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МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ПУТЕЙ СООБЩЕНИЯ (МИИТ)

Кафедра «Иностранные языки-1»

Практикум
по английскому языку по устным темам

для студентов I курса всех специальностей ИУИТа,


Гуманитарного института, Юридического
института и Вечернего факультета

по дисциплине
"Английский язык"

МОСКВА - 2010
МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ПУТЕЙ СООБЩЕНИЯ (МИИТ)

Кафедра «Иностранные языки-1»

Практикум
по английскому языку по устным темам

по дисциплине
"Английский язык"

МОСКВА - 2010
МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ПУТЕЙ СООБЩЕНИЯ (МИИТ)

Кафедра «Иностранные языки – 1»

Практикум
по английскому языку по устным темам
Рекомендовано редакционно-издательским советом
университета в качестве практикума

для студентов I курса всех специальностей ИУИТа,


Гуманитарного института, Юридического
института и Вечернего факультета

под редакцией Е.В. Федоткиной

МОСКВА – 2010
УДК 42
П 69

Практикум по английскому языку по устным темам для


студентов I курса всех специальностей ИУИТа,
Гуманитарного института, Юридического института и
Вечернего факультета / под редакцией Е.В. Федоткиной. – М.:
МИИТ, 2010. – 84 с.

Практикум предназначен для развития навыков и


умений устной речи по темам, указанным в «Рабочих
программах» по курсу «Иностранные языки». Практикум
представляет собой коллективный труд преподавателей
кафедры «Иностранные языки - 1» Гуманитарного института.
Он включает 6 модулей, 30 тем и приложение.
Текстовый материал заимствован из оригинальной английской
литературы и адаптирован в соответствии с целью данных
методических разработок.

Апресян К.Г.- Модуль I темы 2, 3, Модуль II тема 4,


Модуль IV темы 1,2, Модуль V I темы 2-10
Приложение: № 5, 8
Дергунова Л.Е. - Модуль III тема 4
Дронова Н. А. - Модуль IV тема 3
Солопенко Т.А. - Модуль III темы 2, 3, 5,6,7 Модуль IV темы
4,7
Мирзабекова А.А - Модуль I тема 1, Модуль II тема 3
Мохнаткина Г.В. - Модуль II тема 2
Петрова И.М - Модуль II темы 1, 3
Решетникова В.В. – Модуль V тема 1
Русакова Н.В. - Модуль IV темы 5,6б Модуль V темы 2, 3,4
Модуль VI тема 9
Черкас В.Ю. – Приложение: № 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7

©Московский государственный университет


путей сообщения (МИИТ), 2012
Учебно-методическое издание

Практикум по английскому языку по устным темам

для студентов I курса всех специальностей ИУИТа,


Гуманитарного института, Юридического института и
Вечернего факультета

под редакцией Е.В. Федоткиной

Подписано в печать Формат Тираж 200 экз.


Усл.- печ. л. - Заказ Изд. № 279-10
127994, Москва, ул. Образцова, 9, стр.9, ГСП - 4
Типография МИИТа

84
Module I: About myself, applying for a job

Text 1: About myself

Let me introduce myself. I am Gleb Pavlov. I was born on the


29 of September, 1993 in Moscow. I live in Moscow with my
family, which is not large. There are three of us: my mother, my
father and me.
I would like to begin with my mother, a pleasant – looking
woman, in the middle of her forties. Her name is Elena Pavlova.
She works as a Personnel Manager for a large travel company. She
is well respected by her colleagues and knows how to build strong
relationships with all departments at the company. The next one to
speak about is my father, he is 45. His name is Andrew Pavlov. He
is a software developer at JSC Russian Railways. His strong
technical experience and education make him a a real professional
in the sphere of IT. They are always ready to support me and give
me some good advice
Now some words about me. I am tolerant, easy-going and
responsible and diligent. I am fond of sport, music, literature and
foreign languages. I am a confident computer user. This year Ive
left secondary school and got the Certificate of Complete
Secondary Education. To get this document I had to pass three
Unified State Exams on Mathematics, Russian language and Social
science. The total score of them gave me a chance to apply for five
universities and be accepted by two of them. But I have chosen the
Moscow State University of Railway Engineering. The University
is the leading and the largest transport institution in Russia.
Now I am a first year full time student of MSURE, studying
at the Institute of the Humanities. These days it is evident for
almost everyone that to have a good education and a permanent job
you need to know at least one foreign language and English is the
most useful language to learn. We have English only once a week,
so I've decided to join evening classes of the University Language

3
Centre to have extra lessons on English.
After graduating from the University I am interested in
getting a prestigious and well-paid job in the sphere of Railway
Management.

Questions for discussion:


1. When and where were you born?
2. What are your parents?
3. What are the main features of your character?
4. What are you fond of?
5. What exams did you have to pass to get the Certificate of
Complete Secondary Education?
6. Would you like to improve your foreign language?
7. You had to take entrance examinations, didn’t you?
8. What are you now?
9. Where are you going to work after graduating from the
University?
10. What are your plans for the future?

Text 2: Applying for a job

Finding permanent or summer employment is often a


difficult and confusing process, with stressful interviews and
unfamiliar rules of etiquette. First of all it is important to know
where to learn about job openings. You can get the information
about a vacancy through personal contacts, classified advertisings
in national and local newspapers, trade magazines, the Internet
resources, and employment agencies.
The most important rule to remember when applying for a
job is to follow the directions. If the employer tells you to apply in
person, don't call. If the job posting says to mail your resume, do
not send it via email.
After you have found some jobs that interest you, the next
step is to apply for them and to prepare thoroughly for the entire
hiring process, so you can pass the interview and receive a job
offer.
4
Many potential employers require completing an
application form and submitting a CV / resume. Later an applicant
will need to go on an interview to meet with an employer face to
face.
An application form contains information on a candidate's
education, work experience and skills. Often, your application
form is the only information your potential employer has about
you, so it should be complete, correct (no errors) and accurate. It
needs to tell them clearly what makes you suitable for the vacancy.
The most suitable candidates, based on their applications, will be
interviewed and you need to be among them.
A CV/ resume is a summary of educational background,
work experience, and accomplishments, as well as research
experience, publications, presentations, awards, honors, and other
details. The primary differences between a resume and a CV are
the length, what is included and what each is used for. A resume is
used exclusively in the USA. A CV is used in Europe, Asia and
Africa. While a resume is brief and concise - no more than a page
or two, a Curriculum Vitae is a longer and more detailed summary.
A resume emphasizes information on the experience, abilities and
studies relevant for the objectives that must be fulfilled in a certain
position for which you are applying. A CV is a compilation of all
the academic data and experience of a person throughout his/her
life.
The purpose of a CV / resume is to get an interview. Thus,
your CV / resume needs to be perfect and persuasive to impress the
hiring manager. There is a saying “First impression lasts long”.
Your CV / resume makes the first impression on an employer. It
must be to the point and needs to set out, clearly but briefly, why
you want the job and what you can do for the Company. It's
important to include all your contact information in your CV /
resume, so employers can easily get in touch with you.
A job interview is one of the most important parts of your
job search. An interview is a formal discussion, in which an
employer assesses an applicant for a job. Once you have been
selected for a job interview, it's important to prepare properly. That
5
means practicing interview questions and answers, dressing in
appropriate interview clothes. After an interview, it is
advantageous to send a thank-you note. This helps establish a
relationship with the recruiter, shows interest in the position, and
indicates personal responsibility. The first interview may be
followed up with the second round. From there it is a short wait
until the company calls back with their offer, or mails a rejection.
Thus, it is evident that getting a job depends on many
factors such as an impressive application form, a well-done CV /
resume and a job interview. Your chances of getting the job
increase in proportion to the amount of time you spend preparing,
so it really is worth the effort.
*Appendix: № 1, 2, 3

Questions for discussion:


1. What sources can you use to find information about
vacancies?
2. What is the most important rule to follow when applying
for a job?
3. What is an application form?
4. What is a CV / resume?
5. What is the difference between a resume and a CV?
6. What is the purpose of a CV / resume?
7. What is a job interview?
8. What will you have to prepare properly to a job interview?
9. What is the purpose of a thank-you note?
10. What are the factors that influence on getting a job?

Text 3: Job interview

A job interview is a 'conversation with an objective'. The


objective for the interviewer is to find out if you are a suitable
candidate for the vacancy. The process of interviewing
constitutes an important part of the recruitment procedure.
Interviews are often stressful but you have to deal with this
6
hiring process. Once you have been selected for a job interview,
it's important to prepare properly. That means practicing
interview questions and answers before appearing for any
interview. It is good practice to research the company
background.
Do not leave preparation for the interview for the last stage,
or hope to say anything that comes to your mind at the moment.
There is the phrase "failing to prepare is preparing to fail. Prepare
well and you will improve your chances for success.
Interview etiquette is a very important part of getting a job.
A candidate's ability to communicate is a very important point. It
is necessary to have a logical flow of thoughts, an ability to listen
and the art of taking correct decisions.
For any job interview, it's important to impress the
interviewer from the moment you arrive. Here are some tips on
how you can make the right impression.
1. Dress formally: The first rule of thumb is always dress to
impress. The clothes tell a lot about you to an interviewer.
Plan to dress professionally in conservative clothing with
appropriate shoes, minimal jewelry, and perfume. Even if
the office is casual, you should dress in business clothes.
Boys should make sure they are shaved, while girls can
apply a light make-up. High heels and open toes are to be
avoided.
2. Be on time: Arrive early for your interview; it’s always
better to be a few minutes early than late. If you're not sure
where you're going get directions ahead of time and do a
trial run, so you know where you're going. Make sure you
turn your phone off before going into the interview room.
Remember to bring an extra copy of your resume and a list
of references.
3. When you enter: Greet the interviewer. Do not be over-
friendly. Do not sit down until asked. Sit straight and do not
fold your arms. Look in the interviewer's eye while
answering questions. Don’t use slang words or jargon,
speak clearly and concisely. Keep your answers short and
7
to the point. Always think about your answers but do not
take too long in figuring them out. Do not discuss money, if
the interviewer brings it up it is ok but don’t broach the
subject yourself. During the interview stay calm and
focused. Don’t allow yourself to be rattled.
4. Stay calm: During the interview try to remain as calm as
possible. If you don’t understand a question, ask for it to be
repeated or rephrased. Pause before answering a question to
gather your thoughts. Maintain a natural amount of eye
contact but don’t stare. Emphasize what you can do to
benefit the company rather than just what you are interested
in.
5. Be pleasant: Keep a cheerful disposition, do not contradict
the interviewer even if he is wrong, keep a pleasant
outlook. Do show enthusiasm and a genuine interest in the
company and your interviewers. Keep your body language
polite. Do not lean forward aggressively or sit with your
arms folded across your chest. You should have good
posture, but keep it relaxed and friendly. Do not be critical
of your institute or past employer.
6. Tricky situations: Stay calm, even if provoked. Of course,
one cannot anticipate all questions so be ready for some
surprises, too. Be well prepared not to be trapped in the
cross-questioning. If you can't do so, simply back out and
say you are not sure rather than saying something which
you cannot defend. If you do not know how to answer a
particular question, say, "I don't know, sir."
7. Ask questions about the job: Prepare a list of questions
you want to ask the interviewer, because you will probably
be asked if you have any at the end of the interview.
Having questions will show that you've done your
homework and are truly interested in the position. Knowing
as much as possible about the company's past performance
and future plans can make your interview more interactive.
Remember, you aren't simply trying to get the job - you are
also interviewing the employer to assess whether this
8
company and the position are a good for you.
8. Follow Up: It's important to thank the interviewer for their
time and to let them know that you look forward to hearing
from them. Follow up by sending a thank-you note.
Remember, the job interview is a strategic conversation
with a purpose. Don't forget that the interviewer is just trying to
solve a problem - they need someone in that job. The interviewer is
NOT trying to test you or to find fault. They want the vacancy
filled as much as you want the job! Thus your goal is to persuade
the employer that YOU have skills, background and ability to do
the job and that you can comfortably fit into the organization.

Questions for discussion:


1. What is the goal of any job interview?
2. Why is the interview etiquette an important part for getting
a job?
3. What characteristics are important for a successful
interview?
4. How could a candidate prepare for an interview?
5. How should a candidate be dressed?
6. Why is it better to arrive early for the interview?
7. How should the candidate behave during an interview?
8. How should the candidate answer tricky questions?
9. Why is it necessary to prepare a list of questions for an
interviewer?
10. Is it important to thank the interviewer with the thank-you
note when the interview is over?

Module II: Education

Text 1: Educational System in Russia

Russia is the country where the Constitution guarantees


everyone’s right to education. This country has a long-standing
tradition in high-quality education for all citizens. The Russian
educational system may be
9
arranged into four major groups: primary, secondary, higher and
postgraduate.
As for primary education Russian children go to preschool
until they are seven years old, then they are enrolled in elementary
school. Secondary education in Russia takes eleven years to
complete. At the end of the 9th form pupils have to take the Unified
State Exam. They have to pass Russian and Mathematics. At the
age of 14 a pupil obtains a Certificate of Incomplete Secondary
Education. Then he or she has to choose one of the following ways
to complete secondary education: either continue education for two
more years at a secondary school or go to a Vocational school or a
College, which usually takes three years to complete.
At the end of the 11th form pupils have to choose 3 or 4
subjects for Unified State Exams and obtain a Certificate of
Complete Secondary Education. An excellent score ranges,
depending on the subject, from 65 to 90 out of 100. The score of
three subjects is the basis of admitting a student to a university. It
is good for school leavers that now they don’t have to pass both
their final school exams and entrance exams at a university.
Students have a chance to apply only for 5 higher education
institutions.
Higher education in Russia is provided by state and non-
state accredited higher education institutions (HEIs). Education in
state HEIs is not completely free of charge. In non-state HEIs all
students must pay tuition fees. Higher education is under the
jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education of the Russian
Federation.The standard of higher education in Russia is
considered to be one of the best in the world with advanced and
sophisticated teaching methods and scientific approaches.
Due to the globalisation of the world educational system,
the system of education in Russia began the transition to the
Bologna process. According to this system higher education in
European countries is to be organised in such a way that it is easy
to move from one country to another for the purpose of further
study or employment.
Russian universities provide different degrees: the degree of
10
Specialist, the degree of Bachelor and the degree of Master. The
degree of Specialist can be obtained after completing 5–6 years of
studies, the degree of Bachelor can be received after 4 years and
the degree of Master can be earned during another 1–2 years of
studies. It is worth mentioning that Specialists and Masters are
eligible for post-graduate courses (Aspirantura), but Bachelors are
not.

Questions for discussion:


1. How is the Russian educational system arranged?
2. Where do Russian children get primary education?
3. How long does secondary education last?
4. What are the ways to complete secondary education?
5. What is a Certificate of Complete Secondary Education?
6. What did they have to pass at the end of the 11th form?
7. Why did the system of education begin to change in
Russia?
8. How is higher education in European countries organised?
9. What degrees are provided by Russian universities?
10. Who is eligible for post-graduate courses?

Text 2: Our University

The Moscow State University of Railway Engineering is


the Russian federal state higher educational institution. It is one of
the oldest, largest and the most prestigious transport universities in
the country.
Our university is inseparably connected with railway
transport and railway construction. Its graduates work in different
structures of railway industry which role and importance for Russia
cannot be overestimated.
The history of the university dates back to September 1896
when on the command of His Imperial Majesty Nicholas II
Moscow Engineering School was founded. Its first students were
prepared as specialists of railway track construction. In 1913
Engineering School was reorganized into Moscow Railway
11
Transport Institute. Since 1993 it has become The Moscow State
University of Railway Engineering.
Now the university consists of several institutes. They are:
the Institute of Rail Operation and Information Technologies, the
Institute of Economics and Finance, the Institute of the
Humanities, Law Institute and others. It also has the Part-Time and
the Pre-University Training Faculties. The university comprises the
Medical College, the Railway Transport College, the Law College
and the gymnasium.
The university provides its students with modern
knowledge oriented towards constant and rapid changes in the
railway system. The equipment of the classes and laboratories
satisfies all the requirements of the modern standards.
Though the university is one of the oldest in Russia it is still
growing and developing. It is integrating into the world’s
educational and scientific community. New demands to the system
of education make the university apply innovative programmes and
seek partnership for their implementation.
Today the university is a modern research and educational
centre with advanced laboratory facilities for study and qualified
staff training. It is one of the few transport universities in Russia
with a branched network of departments.
The university carries out great scientific research work. It
involves such directions as Information Technologies on transport
and traffic safety programmes. Our university actively represents
its scientific and educational interests at international forums in
Russia and abroad.
*Appendix: № 5

Questions for discussion:


1. What university do you study at?
2. Where do its graduates work?
3. When was the university established?
4. Who was the founder of the university?
5. What was the first name of the university?
6 What was the name of the first speciality at Moscow
12
Engineering School?
7. How many institutes does the university consist of? Name
some of them.
8. What facilities for study and qualified staff training are there
in the university?
9. Does the university carry out scientific research work?
10.What are the main directions of scientific research work?

Text 3: My Study

I am a first-year full-time student of Moscow State


University of Railway Engineering. I study at the Institute of
Railway Operation and Information Technologies My speciality is
Transport Management. I have to study for four years to get a
Bachelor degree.
There I have met a great number of students who come to
acquire knowledge and to storm the summits of science.
Our group consists of 30 students. We attend the University
5 days a week. I study a wide range of general subjects such as
History, Foreign Languages, Mathematics, Computer Science and
special subjects such as Management, Marketing, Advertising,
Statistics and so on. I’m good at these subjects and hope to be a
good specialist. Our classes begin at 8'o clock in the morning.
Every day except Saturday and Sunday we listen to lectures, have
seminars and tutorials on various subjects. There are different
laboratories where we do research work. I try to miss no classes
because they are very important for my study. Many lecturers from
different chairs teach us. Teachers try to connect theory with
practice experience.
There is a library at students’ disposal and I attend a
reading-room in order to do my homework. Our academic year
consists of two terms: the first is from September till the end of
January and the second term is from February till the end of June.
At the end of each term we take test and exams. Those students
who pass all exams well get grants. If students pass successfully
the exams at the end of the academic year they have an opportunity
13
of going abroad to improve their professional skills and foreign
languages according to the Programme of Students’ Exchange.
Some students of our group live in a hostel but I live with
my parents. Our university has a Sports Centre which offers many
training facilities so all my group-mates go in for different kinds of
sports. There is a Community Centre not far from the University
where I can spend my leisure time. In my spare time I enjoy
visiting cinema or theatre, going out with my friends or spending
hours by using “chat” services in the Net.
At the end of my study I’ll pass final university exams and
write a graduate work to get a diploma. The graduates of our
university work for different firms and in the sphere of railway
transport. After graduating from the University and I hope to get a
good job in the sphere of transport communication where I’ll
become a highly-qualified specialist.

Questions for discussion:


1. Are you a first-year student of MSURE?
2. What institute do you study at?
3. What is your speciality?
4. How long do you have to study to get a diploma?
5. How many students does your group consist of?
6. What subjects do you study?
7. How many terms does the academic year consist of?
8. Do you live in a hostel?
9. What facilities does MSURE have?
10. Where would you like to work after graduating from the
University?

Text 3: Education in Great Britain

The British system of education has a very long history, but


in the recent years there have been many changes in it. Now the
Educational Reform Act has led to a compulsory National
Curriculum for pupils aged 5 to 16 in state schools. It consists of
English, Mathematics, Science, History, Geography and some
14
other subjects. The Act also aims to give parents a wide choice of
schools for their children. Non-selective comprehensive education
is available for children of all abilities, though 7% of children
attend private fee-paying schools, called public schools. The well-
known ones are Eton and Harrow.
The education system in the UK is divided into four main
parts: primary education, secondary education, further education
and higher education. Children in the UK have to attend primary
and secondary education which runs from about 5 years old till the
student is 16. School starts in September and finishes in late July.
There are 3 terms, a two-week break between terms and 6 weeks
summer holidays.
The most important examination is the assessment at the
age of 16 which is called GCSE or General Certificate of
Secondary Education. Once students get their GCSEs, they have
the choice whether to go to further education or go into the
working world. Pupils can continue studying for two more years,
concentrating on three main subjects, and then at 18 they take the
General Certificate of Education Advanced Level exams. There is
also a Certificate of Pre-Vocational Education, for those staying at
school from 16 till 17.
Further education (FE) is the term used to describe
education and training that take place after the school-leaving age
of sixteen. FE takes place in colleges, of which there are over 600
spread across the UK. These colleges provide education and
training services for the whole of the community that they are part
of. They will also run courses for people who are in work and wish
to continue their training.
Students who are admitted to English universities take part in
‘undergraduate studies’ which leads to a bachelor’s degree in a
main field of study known as a ‘major’. The most common degrees
are Bachelor of Arts (BA) and Bachelor of Science (BSc), although
there are others. There are also sandwich courses which offer
students work places for a short period of time in a relevant
industry before completing their studies. Taking a sandwich course
may make the degree last a year longer than otherwise. Graduate
15
study, conducted after obtaining an initial degree, leads to a more
advanced Master’s degree. The Oxbridge universities (Oxford
University and Cambridge University), which are amongst the
world's oldest universities, are generally ranked at or near the top
of all UK universities. These universities denote an elite education.
They consist of a number of colleges, each self-governing and
independent.

Questions for discussion


1. What has the Educational Reform Act in the UK led to?
2. What is a National Curriculum?
3. How many children attend private fee-paying schools?
4. What is the education system in the UK divided into?
5. At what age do children have to attend school in Britain?
6. When does school start in Britain?
7. What is GCSE?
8. Where does FE take place?
9. What degrees can students get at a university?
10. What is a sandwich course?

Text 4: Higher education in the USA

"Higher education" in the United States refers to all formal


education beyond the secondary level. The United States does not
have a national university system but rather many private and
public institutions, each with differing academic regulations,
calendars, departmental structures, and course offerings.
According to UNESCO the USA has the second largest
number of higher education institutions in the world. According to
the Webometrics Ranking of the World Universities the main 103
US universities are in the Top 200.
Public universities, private universities, liberal arts colleges,
and community colleges all have a significant role in the United
States` higher education. The American university system is
largely decentralized. In the United States, the term college is
16
frequently used to refer to stand-alone higher level education
institutions as well as to the components within a university.
American universities have developed independent accreditation
organisations to vouch for the quality of the degrees they offer. The
accreditation agencies rate universities and colleges on criteria
such as academic quality - the quality of their libraries, the
publishing records of their faculty, and the degrees which their
faculty holds.
Universities are research-oriented institutions which
provide both undergraduate and graduate education. Colleges and
universities in the USA vary in terms of goals: some may
emphasize a vocational, business, engineering, or technical
curriculum while others may offer a liberal arts curriculum. Many
combine some or all of the above.
The majority of public universities are operated by the
states and territories. Each state supports at least one state
university and several support many more. There exist many
private universities as well and some of them are involved in
religious education.
Tuition is charged at almost all American universities,
except the five federally-sponsored service academies and a few
institutions. Public universities often have much lower tuition than
private universities because of the funds provided by state
governments and residents of the state. Students often use
scholarships, student loans, or grants, rather than paying all tuition
out-of-pocket.
Students traditionally apply to receive admission into
college, with varying difficulties of entrance. Admissions criteria
involve grades earned in high school courses taken, the students'
GPA class ranking, and standardized test scores. Students can
apply for some colleges using the Common Application. There is
no limit to the number of colleges or universities to which a
student may apply, though an application must be submitted for
each. Some students, rather than being rejected, are "wait-listed"
for a particular college and may be admitted if another student who
was admitted decides not to attend the college or university.
17
Once admitted, students engage in undergraduate study,
which consists of four years of study leading to a Bachelor of Arts
(B.A.) or to a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree, though there are
others. Thus students sometimes can get Bachelor of Fine Arts
(B.F.A.), a Bachelor of Social Work (B.S.W.), a Bachelor of
engineering (B.Eng.,) or a Bachelor of Philosophy (B.Phil.) degree.
Five-Year Professional Architecture programmes offer a Bachelor
of Architecture degree (B.Arch.)
Degrees in law and medicine are not offered at the
undergraduate level and are completed as graduate study. Graduate
programmes grant a variety of master's degrees - such as a Master
of Arts (M.A.), a Master of Science (M.S.), a Master of Business
Administration (M.B.A.), or a Master of Fine Arts (M.F.A.) In the
USA a Master's degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded
after the completion of an academic programme of one to six years
in duration.
Students who want to advance their education even further
in a specific field can pursue a doctorate degree, also called a PhD.
A PhD degree can take between three to six years to complete,
depending on the course of study chosen, the ability of the student,
and the thesis that the student has selected.
Some universities have professional schools, which are
attended primarily by those who plan to be practitioners instead of
academics (scholars/researchers). Examples include journalism
school, business school, medical, law, veterinary and dental
schools.

The Ivy League


The Ivy League is the name generally applied to eight
universities (Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard,
Pennsylvania, Princeton, and Yale) that over the years have had
common interests in scholarship as well as in athletics. The Ivy
League schools are often viewed by the public as some of the most
prestigious universities worldwide and are often ranked amongst
the best universities in the United States and in the world.

18
Questions for discussion:
1. How are the main US Universities ranked according to the
Webometrics Ranking of World Universities?
2. How do the accreditation agencies rate universities and
colleges?
3. How do the colleges and universities in the USA vary in
terms of goals?
4. What are the types of the higher education institutions in
the US?
5. What is the difference between the tuition charged in public
and private universities?
6. How do students in the USA pay tuition fee?
7. How do students traditionally apply to receive admission
into colleges or universities?
8. What is an undergraduate academic degree in the USA?
9. What is a postgraduate academic degree in the USA?
10. What is a PhD degree?

Module III: Across Countries

Text 1: The Russian Federation

The Russian Federation occupies a vast territory in


Europe and Asia.. Russia has an extensive coastline along the
Arctic and the Pacific Oceans, as well as the Baltic, the Black and
the Caspian seas. The country has approximately one-quarter of the
world's unfrozen fresh water. The Volga is the longest river. The
major lakes are Lake Baikal, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. Lake
Baikal is the world's deepest and purest freshwater lake. Russia has
the world's largest forest reserves. That’s why the country is
sometimes called “the lungs” of Europe. Mount Elbrus is the
highest mountain peak in Russia.
Russia has the largest natural gas reserves, the second
largest coal reserves and the eighth largest oil reserves in the
19
world. It is the world's leading natural gas exporter and the second
leading oil exporter. Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account
for more than 80% of Russian exports.
Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic,
commercial and cultural centre. The population of the city is more
than 10 million people.
The population of the Russian Federation is about 140
mln people. The country is a multiethnic society; it has 160
different ethnic groups. However, Russian is the only official
language, though the Constitution gives the federal subjects the
right to make their native language co-official.
The flag of the country is the white-blue-red banner. The
State Emblem is the two-headed eagle; the national anthem is
“Russia, the holy land”.
According to the Constitution, Russia is a federation and
a presidential republic. The Russian Federation is a
representative democracy. The President is the head of state. He is
the commander-in-chief; he can veto legislative bills before they
become laws. He is elected for a six-year term.
The Russian Federation comprises 83 federal subjects.
They have equal representation in the Federation Council. Federal
subjects are grouped into federal districts. Federal districts are
administered by envoys. They are responsible for overseeing the
compliance of the federal laws.
Legislative power is represented by the Federal Assembly.
It is made up of the State Duma (lower chamber) and the
Federation Council (upper chamber). It makes federal laws and has
power of impeachment. The leading political parties of Russia are
the United Russia, the Communist Party, and the Liberal
Democratic Party of Russia.
Executive power is exercised by the government. The
current Russian government is made up of the Prime Minister, two
first deputy prime ministers, seven deputy prime ministers and 17
ministers. Most ministries and federal services report directly to the
Prime Minister, who in his turn reports to the President.
Judicial power belongs to the system of courts. There are
20
the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of
Arbitration and lower federal courts.
Being one of the permanent members of the UN Security
Council, Russia plays a major role in maintaining international
peace and security. Russia is a member of the Group of Eight
(G8), the Council of Europe, OSCE and APEC. Russia usually
takes a leading role in regional organisations such as the CIS,
EurAsEC, CSTO, and the SCO.
*Appendix: № 4

Questions for discussion:


1. Why is Russia called “the lungs” of Europe?
2. What are the natural reserves of Russia?
3. What can you tell about the capital of Russia?
4. What are the symbols of Russia?
5. Who is the head of the Russian Federation?
6. Who appoints the Cabinet of Ministers?
7. Who represents the executive power of the RF?
8. What are the leading political parties of Russia?
9. What does the judicial system include?
10. What international organisations is the RF a member of?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

CIS - The Commonwealth of Independent States


EAEC or EurAsEC - The Eurasian Economic Community
CSTO - Collective Security Treaty Organisation
SCO - The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
OSCE - The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
APEC - Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Text 2: The United Kingdom of Great Britain


and Northern Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


21
(the UK) is a country to the north-west of Europe. It comprises the
island of Great Britain, the north-east part of the island of Ireland
and many small islands. The UK is washed by the Atlantic Ocean,
the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea.
The United Kingdom is divided into four constituent parts:
England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Most of England
consists of lowlands. The main rivers are the Thames and the
Severn. Scotland has lowlands in the south and east and highlands
in the north and west. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest
mountain in the British Isles. Wales is mostly mountainous.
Northern Ireland is mainly hilly.
The capital of the UK is London. The United Kingdom's
population is 60.5 ml. The language of the state is English. The
flag of the UK is known as the Union Jack. It is made up of three
crosses that symbolise patron saints of England, Scotland, and
Ireland. As for the national emblems, they are a red rose for
England, a thistle for Scotland, a shamrock for Ireland, and a
yellow daffodil and leek for Wales.
The UK is a major centre for international business and
commerce. London is the world's largest financial centre. It is the
leader of three “command centres” for the global economy (along
with New York City and Tokyo). The principles of liberalisation,
the free market, low taxation and regulation make the UK economy
the fifth largest in the world. The UK service sector (73% of GDP)
is dominated by financial services, especially in banking and
insurance. Tourism is very important to the British economy. With
over 27 mln tourists a year, the United Kingdom is the sixth major
tourist destination in the world.
The British manufacturing sector is still an important part
of the economy. But it only accounts for one-sixth of national
output. This includes British motor industry, civil and defense
aircraft production, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. The UK
agriculture is only 0.9% of the country's GDP. The UK has a small
coal reserve and large natural gas and oil reserves.
Officially Great Britain is a state of the constitutional
monarchy. This means that the monarch is the head of state. But
22
the Crown is only sovereign by the will of parliament. The Queen
acts on the advice of her ministers. That's why we say that the
monarch reigns but does not rule.
Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the United
Kingdom. The main functions of Parliament are to legislate bills
and debate or discuss important political issues. British Parliament
is bicameral with an upper house, the House of Lords and a lower
house, the House of Commons. The Queen is the third component
of Parliament. The public do not elect the Lords, they are
appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime
Minister or of the House of Lords Appointments Commission.
The House of Commons is a democratically elected
chamber with elections held at least every 5 years. The House of
Commons is an elected House. The party that has won the General
election makes up the majority in the House of Commons. It also
forms the Government. The party with the next largest number of
members in the House forms the official Opposition. The main
political parties of the country are the Conservative, the Labour,
and the Liberal parties.
The executive power belongs to the Prime Minister and the
Cabinet. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Crown.
Automatically it is the leader of the party which wins the majority.
The Cabinet is composed of about 20 ministers. They are
personally chosen by the Prime Minister. The Cabinet of Ministers
introduces legislation, controls finance, conducts foreign affairs,
and supervises every department of administration.
The judicial system of the UK is represented by criminal
and civil courts. This includes magistrates, crown and county
courts,as well as the High Court of Justice.
The UK is a leading member of various international
organisations, for example, the EU, the G8, and NATO. It has
close relationship with the countries of the Commonwealth and
other English-speaking countries.
*Appendix: № 6

Questions for discussion:


23
1. Where is the UK situated?
2. What are the constituent parts of the UK?
3. What is the capital of the UK?
4. What services dominate in the UK service sector?
5. What industries are mostly developed in the UK?
6. Who is the head of the country?
7. What chambers does Parliament consist of?
8. What are the main political parties of the UK?
9. What does the judicial system include?
10. What countries does the UK have close relationship with?

Text 3: The United States of America

The continental United States stretches from the Atlantic


Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and from Canada to Mexico. Alaska is
the largest state. Separated by Canada, it is washed by the Pacific
and the Arctic Oceans. Hawaii occupies an archipelago in the
Pacific. The area of the United States is 9.83 ml km². The
Mississippi River is the longest river system. Alaska's Mount
McKinley is the country's tallest peak.
The capital is Washington, D.C. The official language of
the country is English. The US population is over 300 ml people.
The flag of the USA is called “Stars and Stripes”. 50 stars
represent the current states, 13 stripes stand for the original states.
The national emblem is a bald eagle. The national anthem is “the
Star Spangled Banner”.
The United States has a capitalist mixed economy. It is
based on natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, and a
high productivity. The United States GDP makes up 20% of the
gross world product. The private sector is the most important part
of the economy. The economy is postindustrial; the service sector
contributes over 75% of GDP. The main business fields are
wholesale and retail trade, finance and insurance.
The United States remains an industrial power. Chemical
products are the leading manufacturing field. The USA is the third
largest producer of oil in the world. Agriculture accounts for 60%
24
of the world's agricultural production.
The USA is a federal constitutional republic. It comprises
50 states and a federal district. The federal government has three
branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
The United States Congress is the legislative branch of the
federal government. It is divided into the House of Representatives
and the Senate. The Constitution grants numerous powers to
Congress. For example, it must provide for common defense and
general welfare of the US and make laws necessary for that.
In fact the USA has a two-party system. The two leading
political parties are the Democrats and the Republicans.
The executive branch consists of the President and his
delegates. The President is both the head of state and the
Government. He is the military commander-in-chief. He manages
national affairs and the work of the federal government. The Vice
President is the second-highest executive official of the
government. The members of the President's Cabinet are
responsible for administering various departments of state and
executing federal laws and regulations.
The structure of the judicial system includes the Supreme
Court, 13 courts of appeals, 94 district courts, and two courts of
special jurisdiction.
The USA is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty
Organisation (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Cooperation
and Development and the Organisation of American States. It also
supports the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund and
the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(World Bank) and the G8.
*Appendix: № 7

Questions for discussion:

1. Where is the USA situated?


2. What is the population of the USA?
3. What is the tallest peak of the USA?
25
4. What is the capital of the USA?
5. What type of economy does the USA have?
6. What industries are most developed in the USA?
7. What does the executive branch of power include?
8. Who represents the legislative power in the USA?
9. What does the judicial system of the USA include?
10. What international organisations is the USA a member of?

Text 4: The Commonwealth

The Commonwealth of Nations is a worldwide political


organisation of independent nations with their dependencies, all of
which recognize the British monarch as the head of the
Commonwealth. The origin of the Commonwealth lies in the
British Empire. Starting from the 16th century, Britain invaded a
lot other lands. This was very violent most of the times. Some
colonies, such as India, had large local populations ruled by British
overlords. Others, such as Australia, became colonies for
settlement by the British. At the beginning of the 20th century,
these lands of settlement, known as Dominions, were largely
internally governed. As these settlements became less profitable,
there came the idea of the Commonwealth. In 1931 Canada,
Australia, New Zealand and South Africa were granted
'independence'.
When World War II broke out, these Commonwealth
nations and the colonies fought alongside the UK and its allies for
the ideals of liberty. They helped the Allies to win in 1945.The
independence for the remaining colonies followed soon after. Most
joined the Commonwealth to remain close to the vast amount of
resources that Britain had.
From the start, the UK was the dominant force in what was
known as 'the British Commonwealth'. It was run from the
Commonwealth Office in London. By the 1950s, it had become
'the Commonwealth of Nations'. In 1965, an office called the
Commonwealth Secretariat was set up to run the Commonwealth.
26
The UK remained the dominant power giving directives through
the various offices. Under the 'old Empire', the UK allowed some
special rules for trade with the colonies. These rules made things
from the colonies cheaper in the UK. They also encouraged the
colonies to buy goods produced in the UK. The Commonwealth
consists of most of the countries that were once parts of the British
Empire. In 1926, Britain and its dominions agreed they were equal
in status. They decided to be freely associated as members of the
British Commonwealth of Nations. There are fifty three members.
Some are very large countries like Canada, India, and Australia.
Some are just small islands like Barbados and Tonga. The issue of
countries with constitutional structures not based on a shared
Crown, who wished to remain members of the Commonwealth,
was resolved in April 1949 at the Commonwealth Prime Ministers'
meeting in London. Under the formula of the London Declaration,
Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the Commonwealth. The land
area of the Commonwealth nations is about 21% of the total world
land area. The Commonwealth promotes educational programmes
and exchanges between different countries. Every four year they
hold the Commonwealth Games.

Questions for discussion:


1. What is the Commonwealth of Nations?
2. Who is in the Head of the Commonwealth?
3. How did the idea of the Commonwealth come?
4. Why did some countries fight alongside the UK and its
allies?
5. What was set up in 1965?
6. What trade rules did the UK allow under the “Old Empire”?
7. What countries does the Commonwealth consist of?
8. What decision did Britain and its dominions come to in
1926?
9. What is the land area of the Commonwealth?
10. What does the Commonwealth promote?

27
Text 5: Canada

Canada is the second largest country in the world. It is


situated in North America. It stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in
the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the
Arctic Ocean. It has land borders with the United States. The chief
rivers are the Mackenzie and the Saint Lawrence. As for the
Niagara river and its famous Niagara Falls, it forms together with
the region of the Great Lakes is a border between Canada and the
USA.
The capital of the country is Ottawa. The population of the
country is about 33 ml people. The population density is among the
lowest in the world. Canada is a bilingual country. Both English
and French are official languages at the federal level. Most
French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec. The national symbol is
a maple leaf. It is depicted on the nation’s flag.
Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations with high
income. Canada has a free market economy that is dominated by
the service industry. Canada's most important industries are
logging and oil industries. Canada is an exporter of energy. Canada
is one of the world's most important suppliers of agricultural
products, wheat and other grains mostly. The country is a world
leader in such natural resources as gold, nickel, aluminum, and
lead. In Canada’s manufacturing sector automobiles and
aeronautics are particularly important industries.
Canada is a constitutional monarchy. Elizabeth II, the
Queen of Canada, is the head of state. The Monarch's
representative in Canada is the Governor-General. Canada is a
federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. The
country is a parliamentary democracy.
The federal parliament represents legislature. It is made up
of the Queen and two houses: the elected House of Commons and
the appointed Senate. Elections are held every five years. Members
of the Senate are chosen by the Prime Minister and formally
appointed by the Governor-General. Canada's major political
parties are the Conservative Party of Canada, the Liberal Party of
28
Canada, etc.
Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and
the Cabinet of ministers. The Prime Minister is the head of
government. He is the leader of the political party that gets the
majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister and the
Cabinet are formally appointed by the Governor General. They are
responsible to the elected House of Commons.
The judicial branch of power includes the Supreme Court
as the highest court of justice and other courts.
Canada is a member of different international organisations,
namely the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) and the Group of Eight (G8).

Questions for discussion:


1. Where is Canada situated?
2. What is the capital of Canada?
3. What is the population of Canada?
4. What languages are official in Canada?
5. What are the main industries of Canada’s economy?
6. Who is the head of state?
7. Who is the head of government?
8. What are Canada’s major political parties?
9. What does the judicial system include?
10. What international organisations is Canada a member of?

Text 6: The Commonwealth of Australia

The Commonwealth of Australia is a country in the


southern hemisphere. It consists of the world's smallest continent,
the major island of Tasmania and other islands in the Indian Ocean
and the Pacific Ocean. The neighbouring countries are Indonesia,
Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. The largest part of Australia
is desert or semi-desert. Australia has the oldest and least fertile
soils. It is the driest inhabited continent. The greatest rivers are the
Murray and the Darling. Mount Kosciusko is the highest mountain.
The capital city is Canberra. The population is 21 ml.
29
English is the national language.
Australia has a prosperous, Western-style mixed economy.
The service sector of the economy comprises about 70% of GDP. It
includes tourism, education, and financial services. The most
important branches of industry are metal works, machine-building,
clothing, and food industries. Australia is mainly a producer of
wool, wheat, and gold. Besides, it exports meat, leather, butter,
fresh and dried fruits.
The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional
monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. Queen
Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia. The Queen is represented by
the Governor-General and by the Governors. The Constitution
gives extensive executive power to the Governor-General, but it is
normally exercised only on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Australia consists of six states, two major mainland
territories, and other minor territories. Each state and territory has
its own state parliament.
There are three branches of government; each of them has
its own peculiarities.
The legislature is represented by the Commonwealth
Parliament. It consists of the Queen, the Senate (the upper house),
and the House of Representatives (the lower house). Elections for
both chambers are held every three years. The party with major
support in the House of Representatives forms the government. Its
leader becomes the Prime Minister.
There are two major political parties: the Australian
Labour Party, and the Coalition of the Liberal Party and the
National Party.
The executive branch of power consists of the Federal
Executive Council. The councillors are the Prime Minister and
Ministers of State.
The judiciary includes the High Court of Australia and
other federal courts.
Australia is a founding member of the United Nations, a
member of the Commonwealth of Nations, APEC, the WTO, etc.

30
Questions for discussion:
1. Where is Australia situated? What is its area?
2. What is the population of Australia?
3. What is the capital of Australia?
4. What type of economy does Australia have?
5. What are the main industries of Australia’s economy?
6. Who is the head of the country?
7. Who is the legislative power represented by?
8. What are the peculiarities of the executive branch of
power?
9. What does the judicial system include?
10. What international organisations is Australia a member of?

Text 7: New Zealand

New Zealand is a country in the south-western Pacific


Ocean. It comprises two large islands (the North and the South
Islands) and numerous smaller islands. New Zealand is separated
from Australia by the Tasman Sea. The total land area is 268,680
km². The country has extensive marine resources. The islands are
mountainous and are also marked by volcanoes. The highest peak
is Mount Cook.
The capital city is Wellington. The population is about 4.2
mln. New Zealand has three official languages: New Zealand
English, the Maori language, and New Zealand Sign Language. In
practice only English is widely used.
New Zealand has a developed economy and a high standard
of living. Principal export industries are agriculture, gardening,
fishing, and forestry. Tourism plays a significant role in New
Zealand's economy. It contributes almost 9% to New Zealand’s
total GDP. The most developed industries are machinery, textile,
furniture, and food industry.
New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a
parliamentary democracy. Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of New
Zealand. The Queen’s position is largely symbolic. She is
represented by the Governor-General. Political power is held by
31
the Parliament of New Zealand and the Prime Minister.
The legislature is represented by Parliament, which has
only one chamber, the House of Representatives. Parliamentary
general elections are held every three years. The leading political
parties of the country are the Labour Party, New Zealand First,
etc.
The Prime Minister is leader of Parliament as well as Head
of Government. The Cabinet is the most senior policy-making
body and is led by the Prime Minister.
The Governor-General has the power to appoint and
dismiss the Prime Ministers and to dissolve Parliament. The
Governor-General also chairs the Executive Council. The
Executive Council is a formal committee of all the Crown
ministers.
New Zealand's judiciary includes the Supreme Court of
New Zealand (the highest court); the High Court; the Court of
Appeal; and subordinate courts.
New Zealand is a member of the following geopolitical
organisations: APEC, East Asia Summit, the Commonwealth of
Nations, and the United Nations.

Questions for discussion:


1. What is the area of New Zealand?
2. What is the capital of New Zealand?
3. What is the population New Zealand?
4. What are the official languages of New Zealand?
5. What are the most developed industries of New Zealand?
6. Who is the head of New Zealand?
7. Who is the Governor-General and what are his/her
functions?
8. What are the leading political parties of New Zealand?
9. What is the Executive Council?
10. What international organisations is New Zealand a member
of?

Module IV: Railways


32
Text 1: From the History of the Railways

Modern railways differ greatly from the early ones. The


first railways used horses for drawing trains and were made of
wood. In 1767 an ironmaster Abraham Darby started making rails
of cast iron. The first attempts to use the steam engine to draw
passenger and freight trains were made in 1808 by an English
inventor Richard Trevithick.
In 1829 George Stephenson, an English engineer,
constructed the world’s first steam locomotive. He also built the
first public railway in England between Stockton and Darlington.
He called his new steam engine “Locomotion”. Another railway
was built in 1830 to link Manchester and Liverpool (its length was
48 km).
The early locomotives were small and slow. They were not
as safe and powerful as they are today. Some accidents were
caused because of broken rails or wheels. However, the early trains
did not have brakes. Most accidents happened when two trains
crashed into each other, because there were no proper signals.
The first railway carriages were small and uncomfortable.
They looked like stage coaches. In England the carriages for the
first class passengers had three compartments with soft seats and
doors at either side. There was a high seat at the back for the guard
and a rack on the roof for luggage. The second class carriages also
had roofs, but low sides and hard seats. The third class passengers
had to ride in uncovered wagons without seats at all. These early
trains had neither heating nor lighting.
The prototype of the modern sleeping car appeared in the
middle of the 19th century. Its inventor was George M. Pullman, an
American publisher.
The first steam locomotives in Russia were built by the
Cherepanovs, father and son. So thanks to them Russia was among
the first countries to use steam traction.
The first Russian passenger 28-km railway was built
between St. Petersburg and Tsarskoye Selo. The railway was used
33
by the Tsar's family for travelling to the countryside. The
construction of the St. Petersburg - Moscow railway was finished
in l851. It operated successfully, though many people doubted the
possibility of using steam engines in the Russian winter. In 1891
the building of the world’s longest Trans-Siberian Railway began;
it was put into operation in 1905.

Questions for discussion:


1. What was used to draw the first railways?
2. What were the first railways made of?
3. Who made the first attempt to use the steam engine to
draw trains?
4. Who invented the first steam locomotive?
5. Were the early railways safe or dangerous?
6. How did the compartments of the first railway
carriages look like?
7. Who was the inventor of the modern sleeping car?
8. Who built the first Russian locomotive?
9. What first railways in Russia do you know?
10. When was the world’s longest railway put into
operation?

Text 2. The Main Railway Notions


Railway system is a very complex mechanism. It implies
track, rail equipment, rolling-stock and train operation.
Track is one of the basic features of a railway. It is also
called the permanent way. It consists of rails, ties and ballast. The
distance between the rails is called the gauge. The standard gauge
in most countries is 1,435 mm while in Russia it is 1,524 mm.
Rails rest on sleepers which are laid on ballast (in the USA
sleepers are called ties). The ballast is the foundation of the railway
track.
Rail equipment consists of rails, sleepers, ballast, artificial
structures, signals, railroad constructions (railway stations, tunnels,
bridges). They enable the railway to operate successfully.
Railway Signalling makes railways safe and quick. Safety
34
depends on many factors. It is determined by the condition of the
track and signal techniques. Very important features of the railway
safety engineering are signal and block systems.
Rolling stock is the term describing all the vehicles that
move on a railway. It usually includes both powered and
unpowered vehicles, such as locomotives, carriages, coaches and
wagons. There are various types of trains designed for particular
purposes. A passenger train includes passenger-carrying vehicles.
Freight trains comprise wagons or trucks rather than carriages.
Long-distance trains travel between many cities and regions of a
country, and sometimes cross several countries. High-speed trains
are designed for passenger travel, and some high speed systems
offer freight service. Trains connecting cities can be divided into
two groups. Inter-city trains do not halt at small stations, trains that
serve all stations are usually known as local trains. Commuter
trains are used for shorter distances serving the city and its
suburbs.
Traffic and convey capacity of the railways is called
operation service. Efficient operation mostly depends on the time-
table.
Questions for discussion:
1. What does the term track mean?
2. What is the gauge?
3. What is the gauge standard in Russia?
4. What is the foundation of the track?
5. What is the aim of railway signalling?
6. What does the rail equipment consist of?
7. What does the term rolling-stock mean?
8. What does the term operation service imply?
9. What types of trains do you know?
10. What does efficient operation depend on?

Text3: British Railways


Britain has one of the most efficient and heavily used railway
systems in the world. Both freight and long-distance passenger
services now operate without subsidy from the Government and in
35
direct competition with other forms of transport. British Rail has а
computerized freight information and traffic control system known
as TOPS (Total Operations Processing System). In Britain а
network of city to city services operates at speeds of up to 100 mph
(161 km/h). On some lines the speed is raised to 125 mph (201
km/h).
The 1970s saw British Rail successfully introduced high
speed diesel train services. The InterCity 125 High Speed Train
(HST) was introduced on some services, and the InterCity brand
was adopted. This created an increase in passengers using the
railways and improved British Rail's finances. The InterCity125
was an outstanding success and is still in widespread use.
British Rail also started development of the world's first
tilting train – the Advanced Passenger Train (APT) achieving 150
mph (241 km/h). The APT is powered either by electric motors or
by gas turbines, and it can use existing track. The object of the tilt
was to minimise the discomfort to passengers caused by taking the
curves at high speed.
Between 1994 and 1997 British Rail was privatized and
passed to Railtrack. Privatization made an improvement in
passenger services. But the public image of rail travel was severely
damaged because of the series of significant accidents caused by a
train going through a red light and by a rail fragmenting due to the
development of microscopic cracks.
Following these accidents Railtrack imposed over 1200
speed restrictions across its network and started an extremely
costly nationwide track replacement programme.
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in demand for
rail transport in Britain. Railways operate in direct competition
with road hauliers and airlines.
Questions for discussion:
1. Do British Railways have a subsidy from the
Government?
2. What is another name for British computerized freight
information and traffic control system?
3. What speed do British city to city services operate at?
36
4. When and why did British Rail introduce HST and APT?
5. What do the abbreviations “HST” and “APT” mean?
6. What speed do “HST” and “APT” trains achieve?
7. What happened in the British railway services between
1994 and 1997?
8. What were the reasons of the railway accidents after
privatization?
9. What did the authorities do to improve the situation on
the rail track?
10. What do British railways compete with?

Text 4: Russian Railways

Railway systems are essential to the economy and


infrastructure of any country. A highly developed railway network
is vital to Russia as well, partly because of its huge territory. Rail
connects Russia’s regions and provides services to main cities and
towns. Much of the population relies on the railways because of
rather cheap transportation.
Russian railways are one of the largest in the world. The
total length of track is 85,500 km. The majority of railways in
Russia are electrified. The national gauge standard is 1,524 mm.
Modern Russian railways are transcontinental, they provide
international passenger and freight service between Europe and
Asia. The Russian railway system transports most of the country's
industrial goods and raw materials. It also carries the bulk of
passenger traffic. More than 1 billion passengers and 1 billion tons
of freight travel via Russian Railways annually.
Actually, the rail network of Russia comprises 17 railways
such as Oktyabrskaya Railway, Northern Railway and Moscow
Railway. This division is based on historical and regional principle.
However, the density of the railways in Russia is still
comparatively low. The country should enlarge its railway system,
especially in the East with its relatively poor road connection.
The rolling stock used on Russian railways is reliable in
operation and environmentally friendly. For instance, the
37
locomotives possess high performance in quick acceleration and in
tractive and braking power. The passenger coaches are modernised
and comfortable. They also may have some extra facilities -
conditioning, toned windows, or TV. High-speed railway
transportation is the priority goal of the breakthrough development
of rail transport in Russia.
To conclude, new technologies and equipment as well as
high quality of service make Russian railways a competitive mode
of transport.

Questions for discussion:


1. Railways are essential to the economy of any country,
aren’t they?
2. Why does the population of Russia rely on railways?
3. What is the length of Russian railways?
4. Are modern Russian railways transcontinental?
5. Are Russian railways electrified?
6. What freight and passenger turnover does the Russian rail
account for?
7. How many railways does the Russian rail system consist
of?
8. Is the rolling stock used on Russian railways reliable and
modern?
9. Why should Russia enlarge its railway network?
10. What makes Russian railways a competitive mode of
transport?
Text5: Joint Stock Company Russian Railways

In the past Russian railways were built as part of the


national development plan for strategic and security reasons. The
system entirely belonged to the Railways Ministry, a state within a
state. It was completely owned, regulated and operated by the
government. However, the funds from the government became
insufficient to keep the railway in good operating condition. In
response to the increasing needs of economy, the system was
completely renovated.
38
Reforms started in September 2003 with the establishment
of the joint stock company Russian Railways (RZD). The Russian
Federation became the only shareholder of the company and
delegated shareholder control to the Government.
Being a large monopoly of vital strategic importance, JSC
Russian Railways is regulated by several governmental bodies with
different functions. Thus, the Ministry of Transport and
Communication is responsible for the regulation and licensing of
the railway industry. The Ministry of Economics Trade and
Development approves RZD strategic plans and the key budget
parameters. The Federal Tariff Service answers for the tariff policy
and electrification of the railway industry. The Ministry of Finance
is responsible for taxation and subsidies.
JSC Russian Railways is the sole owner and operator of the
railway infrastructure in Russia. The company's assets include
track depots, stations, switching facilities and dispatch centres. The
company has the largest freight rolling stock and operates all the
passenger service rail assets. It has the largest locomotive fleet.
RZD is constantly expanding and upgrading its domestic
and international services. The company provides maximum
comfort and reliability for all passengers, including new rail-air
links, luxury compartments and suburban transit trains.
The new high speed Sapsan trains are the pride of the
company. The trains were developed by Siemens specialists with
the involvement of RZD representatives and higher education
institutes. The Sapsan trains fully comply with the Russian
Federation safety standards. Their design ensures reliability,
energy, efficiency, safety and comfort for passengers and
personnel.
Nowadays RZD is successfully integrating into Eurasian
transport infrastructure. Russian railways cooperate with European
and Asian railways and have common routes with them.

Questions for discussion:


1. How were Russian railways managed in the past?
2. When and why was JSC Russian Railways established?
39
3. What governmental bodies regulate JSC Russian
Railways?
4. What corporate structure does the company Russian
Railways have?
5. What are RZD assets?
6. Why do you think RZD is a company of vital strategic
importance?
7. What does the company Russian Railways provide for
passengers?
8. Who worked on the project of the Sapsan trains?
9. Why do you think the Sapsan trains are fully reliable and
energy efficient?
10. How is RZD integrating into Eurasian transport
infrastructure?

Text 6. Railway Reforms in Russia


In 1991 the Soviet Railway System broke into the
individual national railways of CIS countries. The Ministry of
Railways remained the only structure in Russia to control state
regulations and economic activities of Russian railways. However,
severe competition between other transport modes and railways
made the latter completely renovate their system. It became clear
that successful reforms in the railway sector required separating
regulation from business. In 1998, President Yeltsin approved a
concept for the structural reforming of the Federal Railway
Transport. It consisted of three different phases.
Phase I was completed in the autumn of 2003, with the
establishment of the Joint Stock Company Russian Railways
(RZD). The company assumed the assets and the functions of the
former Ministry of Railways.
RZD primary mission is to satisfy the market demand in
transportation services, to increase effectiveness of operations and
to improve the quality of services. Much of this work is still to be
done.
Phase II is close to completion. RZD is forming multiple
subsidiaries for passenger service, non-core business and
40
refrigerator transportation. Retaining its monopoly on
infrastructure, locomotive fleet and freight business the company is
phasing out cross-subsidies from profitable freight operations to
passenger service.
Phase III is a subject to modification, depending on the
industry condition. However, its task lies in selling operating
licenses for selected passenger services and independent operators.
RZD is planning to increase competition from private rail operators
through partial privatisation of Russian railways or some of their
enterprises.
Safe control and supervision of the national railway usage
is ensured by the Federal Law of Management and Disposal of
Railway asserts.
Questions for discussion:
1. What happened to the former Soviet Union Railway System?
2. What was necessary to do for successful reforms in the railway
transport sector?
3. What concept did President Yeltsin approve?
4. What happened in the autumn of 2003?
5. What did Russian Railways get from the former Ministry of
Railways?
6. What is the current mission of RZD?
7. What are the main targets of Phase II?
8. Why is Phase III a subject to modification?
9. What is the main task of Phase III?
10. What is RZD planning to increase?
Text 7. Logistics
Logistics is the art and science of managing and controlling
the flow of goods, energy, information and other resources like
products, services, and people, from the source of production to the
marketplace. It is difficult to accomplish any marketing or
manufacturing without logistical support. It involves integration of
information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material
handling, and packaging. The operating responsibility of logistics
is geographical repositioning of raw materials, work in process,
and inventories. They are required at the lowest cost.
41
Logistics as a concept evolved from the military's need to
supply the Armed Forces moving from their base forward. In
ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine empires, there were military
officers with the title “Logistikas”. They were responsible for
financial and supply distribution matters. Military logistics first
appeared in the 19th century. However, only in World War II
logistics theory and practice became sophisticated. As the conflict
was carried out with an unprecedented deployment of personnel,
equipment and supplies, logistics played a central role in ensuring
success for the Allies. Logistics as its own concept in business
appeared only in the 1950s. This was mainly due to the increasing
complexity of supplying business with materials and shipping out
products in an increasingly globalised supply chain.
The main functions of a logistics manager include
purchasing, transporting, warehousing, organising and planning.
Logistics managers combine general knowledge of each function to
coordinate the resources of the organisation. There are two
fundamentally different forms of logistics. The first one optimises
a steady flow of material through a network of transport links and
storage nodes. The other coordinates a sequence of resources to
carry out some projects.
Questions for discussion:
1. What is logistics?
2. What integration does logistics involve?
3. How can you describe the operating responsibility of logistics?
4. What did logistics as a concept evolve from?
5. What did the word “Logistikas” mean?
6. How can you characterize the role of logistics in World War II?
7. When did business logistics appear?
8. What factors caused the appearance
9. What are the primary functions of a logistics manager?
10. What are the main forms of logistics?

Module V: Ecology

42
Text 1: Ecology and Environmental Protection

Ecology is the study of the environment and the way plants,


animals, and humans live together and affect each other. This word
came from the Greek ‘oikos’ which means ‘home’.
The problem of protecting nature is of primary importance
today. Through their daily activities people pollute water, air, soil. If
we do not stop these activities the damage may become
irreversible.
The Earth is suffering many ecological problems. One of
them is air pollution. Urban air pollution continues to expand as a
result of the increased number of motor vehicles. Exhaust fumes from
the engines of automobiles contain a number of polluting
substances. Tokyo has such a serious air-pollution problem that
oxygen is supplied to policemen who direct traffic at busy
interchanges. Milan, Ankara; Mexico City, and Buenos Aires face
similar problems. Air pollution destroys the ozone layer which
protects the Earth from the dangerous light of the Sun. In accordance
with the Kyoto agreement it was suggested to introduce a special
carbon tax in order to reduce the greenhouse effect.
One of the climatic effects of air pollution is acid rain. It is
damaging to water, forest, and soil resources. It is blamed for the
disappearance of fish from many lakes, for the widespread death of
forests in European mountains, and for damaging tree growth
throughout the world. Acid rain has been reported in areas as far
apart as Sweden and Canada, and in parts of the Russian
Federation from Moscow to the Urals.
The second important problem is water pollution. Plants and
factories put trash into seas lakes and rivers. Many birds and fish
die because of the polluted water.
Another acute problem is water shortage resulting from the
abuse of arable lands in agriculture.
People also concern over the dangers resulting from massive
releases of radioactive materials from nuclear weapons, which, if
used on a major scale, could seriously endanger all of humanity.
Another concern is accidents at
43
nuclear power plants. In 1978 a nuclear power plant in
Pennsylvania suffered a severe accident leading to partial
meltdown of its radioactive core. In 1986 the Chernobyl nuclear
power plant near Kiev suffered a fire and partial meltdown, resulting
in a major release of radioactive particles. Much of northern and
eastern Europe experienced heavy nuclear fallout.
Industries located along waterways downstream contribute a
number of chemical pollutants, some of which are toxic. Another
form of pollution typical for industrial societies is noise.
Waste is an enormous problem too. One third of all waste is
burnt which leads to contamination of air, water and soil. That is why
waste recycling is so important in most European countries
In recent years the pollution problems have received great
publicity. The media have begun to campaign against tin cans and
trash. Protection of natural resources and wildlife is becoming a
political programme in every country. Numerous anti-pollution acts
adopted in different countries have led to considerable improvements in
environment. Non-political environmental organisation Greenpeace
has gained widespread trust and support.
In many countries purifying systems for treatment of industrial
waters have been installed and measures have been taken to protect
rivers and seas from oil waters.
To protect nature people should change their attitude to it.
Man should stop taking from it everything he needs, he must give
it his love instead. Otherwise the payoff will be too high. It is good
that eventually people started to realize that they should keep air
and water clean by establishing strict pollution control. Efforts are
being made to reduce pollution from automobiles by developing
pollution-free engines which may eventually eliminate more
serious air pollution problems. Moreover, the strong public
reaction can facilitate the exercise of the absolute pollution
control in various contaminated industries.

Questions for discussion:


1. How do people pollute land, water and air?
2. Why does urban air pollution continue to expand?
44
3. What was suggested to introduce in order to reduce the
greenhouse effect.
4. What do acid rains cause?
5. What accidents at nuclear power plants are mentioned in
the text?
6. When were the attempts to control pollution initiated?
7. What systems have been installed in many countries?
8. What is being made to reduce pollution from automobile
engines?
9. What should people do to protect nature?
10. What can facilitate the exercise of the absolute pollution
control?

Text 2 Transport Ecology

Every human activity has a minor or major effect on the


environment. Railway transport industry also impacts negatively
on nature by building railroads and industrial enterprises. The
operation of railways and rolling stock lead to great fuel and
energy consumption and exhaust fumes from diesel locomotives
contain a lot of harmful substances.
Construction and functioning of railways is connected with
pollution of natural complexes by emissions, drains and waste
which break the balance in ecological systems. However, in
comparison with other means of transport railways are more
environmentally friendly. Thus, electrified railways can carry large
volumes of passengers with essentially no pollution at the train,
while diesel-powered trains generate fifteen times less harmful
substances than automobiles for the same traffic.
The origin of noise from rail traffic usually comes from the
engine of rolling stock, wheel-rail interaction, pantograph-contact
wire and aerodynamic effects during the movement of the train.
The most efficient way for the reduction of rail noise is the
proper track layout and reduction of noise of the diesel engine.
However, if the rail nose cannot be reduced in origin, then the
solution is in noise barriers. They should be placed as close as
45
possible to the track and have a height no less than 2 meters. In
addition noise barriers should be made of special absorbing
materials for additional noise reduction.
The transport sector consumes annually 1/3 of the total
energy in the world community. Railways have the lowest unit
energy consumption compared to other transport modes. Besides,
in electrified railways, energy can come from clean forms such as
hydro power stations rather than from oil. People have already
assessed the advantage of electrified railways especially now when
the oil reserves are becoming exhaustible.
Finally, land occupation is much less for rail transport than
for other transport modes and specifically three times less than for
road transport. For the purposes of comparison with airplanes, it is
important to mention that the high-speed Paris-Lyons line (a
distance of 427 km), occupies as much space as the Paris airport at
Roissy. Different methods based on new technologies can help
people use railway transport in the most efficient way.
Questions for discussion:
1.Does human activity effect on the environment?
2. How does railway transport industry impact on nature?
3.How is construction and functioning of railways
connected with pollution of natural complexes?
4. What does the operation of railways lead to?
5.What transport is considered to be environmentally ?
friendly?
6.What is the origin of noise from rail traffic?
7. How do railways try to reduce noise?
8. How much energy does the transport sector consume?
9.What forms of energy can be used for electrified
railways.?
10. What can help people use railway transport more
efficiently?
Text3 Green IT
The world's ICT carbon emissions are thought to be equal
to the emissions of the aviation industry. The amount of electricity
required to send read and delete all the spam email in the world
46
could power millions of homes instead.
Conversely, using videoconferencing instead of flying to
the meeting, can considerably reduce air transport carbon
emissions. Allowing computers to run smart buildings, where the
heating, cooling, ventilation and lightning are managed as
economically as possible is another useful application of digital
technologies.
However electronic equipment itself should be as efficient
as possible. Data centres use huge amounts of electricity to power
chips that generate lots of heat, and more power is needed to cool
them down. Data centres could be made greener by being built in
locations with lots of sunlight. Thus they could be powered by
solar energy. At users level there are initiatives like "Blackle",
which highlights that black computer screens and white letters
would use less power.
When we come to the end of a product's life we should
know how to dispose of tones of computers, screens, mobiles,
smartphones and cables each year. European countries have signed
the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive
(WEEE) and encourage everyone to reuse, recycle and recover
electrical and electronic equipment. The directive places the
responsibility and associated costs of disposal onto the
manufacturer or the user. The result is that equipment should be
designed and made to last longer. When it is thrown away and
replaced by the latest models, much of it can be recycled and sent
to developing countries where it can be used again.
Questions for discussion
1. What is the world's ICT carbon emissions equal to?
2.How can IT industry be dangerous for the environment?
3.How could IT industry be good for the environment?
4. What do Data centres use and generate in order to function?
5. What could be done to make Data centres greener?
6. What is the aim of "Blackle"initiative?
7. What document has Europe signed?
8. Who is responsible for disposal of old computers and mobiles?

47
9. What should be done with the thrown away models?
10. Where can recycled equipment be used again?
Text 4 Ecology and Computers
We are good at recycling old soda cans, but when it comes to
old PCs - this work is cut out for us. Over the next three years, 250
million computers are expected to become obsolete, according to
the Environmental Protection Agency. That is good news for PC
manufacturers but bad news for the environment. The problem is
that old computers can quickly become harmful. A typical
computer monitor, for example, contains between 2 and 4 pounds
of lead, which can leach into the groundwater in the landfill.
The technology to recycle PCs exists. Facilities in different
countries can reprocess the lead-laden glass in old computer
monitors into glass for new ones. Metal extracted from old chips
and plastics can be reused too.
However, there is little incentive to do it. Consumers balk at
the cost of shipping junked systems to recycling facilities.
Manufacturers do not want to take responsibility for disposing of
obsolete equipment they sold years ago. It is not surprising then
that 85 percent of computers taken out of service last year will be
in landfills.
The challenge is not so much how to recycle PCs but how to
make PC recycling economically viable. The team of researchers
has developed mathematical models that can evaluate recycling
facilities, including collection centres, glass-reprocessing plants
and smelting facilities. Such models can determine the most
efficient way of how to help engineers to figure out the right
combination of fees, tax breaks and additional reprocessing
facilities.
Mathematical models have long been used to simulate
different systems, but the difficulty in simulating PCs recycling is
that the data is extremely uncertain. Nevertheless, scientists hope
to show some recycling options and to encourage authorities to the
opening of local glass-reprocessing facilities. The ultimate goal is
to make the system available for any country interested in setting
up a recycling program. We hope that such systems will start
48
working in Russia in the near future.
Answer the questions
1. Why do we have to recycle old computers?
2. How many computers are expected to become obsolete?
3. Why are old computers harmful for the environment?
4.Why do consumers and manufacturers oppose to recycling?
5. What have scientists developed to evaluate recycling facilities?
6. Why is it difficult to simulate PCs recycling?
7.What has the team of researchers developed?
8. What can encourage authorities to the opening of local glass-
reprocessing facilities
9. What is the ultimate goal of the scientists?
10.What can start working in Russia?

49
Module VI: International Organisations
Text 1: International Organisations

An international organisation is an organisation with an


international membership, scope or presence. International
organisations are classified into two main categories:
· Non-governmental organisations (NGOs). These may
be:
- international non-profit organisations, for example: the
World Wide Fund for Nature, the International
Committee of the Red Cross, MBAs without borders,
the World Youth Alliance;
- international corporations, referred to as multinational
corporations, for example: The Coca-Cola Company,
Toyota, Microsoft, Adidas, Siemens.
11. Intergovernmental organisations (IGOs). These are
organisations that are made up primarily of sovereign
states (or member states). Examples include: the
European Union (EU), the World Trade Organisation,
NATO, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation
in Europe (OSCE), Interpol, the International Monetary
Fund (IMF), the Group of Eight (G-8).
The formation of international organisation was a 20-th
century phenomenon. Nowadays there are more than 2,500
international organisations. Among them there are more than 130
intergovernmental unions. The United Nations Organisation is the
most notable. Other important organisations are the European
Economic Community, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation,
Interpol, Greenpeace and UNESCO. The creation of international
organisation on a world-wide scale in the 20-th century was the
result of the progress in the technology of communication,
transportation, warfare, and the spread of industrialization. These
processes gave rise to a sense of independence among the nations
of the world, and made people recognise the importance of
international cooperation to avoid danger, solve problems, and use
the opportunities which face the society of nations on a world-wide
50
scale. Some organisations are concerned only with single and
relatively narrow problems while others such as the UN and
UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organisation), deal with a great variety of matters.
Let’s take, for example, the United Nations. It’s an
organisation to which nearly all the countries of the world belong.
Its headquarters are situated in New York. Its central aim is to
maintain peace and security in the world and to develop friendly
relations among nations.
Greenpeace is an international organisation, which deals
with ecological and environmental problems. It was formed in
1971. Now it is a powerful organisation, which works all over the
world. There are many serious actions in the list of Greenpeace
activities. The national offices exist in 27 countries of the world. In
Russia Greenpeace was formed in 1992. It works here in three
directions: Wood Campaign, Anti-nuclear Campaign and
Campaign for preservation of Lake Baikal. Greenpeace tries to
attract public attention to different problems in the world and to
find the way out. It is financed by personal voluntarily donations of
its supporters.
The results of activity of international organisations are
significant. The UN General Assembly passed a number of
resolutions and declarations. They are the Nuremberg Principles
dealing with crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against
humanity, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the right of
people and nations to self-determination; denuclearization, and
non-intervention. The most important of them is the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights. This general agreement, which
stresses that all human beings are titled to some basic liberties,
marked the birth of the international and universal recognition of
human rights.
*Appendix: № 8

Questions for discussion:


1. Could you give the definition of an international
organisation?
51
2. What types of international organisations do you know?
3. How many international organisations are there nowadays?
4. Why did people create international organisations?
5. What are the most important international organisations that
you know?
6. Could you name the most famous ecological and political
international organisations?
7. Can you dwell on one of the international organisations?
8. When was Greenpeace created?
9. What problems does Greenpeace deal with?
10. What are the results of activity of international
organisations?
Text 2: The European Union

The EU is the largest political and economic entity on the


European continent. The EU is a supranational and
intergovernmental union of democratic member states which are
located primarily in Europe.
The European Union was set up to end frequent and bloody
wars between neighbours, which had culminated into World War
II. It was important to rebuild Europe eliminating the possibility
of another World War.
Thus, West European nations created the Council of Europe
in 1949. It was the first step towards cooperation among
countries. In 1950, the European Coal and Steel Community
united European countries economically and politically in order
to secure lasting peace. The six founders were Belgium, France,
Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
In 1957, the Treaty of Rome created the European Economic
Community (EEC), or the ‘Common Market’. Later it was
transformed into to the European Community. As for the
European Union, it was established in 1993 by the Treaty of
Maastricht. Thus, the EU managed to evolve from a trade body
into an economic and governmental partnership.
The Union has a single market consisting of a Customs union
with a single currency called the
52
euro - the official currency of the Eurozone. It has a common
agricultural, trade and fisheries policy, a common external
customs tariff, a common position in international trade
negotiations, a Common Foreign and Security Policy, a common
policy on asylum and immigration and a common funding of
research and technological development.
The Schengen Agreement has abolished passport control for
the EU member states. Customs checks have been abolished at
many of the EU's internal borders, creating a single area of free
movement for the EU citizens to live, travel, work and invest.
The EU's decision-making process in general and the co-
decision procedure in particular involve three main institutions.
12. the European Parliament (EP), which represents the
EU’s citizens and is directly elected by them
13. the Council of the European Union, which represents
the individual member states
14. the European Commission, which seeks to uphold the
interests of the Union as a whole.
This ‘institutional triangle’ produces the policies and laws
that apply throughout the EU. In principle, it is the Commission
that proposes new laws, but it is Parliament and Council that
adopt them. The Commission and the member states then
implement them, and the Commission ensures that the laws are
properly taken on board. There are two other institutions that
have a vital part to play: the Court of Justice upholds the rule of
European law, and the Court of Auditors checks the financing
of the Union’s activities.
The EU has no official capital and its institutions are
divided between several cities: Brussels, Luxembourg,
Strasbourg and Frankfurt.
11. Brussels is the seat of the European Commission (staff of
about 18,000) and the Council of Ministers. It is also the
venue of the European Parliament's committee meetings
and mini-sessions. Since 2004 it has become the host city
for all European Council summits.
12. Strasbourg is the seat of the European Parliament (785
53
members) and the venue of its twelve week-long plenary
sessions each year. Strasbourg is also the seat of the
Council of Europe and the European Court of Human
Rights, which are not the bodies of the EU.
13. Luxembourg City is the seat of the European Court of
Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Secretariat of
the European Parliament and the European Investment
Bank.
14. Frankfurt is the seat of the European Central Bank.
The European Union law is the first and the only example
of a supranational legal framework. Becoming EU members,
sovereign nation states pool their authority for the mutual social
and economic benefit of their peoples.
The EU has significant religious diversity, mirroring its
diverse history and culture. A nominal majority of the population
professes Christianity, (predominantly Roman Catholicism,
Protestantism and Eastern Orthodoxy), Islam, Buddhism,
Hinduism and Judaism.
The European Union has the largest economy in the world
considered as a single entity. The EU has 23 official languages
and three official alphabets: Latin, Greek and Cyrillic. There are
only three internal working languages in the European
Commission: English, French and German.

Questions for discussion:


1. What kind of entity is the EU?
2. What is the primary goal of the EU?
3. What does the term “Common market” mean?
4. What is the official currency of the Eurozone?
5. What opportunities does the Schengen Agreement give to
the EU member states?
6. What are the main Institutions of the EU?
7. What is the Court of Justice responsible for?
8. What is the Court of Auditors responsible for?
9. What can be said about the European Union law?
54
10. What are the internal working languages in the
European Commission?

Text 3: The International Criminal Police Organisation


(INTERPOL)

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police


organisation, with 188 member countries. Created in 1923, it
facilitates cross-border police co-operation, supports and assists all
organisations, authorities and services whose mission is to prevent
or combat international crime. INTERPOL aims to facilitate
international police co-operation even where diplomatic relations
do not exist between particular countries.
INTERPOL goes back to 1914, when the First International
Criminal Police Congress was held in Monaco. Its present
constitution dates from 1956.
INTERPOL’s main governance comprises the General
Assembly and the Executive Committee headed by the
President.
As INTERPOL's supreme governing body, the General
Assembly meets once a year and takes all the major decisions
affecting general policy. It also elects the Organisation's Executive
Committee. Generally speaking, the Assembly takes decisions by a
simple majority in the form of resolutions. Each Member State
represented has one vote.
The Executive Committee supervises the execution of the
General Assembly and the work of the Secretary General. The
President and three Vice – Presidents must belong to different
countries. The President of the Organisation is elected by the
General Assembly for a period of four years. His role is to chair the
General Assembly and Executive Committee and ensure that
INTERPOL’s activities conform with decisions made at these
meetings.
The General Secretariat (the headquarters) located in
Lyon, France, operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Officials
from more than 80 countries work side-by-side in any of the
55
organisation’s four official languages: Arabic, English, French and
Spanish. The Secretariat has seven regional offices across the
world, a liaison office at the United Nations in New York and
special representatives at the EU in Brussels. The General
Secretariat is headed by the Secretary General of the
Organisation, who is appointed by the General Assembly for a
period of 5 years and be re-elected. The Secretary General is the
Organisation’s chief full-time official. He is responsible for seeing
that the day-to-day work of international police co-operation is
carried out, and he is in charge of the implementation of the
decisions of the General Assembly and Executive Committee.
Every member country has an Interpol office called a
National Central Bureau which is staffed by its own police and
keeps in touch with the General Secretariat.
INTERPOL’s principle target is the international criminal,
of which there are three main categories:
1) Criminals that operate in more than one country, such as
smugglers, dealing mainly with gold and narcotics and other illegal
drugs,
2) Criminals who commit crimes in one country and flee to
another,
3) Criminals who do not travel at all but whose crimes
affect other countries for example a counterfeiter of foreign
banknotes.
INTERPOL`s mission is to promote police cooperation: to
help officers from different forces, countries, and cultures to
cooperate with one another and work together to solve crime. So
INTERPOL’s work is largely related to public safety, terrorism and
organised crime.
The official languages of INTERPOL are English, French,
Spanish and Arabic.

Questions for discussion:


1. What kind of entity is INTERPOL?
2. What is the mission of INTERPOL?
3. What are the main INTERPOL’s governing bodies?
56
4. How does the General Assembly take decisions?
5. What does the Executive Committee supervise?
6. What is INTERPOL`s chief official responsible for?
7. How is the Secretary General nominated to the position?
8. Where are the headquarters of INTERPOL located?
9. What are the main categories of INTERPOL`s targets?
10. What are the official languages of INTERPOL?

Text 4: The Organisation for Security and Co-operation in


Europe (OSCE)

The Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe


is the largest security-oriented organisation in the world. It is an
international organisation for securing stability, based on
democratic practices and good governance. The OSCE currently
has 56 participating states from Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia
and North America.
The Organisation was established in 1973 as the
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE).
However talks had been mooted about a European security
grouping since 1950s. But the Cold War had prevented any
substantial progress until the talks at Finland Hall in Helsinki in
November 1972. These talks were held at the suggestion of the
Soviet Union to reduce tension in the region by furthering
economic cooperation and to strengthen piece and security in
Europe. A unique aspect of the OSCE is the non-binding status of
its provisions. Rather than being a formal treaty, the OSCE Final
Act represents a political commitment of all signatories to build
security and cooperation in Europe.
The high-level decision making bodies of the organisation
are the Summit and the Ministerial Council, with the weekly
Permanent Council serving as the regular negotiating and
decision-making body, under the leadership of the Chairman-in-
Office, who holds the position for a year.
The OSCE Secretariat, under the direction of the
57
Secretary General, provides operational support to the
Organisation. It is based in Vienna, Austria and assisted by the
office in Prague. The Organisation also has offices in Copenhagen,
Geneva, The Hague, Prague and Warsaw.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE is a body of
parliamentarians from the OSCE's member states. A forum for the
Security Cooperation meets once a year to discuss and make
decisions regarding military aspects of security in the OSCE area.
The OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and
Human Rights is the oldest OSCE institution, established in 1990.
It is based in Warsaw, Poland, and is active throughout the OSCE
area in the fields of election observation, democratic development,
human rights, tolerance, non-discrimination, and the rule of law.
To prevent electoral fraud, the OSCE has observed over 150
elections and referendums since 1995.
The office of the OSCE Representative on Freedom of
the Media, established in December 1997, acts as a watchdog to
provide early warning on violations of freedom of expression in the
OSCE member states. The OSCE representative also assists
member states by advocating and promoting full compliance with
the OSCE principles and commitments regarding freedom of
expression and free media.
Regular OSCE activities and institutions are financed by
contributions made by the OSCE participating States, according to
the scale of distribution.
Questions for discussion:
1. When was the OSCE established?
2. What is the purpose of the OSCE?
3. What was the aim of the talks at Finland Hall in Helsinki in
November 1972?
4. What kind of organisation is the OSCE?
5. What are the high-level decision making bodies of the
OSCE?
6. What is the goal of the oldest OSCE institution?
7. Where are the headquarters and offices of the OSCE
located?
58
8. What is the role of the OSCE Secretariat?
9. What is the goal of the office of the OSCE Representative
on Freedom of the Media?
10. How are the OSCE activities and institutions financed?

Text 5: The World Trade Organisation

The World Trade Organisation (WTO) is the only


global international organisation dealing with the rules of
trade between nations. Its goal is to help producers of goods and
services, exporters, and importers conduct their business. This is
the youngest trans-national structure but its history is great. The
World Trade Organisation was founded on 1 January 1995. The
WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade signed in 1948.
The WTO has determined the following principles of trade
agreements: all partners are equal; imported and local goods have
equal rights on the domestic markets; trade barriers should be
reduced through negotiations and agreements must be transparent
and predictable; fair competition, economic development and
economic reforms must be supported.
The topmost decision-making body of the WTO is the
Ministerial Conference, which usually meets every two years. It
brings together all members of the WTO, represented either by
countries or customs unions. The Ministerial Conference can take
decisions on all matters under any of the multilateral trade
agreements. The daily work of the Ministerial Conference is
handled by three groups: the General Council, the Dispute
Settlement Body, and the Trade Policy Review Body. All three
consist of the same membership - representatives of the WTO
members.
1 The General Council - is the WTO’s highest-level
decision-making body is located in Geneva. It has representatives
from all member governments and has the authority to act on
behalf of the ministerial conference which meets about every two
years. The council acts on behalf of the Ministerial Council on the
59
entire WTO affairs.
The General Council also meets under different rules, such
as the Dispute Settlement Body or the Trade Policy Review Body.
2. The Dispute Settlement Body is made up of all member
governments, and is usually represented by ambassadors. The
WTO’s procedure for resolving trade quarrels is under the Dispute
Settlement Understanding and vital for enforcing the rules and
therefore for ensuring that trade flows smoothly.
3. The Trade Policy Review Body (TPRB) - is open to all
WTO Members. The WTO General Council meets as the Trade
Policy Review Body to undertake trade policy reviews of
members.

Questions for discussion:


1. What kind of organisation is the WTO?
2. What is the goal of the WTO?
3. When was the WTO founded?
4. Where are the headquarters of the WTO?
5. What are the principles of the WTO trade agreements?
6. What is the topmost decision-making body of the WTO?
7. What are the main functions of the Ministerial Conference?
8. What is the role of the General Council?
9. What is the role of the Dispute Settlement Body?
10. What is the role of the Trade Policy Review Body?

Text 6: Greenpeace

Greenpeace is an independent, non-governmental


environmental organisation which uses non-violent, creative
confrontation to expose global environmental problems, and to
force solutions for the green and peaceful future. Based in
Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Greenpeace has 2.8 million
supporters worldwide and holds national and regional offices in 45
countries. The executive director of Greenpeace is elected by the
board members of Greenpeace International.
Each regional office is led by a regional executive director
60
elected by the regional board of directors. The regional boards also
appoint a representative to The Greenpeace International Annual
general meeting.
The global organisation receives its income through the
individual contributions of estimated 2.8 million financial
supporters, as well as from grants from charitable foundations. It
does not accept funding from governments or corporations.
Greenpeace was founded in Vancouver, British Columbia,
Canada in 1971.Taking its name from the slogan used during the
protests against the United States nuclear testing in late 1969, the
Committee came together with the objective of stopping a second
underground nuclear bomb test codenamed Cannikin by the United
States military beneath the island of Amchitka, Alaska. The first
ship expedition was called the Greenpeace I; the second relief
expedition was nicknamed the Greenpeace Too! The test was not
stopped, but the organisation of the committee laid the groundwork
for Greenpeace later activities.
Greenpeace is known for its campaigns to stop atmospheric
and underground nuclear testing. In later years, the focus of the
organisation turned to other environmental issues, including
bottom trawling, global warming, ancient forest destruction,
nuclear power, and genetic engineering.
In addition to such methods as lobbying politicians and
attendance at international conferences, Greenpeace has a stated
methodology of engaging in nonviolent direct actions to attract
attention to particular environmental causes.
Throughout the world, ancient forests are in danger. Many
of the plants and animals that live in these forests face extinction.
And many of the people and cultures who depend on these forests
for their way of life are also under threat. Greenpeace exists
because this fragile earth deserves a voice. It needs solutions. It
needs change. It needs action.

Questions for discussion:


1. What is the goal of Greenpeace?
2. When was Greenpeace founded?
61
3. Where are the national offices of Greenpeace located?
4. What is Greenpeace known for?
5. What are the main environmental issues of today?
6. What are the main sources of income of Greenpeace?
7. How did Greenpeace get its name?
8. What does Greenpeace do now?
9. How does Greenpeace attract attention to particular
environmental causes?
10. Why does Greenpeace have so many followers?

Text 7: The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

One of the well known and powerful international


organisations of the world is NATO. It was formed as a result of
the North Atlantic Treaty, which was signed by 12 countries on
April 4, 1949, in Washington, D.C. The 12 countries were
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg,
the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the
United States.
NATO headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, and the
organisation constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its
member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by
any external party. The staff at the Headquarters is composed of
national delegations of member countries and includes civilian and
military offices and officers or diplomatic missions and diplomats
of the partner countries, as well as the International Staff and
International Military Staff.
NATO has a civilian branch and a military branch. The
civilian branch includes the North Atlantic Council, the highest
authority in NATO.
The Council consists of the heads of government of the
NATO members or their representatives. The meetings of the
North Atlantic Council are chaired by the Secretary General of
NATO. A Secretary-general is an international diplomat who
serves as the chief official of the North Atlantic Treaty
Organisation. A European has always been chosen for this post.
62
NATO's military branch includes three commands: Allied
Command Atlantic, Allied Command Channel, and Allied
Command Europe. Allied Command Europe has traditionally
functioned as the heart of NATO. In the military structure of
NATO, a U.S. general is always commander-in-chief of NATO
forces so that the U.S. troops never come under control of a foreign
power.
Official languages are English and French. The body that
sets broad strategic goals for NATO is the Parliamentary
Assembly (NATO-PA) which provides a link between NATO and
the parliaments of its member nations. The Assembly’s governing
body is the Standing Committee, which is composed of the Head
of each member delegation, the President, the Vice-Presidents, the
Treasurer and the Secretary General.

Questions for discussion:


1. When was NATO founded?
2. How many countries were the original members of NATO?
3. What is the primary goal of NATO?
4. Where are the headquarters of NATO? What is the
composition of NATO staff?
5. What do the civilian and military branches of NATO
include?
6. What is the highest authority in NATO?
7. What country representative is always the commander-in-
chief of NATO military forces?
8. What are the official languages of NATO?
9. What is the Parliamentary Assembly responsible for?
10. Who serves as the chief official of NATO?

Text 8: The Organisation of the United Nations

The United Nations is an international organisation founded


in 1945 after the World War II by 51 countries. Its aim is to
maintain international peace and security, develop friendly
relations among nations, promote social progress, better living
63
standards and human rights. The United Nations officially came
into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter was ratified
by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the
United States and a majority of other signatories.
Five permanent members of the UN were China, France,
the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union. From
the 24th of December 1991 the membership of the Soviet Union
passed to the Russian Federation with the support of the 11
member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
The organisation’s permanent Headquarters are near New
York City. The site of the UN Headquarters is owned by the
United Nations. It is an international territory. No federal, state or
local officer or any other official of the United States, whether
administrative, judicial, military or police representative may enter
the UN Headquarters except with the consent of and under
conditions agreed to by the Secretary-General of the Organisation.
The UN has its own fire fighting and security forces.
The UN has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese
(Mandarin), English, French, Russian and Spanish.
The five principal organs of the UN are: the General
Assembly, the Security Council, the Secretariat, the Economic and
Social Council and the International Court of Justice.
1. The General Assembly is the main deliberative organ of
the United Nations. It is composed of representatives of all
member states, each of which has one vote. Decisions on important
questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new
members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority.
Decisions on other questions are reached by simple majority.
2. The Security Council has primary responsibility for the
maintenance of international peace and security. The Council has
15 members: five permanent members of the UN (China, France,
Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) and 10 elected
by the General Assembly for two-year terms. All five permanent
members have right of veto. Each Council member has one vote.
3. The Secretariat is the international staff working at the
UN Headquarters in New York and all over the world. It carries
64
out the diverse day-to-day work of the Organization. The head is
Secretary - General, who is appointed by the General Assembly
on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year,
renewable term. The Secretary-General also acts as the de facto
spokesperson and leader of the United Nations. The Secretary-
General's duties include helping resolve international disputes,
administering peacekeeping operations, organising international
conferences, gathering information on the implementation of
Security Council decisions, and consulting with member
governments regarding various initiatives.
4. The Economic and Social Council is the principal
organ to coordinate the economic and social work of the UN and
specialized agencies and institutions known as the UN family.
Voting is held by simple majority, each member has one vote.
5. The International Court of Justice whose seat is in the
Hague, the Netherlands, is the principal judicial organ of the UN.
Its purpose is to adjudicate disputes among states.

Questions for discussion:


11. When was the UN founded?
12. What countries are the permanent members of the UN?
13. What are the official languages of the UN?
14. What are the five principal organs of the UN?
15. What are the main responsibilities of the General
Assembly?
16. What are the main responsibilities of the Security Council?
17. What are the main responsibilities of The Secretariat?
18. What do the duties of the Secretary-General's include?
19. What are the main responsibilities of the Economic and
Social Council?
20. What are the main responsibilities of the International
Court of Justice?

65
Text 9: International Railway Organisations

Severe competition from other transport modes made


railways establish international railway organisations. Their work
is realized within the framework of several institutions.
The UIC or the International Union of Railways was
founded in 1922. It promotes cooperation between railways at the
world level and carries out activities to develop international rail
transport. In order to reach understanding, the UIC has established
standard railway terminology and international classification
system of locomotives and railway carriages. The Soviet Union
was among the founding members of the UIC in 1922. However,
the Cold War made the USSR leave the UIC. Nowadays, a special
working group has been set up to restart cooperation between JSC
Russian Railways and the UIC.
The Community of European Railways and Infrastructure
Companies brings together railway undertakings and infrastructure
companies from the European Union, Norway, Switzerland and
other states. It promotes modern environmentally friendly modes
of rail transport systems.
The Union of the European Railway Industries is
responsible for design, manufacture, maintenance and
reconstruction of rail transport systems. Besides, there are some
other interesting international alliances such as international air rail
organisations. They develop, build and operate fast rail air links to
passengers.
The European Conference of Ministers of Transport is an
intergovernmental organisation established in October 1953.
Russia joined the ECMT in 1997 and has been its active member
ever since. Russian railways are a vital link for Eurasia from East
to West, and North to South.
The Coordinating Council on Trans-Siberian Transportation
(CCTT) is a non-commercial transport association. Its main
purpose is to attract transit cargo to the Trans-Siberian route. Much
work of Russian Railways takes place within the framework of the
Organisation for Cooperation of Railway Lines (OSLD). Its main
66
aim is to develop international transcontinental freight and
passenger transport, and to create a common rail transport space in
Eurasia.

Questions for discussion:


1. What made railways establish international railway
organisations?
2. What did the UIC work out?
3. What does the UIC promote?
4. What does the Community of European Railways and
Infrastructure Companies promote?
5. What does the International Rail Transport Committee
implement?
6. What are the primary tasks of the Union of the European
Railway Industries?
7. What are the international air rail organisations responsible
for?
8. When was the European Conference of Ministers of
Transport established?
9. Why are Russian railways important for Europe and Asia?
10. What is the main aim of OSLD?

Text 10: The Community of European Railways

The Community of European Railways is the leading


European railway organisation and a part of the International
Union of Railways. It was founded in 1988 with 12 members and
now brings together 72 railway undertakings and infrastructure
companies – private and state-owned, large and small.
European Railways recognize that their future depends on
the international dimension.
At the international level the railways are relatively free to
apply the most appropriate models in the common interest. The
development of international train networks is accompanied by
recognition of the need to adapt future services to the technological
opportunities offered by high speeds and vehicle design and to the
67
principles of service marketing.
The governance structure of CER rests in three main
bodies: the General Assembly, the Management Committee and
the Assistants Group.
The General Assembly is the decision-making body of
CER. All member companies are represented by their chief
executive or director general.
The Management Committee prepares the decisions of
the General Assembly. It consists of CER Chairman, three Vice-
Chairmen and further members elected by the General Assembly.
The size of the Management Committee is limited to a maximum
of 14 members.
The Assistants Group helps to facilitate the continuous
exchange of information between CER and its members. CER
members are represented by their international/European affairs
managers.
The goals of CER are: 1) to represent the railway’s
interests, 2) to aid the development of the railway transportation
and policy in the European Union, 3) to develop the partnership
between the members of the European Union.
European Railways concentrate their efforts on effective
speeds between economic centres, quality control and transit
reliability, information systems and modal flexibility.
The development of high-speed lines and technology adds a
new dimension to inter-urban opportunities for railway
development. Nowadays European high-speed lines link
economical centers and open opportunities for technological
development of railway signaling, train construction and trading all
over the world.

Questions for discussion:


1. What is the Community of European Railways?
2. What are the advantages of European Railways`
cooperation?
3. What is the development of international train networks
accompanied by?
68
4. What are the governance bodies of CER?
5. What is the decision-making body of CER?
6. What is the role of the Management Committee?
7. What is the Assistants Group responsible for?
8. What are the goals of CER?
9. What do European Railways concentrate their efforts on?
10. Why is the development of high-speed lines important for
the future of the railways?

Appendix
№ 1: CURRICULUM VITAE (CV).

A Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a document which describes


your education, work experience and skills you have already had.
The purpose of the CV is to attract the employers’ attention.
Therefore you need a good and well-structured CV.
A good CV should:
· Attract attention;
· Create a positive impression;
· Present your skills and qualities clearly and concisely.

Your CV has to be word processed and should be no more than one


page long. A CV must be free of typographical and grammatical
errors. The structure of a CV must follow a certain order. It is
common to see the phrase CURRICULUM VITAE written in the
centre of the page.
1. Personal data
Personal details should be shown at the beginning: name, family
name, date of birth, address, marital status, phone number, e-mail.
2. Education and qualifications
List of educational institutions you attended (specifying the dates);
subject areas you studied and degrees you got. List qualifications
in full.
3. Work experience
Mention your present job first and work backwards, descriptions of
69
what exactly you did and were responsible for.
4. Relevant Information .
Any information which could be helpful (computer skills,
languages you speak, driver’s license, hobbies, interests).
5. Referees
Give at least 2 referees: a former employer, a teacher.
Always be honest. It is possible to be creative, but not to lie.
Remember, the first impression is the one that matters, so, your CV
needs to be perfect!

№ 2: Sample
CURRICULUM VITAE

Gleb Petrov

Date of birth 23 of May 1993


Present address 105007 Moscow, 5 Parkovaya st, 24
Telephone number 8 (495) 917 517 83 80
E- mail petrov@mail.ru
Marital status single

Education and Qualifications:


2009 – 2013 - Moscow State University of Railway
Engineering: The Institute of Rail Operations and Information
Technologies. Diploma of Specialist
2011 – 2012 - Linguistic Centre of the Institute of
Humanities. Moscow. Fluent English. Basic knowledge of French.
1999 – 2009 - Secondary school № 5, Moscow. A
Certificate of Complete Secondary Education

Work experience
July 2010 - August 2010 – “Saratov Car, Ltd”
Position - Sales Executive
Responsibilities: receiving customers and suppliers;
Dealing with home and overseas enquiries

70
Relevant information
PC user, driving license (A)
Interests
Jazz music and travelling

Referees
Mr. A. L. Gradov
The Head of the Sales Department “Saratov Car, Ltd”
Saratov. Volzhskiy Avenue. 17

Dr. N. V. Matveeva
The Teacher of Foreign Languages.
Linguistic Centre of Moscow State University of Railway
Engineering. Obraztsova st.

№ 3: Sample
APPLICATION LETTER

Car- Trade Inc. 25 May 2013


D.Ulyanov st, 25
Moscow

Dear Sir/Madam

I would like to apply for the job (position) of a Sales


Executive in the Sales Department, advertised in the Moscow
Times on 15 May.
As you see from my CV, I’ve got the education required for
a Sales Manager. I have had some working experience and the
best results in the sales team, with good knowledge of Practical
sales techniques. I am also developing my language skills. My
English is quite good, and I am taking evening classes at the
University Language Centre to improve my level. I am dynamic,
71
creative, easy-going and with a strong team spirit.
If you consider that my qualifications and personal qualities
are suitable, I’ll be available for interview at any time.

Yours faithfully,

Gleb Petrov

№ 4: THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The Russian Federation is separated into eight federal


districts: Central, Northwestern, Southern, North Caucasus, Volga
district, Ural district, Siberian, and Far Eastern district. All those
are governed by President’s representatives.

NATIONAL SYMBOLS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The state symbol of the Russian Federation is a three


coloured banner. It has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red.
The white stripe symbolizes the earth, the blue one stands for the
sky and the red one symbolizes liberty. It was approved by the
Federal Assembly in 1991.
The Russian anthem ‘Russia, the holy State…” is written
by A. Alexandrov (music) and S. Mikhalkov (words). A new
national emblem of Russia (The Arms of Russia) is a double-
headed eagle, which first came into use in the 1490s. The Coat-of –
Arms of Russia is Our Lady of Vladimir.

MOSCOW

Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic,


commercial and cultural centre. It was founded by Prince Yuri
72
Dolgoruky. Historians have accepted the year 1147 as the start of
the city’s history. In the 16th century Moscow became the capital of
the new united state.
The Coat-of-Arms of Moscow is Saint George killing the
dragon. Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. It stands on
the river Moskva. The city is divided into administrative regions
with those, in their turn, dividing into districts. There are 10
administrative regions, including Zelenograd, and 124 districts.
The main street of Moscow is Tverskaya and the longest one is
Leningradsky Prospect.
Moscow has five airports and is the main rail hub for
Russia. Its main means of internal transport is the Metro, opened
in 1935 and still constantly extended. Now it has 200 stations and
is almost 340 km long.

№ 5: HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUITIONS IN RUSSIA

Nowadays there are three basic types of higher education


institutions in Russia. These are Universities, Academies and
Institutes.
Universities: responsible for education and research in a
variety of disciplines; There are "classical" and "technical"
universities with special attention paid to social sciences and
humanities or fundamental and applied (engineering) sciences.
Academies: responsible for education and research. They
differ from universities only in that they restrict themselves to a
single discipline;
Institutes: multi-discipline oriented. They can be
independent structural units, or part of a university or academy and
usually specialize in one field. However pedagogical institutes are
responsible for all spectrums of disciplines taught at schools.
There are a lot of Private Institutions. They offer degrees in
the fields such as business, culture, sociology and religion.

Famous higher education institutions of Russia

73
1. Lomonosov Moscow State University was established by a
decree of Russian Empress Elizabeth on January 25 1755. January
25 is still celebrated as Student`s Day in Russia. In 1940 it was
named after Academician Mikhail Lomonosov (1711 - 1765), an
outstanding Russian scientist, who greatly contributed to the
establishment of the university in Moscow. It is one of the oldest
and largest Russian institutions of higher education. It also claims
to have the tallest educational building in the world.
2. Saint Petersburg State University is one of the oldest, largest
and most prestigious universities in Russia. Among the renowned
scholars of the second half of the 19th century affiliated with the
university were chemists Dmitri Mendeleev and physiologist Ivan
Sechenov. It is disputed by the university administration whether
Saint Petersburg State University or Moscow State University by
Lomonosov is the oldest higher education institution in Russia. It
has been in continuous operation since 1819, itself claims to be the
successor of the university established on January 24, 1724 by a
decree of Peter the Great.
3. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO)
was founded on 14 October 1944. It is the diplomatic school of the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. It is the oldest and the most
famous (renowned) school in Russia for preparing specialists in
international relations and diplomacy. Nowadays many of its
current students are from families of political, economic and
intellectual elites in Russia. It is also known for having one of the
best teaching team in Europe, many of whom were ambassadors or
ministers. MGIMO is considered one of the top four leaders-
preparing institutions representing three different political systems
in the world: Harvard`s John F. Kennedy School of Government
and Yale Law School Y in the US, Sciences Po Paris in France,
and MGIMO in Russia.
4. Moscow State Linguistic University was established in 1804.
It is the largest and the oldest university in Russia that specializes
in linguistics and foreign languages. Education is available on 35
languages.
5. The Peoples' Friendship University of Russia was founded in
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1960. It is an educational and research institution consistently
ranked by the Ministry of Education of Russia as the country's
third-best university after Moscow State University and Saint
Petersburg State University.
6. Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman
(MSTU) was established in 1830 as Imperial Vocational School
(Ремесленное училище,) by a decree of Emperor Nicolas I.
Bauman MSTU is one of the oldest and largest Russian technical
universities offering B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in various
engineering fields and applied sciences (прикладная наука)
7. Moscow State University of Railway Engineering is one of
the oldest and largest higher education institutions in Moscow and
the leading largest higher education institutions in the field of
railway transport in Russia. It was founded at 1896 on the
command of the His imperial Majesty Nicolas II.
8. The Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian
Federation is considered as the third best university in Russia and
one of the oldest Russian universities preparing economists,
financiers, bankers and financial lawyers. The history of the
Finance Academy started on December 1918. In 2009 the Finance
Academy celebrated 90 years of its history.
9. The I.M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy (MMA) is the
oldest and the largest national medical higher educational
institution in the Russian Federation. It was founded in 1758 as the
faculty of medicine of Imperial Moscow University. From 1955 the
Institute bears the name of Ivan M. Sechenov, the outstanding
Russian scientist and physiologist. Moscow Medical Academy
develops extensive scientific cooperation with medical research
and training centres abroad. The I.M. Sechenov Moscow Medical
Academy is rating among the best medical schools of the world. In
2008 the academy celebrated its anniversary – 250 years.
10. Moscow State Law Academy (MSLA) is the recognized
leader in the Russian Federation in teaching and research in every
branch of law. The Academy’s history goes back to December
1931. The Academy aims at preparing highly qualified lawyers to
work in all walks of life: courts, prosecutors’ offices, law
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enforcement and correctional institutions, state and administrative
bodies, advocacy, public notary offices as well as in consultancy
and advisory services.

№ 6: BRITAIN AND THE COMMONWEALTH

Britain is an active member of the Commonwealth, a


voluntary association of 51 independent states which originated in
the progressive dismantling of the British Empire after 1945.
The present members of the Commonwealth have many
different styles of government. Some of the countries such as
Canada ,are monarchies and recognize the Queen as their Head of
State; others, such as India, choose their own Heads of State; some
countries , such as the Falkland Islands, are British colonies rely on
Britain for defence. All of the countries recognize the Queen as the
Head of the Commonwealth; she is also head of State in 16
member countries. Consultation between members takes place
through official meetings, as well as through diplomatic
representatives and non-governmental organisations and other
international discussions. Britain provides 30 per cent of the
finances for the Commonwealth Secretariat and about 30 per cent
for the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation, which
provides expertise to all developing countries within the
Commonwealth.

SYMBOLS OF GREAT BRITAIN

London is the capital of England. The national anthem of


the UK is ‘God save the Queen.’
The symbol of the country is BRITANIA, the female
embodiment wearing a helmet and holding the trident (the symbol
of power over sea). The figure of BRITANIA has been on the
riverside of many British coins for more than 300 years.
Britain’s flag is called the “Union Jack”. There are really
three flags on the top of each other. The red cross is on the white
background of St George for England. Saint George’s Day is
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celebrated on 23 April. The white “X” is on the blue background
of St Andrew for Scotland. Saint Andrew’s Day is celebrated on 30
November. The red “X” on white background of St Patrick for
Ireland. Saint Patrick’s Day is celebrated on 17 March.
The Welsh flag shows a dragon. It isn’t represented on the
British flag. Saint David is the patron saint of Wales. St David’s
day is celebrated on 1 March.
It is worth remembering that the Union Jack is more popular
in England than in Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The reason is that
the Welsh, Scottish and Irish do not like being reminded of the
time when they lost their independence to England.
In 1603 James V1 of Scotland (Stuart) became also James 1
of England when Queen Elizabeth1 of England died without
children. In 1651 Scotland was united with England. Edinburgh is
the capital of Scotland
In 1301 after defeating the native princes of Wales, King
Edward 1 of England named his son Prince of Wales. In 1536
Wales was brought into the English system of national and local
government by the Act of Union. Cardiff is the capital of Wales.
Only in 1800 an act of Union between Great Britain and
Ireland was signed. Belfast is the capital of Ireland.

LANGUAGES

Most British people speak English, but Gaelic is also spoken in the
west and north of Scotland and in the Northern Ireland. Welsh is
spoken by over half a million people in Wales.

THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN


IRELAND

Country Capital People Language Symbol Patron sai

the English St. George


England London English a red rose
Scotland Edinburgh the Scots English/ a thistle St. Andrew
Gaelic

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Wales Cardiff the Welsh English/ a daffodil St. David
Welsh
Northern Belfast the Irish English a shamrock St Patrick
Ireland

THE QUEEN AND PARLIAMENT

The Queen’s constitutional role is mainly symbolic. The


Queen and the royal family continue to take part in many
traditional ceremonies. Their visits to many other countries attract
considerable interest and publicity, and they are also closely
involved in the work of many charities.

PARLIAMENT

Only members of Commons are known as MPs –Members of


Parliament. The Commons is more important of the two Houses.
Unlike MPs, members of the House of Lords (‘peers’) are not
elected. The modern House of Lords has little real power
nowadays. The power to refuse a proposal for a law ( which has
been agreed by the Commons) is limited.
A proposed law (a bill) has to go through three stages
(readings) to become an Act of Parliament. If the majority of MPs
vote for the bill, it is sent to the House of Lords. When the Lords
agree it is taken to the Queen for Royal assent.

POLITICAL PARTIES
Conservative - партия Консерваторов
Labour - партия Лейбористов
Liberal Democrat – партия Либерал демократов
Welsh Nationalists - партия Уэльса
Scottish National - Шотландская национальная партия
Ulster Unionist (Northern Ireland) – Демократическая
Юнионистская
The Prime Minister is David Cameron (May 2010)
The Deputy Minister is Nick Clegg

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RELIGION
The Church of England, which was separated from the
Roman Catholic in the 16th century, is the Established Church
(Anglican)

FOREIGN AFFAIRS

Britain has diplomatic relations with 169 countries. The UK is


the member of some 120 inter-national organisations, including the
European Community (EC); the United Nations (UN), where it is a
permanent member of the Security Council; the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO); and the Commonwealth.
Britain’s principal agency for cultural relations overseas is
the British Council.
The UK is fully committed to the principles of the United
Nations and its Charter, maintaining peace, assist developing
countries and protect human rights and freedom.

LONDON

London was founded in the first century A.D. by the


Romans. In the 11th century it became the capital of England.
Medieval London grew as a trading centre and in 1215 its citizens
won the right to elect their own leader, the Lord Mayor.
London is the capital of England and the United Kingdom, its
political, economic and commercial centre. It is the largest city in
Europe. The population of London is about 7.4 million of
people. The river Thames on which London stands is navigable
and that played an important part in the city’s development.
London consists of 33 separate boroughs (districts). Traditionally
London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, The
West End, and the East End.
The heart of London is the City, its financial and business
centre. The Bank of London and the Stock are in the City too.
Among the multitude of London streets there are well-known
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streets even outside the City. Oxford Street and Regent Street are
major shopping areas, Fleet Street continuous to be used as a
synonym for the British press. Downing Street 8 is the official
residence of the Prime Minister. Buckingham Palace is the
Queen’s official London residence.
Everybody knows the double-decker buses of England, and
the most famous red ones have run through London since 1956.
The London Underground, or the Tube, runs both above and below
the ground. It is the oldest and the biggest underground system in
the world- its operations began in 1863.
№ 7: THE UNITED STTES OF AMERICA

The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of


Columbia, a special federal district for the capital of the country.
The largest state is Alaska, while the Rhode Island is the smallest
American State. Hawaii became the fiftieth and last state in 1959.
On July 4, thirteen North American colonies declared their
independence; they finally gained independence from Britain
in1783. They formed the United States of America. In 1789 the
American democratic government was established and George
Washington was elected the first president of the USA.
There is no state church in the USA, and there is a strict
separation of church and state. But the freedom of religion became
a basic right in America, according to the First Amendment to the
Constitution (1791).

WASHINGTON (D.C.)

Washington is the capital of the USA. It is situated in the


District of Columbia. A special district, named after Christopher
Columbus, was created for the American capital. The city was
named so in the memory of George Washington, the first president
of the USA. Washington is also called as ‘one-industry city’,
because it is the home of the federal government.
The White House, where the US President lives and works,
the Capitol, the home of the US Congress, and the Supreme Court,
80
are all situated in Washington. The largest library of the USA, the
Library of Congress, is also there. International organizations
such as the Organsation of American States and the World Bank
are in Washington too.
There are several universities in Washington; the oldest one
is Georgetown University. It is private.
Washington has a subway and public buses but private cars
are the most important means of transport.

№ 8: International Organisations in details


Europe day, 9 May

On 9 May 1950 the first move was made towards the


creation of what is now known as the European Union. The French
Foreign Minister Robert Schuman read to the international press a
declaration calling France, Germany and other European countries
to pool together their coal and steel production as "the first
concrete foundation of a European federation". What he proposed
was the creation of a supranational European Institution, charged
with the management of the coal and steel industry, the very sector
which was, at that time, the basis of all military power.
Everything, therefore, began that day. That is why during
the Milan Summit of EU leaders in 1985 it was decided to
celebrate 9 May as "Europe Day".
Today, the 9th of May has become a European symbol
(Europe Day) which, along with the flag, the anthem, the motto
and the single currency (the euro), identifies the political entity of
the European Union. Europe Day is the occasion for activities and
festivities that bring Europe closer to its citizens and peoples of the
Union closer to one another.

The European Flag

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It is the symbol not only of the European Union but also of
Europe's unity and identity in a wider sense. The circle of gold
stars represents solidarity and harmony between the peoples of
Europe.
The number of stars has nothing to do with the number of
Member States. There are twelve stars because the number twelve
is traditionally the symbol of perfection, completeness and unity.
The flag therefore remains unchanged regardless of the EU
enlargements.

The anthem of the European Union

The melody comes from the Ninth Symphony composed in


1823 by Ludwig Van Beethoven. In 1985, it was adopted by the
EU heads of State and government as the official anthem of the
European Union. In 1972, the Council of Europe (the same body
that designed the European flag) adopted Beethoven's "Ode to Joy"
theme as its own anthem. The well-known conductor Herbert Von
Karajan was asked to write three instrumental arrangements - for
solo piano, for wind instruments and for symphony orchestra.
Without words, in the universal language of music, this anthem
expresses the ideals of freedom, peace and solidarity for which
Europe stands.

The motto of the European Union

82
The motto of the European Union is “United in diversity”.
The motto means that, via the EU, Europeans are united in working
together for peace and prosperity, and that the many different
cultures, traditions and languages in Europe are a positive asset for
the continent.

№ 9: INTERPOL's DISTINCTIVE SIGNS

The official name is 'ICPO-INTERPOL'. 'ICPO' stands for


'International Criminal Police Organization'. The word
'INTERPOL' is a contraction of 'international police', and was
chosen in 1946 as the telegraphic address. In 1956, the
International Criminal Police Commission changed its name to
become the International Criminal Police Organization -
INTERPOL.
The emblem, in use since 1950, comprises the following
elements:
· a representation of the globe, to indicate that INTERPOL's
activities are worldwide
· olive branches at either side of the globe to symbolize
peace
· the name 'INTERPOL' below the globe in the centre of the
olive branches
83
· a vertical sword behind the globe to represent police action
· the abbreviations 'OIPC' and 'ICPO' above the globe at
either side of the sword
· the scales below the olive branches to symbolize justice.

THE FLAG OF INTERPOL

The flag has been in use since 1950: it has a light-blue


background , the four lightning flashes arranged symmetrically
around the emblem represent telecommunications and speed in
police action.

In 1971, motivated by their vision of a green and peaceful


world, a small team of activists set sail from Vancouver, Canada,
in an old fishing boat. These activists, the founders of Greenpeace,
84
believed that a few individuals could start changes. Their mission
was to "bear witness" to US underground nuclear testing at
Amchitka, a tiny a volcanic island in the southwest of Alaska,
which is one of the world's most earthquake-prone regions.

NATO

NATO Emblem was adopted as the symbol of the Atlantic


Alliance by the North Atlantic Council in October 1953. The circle
is the symbol of unity and cooperation and the compass rose
suggests the common road to peace taken by the member countries
of the Atlantic Alliance.

THE UNITED NATION

85
In 1945, the representatives of 50 countries met in San
Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International
Organisation to draw up the United Nations Charter. Poland, which
was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became
one of the original 51 member states. United Nations Day is
celebrated on 24 October each year.
The motto is - The UN Works for People and the Planet.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural


Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations
established on 16 November 1945. UNESCO’s mission is to
contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty,
sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through
education, the sciences, culture, communication and information.
The Organisation has now 193 Member States and 7 Associate
Members. Most Member States have established Permanent
86
Delegations to UNESCO which, headed by Ambassadors,
undertake liaison between the Organisation and their governments.
All Member States have established a National Commission for
UNESCO. The UNESCO National Commissions are national
cooperating bodies set up by the Member States for the purpose of
associating their governmental and non-governmental bodies with
the work of the Organisation.

UNESCO's governing bodies

The General Conference consists of the representatives


of the States Members of the Organisation. It meets every two
years, and is attended by the Member States and Associate
Members, together with observers for non-Member States,
intergovernmental organisations and non-governmental
organizations (NGOs). Each country has one vote. . It also elects
the Members of the Executive Board and appoints, every four
years, the Director-General. The working languages of the General
Conference are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and
Spanish.
The Executive Board, in a sense, assures the overall
management of UNESCO. It prepares the work of the General
Conference and sees that its decisions are properly carried out. Its
fifty-eight members are elected by the General Conference. The
Executive Board meets twice a year.

87
CONTENTS

Module I: About myself. Applying for a job_______________3


Text 1: About myself __________________________________3
Text 2: Applying for a job ______________________________4
Text 3: Job Interview___________________________________6
Module II: Education _________________________________9
Text 1: Educational System in Russia______________________9
Text 2: Our University_________________________________11
Text 3: My study______________________________________13
Text 4: Education in Great Britain________________________14
Text 5: Higher education in the USA______________________15
Module III: Across Countries__________________________19
Text 1: The Russian Federation__________________________19
Text 2: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland______________________________________________22
Text 3: The United States of America______________________24
Text 4: The Commonwealth_____________________________26
Text 5: Canada _______________________________________28
Text 6: The Commonwealth of Australia___________________29
Text 7: New Zealand___________________________________31
Module IV: Railways______________________________________37
Text 1: From the History of the Railways___________________37
Text 2. Main Railway Notions___________________________39
Text 3: British Railways_____________________________40
Text 4: Russian Railways_______________________________41
Text 5: Joint Stock Company Russian Railways______________43
Text 6. Railway Reforms in Russia________________________45
Text 7. Logistics ______________________________________46
Module V: Ecology________________________________________43
Text 1: Ecology and Environmental Protection ___________________43
Text 2 Transport Ecology____________________________________46
Text 3 Green IT____________________________________________47
Text 4 Ecology and Computers________________________________48

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Module VI International Organisations ______________________50
Text 1: International Organisations_______________________50
Text 2: The European Union____________________________52
Text 3: International Criminal Police Organisation
(INTERPOL)________________________________________55
Text 4: The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
(OSCE)_____________________________________________57
Text 5: The World Trade Organization_____________________59
Te Text 6: Greenpeace____________________________________60
Text 7: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)______62
Text 8: The Organization of the United Nations_____________63
Text 9: International Railway Organisations________________65
Text 10: The Community of European Railways_____________67

Appendix ___________________________________________69
№ 1: CURRICULUM VITAE (CV)______________________69
№ 2: Sample CURRICULUM VITAE____________________70
№ 3: Sample APPLICATION LETTER___________________71
№ 4: The Russian Federation____________________________72
№ 5: Higher Education Institutions in Russia_______________73
№ 6: Britain and the Commonwealth______________________75
№ 7: The United States of America_______________________80
№ 8: International Organisations_________________________81
№ 9: INTERPOL's Distinctive Signs______________________83

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