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CONSTITUTIONALITY OF MEDIA TRIALS: A DETAILED ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION

“The demi-world of journalism is like the fun house of mirrors that one finds in carnivals. In one
reflection you are too fat; in another you are absurdly thin; in another reflection you appear to
have an elongated neck; in another, a flat head,- in still another you have next to nobody. Yet
there you are, standing in front of these bizarre reflections, fully formed and hearing little
resemblance to any of the images before you. The difference is, however, that unlike the fun
house of mirrors, the distortions of the media are rarely a joke”1

With the case of Sheena Bohra murder, the excruciating eyes of the media have pierced the
personal life of the main accused Indrani Mukherjee which has kicked in a fresh debate on the
issue of media trial of the accused. Every aspect of her personal life and character which have
nothing to do legally with the investigation of the murder are under public lens of scrutiny via
the media. The ethics of journalism have been again in a controversial area due to their prying
eyes on the accused.

Media is regarded as one of the four pillars of democracy. Media plays a vital role in molding the
opinion of the society and it is capable of changing the whole viewpoint through which people
perceive various events. The media can be commended for starting a trend where the media plays
an active role in bringing the accused to hook. Especially in the last two decades, the advent of
cable television, local radio networks and the internet has greatly enhanced the reach and impact
of the mass media. The circulation of newspapers and magazines in English as well as the
various vernacular languages has also been continuously growing in our country. This ever-
expanding readership and viewership coupled with the use of modern technologies for
newsgathering has given media organizations an unprecedented role in shaping popular opinions.
However, media freedom also entails a certain degree of responsibility2

The strength and importance of media in a democracy is well recognized. Article 19(1) (a) of the
Indian Constitution, which gives freedom of speech and expression includes within its ambit,
freedom of press. The existence of a free, independent and powerful media is the cornerstone of
a democracy, especially of a highly mixed society like India. Media is not only a medium to

1
TRIAL BY MEDIA AND TRIAL OF MEDIA, http://www.rrtd.nic.in/MassMediaIndia2009.pdf
2
Right to Privacy in Sting Operations of Media https://www.odisha.gov.in/e-
magazine/Orissareview/2013/may/engpdf/57-61.pdf

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CONSTITUTIONALITY OF MEDIA TRIALS: A DETAILED ANALYSIS

express one’s feelings, opinions and views, but it is also responsible and instrumental for
building opinions and views on various topics of regional, national and international agenda. The
pivotal role of the media is its ability to mobilize the thinking process of millions. The increased
role of the media in today’s globalized and tech-savvy world was aptly put in the words of
Justice Learned Hand of the United States Supreme Court when he said, “The hand that rules the
press, the radio, the screen and the far spread magazine, rules the country”

Democracy is the rule of the people, a system which has three strong pillars. But as Indian
society today has become somewhat unstable on its 3 legs- the executive, the legislature and the
judiciary, the guarantee of Article 19 (1)(a) has given rise to a fourth pillar known as media or
press. It plays the vital role of a conscious keeper, a watchdog of the functionaries of society and
attempts to attend to the wrongs in our system, by bringing them to the knowledge of all, hoping
for correction. It is indisputable that in many dimensions the unprecedented media revolution has
resulted in great gains for the general public. Even the judicial wing of the state has benefited
from the ethical and fearless journalism and taken suo-moto cognizance of the matters in various
cases after relying on their reports and news highlighting grave violations of human rights

However, there are always two sides of a coin. With this increased role and importance attached
to the media, the need for its accountability and professionalism in reportage cannot be
emphasized enough. In a civil society no right to freedom, howsoever invaluable it might be, can
be considered absolute, unlimited, or unqualified in all circumstances. The freedom of the media,
like any other freedom recognized under the Constitution has to be exercised within reasonable
boundaries. With great power comes great responsibility. Similarly, the freedom under Article
19(1) (a) is correlative with the duty not to violate any law.3

In an increasingly competitive market for grabbing the attention of viewers and readers, media
reports often turn to distortion of facts and sensationalisation. The pursuit of commercial
interests also motivates the use of intrusive newsgathering practices which tend to impede the
privacy of the people who are the subject of such coverage. The problem finds its worst
manifestation when the media extensively covers sub-judice matters by publishing information

3
Article 19 (2), Constitution of India

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and opinions that are clearly prejudicial to the interests of the parties involved in litigation
pending before the Courts

In recent times there have been numerous instances in which media has conducted the trial of an
accused and has passed the verdict even before the court passes its judgment. Some famous
criminal cases that would have gone unpunished but for the intervention of media,
are Priyadarshini Mattoo case, Jessica Lal case, Nitish Katara murder case and Bijal Joshi rape
case. The media however drew flak in the reporting of murder of Aarushi Talwar, when it
preempted the court and reported that her own father Dr. Rajesh Talwar, and possibly her mother
Nupur Talwar were involved in her murder, the CBI later declared that Rajesh was not the
killer.4

This phenomenon is popularly called as media trial. Trial by Media it is the impact of television
and newspaper coverage on a person’s reputation by creating a widespread perception of guilt
regardless of any verdict in a court of law. There is a heated debate between those who support a
free press which is largely uncensored and those who place a higher priority on an individual’s
right to privacy and right to a fair trial. During high publicity court cases, the media are often
accused of provoking an atmosphere of public hysteria akin to a lynch mob which not only
makes a fair trial nearly impossible but means that regardless of the result of the trial the accused
persons will not be able to live the rest of their life without intense public scrutiny. The counter-
argument is that the mob mentality exists independently of the media which merely voices the
opinions which the public already has. There are different reasons why the media attention is
particularly intense surrounding a legal case: the first is that the crime itself is in some way
sensational, by being horrific or involving children; the second is that it involves a celebrity
either as victim or accused. Although a recently coined phrase, the idea that popular media can
have a strong influence on the legal process goes back certainly to the advent of the printing
press and probably much beyond. This is not including the use of a state controlled press to
criminalize political opponents, but in its commonly understood meaning covers all occasions
where the reputation of a person has been drastically affected by ostensibly non-political
publications. The problem is more visible when the matters involve big names and celebrities. In
such cases media reporting can swing popular sentiments either way

4
Supra note 1.

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CONSTITUTIONALITY OF MEDIA TRIALS: A DETAILED ANALYSIS

IMPACT OF MEDIA TRIALS

 Media Trials v. Freedom of Speech and Expression

Freedom of speech plays a crucial role in the formation of public opinion on social, political and
economic matters. Similarly, the persons in power should be able to keep the people informed
about their policies and projects, therefore, it can be said that freedom of speech is the mother of
all other liberties.

Keeping this view in mind Venkataramiah, J. of the Supreme Court of India in Indian Express
Newspapers (Bombay) (P) Ltd. v. Union of India5 has stated:

“Freedom of press is the heart of social and political intercourse. The press has now assumed the
role of the public educator making formal and non-formal education possible in a large scale
particularly in the developing world, where television and other kinds of modern communication
are not still available for all sections of society. The purpose of the press is to advance the public
interest by publishing facts and opinions without which a democratic electorate [Government]
cannot make responsible judgments. Newspapers being purveyors of news and views having a
bearing on public administration very often carry material which would not be palatable to
Governments and other authorities.”

The above statement of the Supreme Court illustrates that the freedom of press is essential for the
proper functioning of the democratic process.

In R. Rajagopal v. State of T.N6 the Supreme Court of India has held that freedom of the press
extends to engaging in uninhabited debate about the involvement of public figures in public
issues and events. But, as regards their private life, a proper balancing of freedom of the press as
well as the right of privacy and maintained defamation has to be performed in terms of the
democratic way of life laid down in the Constitution.

5
1986 AIR 515
6
1995 AIR 264

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Therefore, in view of the observations made by the Supreme Court in various judgments and the
views expressed by various jurists, it is crystal clear that the freedom of the press flows from the
freedom of expression which is guaranteed to all citizens by Article 19(1)(a).

 Media Trail v. Fair Trial

Trial by media has created a “problem” because it involves a tug of war between two conflicting
principles – free press and free trial, in both of which the public are vitally interested. The
freedom of the press stems from the right of the public in a democracy to be involved on the
issues of the day, which affect them. This is the justification for investigative and campaign
journalism

At the same time, the “Right to Fair Trial”, i.e., a trial uninfluenced by extraneous pressures is
recognized as a basic tenet of justice in India. Provisions aimed at safeguarding this right are
contained under the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971 and under Articles 129 and 215 (Contempt
Jurisdiction-Power of Supreme Court and High Court to punish for Contempt of itself
respectively) of the Constitution of India. Of particular concern to the media are restrictions
which are imposed on the discussion or publication of matters relating to the merits of a case
pending before a Court. A journalist may thus be liable for contempt of Court if he publishes
anything which might prejudice a ‘fair trial’ or anything which impairs the impartiality of the
Court to decide a cause on its merits, whether the proceedings before the Court be a criminal or
civil proceeding

In Zahira Habibullah Sheikh v. State of Gujarat7, the Supreme Court explained that a “fair trial
obviously would mean a trial before an impartial Judge, a fair prosecutor and atmosphere of
judicial calm. Fair trial means a trial in which bias or prejudice for or against the accused, the
witnesses, or the cause which is being tried is eliminated.”

Right to a fair trial is absolute right of every individual within the territorial limits of India vide
articles 14 and 20, 21 and 22 of the Constitution. Needless to say right to a fair trial is more
important as it is an absolute right which flows from Article 21 of the constitution to be read with
Article 14.

7
(2004) 4 SCC 158

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POSITION OF MEDIA TRIAL IN INDIA

There have been a plethora of cases in India on the point. The observations of the Delhi High
Court in Bofors Case or Kartongen Kemi Och Forvaltning AB and Ors. vs. State through
CBI8 are very much relevant, as the Court weighed in favor of the accused right of fair trial while
calculating the role of media in streamlining the criminal justice system:

“It is said and to great extent correctly that through media publicity those who know about the
incident may come forward with information, it prevents perjury by placing witnesses under
public gaze and it reduces crime through the public expression of disapproval for crime and last
but not the least it promotes the public discussion of important issues. All this is done in the
interest of freedom of communication and right of information little realizing that right to a fair
trial is equally valuable.”

The ever-increasing tendency to use media while the matter is sub-judice has been frowned down
by the courts including the Supreme Court of India on the several occasions.

In State of Maharashtra vs. Rajendra Jawanmal Gandhi9, the Supreme Court observed:

“There is procedure established by law governing the conduct of trial of a person accused of an
offence. A trial by press, electronic media or public agitation is very antithesis of rule of law. It
can well lead to miscarriage of justice. A judge has to guard himself against any such pressure
and is to be guided strictly by rules of law. If he finds the person guilty of an offence he is then
to address himself to the question of sentence to be awarded to him in accordance with the
provisions of law.”

The position was most aptly summed up in the words of Justice H.R.Khanna: –

“Certain aspects of a case are so much highlighted by the press that the publicity gives rise to
strong public emotions. The inevitable effect of that is to prejudice the case of one party or the
other for a fair trial. We must consider the question as to what extent are restraints necessary and
have to be exercised by the press with a view to preserving the purity of judicial process. At the

8
2004 (72) DRJ 693
9
1997 (8) SCC 386

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same time, we have to guard against another danger. A person cannot, as I said speaking for a
Full Bench of the Delhi High Court in 1969, by starting some kind of judicial proceedings in
respect of matter of vital public importance stifle all public discussions of that matter on pain of
contempt of court. A line to balance the whole thing has to be drawn at some point. It also seems
necessary in exercising the power of contempt of court or legislature vis-à-vis the press that no
hyper-sensitivity is shown and due account is taken of the proper functioning of a free press in a
democratic society. This is vital for ensuring the health of democracy. At the same time the press
must also keep in view its responsibility and see that nothing is done as may bring the courts or
the legislature into disrepute and make the people lose faith in these institutions.”10

The Hon’ble Supreme Court in the case of Rajendra Sail Vs. Madhya Pradesh High Court Bar
Association and Others11, observed that for rule of law and orderly society, a free responsible
press and an independent judiciary are both indispensable and both have to be, therefore,
protected. The aim and duty of both is to bring out the truth. And it is well known that the truth is
often found in shades of grey. Therefore the role of both cannot be but emphasized enough,
especially in a “new India”, where the public is becoming more aware and sensitive to its
surroundings than ever before. The only way of orderly functioning is to maintain the delicate
balance between the two. The country cannot function without two of the pillars its people trust
the most.

10
Ibid.
11
(2005) 6 SCC 109

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IS MEDIA TRIAL A CONTEMPT OF COURT

Trial by Media is Contempt of Court and needs to be punished. The Contempt of Court Act
defines contempt by identifying it as civil and criminal.

Criminal contempt has further been divided into three types:

1. Scandalizing
2. Prejudicing trial, and
3. Hindering the administration of justice.

Prejudice or interference with the judicial process: This provision owes its origin to the principle
of natural justice; every accused has a right to a fair trial clubbed with the principle that Justice
may not only be done it must also seem to be done. There are multiple ways in which attempts
are made to prejudice trial. If such cases are allowed to be successful will be that the persons will
be convicted of offences which they have not committed. Contempt of court has been introduced
in order to prevent such unjust and unfair trials. No publication, which is calculated to poison the
minds of jurors, intimidate witnesses or parties or to create an atmosphere in which the
administration of justice would be difficult or impossible, amounts to contempt. Commenting on
the pending cases or abuse of party may amount to contempt only when a case is triable by a
judge. No editor has the right to assume the role of an investigator to try to prejudice the court
against any person.

The law as to interference with the due course of justice has been well stated by the chief Justice
Gopal Rao Ekkbote of Andhra Pradesh High Court in the case of Y.V. Hanumantha Rao v. K.R.
Pattabhiram and Anr. where in it was observed by the learned judge that:

“ …… When litigation is pending before a Court, no one shall comment on it in such a way there
is a real and substantial danger of prejudice to the trial of the action, as for instance by
influence on the Judge, the witnesses or by prejudicing mankind in general against a party to the
cause.

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In Sushil Sharma v. The State (Delhi Administration) and Ors12 it was held by the Delhi High
Court that:

“Conviction, if any, would be based not on media’s report but what facts are placed on record.
Judge dealing .with the case is supposed to be neutral. Now if what petitioner contends
regarding denial of fair trial because of these news items is accepted it would cause aspiration
on the Judge being not neutral. Press report or no reports, the charge to be framed has to be
based on the basis of the material available on record. The charge cannot be framed on
extraneous circumstances or facts dehors the material available on record. While framing the
charge the Court will from prima facie view on the basis of the material available on record. To
my mind, the apprehension of the petitioner that he would not get fair trial is perfunctory and
without foundation. None of the news items, if read in the proper prospective as a whole, lead to
the conclusion that there is any interference in the administration of justice or in any way has
lowered the authority of the Court. The Trial Court has rightly observed that after the charge
sheet has been filed, if the Press revealed the contents of the charge sheet it by itself by no
stretch of imagination amounts to interference in the administration of justice.”

In Saibal Kumar Gupta and Others. v. B.K. Sen and Another.13 It was held by the Supreme Court
that:
“No doubt it would be mischievous for a newspaper to systematically conduct an independent
investigation into a crime for which a man has been arrested and to publish the results of that
investigation. This is because trial by newspapers, when a trial by one of the regular tribunals of
the country is going on, must be prevented. The basis for this view is that such action on the part
of a newspaper tends to interfere with the course of justice whether the investigation tends to
prejudice the accused or the prosecution. There is no comparison between a trial by a
newspaper and what has happened in this case.”

12
1996 Cril J 3944
13
AIR 1961 SC 633

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CONSTITUTIONALITY OF MEDIA TRIALS

 Freedom of Press

Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966, embodies the right
to freedom of speech, that is, everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without
interference” and the freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds,
regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other
media of his choice. Nonetheless, this freedom comes with a rider that the exercise of this right
comes with special duties and responsibilities and is subject to the rights or reputations of others.

In In Re: Harijai Singh and Another. and In Re: Vijay Kumar, the Supreme Court had the
occasion to decide on the scope of the freedom of press, recognized it as an essential prerequisite
of a democratic form of government and regarded it as the mother of all other liberties in a
democratic society. The right under Art 19(1) (a) includes the right to information and the right
to disseminate through all types of media, whether print, electronic or audiovisual means. It was
stated in Hamdard Dawakhana v. Union of India14, that the right includes the right to acquire and
impart ideas and information about matters of common interest.

The Supreme Court has stated that trial by press, electronic media or trial by way of a public
agitation are instances that can at best be described as the anti-thesis of rule of law as they can
lead to miscarriage of justice. In the opinion of the honorable court, a Judge has to guard himself
against such pressure. In Anukul Chandra Pradhan v. Union of India15, the Supreme Court
observed that “No occasion should arise for an impression that the publicity attached to these
matters (the hawala transactions) has tended to dilute the emphasis on the essentials of a fair
trial and the basic principles of jurisprudence including the presumption of innocence of the
accused unless found guilty at the end of the trial”.

 Immunity under Contempt of Court Act, 1971

Under the Contempt of Court Act, 1971, pre-trial publications are sheltered against contempt
proceedings. Any publication that interferes with or obstructs or tends to obstruct, the course of

14
1960 (2) SCR 671
15
1996 (6) SCC 354

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justice in connection with any civil or criminal proceeding, which is actually ‘pending’, only
then it constitutes contempt of court under the Act. Under Section 3(2), sub clause (B) of clause
(a) of Explanation, ‘pending’ has been defined as “In the case of a criminal proceeding, under
the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (5 of 1898) or any other law – (i) where it relates to the
commission of an offence, when the charge sheet or challan is filed; or when the court issues
summons or warrant, as the case may be, against the accused.”16

Certain acts, like publications in the media at the pre-trial stage, can affect the rights of the
accused for a fair trial. Such publications may relate to previous convictions of the accused, or
about his general character or about his alleged confessions to the police. Under the existing
framework of the Contempt of Court Act, 1971, media reportage, as seen during the

Aarushi Talwar case, where the press, had literally gone berserk, speculating and pointing fingers
even before any arrests were made, is granted immunity despite the grave treat such publications
pose to the administration of justice. Such publications may go unchecked if there is no
legislative intervention, by way of redefining the word ‘pending’ to expand to include ‘from the
time the arrest is made’ in the Contempt of Court Act, 1971, or judicial control through gag
orders as employed in United States of America.

Due to such lacunas, the press has a free hand in printing colorful stories without any fear of
consequences. Like a parasite, it hosts itself on the atrocity of the crime and public outrage
devoid of any accountability.

 The Public’s Right to Know

The Supreme Court has expounded that the fundamental principle behind the freedom of press is
people’s right to know. Elaborating, the Supreme Court opined, “The primary function,
therefore, of the press is to provide comprehensive and objective information of all aspects of the
country’s political, social, economic and cultural life. It has an educative and mobilizing role to
play. It plays an important role in molding public opinion”.

16
Section 3, Contempt of Courts Act, 1971

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However, the Chief Justice of India has remarked, “freedom of press means people’s right to
know the correct news”, but he admitted that newspapers cannot read like an official gazette and
must have a tinge of “sensationalism, entertainment and anxiety”.

In the Bofors Case, the Supreme Court recounted the merits of media publicity: “those who know
about the incident may come forward with information, it prevents perjury by placing witnesses
under public gaze and it reduces crime through the public expression of disapproval for crime
and last but not the least it promotes the public discussion of important issues.”

Two important core elements of investigative journalism envisage that

a) the subject should be of public importance for the reader to know and

b) an attempt is being made to hide the truth from the people.[80]

 Public Participation

Some scholars justify a ‘trial-by-media’ by proposing that the mob mentality exists
independently of the media which merely voices the opinions which the public already has. In a
democracy, transparency is integral. Without a free press, we will regress into the dark ages of
the Star Chambers, when the judicial proceedings were conducted secretively. All these
omnipresent SMS campaigns and public polls only provide a platform to the public to express its
views. It is generating public dialogue regarding issues of public importance. Stifling this voice
will amount to stifling democracy.

Quoting Jeremy Bentham, on secrecy in the administration of justice,

“In the darkness of secrecy, sinister interest and evil in every shape are in full swing. Only in
proportion as publicity has place can any of the checks applicable to judicial injustice operate.
Where there is no publicity, there is no justice. Publicity is the very soul of justice. It is the
keenest spur to exertion and the surest of all guards against improbity. It keeps the judge himself
while trying under trial.”17

17
K.G Balakrishnan, The Constitution, The Media And The Courts, The Fourth K.S. Rajamony Memorial Public
Law Lecture, Kerala, https://www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in/new_links/9%5b1%5d.8.08.rajamony.pdf

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 Ineffective Legal Norms Governing Journalistic Conduct

Under the Press Council Act, 1978, the Press Council of India is established, with the objectives
to preserve the freedom of the Press and to maintain and improve the standards of newspapers
and news agencies in India.

To achieve these objectives, it must ensure on the part of newspapers, news agencies and
journalists, the maintenance of high standards of public taste and foster a due sense of both the
rights and responsibilities of citizenship and encourage the growth of a sense of responsibility
and public service among all those engaged in the profession of journalism.

The Council, also, enjoys powers to censure. If someone believes that a news agency has
committed any professional misconduct, the Council can, if they agree with the complainant,
“warn, admonish or censure the newspaper”, or direct the newspaper to, “publish the
contradiction of the complainant in its forthcoming issue” under Section 14(1) of the Press
Council Act, 1978.

Given that these measures can only be enforced after the publication of news materials, and do
not involve particularly harsh punishments, their effectiveness in preventing the publication of
prejudicial reports appears to be limited.

In Ajay Goswami v. Union of India18, the shortcomings of the powers of the Press Council were
highlighted: Section 14 of the Press Council Act, 1978 empowers the Press Council only to
warn, admonish or censure newspapers or news agencies and that it has no jurisdiction over the
electronic media and that the Press Council enjoys only the authority of declaratory adjudication
with its power limited to giving directions to the answering respondents arraigned before it to
publish particulars relating to its enquiry and adjudication. It, however, has no further authority
to ensure that its directions are complied with and its observations implemented by the erring
parties. Lack of punitive powers with the Press Council of India has tied its hands in exercising
control over the erring publications.

18
(2007) 1 SCC 143

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Along with these powers, the Press Council of India has established a set of suggested norms for
journalistic conduct. These norms emphasize the importance of accuracy and fairness and
encourage the press to eschew publication of inaccurate, baseless, graceless, misleading or
distorted material. The norms urge that any criticism of the judiciary should be published with
great caution. These norms further recommend that reporters should avoid one-sided inferences,
and attempt to maintain an impartial and sober tone at all times. But significantly, these norms
cannot be legally enforced, and are largely observed in breach. Lastly, the PCI also has criminal
contempt powers to restrict the publication of prejudicial media reports. However, the PCI can
only exercise its contempt powers with respect to pending civil or criminal cases. This limitation
does not consider the extent to which pre trial reporting can impact the administration of justice.

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CONCLUSION

From the above account it becomes clear that the media had a more negative influence rather
than a positive effect (except for a few exceptions here and there). The media has to be properly
regulated by the courts. The media cannot be granted a free hand in the court proceedings as they
are not some sporting event.

The most suitable way to regulate the media will be to exercise the contempt jurisdiction of the
court to punish those who violate the basic code of conduct. The use of contempt powers against
the media channels and newspapers by courts have been approved by the Supreme Court in a
number of cases as has been pointed out earlier. The media cannot be allowed freedom of speech
and expression to an extent as to prejudice the trial itself.

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