and becoming equal financial contributors within their
households. Now I believe it is time for them to lead the way forward this
New Year, let focus on Women Empowerment in Business share with as
many women as you think you would like to I am taking the pledge this new
year to work on a business model that is going to empower 3000 women of
India to lead the way in their own special way.
The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also
varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally
around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education
occurs mainly during the teenage years.

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Now, to have a comprehensive idea of the total flow of production

in the economy, we need to have a quantitative measure of the aggregate
level of final goods produced in the economy. However, in order to get a
quantitative assessment – a measure of the total final goods and services
produced in the economy – it is obvious that we need a common
measuring rod. We cannot add meters of cloth produced to tones of rice
or number of automobiles or machines. Our common measuring rod is
money. Since each of these commodities is produced for sale, the sum
total of the monetary value of these diverse commodities gives us a
measure of final output. But why are we to measure final goods only?
Surely intermediate goods are crucial inputs to any production process
and a significant part of our manpower and capital stock are engaged in
production of these goods.
However, since we are dealing with value of output, we should
realize that the value of the final goods already includes the value of the
intermediate goods that have entered into their production as inputs.
Counting them separately will lead to the error of double counting.
Whereas considering intermediate goods may give a fuller description of
total economic activity, counting them will highly exaggerate the final
value of our economic activity. At this stage it is important to introduce
the concepts of stokes and flows. Often we hear statement like the
average salary of someone is Rs 10,000 or the output of the steel
industry is so many tones or so many rupees in value.
But these are incomplete statements because it is not clear whether
the income which is being referred to be yearly or monthly or daily
income and surely that makes a huge difference. Sometimes, when the
context is familiar, we assume that the time period is known and
therefore do not mention it. But inherent in all such statements is a
definite period of time. Otherwise such statements are meaningless.
Thus income, or output, or profits are concepts.

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Our country India, the land of Gods, is respected in the world for her
mythological culture. The mythological thinking, the deep belief in almighty
and religious nature has made the Indians well cultured. But, sadly there
are some of the stained systems in our country which are the black spots in
our image. Dowry system is one of those much discussed systems. Although
it is one of the most hated systems surprisingly it is growing day by day.
Now- a-days this problem has created a lot of hue and cry in our country.
This increasing system is a growing injustice to our society and morals. It
should be immediately stopped.
Marriage is one of the most sacred and holy ceremonies in our
society. But the horror of the dowry system has made this ceremony one of
the feared institutions. In ancient Indian society there was no question of
the dowry in marriages. It was considered to be a sin. The bride-groom was
voluntarily presented with some useful gifts which were not demanded at
all. In some cases bride's father was offered money to allow her to marry a
young man. Because the bride was considered to be a virtuous arid the
suitable one, But the whole situation has altered.
Nobody bothers to approach a girl's parents for her marriage. The
parents of the girl desperately move in search of a suitable groom for her
now. They persuade the groom's parents and show them the temptation of
money and dowry. Through these unfair means they get the consent of the
groom's parents for his marriage. Thus begins the clandestine atmosphere
of dowry. The groom's father continues to place a series of demands before
the bride's father. He strongly asserts that these demands must be fulfilled
before marriage. Otherwise he can never consent to his son's marriage. The
demands include refrigerator, color television, motor cycle or car,
ornaments of pure gold of sizeable quantity, money and plots of land in the
capital area. In some case bride grooms are demanding money for their
education and for constructing buildings.

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The main occupation of the people in our country is farming. We

depend on rainwater to grow crops. It does not rain regularly throughout
the year. We do not receive the same amount of rainfall in all parts of the
country.Thus we cannot depend only upon rainfall to grow our crops. We
must make other arrangements to water the fields at the proper tme.
Irrigation is one of the important ways to do it. Canals, wells and tanks are
three important means of irrigation. Today, India has one of the largest
irrigation systems in the world.
The canal is the most important source of irrigation in India.
Channels are dug to build canals. River-water is diverted into these canals.
The canals can take river-water to the far-off fields, where there is not
enough water. At some places, the river-water has to be stored. We can
build a barrier of cement and steel to block the flow of river-water. This is
called a dam. A huge lake is created behind the dam. The water from the
lake can regulate the flow of water in the river. The water from such lakes
can also be diverted to the canals for irrigation. Punjab, Haryana, West
Bengal and Tamil Nadu have a good network of canals.
Dams also help in the production of electricity. When water from the
lake behind the dam is made to fall from a high point, it is used to turn
turbines which produce electricity. The dam also helps to control floods in
the river. A project which helps to provide water for irrigation, produces
electricity and controls floods in the river is called a multipurpose project.
our government has built a number of multipurpose projects. Some of them
are shown on the map. Find out the names of the others dams and the
rivers they are built on. When it rains, some water seeps through the soil
and goes deep into the ground. We can reach this underground water
through wells. Where the water is not too deep, we normally use the
Persian wheel to draw out this water. Deep tube wells have to be bored
when the water is at a great depth.

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Some books, particularly those with shorter runs will be printed on

sheet-fed offset presses, but most books are now printed on web presses,
which are fed by a continuous roll of paper, and can consequently print
more copies in a shorter time. As the production line circulates, a complete
"book" is collected together in one stack, next to another, and another.
A web press carries out the folding itself, delivering bundles of
signatures (sections) ready to go into the gathering line. Notice that when
the book is being printed it is being printed one (or two) signatures at a
time, not one complete book at a time. Excess numbers are printed to
make up for any spoilage due to "make-readies" or test pages to assure
final print quality.
A make-ready is the preparatory work carried out by the pressmen to
get the printing press up to the required quality of impression. Included in
make-ready is the time taken to mount the plate onto the machine, clean up
any mess from the previous job, and get the press up to speed. As soon as
the pressman decides that the printing is correct, all the make-ready sheets
will be discarded, and the press will start making books. Similar make
readies take place in the folding and binding areas, each involving spoilage
of paper.
After the signatures are folded and gathered, they move into the
bindery. In the middle of last century there were still many trade binders –
stand-alone binding companies which did no printing, specializing in
binding alone. At that time, because of the dominance of letterpress
printing, typesetting and printing took place in one location, and binding in a
different factory. When type was all metal, a typical book's worth of type
would be bulky, fragile and heavy. The less it was moved in this condition
the better: so printing would be carried out in the same location as the
typesetting. Printed sheets on the other hand could easily be moved. Now,
because of increasing computerization of preparing a book for the printer,

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Businesses that have gone public are subject to regulations

concerning their internal governance, such as how executive officers'
compensation is determined, and when and how information is disclosed to
shareholders and to the public. In the United States, these regulations are
primarily implemented and enforced by the United States Securities and
Exchange Commission. Other Western nations have comparable
regulatory bodies. The regulations are implemented and enforced by the
China Securities Regulation Commission in China. In Singapore, the
regulation authority is the Monetary Authority of Singapore, and in Hong
Kong, it is the Securities and Futures Commission. The proliferation and
increasing complexity of the laws governing business have forced
increasing specialization in corporate law. It is not unheard of for certain
kinds of corporate transactions to require a team of five to ten attorneys
due to sprawling regulation.
Commercial law spans general corporate law, employment and labor
law, health-care law, securities law, mergers and acquisitions, tax law,
employee benefit plans, food and drug regulation, intellectual property law
on copyrights, patents, trademarks and such, telecommunications law, and
more. Other types of capital sourcing includes crowd sourcing on the
internet, venture capital, bank loans and debentures. Businesses often
have important " intellectual property" that needs protection from
competitors for the company to stay profitable. This could require patents,
copyrights, trademarks or preservation of trade secrets. Most businesses
have names, logos and similar branding techniques that could benefit from
trade marking. Patents and copyrights in the United States are largely
governed by federal law, while trade secrets and trade marking are mostly
a matter of state law. A business needs protection in every jurisdiction in
which they are concerned about competitors. Many countries are
signatories to international treaties concerning intellectual property.

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Typing Book by Vivaan Sharma

FDDI, Chennai Campus is located at Lrungattu kottai near SIPCOT

Footwear Park, 40 minutes drive from Chennai. The campus area spread
over 15 acres is situated in a calm and serene surrounding with the state-
of-the art Campus housing & buildings having a built-up area of more than
4 laces sq. ft. Campus has an excellent infrastructure and modern facilities,
which assists in conducting the various academic programmers. The
Institute has a state-of-the-art library, computer lab, well furnished and
centrally air-conditioned building, class rooms and lecture halls, latest multi-
media audio-video, educational support for teaching and a fully equipped
auditorium. The Campus is equipped with International Testing Laboratory.
Chennai is the biggest hub of the world leather industry.
Every exporter had an office in Chennai & most of the leather &
footwear industry is located in and around Chennai. Tamil Nadu accounts
for 30 % of leather exports and about 70 per cent of leather production in
the country. The large scale presence of the Tanning industry has resulted
in Tamil Nadu becoming a dominant production centre in the country for
leather and leather based products. In Tamil Nadu many people are
employed in the industries dealing with leather and leather based products.
With the expansion and huge investment coming up in this from the
national and international reputed brands the employment opportunities in
this sector is going to increase many fold. It is estimated that leather
industry will require at least one millions additional man power in the next
five years. The skill gaps at the level of designers, technologists and
management professionals are more stark and demanding. Other Western
nations have comparable regulatory bodies. The regulations are
implemented and enforced by the China Securities Regulation Commission
in China. In Singapore, the regulation authority is the Monetary Authority of
Singapore, and in Hong Kong, it is the Securities and Futures Commission.

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Typing Book by Vivaan Sharma

This article specifies that except for Defense, Foreign Affairs, Finance
and Communications, (matters specified in the instrument of accession) the
Indian Parliament needs the State Government's concurrence for applying
all other laws. Thus the state's residents lived under a separate set of laws,
including those related to citizenship, ownership of property, and
fundamental rights, as compared to other Indians.
Similar protections for unique status exist in tribal areas of India
including those in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Andaman &
Nicobar Islands and Nagaland however it is only for the state of Jammu
and Kashmir that the accession of the state to India is still a matter of
dispute between India and Pakistan still on the agenda of the UN Security
Council and where the Government of India vide 1974 Indira-Sheikh
accord committed itself to keeping the relationship between the Union and
Jammu and Kashmir State within the ambit of this article .
The 1974 Indira-Sheikh accord mentions that "The State of Jammu
and Kashmir which is a constituent unit of the Union of India, shall, in its
relation with the Union, continue to be governed by Article 370 of the
Constitution of India".
In notifications issued as far back as 1927 and 1932, the state
created various categories of residents – with some being called
permanent residents with special rights. Though the law did not
discriminate between female and male PRs, an administrative rule – thanks
to in-built patriarchy or misogyny – made it clear that women could remain
PRs only till marriage. After that they had to seek a fresh right to remain
PRs. And if a woman married someone who wasn‟t a Kashmiri PR, she
automatically lost her own PR status. In 2004, the state high court, in the
case of State of J&K vs Sawhney, declared that there was no provision in
the existing law dealing with the status of a female PR who married a non-
resident. The provision of women losing their PR status after marrying
outside the state.