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Organic Chemistry

 Grading system:

 Term grade:
 Exams 60%
 Quizzes 40%
 Class Participation
(Oral quiz) 10%
100%

 Final / semester Grade:


 Prelim 30%
 Midterm 30%
 End Term 40%
100
GENERAL OBJECTIVES:

A. Apply the knowledge and principles of


organic chemistry in higher
pharmaceutical chemistry subjects.
B. Identify the various functional groups that
made up the things around us especially
drugs.
C. Correlate the drug compound’s
components and/or structure with its
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and
excretion in the body.
D. Appreciate the importance of organic chemistry
in our daily lives through its products like the
food that we eat, the medicines that we take,
the clothes that we wear, etc.

E. Understand and give importance to organic


chemistry’s vital role in the pharmacy
profession.
Topics for Prelim Part I:
I. Introduction
A. Definition of organic Chemistry
B. Historical Facts
C. Importance of Organic Chemistry in Pharmacy
D. Difference between an organic compounds and
inorganic compounds
II. Introduction to Carbon
A. Description
B. Atom
C. Atomic structure of Carbon
D. Isotope
III. The Nature of chemical Bonds
1. Ionic bonding
2. Covalent bonding
3. Lewis structure
4. Kekule Structure
5. Multiple Bonding
6. Condense formula
I. Introduction

A. Definition

 Is the branch of chemistry devoted to the study of carbon and its


compound.
B. Historical Facts:

1. The term organic chemistry was used in the late 1700s


, when it was used to mean the chemistry of compounds
found in living organisms.

2. Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman was the first one to


express the difference between inorganic to organic
substances (1770 )

3. By the mids-1800, however it was not clear that there


was no fundamental difference organic and inorganic
compounds. The only difference is that organic
compounds all contain carbon.
Friedrich Wohler
Father of Organic Chemistry

4. Friedrich Wohler accidentally synthesized urea an


organic compound from ammonium cyanate which is
an inorganic reagent. Urea, also known as carbamide, is
a waste product produced by protein metabolism of the
body.
C. Importance of Organic Chemistry in
Pharmacy :

1. Source of Active component of drugs

2. The human body is made up of various


organic compounds and a pharmacist has to be
involved into it to understand the body's
reaction to a drug.
D. Difference between an organic compounds and
inorganic compounds

Organic Compounds Inorganic Compounds


Created either due to natural processes
Extracted from living organisms or in the laboratory
Does not form salt due to their
covalency. Can make salt(as they are ionic)
Contain carbon Contain metal and other element.
Carbon-hydrogen bonds Do not have these bond.
Biological in nature Non- biological
source of energy for human life (as
food) Act as catalyst
II. INTRODUCTION TO CARBON

Carbon is a chemical element with the symbol C


and atomic number 6.

The word carbon comes from the Latin word


“carbo” meaning coal.

 Carbon has the highest melting point of all elements,


around 3500 °C (3773 K, 6332 °F).
 Carbon is able to form an immense diversity of
compounds, from the simple to the staggeringly complex
from methane containing one carbon atom to DNA which
can contain tens of billions.
B. What is so special about CARBON?

 The number of compounds that contains carbon is


many times greater than the compounds that do not
contain carbon.

 Carbon atoms can attach themselves to one another


that are not possible to other elements.

 Carbon atom can attached to other atoms chiefly


Hydrogen. Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, and the
Halogens (F, Cl, Br, I).
B. Atom/Atoms
 are the basic building blocks of matter that make up
every objects.
Isotopes
 atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic
mass numbers.
 atoms with the same number of protons but different
numbers of neutrons.
III. DETERMINING the NUMBER OF PROTONS,
ELECTRONS, and NEUTRONS
A. Proton
The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom
of an element. For example, krypton's atomic number is
36.
III. Atomic Orbital
A. Principles and Theories regarding orbitals

A region or space around the nucleus where the electron


can most likely be found known as orbitals.
 Electrons can be thought of as belonging to different
layers, or shells, around the nucleus.
 Within each shell, electrons are further grouped into
subshells, denoted s, p, d, f, and within each subshell,
electrons are grouped by pairs into orbitals.
 s orbital and p orbital are the most common in
organic and biological chemistry.
V. The nature of Chemical Bonds
1. Ionic bonding
2. Covalent bonding
3. Lewis structure
4. Kekule Structure

1. Ionic bonding - involves transfer of an electron from one


atom (which becomes a positively charged cation) to
another (which becomes a negatively charged anion)
2. Covalent bond - Chemical compounds are formed by the
joining of two or more atoms
 bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared by
two atoms.
3. Lewis Structure / Electron-dot structures
 Valence- shell electrons of an atom are represented by dots.

Ethane Methane

Ammonium
4. Kekule structures or Lined-bond structures
Exercise : Write the Lewis dot structure and Kekule line-
bond structure of the following:
1. H2O
2. CHCl3
3. H2S
4. CH3CH2CH3
5. CH3OH
6. CH3Cl
7. CH3CH2CH2CH3
8. H3O
9. CCl4
10. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
5. Multiple Bonding:

Single bond - sharing of one pair of electrons

Double bond – sharing of two pairs of electrons

Triple bond – sharing of 3 pairs of electrons


Example:
Condensed structural formula are written without
showing the individual bonds