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ANALYSIS OF API 5C3 FAILURE PREDECTION FORMULAE FOR

RIALS FOR CASING & TUBING

EP OIL AND GAS WELL S. Staelens1, T. Galle1, W. De Waele1, P. De Baets1


1
Ghent University, Laboratory Soete, Belgium

NSTRUCTION Abstract Due to the increasing demand for oil and gas, coupled with the fact that oil reserves are becoming
rather scarce, the petroleum industry is pushed to drill and complete deeper wells. Threaded connections
are often the weakest link in this process and are therefore the subject of research and optimization.
terials for deep well
At first, this paper presents a brief overview of the design characteristics of today’s premium connections.
n must haveSecondly,
high the failure mechanisms of Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) are discussed. At last, an in-depth
d corrosion resistance
analysis of theatAPI 5C3 formulae is given. Four formulas for collapse are given in API 5C3, each valid for a
atures. specific D/t range. With increasing yield strength of the steel, the difference between the yield strength
collapse and the plastic collapse gets larger. Also, the elastic collapse zone gets bigger, so stronger
materials with relatively large D/t ratios will collapse in the elastic zone instead of the plastic or transition
* zone. These four formulas can be approached by a third-order polynomial equation that is valid for all D/t
ratios.
o Keywords: threaded and coupled; OCTG; buttress thread; premium connection; failure mechanisms

asing worldwide 1 demand


INTRODUCTION
for oil
s coupled with the fact that the
oil productionDrilling
has beenand completion of High Pressure/High Temperature (HPHT) wells are common practice. Some
reached
conditions of
will be, has pushed the petroleumfield examples are illustrated in Figure 1. Well depths up to 12000m are no longer unusual.
Because of this
drilling ever deeper wells. Well increasing depth, the pressure and temperature also increases. Clearly, the applied casing
0 ft (7620 m) and greater are noto be able to withstand extreme conditions. Failure of these OCTG can cost millions of
and tubing have
dollars, can
al, and even deeper cause
wells are environmental disasters and hence are to be avoided.
Because of the harsh conditions associated with HPHT wells, traditional OCTG threaded connections can
creasing depthno means
longerincreasing
guarantee safety and premium connections are required [1]. Such connections have a better leak
mperature. High-pressure/high-
resistance and an overall improved
Drilling integrity.
rig at sunset.
PHT) wells have generally been
s in which temperatures and pres-
Initial reservoir pressure, MPa
om of the well exceed 300 to 350°F 69 83 97 110 124 138
and 10,000 psi (69 MPa), respec- 525
(274)
HPHT wells have already been
pleted in this category with great 475
Reservoir temperature, °F (°C)

unusual requirements for special (246) Madden


Deep East Texas
strates some of these successful 425 ! !
(219) ! Shearwater
ns, in addition to more recent ! Mobile Bay !
Mary Ann Thomasville
Texas and the Gulf of Mexico. 375 Franklin !
as had to pursue ever more hos- (190) ! !
than the original HPHT limits Erskine New Gulf of
o keep up with demand. In this 325
! ! Elgin
Villa/Trecate
Mexico
Fields
ns exceeding 400°F (204°C) and (163) !
Embla
MPa) at bottomhole have been ! Malossa
sly as Extreme HPHT (xHPHT) 10 12 14 16 18 20
HT. (The term HPHT is used Initial reservoir pressure, ksi
s article to include both extreme
Fig. 1 — Some
Figure of the prominent
1: Some HPHT fields
field examples of HPHTin thewells
world.in the world [2]
e challenges will be for both the Updated from Ref. 1.
The design
selves and materials of premium
engineers connections
Liners, tubing, anddiffers from the standard API connections in various ways. At first,
strings
metal-to-metal
m industry for the (MTM) seals
future. Drilling Figureare used to
2 shows guarantee
a typical wellthe sealability.forIn addition, a torque shoulder can be
completion
used to withstand
ells requires specialized methodsthethose
high unfamiliar
torques required
with thein HPHT wells.
industry At last, the standard hooked or buttress thread
terminology.
e planning, butshape can be have
the materials modified in numerous
Surface casingways
and to withstand
some of thethe higher loads and conditions of HPHT wells [3].
intermediate
ed steel drill pipe and steel com- casing strings are not affected by HPHT condi-
gh other alloys such as titanium tions, and thus standard steel tubulars function
dered. well.
e real materials challenges are in The major components that require greater at-
d producing the wells after they tention and represent materials challenges are the
s is the reason this article focuses liner at the bottom of the well, the tieback casing
ction rather than drilling. string, the tubing (and associated jewelry), and
These design features and their effects are briefly discussed in the following section. More detailed
information can be found in [4, 5]. In the last section of this paper, the failure mechanisms of traditional
OCTG are summarized and an analysis of the formulae in API 5C3 is conducted.

2 DESIGN FEATURES OF PREMIUM CONNECTIONS

A typical premium connection is illustrated in Figure 2. It shows the three main features that can be
changed for obtaining an optimal design: the thread profile, the torque shoulder and the MTM-sealing area.
Though only these are discussed in the following paragraphs, it should be mentioned that the design of
premium connections is not limited to the above-mentioned three aspects. Various other improvements can
and are made to the premium connections of today such as applying a lubricant relief groove and/or stress
relief grooves, the use of “dopeless technology”, ….

SPE
SPE97585
97585

Wedge effect

Figure 2: Typical premium connection (HES Seal-Lock Apex) [6]


SPE
SPE97585
97585 Flank toto
Flank Flank
Flank Crest toto
Crest Root
Root
Figure 1. 1.
Figure Thread iInterferences
Thread iInterferences
2.1 Thread design Figure 5. 5.
Figure ResRe
The commonly used thread profile of premium connections is trapezoidal. Changes can be made to the
shape of the threads, the pitch (e.g. FOX, JFE [7]) and the interference between the thread of the pin and
the box (e.g. VAM21, VAM Services [8]). Each has its own effects.
Sample
Sample
For instance, when changing the shape of the threads, the following geometries are possible (Figure 3):
1 1
90°90° 90°90°
- Positive load flank + positive stab flank (PLPS)
2 2
- Neutral load flank + positive stab flank (0LPS)
- Negative load Flank
flankto+Flank
Flank to Flankpositive
Creststab
to
Crest flank (NLPS)
Root
to Root
Figure 1. 1.
Figure Thread
ThreadiInterferences
iInterferences
- Negative load flank + negative stab flank (NLNS) Positive
Positive Load Flank
Load Figure
Flank 5. 5.
Figure
Zero
ZeroResilient
Load seal
Resilient
Flank
Load Flank in in
seal threaded and
threaded coupled
and connection.
coupled connection.
Figure 6. 6.
Figure ISOIS

7.97" 1.123"-wall
7.97" 1.123"-wall P110
P110VAMVAM PRO
PRORSRS
Load flank Stab flank Seal
Seal
IP IP E
Sample
Sample A Series
A Series B Series
B Series C Series
C Series AS A
Tested
Tested
(psi)
(psi) (psi)
(psi) (psi)
(psi) (deg-F)
(deg-F) (p
1 1
MTM
MTM 27500 27500 - - 25000
25000 425425 Inte15I
90°90° 90°90° 90°90°
90°90°
RSRS 25000
25000 - - 25000
25000 425425 15
MTM
MTM 27500 27500 - - 25000 425
25000 Figure 425
Figure7. 7.
Typ15
Ty
2 2
RSRS 25000
25000 - - 25000
25000 425425 15

Positive
PositiveLoad Flank
Load Flank Zero Load
Zero Flank
Load Flank Negative
NegativeLoad
LoadFlank Figure
Flank Negative6.Load
Negative
Figure ISO
6. testing
Load
ISOand with
Stab
and
testing metal
Flanks
Stab Flanks
with and
metal resilient
and seals.
resilient seals.
PLPS 0LPS Figure 2. NLPS
Figure 2.Thread
Threadforms
forms
NLNS

Expanded BoxBox
Expanded External Metal
External SealSeal
Metal
Figure 3: Thread shape design possibilities [9]
Figure 8. 8.
Figure VAMVA
Internal Metal
Internal SealSeal
Metal connection.
connection
A combination of positive load and stab flank (PLPS) is easy to fabricate and repair, but isn’t often used in
90°90°
90°90° Typical SemiFlush
Typical (SF)
SemiFlush Connection
(SF) Connection
casing and tubing applications. A neutral load flank with positive stab flank
Figure 7. 7.
Figure
(0LPS)
Typical diminishes
expanded
Typical box
expanded box semi-flush hoop
semi-flush connection.
connection.
stresses in the connection and is used for instance in the Hunting Energy Services (HES) FJ-150
connection [10]. Next, a negative load flank with positive stab flank (NLPS) reduces outward radial forces.
Also, the connection’s
Negative yield
NegativeLoad
Load strength
Flank will Load
Flank Negative be
Negative Loadequal
and toFlanks
Stab
and Stab or greater than that of the pipe body [9]. However, the
Flanks
Figure
negative load flank 2. 2.Thread
Figure
will Thread forms the thread, so it isParallel
forms
“undermine” less3.tosuited
Parallel pipe
to pipeaxis
axis
for Parallel
Parallel
applications toto
thread cone
thread
where cone
high axial forces
Figure
Figure 3.Crest – root
Crest designs
– root designs Optional R
Optional
occur. Examples of connections with such thread are numerous [8, 10, 11]: HES Seal-lock Apex, KSBEAR, Metal Seal
Metal Seal
Seal
VAM21, TenarisHydril HW… At last, a negative stab flank can also be used. When combined with a Figure 9. 9.
Figure VAMVA
connection
connection w
negative load flank (NLNS or “dovetail”), the connection can withstand high torque
Figure 8. 8.
Figure VAM VAMloads
PRO
PRO [9].
- Pin
- Pin Examples
nose toto
nose pin nose
pin are
with
nose radial
with metal
radial metalseal
sea
the Tenaris Wedge 553 and the XL Systems – National Oilwell Varco XLF connections [10]. connection.
connection.

Secondary
SecondaryMetal
MetalSeal
Seal

Parallel toto
Parallel pipe
pipeaxis
axis Parallel toto
Parallel thread cone
thread cone
Figure 3. 3.Crest
Figure – root
Crest designs
– root designs Figure 4. 4.10!”
Figure x 101
10!” lb/ft
x 101 Optional
Optional
VM110SS
lb/ft VM110SSVAMResilient
Resilient
VAMHPHP SC80 Threaded
SC80 and
Threaded and
2.2 Shoulder design
When applying a torque shoulder (Figure 2), a higher torque load can be applied and the total applied
torque load can be controlled better. Therefore, the risk of galling and over-torque reduces. In addition,
make-up gets easier and the sealability of the connection can be better guaranteed [4, 12].
A connection with a “reversed torque shoulder angle”, as seen in Figure 2, causes a “wedge effect”. This
improves the self-alignment, radial stability and structural strength of the connection [4].

2.3 Metal-to-metal sealing design


The last and essential design characteristic of premium connections is the radial metal-to-metal seal. They
are currently the most effective pressure seal and are located above the torque shoulder. The following two
types exist (Figure 4):
- Cone-to-cone MTM seal: both MTM surfaces of pin and box have a conical shape;
- Sphere-to-cone MTM seal: the MTM surface of the pin has a toroidal shape, whilst the MTM
surface of the box is conical.

Structural Analysis
Figure 4: Schematic diagram of a cone-to-cone MTM seal (left) and a sphere-to-cone MTM seal (right)
'%###

OCTG Premium
If a cone-to-cone MTM seal is Connections
used, overall, a smaller seal contact pressure will be applied =?2@A4/1B
than when a
sphere-to-cone MTM seal is used. On the other hand, the actual seal length will be larger. This!##C2>02@A4/1B
&%$##
is visualized
!DEC2>02@A4/1B
:1.3204/-.0-2;61,,<6127=>.9

in Figure 5, were the seal contact pressure in function&%###of the distance along the seal area is measured
Cone-cone
through numerical analysis for OCTG premiumsealconnections at make-up, 100% collapse pressure and 197%
!%$##
collapse pressure. The large peaks in the contact pressure at the beginning and the end of the seal area for
a cone-to-cone MTM seal are due to numerical errors !%### rather than being physical truths. They occur

because of geometric transitions in the connection and$##will enlarge the risk of galling. Based on these
results, it cannot be concluded which MTM seal gives the best results. Additional experimental testing

nalysis should be conducted. #


) $ ( ' & ! #

'%###
*+, -./012.34/52, 1.32.61.278 8 9

'%###

ections &%$##
=?2@A4/1B
!##C2>02@A4/1B
&%$##
=?2@:;F161B
!##C2>02@:;F161B
!DEC2>02@:;F161B
:1.3204/-.0-2;61,,<6127=;.9

!DEC2>02@A4/1B
:1.3204/-.0-2;61,,<6127=>.9

&%###

ne seal
&%###

!%$##
!%$##

!%###
!%###

$##
$##

#
Sphere-cone seal #
) $ ( ' & ! #
) $ ( ' & ! #
*+, -./012.34/52, 1.32.61.278 8 9
*+, -./012.34/52, 1.32.61.278 8 9
'%###

Figurewww.simytec.com
5: Seal contact pressure and distance
=?2@:;F161B
along seal area of a cone-to-cone (left) vs. a sphere-to-cone
!##C2>02@:;F161B
&%$##
G/2-F1284H13+/524I2+/H<,-6+.32;6401,,1,
MTM seal (right) [13]
!DEC2>02@:;F161B !"
:1.3204/-.0-2;61,,<6127=;.9

&%###

3 !%$##
FAILURE MECHANISMS OF THREADED CONNECTIONS IN OCTG

3.1!%### Structural failure


When $## a connection fails structurally, an ultimate limit state is crossed: the connection will completely or
one seal partially
#
“break down”. The following failures comply with this definition:
) $ ( ' & ! #
Jump-out When a connection
-
*+, -./012.34/52, 1.32.61.278 8 9 is axially loaded, excess radial displacement can occur. Space is
created between the thread profiles of pin and box. When this space becomes large enough, the
pin will jump out the box. This is illustrated in Figure 6 for a standard buttress API connection;
G/2-F1284H13+/524I2+/H<,-6+.32;6401,,1,
- Rupture of the pipe or box at the most critical !" section without the development of large plastic
strains. This can occur due to an excessive and/or cyclic load (fatigue).
- Collapse failure Pipelines under excessive axial load, external pressure and bending can fail by
global (helical buckling of the pipe) or localized (sectional loss of round shape) collapse. To
quantify the collapse pressure, it is important to take manufacturing imperfections such as (initial)
ovality, eccentricity and residual stress into account. When the imposed bending curvature
increases, the effect of the initial ovality on the collapse pressure diminishes due to the “Brazier
effect” [14].

1278 Y. Guangjie et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 13 (2006) 1275–1284

the pipe is evidently higher than that of the coupling. The strain at the first engaged thread of the two ends of
the pin is very large even to 6000 le. At make-up about two turns there is a generalized plastification
/012#3454
of the pin
nose. ᑨ࡯
6#7$8

3.2. Distribution of normal contact force

The normal contact force distribution of the tubing thread flank along the axial direction is shown in Fig. 4.
The shape of the normal contact force distribution is like a saddle. This is in accordance with the phenomenon
that thread galling failure easily appears at the two ends of tubing threaded connections in !"#$% oil and gas fields. It
was further found that make-up or break out on a tubing connection will affect the taper of the pin and reduce
the pitch diameter. Ovality of tubing or coupling does not affect the contact stress distribution pattern in the
circumferential direction; however, it affects the actual value of the contact stresses.
) W ) W impact
) W )normal ) W
W contact
The tensile load has a definite
!"#$%&'() !"#$%&'*(
on the !"#$%&,(-.
!"#$%&+)'
force )distribution.
!"#$%&,(--
W ) W
The normal contact force of
!"#$%&,('( !"#$%&,,*(
the lead flank of the thread diminishes under the action of tensile load, and is shown in Fig. 5. Furthermore, it
has a strong influence on the equivalent stress distribution, and the maximal equivalent stress!appears at the
6,8 6)8 698 6.8 6*8 6-8 6:8

first engaged thread Figure 6: Jump-out


of the end of thephenomenon
male thread. for Thea average
standardcontact
buttress API connection
pressure at the stab flank decreases
/tension. The leak resistance
%&'()'!*+,-'+,#*&'.
with increasing 0'12,'3"4&4'45%&440'6&789*+45":';2,&)'<$=982$5'!>'4"=$*+5"2,'2
(P-110 - 244.47mm
according tox 11.99mm)
the API [15]
(1987) formula does
tension. However, the test results and FEA calculations indicate that tension will reduce the sealability of an
not depend on applied

$55%&44':2,,&:5"2,'
Galling
API- 10-R tubingWhen two metal surfaces are in relative converging contact, for instance during make-up,
connection.
there of
The taper is the
a chance of adhesive
pipe thread is also anwear and transport
important of material
factor affecting between of
the distribution thenormal
two metallic
contactsurfaces.
force of
This leads
the oil casing directlyThe
and tubing. to the deterioration
distribution of sealcontact
of normal performance
force isand connection
shown in Fig. 6strength
under the [16].
APIThe risk of
ultimate
galling
conjugate is higher
of 0.067708 at the
taper pinend
and of the pin
0.0599 and
taper box.
box. TheThis is also
work indicated
situation is named by the saddle-shaped
as small head and bignormal
hat
contact
in oil and forceFig.
gas fields. distribution
7 shows the of the tubing thread
distribution flank
of normal alongforce
contact the axial
underdirection
the other of
APIanultimate
API 8-round
con-
connection
jugate of 0.0599 taper (Figure
pin and7).0.067708 taper box. This is named as big head and small hat in oil and gas fields.

/012#3454
ᑨ࡯
6#7$8

Fig. 4. The normal contact force distribution of tubing thread flank after making-up two turns.
Figure 7: The normal contact force distribution of
tubing thread flank after making-up two turns (API 8-round) [16] !"#$%

3.2 Functional failure


) W ) W ) W ) W
In addition to structural
6B0D[ 
failure, there
6B0D[ is functional
 failure. Functional
6B0D[ 
failure of a threaded connection occurs
6B0D[ 
when the connection no longer complies with the demands of serviceability and sustainability, for instance
when a connection fails in preventing a gas or liquid from leaking. This can be due to! misuse of the
6,8 6)8 698 6.8

connection or poor design. Numerical analysis can estimate the sealability of a connection relatively, but
only laboratory /or full scale testing can fully quantify the exact sealability [17].
%&'B)'!*+,-'+,#*&'C 0'12,'3"4&4'45%&440'6&789*+45":';2,&)'<$=982$5'!>'4"=$*+5"2,'2
$55%&44':2,,&:5"2,'

Fig. 5. The normal contact force distribution of tubing thread flank after making-up two turns and applying 120 kN tensile load.
3.3 In-depth analysis of API 5C3 formulae
Some of the above-mentioned structural failures can be calculated by the formulae and methods presented
in API 5C3 [18]. The collapse pressure, internal pressure resistance (also known as burst resistance) and
joint strength of threaded connections have been analysed and are discussed in the following paragraphs.
The analysis is limited to standard API buttress threaded connections and forms a first step towards the
research of premium connections.

3.3.1 Collapse pressure


The collapse pressure in the absence of axial loading and internal pressure can be calculated by means of
four formulas (see below). Depending on the type of collapse, which translates itselves to a certain
applicable D/t range, and the minimum yield strength of the pipe body (Yp), another formula governs, rather
than the collapse formula that gives the lowest collapse pressure.
For the smallest D/t ratios (D/t < ∼ 11-16 depending on steel grade) or for thick wall pipe, the yield strength
collapse pressure is decisive. It is derived based on yield at the inner wall using Lamé thick wall elastic
solution. It is thus not a true collapse pressure, but rather the external pressure PYp that generates hoop
stress exceeding the yield strength of the material before a collapse instability failure occurs [19].
!/! !!
!!" = 2!! (1)
!/! !

Next, for increasing D/t ratios, the plastic collapse pressure governs. It has been empirically derived based
on 2488 tests of K-55, N-80 and P-110 seamless casing. Through regression analysis, the following
formula for the minimum collapse pressure for the plastic range of collapse was found (A, B and C are
curve fit factors depending on the steel grade):
!
!! = !! −! −! (2)
(!/!)

A plastic/elastic transition collapse pressure formula was determined on an arbitrary basis to connect the
plastic and elastic regimes with each other (F and G are curve fit factors depending on the steel grade):
!
!! = !! −! (3)
(!/!)

At last, for thin-wall pipe or D/t ratios larger than ∼ 20-40 depending on steel grade, the elastic collapse
pressure is conclusive. It is based on a theoretical elastic instability failure and is independent of the yield
strength. It can be calculated by means of the following formula:
!",!"  ×  !"!
!! = (4)
!/! !/! !! !

The above-mentioned formulas and their representative zones of validity are graphically presented for steel
tubes of grade N-80 with various D/t ratios in Figure 8 (left). Next, a comparison is made of the collapse
pressures depending on the grade used (J-55, N-80 or P-110) (see Figure 8, right). The vertical lines in the
graphs represent the boundaries of elastic collapse zones. P_YP represents the yield strength collapse
pressure, P_P the plastic collapse pressure, P_T the transition collapse pressure, P_E the elastic collapse
pressure and P_c the effective collapse pressure depending on the type of collapse or the representative
D/t ratio.

%#!" %#!"
*.,/0" (/61+.7" +26318 ,/61+.7"
1+2,34+5" .+.93""
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/01(+2.( !" $!" %!" &!" '!" #!"
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Figure 8: Grade N-80 collapse pressures (left) and grade J-55 vs. N-80 vs. P-110 collapses pressure (right)
As stated above, depending on the type of collapse or D/t range and the minimum yield strength of the pipe
body, another formula governs, rather than the collapse formula that gives the lowest collapse pressure.
This can be seen in Figure 8 (right). The transition collapse pressure formula gives a smaller value in the
first two zones, but there, the yield strength collapse pressure formula or the plastic collapse pressure
formula should be used.
When the grade of the material increases, so does the collapse pressure (Figure 8, right). However, only
the yield strength collapse and plastic collapse show a significant difference between the collapse
pressures of the different grades. When entering the transition and elastic collapse zone, the collapse
pressures of the different grades do not differ (much) from each other.
Another trend that can be seen when the material gets stronger (e.g. N-80 or P-110) is that the yield
strength collapse, plastic strength collapse and transition collapse zone gets smaller while the elastic zone
gets relatively larger (see Figure 8, right). This means that when stronger materials are used, the pipe will
rather fail due to elastic collapse than due to plastic or transition collapse.
Through curve fitting, a third-order polynomial trend line and an exponential trend line are found to match
the effective collapse pressures, independent of the sort of collapse or D/t ratio (see Figure 9, left). The
differences (in percentage) between the polynomial trend line and the formulas given in API 5C3 are shown
in Figure 9 (right) for steel tubes of grade N-80. Similar trends and differences were found for the
exponential trend line.

%7,# !"#$#+,(,,)'./012)#3#,(444%./012%#+#-5(-66./012#3#%)%(6&# "#$%&


!"#$%&'&()&"*+,-(+.$/,"0'&(1",$(&"234"
!"#$#%&'()*+,(-,-./012# "#$"&
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%,,# "#'%&
EF8G/# !GNHIFO# IJNKH+ 8GNHIFO# "#'"&
-7,# HIJ8KLIM# FIFPK##
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30/(1/'1"

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7,#
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!"#$"& 3-4.56-7& 0-0:5&&
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/01(+2.( "& '"& $"& ("& )"& %"&
#50"678"
89:;<*<=>?#1@*<A#?B<*# !;?C<;DB>?#1@*<A#?B<*#
*+,*& *+*& *+-& *+.& *+/&

Figure 9: Polynomial and exponential trend lines of the effective API 5C3 collapse pressure (left) and
Differences (%) between the polynomial trend line and the API 5C3 collapse pressures (right)

When a next type of collapse zone is entered, for instance going from yield strength collapse to plastic
collapse, it can be seen that the difference between the trend lines and the API 5C3 formulas reaches a
peak. This means that API 5C3 changes formulas because the calculated collapse pressure differs too
much from the “real collapse pressure”, calculated with a polynomial or exponential trend line valid for all
D/t ratios.
However, when going from the transition collapse zone to the elastic collapse zone, this peak doesn’t
occur. This can be explained as follows. The plastic/elastic transition zone is derived on an arbitrary basis
to connect the plastic collapse pressures with the elastic collapse pressures for given D/t ratios. As stated
above, depending on the grade of the material, the yield strength collapse and plastic collapse pressures
differ, whilst the elastic collapse pressures remain constant. A peak is therefore expected when going from
the plastic collapse to the transition collapse zone, but not when going from the transition collapse to the
elastic collapse zone.
Figure 10 (left) graphically presents a comparison between the differences of the polynomial and
exponential trend lines (Grade N-80) versus the API 5C3 collapse pressures. It can be seen that a third-
order polynomial equation gives an overall better result. However, the differences (in percentage) are very
small (between -0,025% and 0,075%), so a single equation to calculate the collapse pressures could be
appropriate. Figure 10 (right) compares the percentual differences between polynomial trend lines and API
5C3 predictions for tubes with J-55, N-80 and P-110 steel grade. When increasing the steel grade, the
difference between the trend line and the in API 5C3 calculated collapse pressures also increases, but
overall the same conclusion can be drawn: the differences (in percentage) are very small compared with
the in API 5C3 calculated collapse pressures. Therefore, it should be possible to derive a single (third
degree polynomial) formula for each steel grade to calculate the collapse pressures as a function of D/t
ratio.
"#(% "#"'$%

!"#$%&'&()&"*+,-(+.$/,"0'&(1",$(&2"324"
!"#$%&'&()&"*'+*+,&-".'&(-/$(&,"0,1"
;<+=>% 8=E?@<F% @AEB?! +=E?@<F%
"#"'$% ?@A+BC@D% <@<GB%% "#"$"%

"#"$%
"#"&$%
,.2(-2'-"

20/(1/'1"
"#"&$%
"#"""%
"%
!"#"&$%
!"#"&$%

!"#"$"%
!"#"$% "% ("% &"% )"% *"% $"%
"% ("% &"% )"% *"% $"%
#50"678"
#3."456"
+!$$% ,!-"% .!(("%
+,-./0/123%450/6%37/0% 8.39/.:723%450/6%37/0%

Figure 10: % Difference of grade N-80 polynomial and exponential trend lines vs. API 5C3 collapse
pressure (left) and % difference of grade J-55, N-80 and P-110 polynomial trend lines vs. API 5C3 collapse
pressures (right)

3.3.2 Internal pressure resistance


The internal pressure resistance of a threaded and coupled pipe is equal to the minimum of the internal
yield pressure for pipe or coupling and the internal pressure leak resistance at the seal plane (this is the E7
plane of perfect thread length). Formulas are given in API 5C3 and are repeated here below:
!!! !
Internal yield pressure for pipe: ! = 0,875 (5)
!
!!!!
Internal yield pressure for coupling: ! = !! (6)
!

! ! !!! !
Internal pressure leak resistance at seal plane: ! = !"#$ (7)
!!! ! !

Where Yp and Yc are respectively the minimum yield strength of the pipe and coupling in pounds per square
inch. D and t are the nominal outside diameter and nominal wall thickness of the pipe, W is the nominal
outside diameter of the coupling and d1 is the diameter at the root of the coupling thread at the end of the
6
pipe in the powertight position, all in inches. Next, E is the modulus of elasticity (= 30 x 10 psi), T the
thread taper (in./in.), N the number of thread turns make-up and p the thread pitch (inches).
The internal pressure resistance for buttress threaded and coupled pipe (D = 7”, grades J-55, N-80 and P-
110) in function of D/t is presented in Figure 11. Also, the internal pressure leak resistance at the seal plane
(IPLR), which is independent of D/t and the yield strength of the steel, is visualized.

#!!"
!"#$%"&'()%$**+%$(%$*,*#&"-$(./0&1(

+!" D = 7"

*!"
)!"
(!"
UNSAFE
'!"
&!"
%!"
$!" SAFE
#!"
!"
!" #!" $!" %!" &!" '!" (!"
23#(.41(
,-''" .-*!" /-##!" 0/12"

Figure 11: Internal pressure resistance (Grade J55 vs. N-80 vs. P-110)
In all cases, the internal yield pressure for pipe or coupling is smaller than the internal pressure leak
resistance at the seal plane. For small D/t ratios (D/t ≤ 15,9), the internal yield pressure is no longer a
function of D/t, thus, the coupling is decisive. In all other cases, the pipe body is the weakest member in a
threaded and coupled connection.

3.3.3 Joint strength


The joint strength of a buttress thread casing joint is taken as the minimum of the pipe thread strength and
the coupling thread strength, given by the following formulas [18]:
!!
Pipe thread strength: !! = 0,95!! !! 1,008 − 0,0396 1,083 − !! ! (8)

Coupling thread strength: !! = 0,95!! !! (9)


Where Ap and Ac are respectively the cross-sectional area of the plain end pipe and the coupling in square
inches and Up and Uc are respectively the minimum ultimate strength of pipe and coupling in pounds per
square inch.
A graphical representation of the buttress casing joint strength for grades J-55, N-80 and P-110 in function
of D/t (D = 7”) is given in Figure 12.

(!!!"

D = 7"
'!!!"
!"#$%&'()$%*'#*+,%&-*'./01'

&!!!"

UNSAFE
%!!!"

$!!!"

#!!!" SAFE

!"
!" #!" $!" %!" &!" '!" (!"
23*'.41'
)*''" +*,!" -*##!"

Figure 12: Casing joint strength (grades J-55 vs. N-80 vs. P-110)

A similar trend as for internal yield pressure can be seen here: the casing joint strength depends for the
most part on D/t, which means the pipe thread strength is determinative. Only for D/t ratios less than ±14,5,
the coupling is the weakest part of a threaded and coupled pipe.

4 CONCLUSIONS

Due to the harsh conditions in HPHT wells, standard threaded OCTG can no longer be used and premium
connections are required. By changing the design of these premium connections, other properties can be
achieved. By modifying the thread form, structural integrity against axial loads, external and internal
pressure and bending can be acquired. The design of a torque shoulder determines how much torque load
can be applied. At last, the metal-to-metal seal provides the sealability of the connection. The design of a
premium connection is however not limited to these three parts of the connection. More information can be
found in other literature [4, 5].
When analysing the failure mechanisms of standard threaded OCTG, the following conclusions can be
drawn for the collapse pressure. When the used material gets stronger (e.g. N-80 and P-110), the
difference between the yield strength collapse and plastic collapse gets larger. Also, the elastic collapse
zone gets larger. This means that when stronger materials are used, the pipe will rather fail due to elastic
collapse than due to plastic or transition collapse. A third-order polynomial trend line can be derived that
describes the collapse pressure independent of the D/t ratio.
When analysing the internal pressure resistance and joint strength of threaded and coupled connections, it
is clear that the pipe body is the weakest link. Only for D/t ratios between smaller than ∼14-15, the coupling
is critical.
5 REFERENCES

[1] J. Van Wittenberghe, et al., Fatigue investigation of threaded pipe connections. Sustainable
Construction and Design (SCAD), 2010. 1(1): p. 182-189.
[2] Craig, B., Materials for deep oil and gas well construction, in Advanced Materials & Processes, May
2008: p. 33 - 35.
[3] L.B. Hilbert Jr. and I.A. Kalil. Evaluation of Premium Threaded Connections Using Finite-Element
Analysis and Full-Scale Testing, SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA,
1992.
[4] Galle, T., et al., Influence of design features on the structural integrity of threaded pipe connections.
Sustainable Construction and Design (SCAD), 2011. 2(2): p. 237-245.
[5] J. Van Wittenberghe, et al., Design Characteristics that improve the fatigue life of threaded pipe
connections. Sustainable Construction and Design (SCAD), 2011. 2(2): p. 334-341.
[6] Hunting, HES Seal lock Apex, U.S. Pat. No. 4,600,225, 2002
[7] Yamamoto, K., et al., Stress Analysis of Premium Threaded Connection “FOX” by Finite Element
Method, in Kawasaki Steel Giho 20, 1989: p. 202-207.
[8] Sugino, M., et al. Development of an Innovative High-performance Premium Threaded Connection
for OCTG, Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 2010.
[9] Bradley, A.B., et al. Premium Connection Design, Testing, and Installation for HPHT Sour Wells,
SPE High Pressure-High Temperature Sour Well Design Applied Technology Workshop, The
Woodlands, Texas, U.S.A, 2005.
[10] World Oil, 2008-09 Casing Reference Tables, November 2008
[11] Takano, J., et al., Development of Premium Connection “KSBEAR” for Withstanding High
Compression, in Kawasaki Steel Giho 34, 2002: p. 21-28.
[12] Santi, N.J., et al. Premium & Semi-premium Connections Design Optimization for Varied Drilling-
with-Casing Applications, Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 2005.
[13] Dvorkin, E.N. On the modeling of industrial processes, SIM&TEC. 2010.
[14] Dvorkin, E.N. and R.G. Toscano, Finite element models in the steel industry: Part II: Analyses of
tubular products performance. Computers & Structures, 2003. 81(8-11): p. 575-594.
[15] Lian Zhanghua, et al., Analysis of jump-out loads on connectors of buttress and round threads of
casing. China Petroleum Machinery, 2004-05.
[16] Guangjie, Y., et al., Numerical and experimental distribution of temperature and stress fields in API
round threaded connection, in Engineering Failure Analysis 13, 2006: p. 1275 – 1284.
[17] Cernocky, E.P., et al. A standardized approach to finite element analysis of casing-tubing
connections to establish relative sealing performance as a function of design geometry, machining
tolerances and applied loads, Fourth World Congress on Computational Mechanics, Buenos Aires,
Argentinië, 1998. p. 1167 - 1186.
[18] API Bull 5C3, Petroleum and natural gas industries - Formulae and calculation for casing, tubing,
drill pipe and line pipe properties, 1993, American Petroleum Institute.
[19] Mitchell, R.F., Casing Desing, in Petroleum Engineering Handbook, Volume II: Drilling Engineering,
2007.